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Sample records for survival local control

  1. Local control and survival in spinal cord compression from lymphoma and myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, M.; Mendis, S.; Premawardhana, U.; Sanders, P.; Shahsavar-Haghighi, K.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Between 1979 and 1989, 48 cases of extradural spinal cord and cauda equina compression in patients with lymphoma (24) and myeloma (24) received local radiation therapy for control of cord compression. Twenty five (52%) of the cases were treated by surgical decompression prior to irradiation. Thirty five (73%) of the cases received chemotherapy following the diagnosis of spinal cord compression. Post-treatment outcome was assessed at a minimum follow-up of 24 months to determine the significant clinical and treatment factors following irradiation. Results: Seventeen (71%) of the lymphoma and 15 (63%) of the myeloma patients achieved local control, here defined as improvement to, or maintenance of ambulation with minimal or no assistance for 3 months from the start of radiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 30 (2-98) for the lymphoma and 10 (1-87) months for the myeloma patients, the results showed that survival following local radiation therapy for cord compression was independently influenced by the underlying disease type in favour of lymphoma compared to myeloma (P<0.01). The median duration of local control and survival figures were 23 and 48 months for the lymphomas compared to 4.5 and 10 months for the myeloma cases. Survival was also independently influenced by preservation of sphincter function at initial presentation (P<0.02) and the achievement of local control following treatment (P<0.01). Discussion: We conclude that while disease type independently impacts on outcome following treatment of spinal cord compression in lymphoma and myeloma, within both of these disease type the achievement of local control of spinal cord compression is an important management priority, for without local control survival may be adversely affected

  2. Repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from gastric cancer: Local control and survival results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Trojan, Jörg [Department of Internal Medicine I, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer. Materials and methods: The study was retrospectively performed. 56 patients (mean age, 52.4) with unresectable liver metastases of gastric cancer who did not respond to systemic chemotherapy were repeatedly treated with TACE in 4-week intervals. In total, 310 chemoembolization procedures were performed (mean, 5.5 sessions per patient). The local chemotherapy protocol consisted of mitomycin alone (30.4%), mitomycin and gemcitabine (33.9%), or mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (35.7%). Embolization was performed with lipiodol and starch microspheres. Local tumor response was evaluated by MRI according to RECIST. Survival data from first chemoembolization were calculated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The local tumor control was: complete response in 1.8% (n = 1), partial response in 1.8% (n = 1), stable disease in 51.8% (n = 29) and progressive disease in 44.6% (n = 25) of patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate from the start of chemoembolization were 58%, 38%, and 23% respectively. The median and mean survival times were 13 and 27.1 months. A Statistically significant difference between patients treated with different chemotherapy protocols was noted (ρ = 0.045) with the best survival time in the mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin group. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization is a minimally invasive therapy option for palliative treatment of liver metastases in patients with gastric cancer.

  3. Factors influencing local control and survival for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, John H.; Barnett, Gene H.; Sohn, Jason W.; Fernandez-Vicioso, Eduardo; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify factors affecting local control and survival for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 3/90-10/95, 99 patients (median age 58, range 29-83; 44 women, 55 men) with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic intracranial metastases measuring < 4 cm in diameter and ≥ 1 cm from optic chiasm and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥ 70 underwent modified linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Patients characteristics included 20 with recurrent disease, 66 with solitary lesions, and 42 with systemic disease. Forty six patients underwent surgical resection prior to SRS (16 biopsy, 3 subtotal resection (STR), and 21 gross total resection (GTR)). Eighty of 99 patients underwent whole brain radiation treatments (median 4005 cGy/15 fx, range 2200-6000 cGy). A total of 154 lesions were treated with 143 being evaluable on follow-up CT or MRI scans. Radiosurgery parameters (median) were the following: volume 2.8 cc (range 0.1-38 cc) and a peripheral dose of 1700 cGy (range 500-2400 cGy) with normalization to the 80% line (range 50-90%). Survival was measured from the date of SRS. Local control was defined as stabilization or decrease in size of the intracranial lesion(s). RESULTS: The following factors were analyzed with respect to local control and survival: 1) solitary vs. multiple lesions, 2) Age < or ≥ 60, 3) sex, 4) radiosensitive vs. radioresistant (renal cell and melanoma) histologies, 5) recurrent vs. newly diagnosed lesions, 6) KPS (70-80 vs. 90-100), 7) extent of surgery (biopsy vs. STR/GTR), 8) use of whole brain radiation treatments, 9) absence or presence of systemic disease, 10) dose (< or ≥ 1500 cGy) and 11) volume (< or ≥ 3 cc). On univariate analysis, survival was significantly influenced by female sex, presence of solitary lesion, absence of systemic disease, and extent of surgery. On multivariate analysis, female sex (p=0.0037), absence of systemic disease

  4. Influence of locoregional irradiation on local control and survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutuli, B.

    1998-01-01

    Locoregional control is a crucial step in the achievement of breast cancer cure. In ductal carcinoma in situ, breast irradiation significantly reduces the rates of local recurrence whatever the histological subtypes, as demonstrated by the NSABP-B17 trial (25.8 % of local recurrences without radiotherapy vs. 11.4 % with radiotherapy). In infiltrating breast carcinomas, complementary breast irradiation has been shown to significantly improve the local control and slightly the overall survival in five randomized trials. Following mastectomy, locoregional irradiation clearly reduces the chest wall and nodal relapse rates, especially in case of lesions more than 5 cm or with nodal involvement and/or large lymphatic or vascular emboli. Two recent randomized trials confirmed the benefit of well-adapted locoregional irradiation in all subgroups, especially in patients with one to three axillary involves nodes. In the Danish trial (including pre-menopausal high-risk women), radiotherapy reduced locoregional relapses from 32 to 9 % (p<0.001) and increased the 10-year survival rate from 45 to 54% (p<0.001). In the Canadian trial, locoregional relapse rate decreased from 25 to 13 % and the 10-year survival rate increased from 56 to 65 %. The meta-analysis published in 1995 by the EBCTCG showed only a modest benefit due to locoregional irradiation in breast cancer. However, when small or old trials were excluded due to imperfect methodology or inadequate irradiation techniques, the benefit of modern radiotherapy became much more evident in a population of 7,840 patients. Locoregional irradiation appears to be able to reduce the risk of metastatic evolution occurring after local or nodal relapse and must be integrated in a multidisciplinary strategy. Treatment toxicity (especially toxicity due to irradiation of internal mammary nodes) is of special concern, as anthracycline-based chemotherapy is prescribed more often. The use of a direct field, with at least 60 % of the dose

  5. Local control and survival after external irradiation for adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangala, N.; Cox, J.D.; Byhardt, R.W.; Wilson, J.F.; Greenberg, M.; Conceicao, A.L.D.

    1982-01-01

    From 1966 through 1978, 128 patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent external irradiation to the entire pelvis followed by additional irradiation with a field that encompassed the entire prostate with generous margins. Local recurrence was diagnosed when palpable regrowth occurred and was confirmed by biopsy. Eighteen patients (14%) had local recurrence. Actuarial (life table) local recurrence rates, however, were 24% for both for Stage B and C patients. Actuarial five year survival was 100% for the 10 Stage A patients, 91% for the 25 Stage B, and 78% for the 93 Stage C patients. Actuarial five year disease-free survival was 59% for Stage B and 69% for Stage C patients. Local recurrence was affected by the total dose to the whole pelvis and the dose at the center of the prostate. Disease-free survival was influenced by differentiation. High dose external irradiation to the prostate and regional lymph nodes offers the greatest probability of long-term disease-free survival for patients with localized disease. Late bowel complications were seen in 14 patients (11%), two of whom required colostomies. Late urinary tract complications were observed in five patients (4%)

  6. Local Control and Survival Following Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy in Inoperable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Herschtal, Alan; Wheeler, Greg; Mac Manus, Michael; Wirth, Andrew; Michael, Michael; Hogg, Annette; Drummond, Elizabeth; Ball, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) increases survival rates compared with radical radiotherapy alone (RT) in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as a result of improved local control. The effect of CRT on local control in Stage I NSCLC is less well documented. We retrospectively reviewed local control and survival following CRT or RT for inoperable Stage I NSCLC patients. Methods and materials: Eligible patients had histologically/cytologically proved inoperable Stage I NSCLC and had undergone complete staging investigations including an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan. Radiotherapy was planned as (1) 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks with or without concomitant chemotherapy or (2) 50-55 Gy in 20 fractions without chemotherapy. Results: Between 2000 and 2005, 73 patients met the eligibility criteria and were treated as follows: CRT (60 Gy)-39; RT (60 Gy)-23; RT (50-55 Gy)-11. The median follow-up time for all patients was 18 months (range, 1-81 months). Survival analysis was based on intent to treat. Local progression-free survival (PFS) at 2 years was 66% with CRT and 55% with RT. The 2-year distant PFS was 60% following CRT and 63% after RT. The 2-year PFS rates were 57% and 50%, respectively. The 2-year survival rate for patients treated with CRT was 57% and 33% in patients receiving RT. Conclusions: Despite the use of CRT and routine staging with FDG-PET, both local and distant recurrences remain important causes of treatment failure in patients with inoperable stage I NSCLC.

  7. Preoperative radiotherapy for resectable rectal cancer: improved local control is prognostic for distant metastasis occurrence and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotecki, Robert A.; Mendenhall, William M.; Copeland, Edward M.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicholas; Marsh, Robert D.; McCarley, Dean L.; Million, Rodney R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate the effect of preoperative external beam radiotherapy (RT) on local control (LC), distant metastasis (DM), survival, and perioperative complications in a 15-year single-institution experience. Disease and treatment variables potentially prognostic for local-regional control and survival were evaluated, and the importance of LC as a determinant of DM and survival was also examined. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ten patients with potentially resectable cancers of the rectum were treated with preoperative external beam RT at a single institution between 1975 and 1990. Excluded were patients with 'fixed' unresectable tumors and those treated with palliative intent only. All patients were treated with megavoltage RT to minimum tumor doses of 30 Gy using multiple-field techniques. Preoperative chemotherapy was not used. Surgical resection was performed 3-5 weeks after completion of RT. Abdominoperineal resection was performed in 175 cases, low anterior resection in 25 cases, and other surgical procedures in 10 cases. Pathologic tumor staging was by the Astler-Coller modification of the Dukes system. Minimum follow-up was 5 years. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, with univariate and multivariate analysis of disease and treatment variables for prognostic significance. Results: No treatment-specific variables were predictive for LC, DM, absolute survival, or cause-specific survival. Disease-specific variables prognostic for LC were deep tumor infiltration or 'tethering' on digital rectal exam and Dukes pathologic stage. Ten-year LC rates were 91% for freely mobile tumors vs. 82% for tethered lesions (p=.009). LC rates for Dukes A, B, and C stage tumors were 100%, 91%, and 73%, respectively (p=.02). Variables prognostic for DM were tumor length, annular involvement, LC, and Dukes pathologic stage. Absolute survival at 5 and 10 years was 57% and 36%, respectively. Variables prognostic for absolute survival were

  8. Chemotherapy, brachytherapy and surgery of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas: prognosis factors of local control and global survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, C.; Montella, A.; Montbarbon, X.; Malet, C.; Racadot, S.; Pommier, P.; Mathevet, P.; Buenerd, A.

    2009-01-01

    The protocol used allows an excellent local control of the uterine cervix carcinoma with an acceptable morbidity. To anticipate the presence of a tumor residue can be an evolution in the therapy management after external radiotherapy, particularly in optimized image-guided brachytherapy (MRI and PET)New utero vaginal applicators with parameters implantation allow to realise the dose complement at the distal parameters. These advances make consider an improvement of results in the management of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas. (N.C.)

  9. Postoperative radiotherapy improves local control and survival in patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Philip; Han, Kathy; Sykes, Jenna; Catton, Charles; Laframboise, Stephane; Fyles, Anthony; Manchul, Lee; Levin, Wilfred; Milosevic, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To examine the role of radiotherapy (RT) in uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) and to determine the patient population who may benefit from RT. From 1998–2008, 69 patients with primary uterine LMS underwent hysterectomy with or without pelvic radiotherapy to a median dose of 45 Gy. Univariate analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and cumulative-incidence function, and multivariate analyses using Fine and Gray or Cox proportional hazard models. Following surgery, 32 out of 69 patients received RT. There was no evidence of any correlation between patient, disease and treatment characteristics and the use of RT. Median follow-up was 57 months. RT was associated with reduced local recurrence (3y LR 19% vs. 39%; Gray’s p = 0.019) and improved overall survival (3y OS 69% vs. 35%; log-rank p = 0.025) on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that RT reduced LR (HR: 0.28, CI: 0.11-0.69, p = 0.006) and increased OS (HR: 0.44, CI: 0.23-0.85, p = 0.014) independent of other clinical and pathologic factors. Positive surgical margins increased the odds of LR (HR: 5.6, CI: 2.3-13.4, p = 0.00012). Large tumor size and advanced stage (II-IV) were associated with the development of distant metastases and inferior OS. Postoperative pelvic RT reduces LR and improves OS of patients with uterine LMS

  10. Impact of point A asymmetry on local control and survival for low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfermann, Krisha J; Wahlquist, Amy; Watkins, John; Kohler, Matthew; Jenrette, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether Point A asymmetry in low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy is associated with local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS) and/or overall survival (OS). A retrospective analysis of disease control and survival outcomes was conducted for patients who underwent LDR brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer. Institutional protocol entailed concurrent chemotherapy and whole pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) over 5 weeks, followed by placement of Fletcher-Suit tandem and colpostat applicators at weeks 6 and 8. Objective Point A doses, 80-85 Gy, were accomplished by placement of Cesium-137 (Cs-137) sources. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between disease control and survival endpoints with variables of interest. The records of 50 patients with FIGO stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer undergoing LDR brachytherapy at our institution were identified. Thirty of these patients had asymmetry > 2.5%, and 11 patients had asymmetry > 5%. At a median survivor follow-up of 20.25 months, 15 patients had experienced disease failure (including 5 cervical/vaginal apex only failures and 2 failures encompassing the local site). Right/left dose asymmetry at Point A was associated with statistically significantly inferior LC (p = 0.035) and inferior DFS (p = 0.011) for patients with mean Point A dose of > 80 Gy. Insufficient evidence existed to conclude an association with OS. LDR brachytherapy may be associated with clinically significant dose asymmetry. The present study demonstrates that patients with Point A asymmetry have a higher risk of failure for DFS and LC.

  11. Treatment outcome and prognostic variables for local control and survival in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokdal, Lars; Hoeyer, Morten; Maase, Hans von der [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the outcome of radical radiotherapy in 292 patients with bladder cancer and to identify prognostic factors for local control and survival. Median age was 72.3 years (range 45-83 years). Median follow up was 66 months (range 18-121 months). All patients were treated by use of a standard 3-field technique with 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the tumor and the bladder. The elective lymph nodes were treated with doses in the range from 46 Gy to 60 Gy. Complete response was obtained in 52% of the patients at 3-month control. However, 41% of all patients with an initial CR developed recurrence during follow-up. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rate was 31% and 21%, respectively. Performance status, T-stage, macroscopic complete TURB, hydronephrosis, and serum creatinine were independent prognostic factors for overall survival and, thus, important for the selection of patients for curative intended radiotherapy. During radiotherapy acute transient side effects were recorded in 78% of the patients; severe bowel complications were recorded in 9 patients (3%). Following radiotherapy, 10 patients (3%) developed intestinal reactions requiring surgery. Three patients (1%) were cystectomized because of severe radiation reactions in the bladder. At 5-year follow-up, the actuarial risk of complications requiring surgery was 15%. Treatment-related mortality was 2%.

  12. Childhood craniopharyngioma: survival, local control, endocrine and neurologic function following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Kramer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Between 1961 and 1978, 19 patients with a diagnosis of childhood or teenage craniopharyngioma received supervoltage radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either partial surgical resection (10 patients), total gross resection (3 patients), or aspiration and biopsy (6 patients). Fourteen patients were treated primarily and five were treated for recurrence. The five-year survival was 73% with a 10-year survival of 64%. Sixteen percent developed a recurrence following radiotherapy. Long term effects were assesed in terms of neurologic, intellectual, psychological and endocrine function. Seventy-nine percent had none or minimal neurologic disability. The mean full scale IQ for the group was 90. There were no additional endocrine deficiencies that could be directly attributed to radiation. Behavioral disorders occurred in 50%. These results are at least comparable, if not superior, to those of surgery

  13. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  14. Chemotherapy, brachytherapy and surgery of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas: prognosis factors of local control and global survival; Chimioradiotherapie, curietherapie et chirurgie des cancers du col uterin localement evolues: facteurs pronostiques de controle local et de survie globale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laude, C.; Montella, A.; Montbarbon, X.; Malet, C.; Racadot, S.; Pommier, P. [Centre Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Mathevet, P. [Hopital Femme-Mere-Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69 - Lyon (France); Buenerd, A. [Centre de Pathologie Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2009-10-15

    The protocol used allows an excellent local control of the uterine cervix carcinoma with an acceptable morbidity. To anticipate the presence of a tumor residue can be an evolution in the therapy management after external radiotherapy, particularly in optimized image-guided brachytherapy (MRI and PET)New utero vaginal applicators with parameters implantation allow to realise the dose complement at the distal parameters. These advances make consider an improvement of results in the management of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas. (N.C.)

  15. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Local tumour control and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlke, Oliver; Wucherpfennig, David; Prokic, Vesna [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Fels, Franziska [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); St. Josefs Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenburg (Germany); Frings, Lars [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Weyerbrock, Astrid [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Hippocampal-avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) for multiple brain metastases may prevent treatment-related cognitive decline, compared to standard WBRT. Additionally, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) on individual metastases may further improve the outcome. Here, we present initial data concerning local tumour control (LTC), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity and safety for this new irradiation technique. Twenty patients, enrolled between 2011 and 2013, were treated with HA-WBRT (30 Gy in 12 fractions, D{sub 98} {sub %} to hippocampus ≤ 9 Gy) and a SIB (51 Gy) on multiple (2-13) metastases using a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) approach based on 2-4 arcs. Metastases were evaluated bidimensionally along the two largest diameters in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI. Median follow-up was 40 weeks. The median time to progression of boosted metastases has not been reached yet, corresponding to a LTC rate of 73 %. Median intracranial PFS was 40 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year PFS of 45.3 %. Median OS was 71.5 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year OS of 60 %. No obvious acute or late toxicities grade > 2 (NCI CTCAE v4.03) were observed. D{sub mean} to the bilateral hippocampi was 6.585 Gy ± 0.847 (α/β = 2 Gy). Two patients developed a new metastasis in the area of hippocampal avoidance. HA-WBRT (simultaneous integrated protection, SIP) with SIB to metastases is a safe and tolerable regime that shows favorable LTC for patients with multiple brain metastases, while it has the potential to minimize the side-effect of cognitive deterioration. (orig.) [German] Die Hippocampus-schonende Ganzhirnbestrahlung (HS-GHB) kann im Vergleich zur Standard-GHB die Verschlechterung der neurokognitiven Funktion verhindern. Zusaetzlich vermag ein simultan integrierter Boost (SIB) auf die Metastasen die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten weiter zu verbessern. In dieser Studie praesentieren wir erste Ergebnisse

  16. Pulse-mediated chemotherapy enhances local control and survival in a spontaneous canine model of primary mucosal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Onori, Nicoletta; Citro, Gennaro; Baldi, Alfonso

    2006-02-01

    Mucosal melanomas account for 1% of all malignant melanomas in humans. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiation therapy; however, local recurrence and distant dissemination are still frequent. We treated locally aggressive spontaneous canine oral melanomas that, because of their advanced stage, were not treatable with conventional strategies. A cohort of 10 dogs with oral melanoma was enrolled over a 4-year period. The dogs received two sessions of local bleomycin, followed by the application of trains of biphasic pulses. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in an overall response rate of 80% with 50% long-term control. Of interest, only one of the dogs died of metastatic disease, and four of the long-term survivors showed a vitiligo-like discoloration at the site of treatment, potentially suggesting a recruitment of the immune system by the therapy. Further studies are needed to characterize this approach and to determine its suitability for head and neck mucosal melanoma.

  17. Environmental pollution has sex-dependent effects on local survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Hakkarainen, Harri; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollutants cause a potential hazard for survival in free-living animal populations. We modelled local survival (including emigration) by using individual mark–recapture histories of males and females in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) living around a point source of heavy metals (copper smelter). Local survival of F. hypoleuca females did not differ between polluted and unpolluted environments. Males, however, showed a one-third higher local-survival probability in the polluted area. Low fledgling production was generally associated with decreased local survival, but males in the polluted area showed relatively high local survival, irrespective of their fledgling number. A possible explanation of higher local survival of males in the polluted area could be a pollution-induced change in hormone (e.g. corticosterone or testosterone) levels of males. It could make them to invest more on their own survival or affect the hormonal control of breeding dispersal. The local survival of males decreased in the polluted area over the study period along with the simultaneous decrease in heavy metal emissions. This temporal trend is in agreement with the stress hormone hypothesis. PMID:17148387

  18. Treatment outcome and prognostic variables for local control and survival in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; Maase, Hans von der

    2004-01-01

    with an initial CR developed recurrence during follow-up. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rate was 31% and 21%, respectively. Performance status, T-stage, macroscopic complete TURB, hydronephrosis, and serum creatinine were independent prognostic factors for overall survival and, thus, important...

  19. Survival and local control rates of triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with boost-IOERT during breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastner, Gerd; Zehentmayr, Franz; Kopp, Peter; Fussl, Christoph; Sedlmayer, Felix [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Pathology, Salzburg (Austria); Moder, Angelika [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Institute of Inborn Errors in Metabolism, Salzburg (Austria); Reitsamer, Roland; Fischer, Thorsten [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Special Gynecology, Salzburg (Austria); Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Gynecology, Salzburg (Austria); Deutschmann, Heinrich [Landeskrankenhaus, Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to retrospectively evaluate survival and local control rates of triple-negative breast cancer subtypes classified as five marker negative (5NP) and core basal (CB), respectively, after breast-conserving surgery and intraoperative boost radiotherapy with electrons (IOERT) followed by whole breast irradiation. A total of 71 patients with triple-negative breast cancer were enrolled, who were treated with lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and IOERT with 9.6 Gy (median D{sub max}) followed by normofractionated whole breast irradiation to median total doses of 54 Gy. Chemotherapy was applied in a neoadjuvant (12 %), adjuvant (75 %), or combinational setting (7 %). After a median follow-up of 97 months (range 4-170 months), 5 in-breast recurrences were detected (7.0 %). For all patients, 8-year actuarial rates for local control, metastases-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival amounted to 89, 75, 80, and 69 %, respectively. All local recurrences occurred in grade 3 (G3) tumors irrespective of their specific immunohistochemical phenotype; thus, the local control rate for grades 1/2 (G1/2) was 100 % for both 5NP and CB, while for G3 it was 88 % for 5NP and 90 % for CB (p = 0.65 and 0.82, respectively, n.s.). For disease-specific survival, only the difference of the best-prognosis group 5-NP/G3 vs. the worst-prognosis cohort CB/G1/2 was statistically significant: 90 % vs. 54 % (p = 0.03). Boost-IOERT provides acceptable long-term in-breast control in triple negative breast cancer. The best subgroup in terms of disease-specific survival was represented by 5NP in combination with tumor grading G3. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, im Rahmen einer retrospektiven Analyse Ueberlebens- und Lokalkontrollraten bei triple-negativen Mammakarzinomen zu untersuchen. Die Tumoren waren in 5NP(5-Marker-negative)- und CB(core basal)-Subtypen klassifiziert und die Patientinnen hatten nach brusterhaltender Operation und

  20. Amputations for extremity soft tissue sarcoma in an era of limb salvage treatment : Local control and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Marc G; Musters, Annelie H; Geertzen, Jan H B; van Leeuwen, Barbara L; Hoekstra, Harald J; Been, Lukas B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite multimodality limb salvage treatment (LST) for locally advanced extremity soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS), some patients still need an amputation. Indications for amputation and oncological outcome for these patients are described. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2016, all patients who

  1. Continuous and split-course radiotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Analyses of local control, distant metastases, crude survival, early and late morbidity and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    From 1974 to 1984, 442 consecutive patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were referred for combined intracavitary (IRT) and external radiotherapy (ERT). Dose prescriptions were performed based on the points A and B of the Manchester system. From 1978 the treatment strategy was changed from continuous (CRT) to split course radiotherapy (SCRT) with a higher total dose to point B, a lower dose to point A from the IRT, and a longer total treatment time (TTT). The purpose of the present thesis is: To evaluate local tumour control, distant metastases, survival and complications in the rectosigmoid and bladder in relation to treatment strategy (continuous and split course radiotherapy). To evaluate prognostic factors and importance of treatment strategy for local control, distant metastases, and survival by uni- and multivariate analyses. To develop a classification system (AADK, Aarhus, Denmark) for the recording of early and late radiation complications allowing and estimation of the importance of latency when reporting late radiotherapeutic morbidity and a rescoring of complication grade, and to compare results from AADK with those from the French-Italian glossary recording the maximal damage. To evaluate early and late radiotherapeutic morbidity and the importance of latency by comparing frequencies and actuarial estimates of late complications, to estimate the combined late organ morbidity and the probability of being alive, cured and without serious complications. (EG) (61 refs.)

  2. Survivability of SCADA Control Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, José; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The endorsement of information technologies for critical infrastructures control introduces new threats in their security and surveillance. Along with certain level of protection against attacks, it is desirable for critical processes to survive even if they succeed. A stochastic Petri Nets-based

  3. Non-randomized study on the effects of preoperative radiotherapy and daily administration of low-dose cisplatin against those of radiotherapy alone for oral cancer. Effects on local control, control of metastases, and overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Akiko; Kobayashi, Hiroichi; Kurashina, Kenji; Shikama, Naoto; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2000-01-01

    Cisplatin is a known radiation modifier. Our previous study suggested that daily administration of low-dose cisplatin enhanced the efficacy of radiotherapy against primary oral squamous carcinoma. In this paper, we follow the patients who participated in the previous study and survey the benefit of combination low-dose cisplatin in improving local control, prevention of metastases, and overall survival. This study included patients with surgically resectable advanced oral tumors. Ten patients underwent preoperative radiotherapy of 30-40 Gy/15-20 days with concomitant daily administration of low-dose cisplatin (5 mg/body or 5 mg/m 2 ). Ten other patients received external radiotherapy alone. All patients then underwent a planned radical tumor resection. No significant difference was see in loco-regional control rates (primary: 86 vs. 88%, neck: 83 vs. 78% at 48 months) or incidence of metastasis (70 vs. 64%) between the two groups. Nor was there a significant difference in the overall survival rate (60 vs. 66%). The results of this study suggest that the concomitant use of daily administration of low-dose cisplatin with preoperative radiation brings no statistically significant benefit in improving local control and survival rate in patients with advanced resectable oral cancer. (author)

  4. What affects local community hospitals' survival in turbulent times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Che; Wang, Shiow-Ing

    2015-06-01

    Hospital closures became a prevalent phenomenon in Taiwan after the implementation of a national health insurance program. A wide range of causes contributes to the viability of hospitals, but little is known about the situation under universal coverage health systems. The purpose of present study is to recognize the factors that may contribute to hospital survival under the universal coverage health system. This is a retrospective case-control study. Local community hospitals that contracted with the Bureau of National Health Insurance in 1998 and remained open during the period 1998-2011 are the designated cases. Controls are local community hospitals that closed during the same period. Using longitudinal representative health claim data, 209 local community hospitals that closed during 1998-2011 were compared with 165 that remained open. Variables related to institutional characteristics, degree of competition, characteristics of patients and financial performance were analyzed by logistic regression models. Hospitals' survival was positively related to specialty hospital, the number of respiratory care beds, the physician to population ratio, the number of clinics in the same region, a highly competitive market and the occupancy rate of elderly patients in the hospital. Teaching hospitals, investor-owned hospitals, the provision of obstetrics services or home care, and the number of medical centers or other local community hospitals may jeopardize the chance of survival. Factors-enhanced local hospitals to survive under the universal coverage health system have been identified. Hospital managers could manipulate these findings and adapt strategies for subsistence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  5. Control of dynamical localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jiangbin; Woerner, Hans Jakob; Brumer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Control over the quantum dynamics of chaotic kicked rotor systems is demonstrated. Specifically, control over a number of quantum coherent phenomena is achieved by a simple modification of the kicking field. These include the enhancement of the dynamical localization length, the introduction of classical anomalous diffusion assisted control for systems far from the semiclassical regime, and the observation of a variety of strongly nonexponential line shapes for dynamical localization. The results provide excellent examples of controlled quantum dynamics in a system that is classically chaotic and offer opportunities to explore quantum fluctuations and correlations in quantum chaos

  6. Breast conserving treatment of breast carcinoma T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy, high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, external beam radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: local control and overall survival analysis; Tratamento conservador do cancer de mama T2 ({<=} 4 cm) e T3 por quimioterapia neoadjuvante, quadrantectomia, braquiterapia com alta taxa de dose como reforco de dose, teleterapia complementar e quimioterapia adjuvante: analise de controle local e sobrevida global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Celia Regina; Miziara Filho, Miguel Abrao; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Baraldi, Helena Espindola; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: celiarsoares@terra.com.br; Fristachi, Carlos Elias [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Onco-Ginecologia e Mastologia; Paes, Roberto Pinto [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Objective: to assess the treatment of breast cancer T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 through neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy and high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, complementary radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, considering local control and overall survival. Material and method: this clinical prospective descriptive study was based on the evaluation of 88 patients ranging from 30 to 70 years old, with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, clinical stage IIb and IIIa, responsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treated from June/1995 to December/2006. Median follow-up was 58 months. Using clinical methods the tumor was evaluated before and after three or four cycles of chemotherapy based on anthracyclines. Overall survival and local control were assessed according to Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: Local control and overall survival in five years were 90% and 73.5%, respectively. Conclusion: local control and overall survival were comparable to other forms of treatment. (author)

  7. Local control and survival in patients with soft tissue sarcomas treated with limb sparing surgery in combination with interstitial brachytherapy and external radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhic, A.; Hovgaard, D.; Mork, Petersen M.

    2008-01-01

    %. Nineteen (49%) patients suffered from some degree of decreased force or function of the affected extremity, 16 (41%) suffered from oedema, 12 (31%) had persistent pain, 8 (21%) suffered from wound complications, and in 4 (10%) of these patients plastic surgery were required. CONCLUSION: Limb sparing...... surgery, combined with PDR BRT and EBRT can result in good local control in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. BRT is an effective modality with good cosmetic results and acceptable toxicity Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...

  8. Local control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Local control room in the ejection building : all electronics pertaining to proton distribution and concomitants such as beam gymnastics and diagnostics at high energies will eventually be gathered here. Shown is the first of two rows of fast ejection electronic racks. It includes only what is necessary for operation.

  9. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  10. The Role of Local Governmental Funding in Nonprofit Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Besel

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit social service organizations in America originally relied on private donations and charitable events to sustain their operations. As the number of nonprofit organizations has proliferated over the last few decades, so has nonprofit dependency on governmental and other sources of revenue. A case study design was used to examine factors that have impacted the survival of the original Indiana Youth Service Bureaus. This study highlights salient factors that influence survival and explores the characteristics and circumstances of selected organizations that enhance their sustainability. The findings suggest that social work administrators need to foster long-term relationships with local funders as a means of enhancing organizational survival.

  11. Chemoradiotherapy, with adjuvant surgery for local control, confers a durable survival advantage in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bass, G A

    2014-04-01

    Oesophageal cancer usually presents with systemic disease, necessitating systemic therapy. Neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy improves short-term survival, but its long-term impact is disputed because of limited accrual, treatment-protocol heterogeneity and a short follow-up of randomised trials.

  12. Growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative growth, sexual maturity, survival, and feed utilization efficiency of local and White Leghorn chicken under intensive management condition. Five groups of each of the two breeds, with 200 baby chicks each, were subjected to appetite feeding with commercial layer\\'s ...

  13. Image guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: Improved pelvic control and survival in RetroEMBRACE, a multicenter cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdza, Alina; Pötter, Richard; Fokdal, Lars Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Image guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for locally advanced cervical cancer allows dose escalation to the high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) while sparing organs at risk (OAR). This is the first comprehensive report on clinical outcome in a large multi-institutional cohort. Patients and ...

  14. The TME trial after a median follow-up of 6 years: increased local control but no survival benefit in irradiated patients with resectable rectal carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, K.C.; Marijnen, C.A.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Putter, H.; Wiggers, T.; Rütten, H.; Pahlman, L.; Glimelius, B.; Leer, J.W.H.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of preoperative short-term radiotherapy in patients with mobile rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Local recurrence is a major problem in rectal cancer treatment. Preoperative short-term radiotherapy has

  15. The TME trial after a median follow-up of 6 years - Increased local control but no survival benefit in irradiated patients with resectable rectal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Koen C. M. J.; Marijnen, Corrie A. M.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Kranenbarg, Elma Klein; Putter, Hein; Wiggers, Theo; Rutten, Harm; Pahlman, Lars; Glimelius, Bengt; Leer, Jan Willem; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of preoperative short-term radiotherapy in patients with mobile rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery. Summary Background Data: Local recurrence is a major problem in rectal cancer treatment. Preoperative short-term radiotherapy has

  16. Energy Survival: entertainment as a resource for local energy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elburg, Henk van; Moosdijk, Catelijne van de [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, SenterNovem, the Dutch Broadcasting Corporation, a publishing company and a consortium of local authorities launched 'Energy Survival'; a renewing energy marketing strategy for children to create a demand for local energy actions. New elements are powerful branding and the use of cross media techniques through national TV, internet, local events and primary education. Through entertainment, Energy Survival influences children's attitude towards energy consumption and its convincing relation with the environment. It aims at qualifying children to become 'energy ambassadors' in their own local environment: family, school and neighbourhood. Energy Survival has become a well tested energy game-concept for children in whom public and private partners cooperate under one brand name and with a clear division of roles and interests. However, the backbone of the concept is the local approach: local actions in municipalities and in primary schools, supported by television and internet where children learn to deal with the upcoming energy challenges of the planet they will inherit. By providing an internet-based teaching method, especially primary schools will be an effective multiplier to reach children. Broadcasting the energy game on national TV on the one hand, and local events and preliminaries on the other hand, ensure opportunities for widespread 'duplication' of the concept, adapted to local policy priorities regarding sustainable energy because each municipality is permitted to choose its own themes. Despite the fact that the project is still young and that the partners consider it as a 'long term-investment', the first independent monitoring results indicate that Energy Survival so far is quite successful. Ratings of the first TV-series show a national market share of 20 % in the age group 6-12 years and significantly more interaction between children and their parents on energy related issues. The website

  17. Organ Preservation in Rectal Adenocarcinoma: a phase II randomized controlled trial evaluating 3-year disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation plus induction or consolidation chemotherapy, and total mesorectal excision or nonoperative management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J. Joshua; Chow, Oliver S.; Gollub, Marc J.; Nash, Garrett M.; Temple, Larissa K.; Weiser, Martin R.; Guillem, José G.; Paty, Philip B.; Avila, Karin; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with non-metastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) includes pre-operative chemoradiation, total mesorectal excision (TME) and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. This trimodality treatment provides local tumor control in most patients; but almost one-third ultimately die from distant metastasis. Most survivors experience significant impairment in quality of life (QoL), due primarily to removal of the rectum. A current challenge lies in identifying patients who could safely undergo rectal preservation without sacrificing survival benefit and QoL. This multi-institutional, phase II study investigates the efficacy of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) and selective non-operative management (NOM) in LARC. Patients with MRI-staged Stage II or III rectal cancer amenable to TME will be randomized to receive FOLFOX/CAPEOX: a) before induction neoadjuvant chemotherapy (INCT); or b) after consolidation neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CNCT), with 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemoradiation. Patients in both arms will be re-staged after completing all neoadjuvant therapy. Those with residual tumor at the primary site will undergo TME. Patients with clinical complete response (cCR) will receive non-operative management (NOM). NOM patients will be followed every 3 months for 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. TME patients will be followed according to NCCN guidelines. All will be followed for at least 5 years from the date of surgery or—in patients treated with NOM—the last day of treatment. The studies published thus far on the safety of NOM in LARC have compared survival between select groups of patients with a cCR after NOM, to patients with a pathologic complete response (pCR) after TME. The current study compares 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in an entire population of patients with LARC, including those with cCR and those with pCR. We will compare the two arms of the study with respect to organ preservation at 3 years, treatment

  18. Organ Preservation in Rectal Adenocarcinoma: a phase II randomized controlled trial evaluating 3-year disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation plus induction or consolidation chemotherapy, and total mesorectal excision or nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J Joshua; Chow, Oliver S; Gollub, Marc J; Nash, Garrett M; Temple, Larissa K; Weiser, Martin R; Guillem, José G; Paty, Philip B; Avila, Karin; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2015-10-23

    Treatment of patients with non-metastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) includes pre-operative chemoradiation, total mesorectal excision (TME) and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. This trimodality treatment provides local tumor control in most patients; but almost one-third ultimately die from distant metastasis. Most survivors experience significant impairment in quality of life (QoL), due primarily to removal of the rectum. A current challenge lies in identifying patients who could safely undergo rectal preservation without sacrificing survival benefit and QoL. This multi-institutional, phase II study investigates the efficacy of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) and selective non-operative management (NOM) in LARC. Patients with MRI-staged Stage II or III rectal cancer amenable to TME will be randomized to receive FOLFOX/CAPEOX: a) before induction neoadjuvant chemotherapy (INCT); or b) after consolidation neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CNCT), with 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemoradiation. Patients in both arms will be re-staged after completing all neoadjuvant therapy. Those with residual tumor at the primary site will undergo TME. Patients with clinical complete response (cCR) will receive non-operative management (NOM). NOM patients will be followed every 3 months for 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. TME patients will be followed according to NCCN guidelines. All will be followed for at least 5 years from the date of surgery or--in patients treated with NOM--the last day of treatment. The studies published thus far on the safety of NOM in LARC have compared survival between select groups of patients with a cCR after NOM, to patients with a pathologic complete response (pCR) after TME. The current study compares 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in an entire population of patients with LARC, including those with cCR and those with pCR. We will compare the two arms of the study with respect to organ preservation at 3 years, treatment compliance

  19. Adjuvant radiation for vulvar carcinoma: improved local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, Clare M.; Mirmow, Dwight; Huang Qingshon; Gerszten, Kristina; Day, Roger; Jones, Mirka W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a significant problem following primary surgery for advanced vulva carcinoma. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of adjuvant vulvar radiation on local control in high risk patients and the impact of local recurrence on overall survival. Methods and Materials: From 1980-1994, 62 patients with invasive vulva carcinoma and either positive or close (less 8 mm) margins of excision were retrospectively studied. Thirty-one patients were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy to the vulva and 31 patients were observed after surgery. Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to evaluate the effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on local recurrence and overall survival. Independent prognostic factors for local recurrence and survival were also assessed. Results: Local recurrence occurred in 58% of observed patients and 16% in patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy. Adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates in both the close margin and positive margin groups (p = 0.036, p = 0.0048). On both univariate and multivariate analysis adjuvant radiation and margins of excision were significant prognostic predictors for local control. Significant determinants of actuarial survival included International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage, percentage of pathologically positive inguinal nodes and margins of excision. The positive margin observed group had a significantly poorer actuarial 5 year survival than the other groups (p = 0.0016) and adjuvant radiation significantly improved survival for this group. The 2 year actuarial survival after developing local recurrence was 25%. Local recurrence was a significant predictor for death from vulva carcinoma (risk ratio 3.54). Conclusion: Local recurrence is a common occurrence in high risk patients. In this study adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates and

  20. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  1. Locoregional control and survival after breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajer, M.; Majdic, E.

    2006-01-01

    Background. The purpose of our study was to present a 5-year survival and locoregional control rates in breast cancer patients and to establish eventual impact of the treatment and patient characteristics on locoregional control and survival. Methods. From January 1998 to December 1999 564 stage 1 and 2 breast cancer patients were treated with breast conserving therapy. We evaluated the following characteristics: age, histological diagnosis, grade, size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, hormonal receptor status, extensive intraductal component (EIDC), vascular invasion, pathologic tumour margins, type of surgery and use of adjuvant therapy. Results. The mean age of our patients was 54.2 years. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common diagnosis (82.4%), followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (10.6%). Most of the tumours were grade 2. Seventy-two % of patients had T1 tumours, 24% T2 and 3% T is tumours. Metastatic lymph nodes were present in 44% of patients. All patients were treated with breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT). Fifty % of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and/ or hormonal therapy. The 5-year survival rate was 88.5%. Tumour size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, grade, hormonal receptors and vascular invasion proved to be statistically significant prognostic factors for the survival, while age and histological diagnosis were not. Local recurrence developed in 4.3% of our patients, while in 3.4% regional recurrence developed. Conclusions. Breast conserving surgery followed by RT was associated with good rates of locoregional control and survival, comparable to those reported in the literature. (author)

  2. Locally Applied Valproate Enhances Survival in Rats after Neocortical Treatment with Tetanus Toxin and Cobalt Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In neocortical epilepsies not satisfactorily responsive to systemic antiepileptic drug therapy, local application of antiepileptic agents onto the epileptic focus may enhance treatment efficacy and tolerability. We describe the effects of focally applied valproate (VPA in a newly emerging rat model of neocortical epilepsy induced by tetanus toxin (TeT plus cobalt chloride (CoCl2. Methods. In rats, VPA ( or sodium chloride (NaCl ( containing polycaprolactone (PCL implants were applied onto the right motor cortex treated before with a triple injection of 75 ng TeT plus 15 mg CoCl2. Video-EEG monitoring was performed with intracortical depth electrodes. Results. All rats randomized to the NaCl group died within one week after surgery. In contrast, the rats treated with local VPA survived significantly longer (. In both groups, witnessed deaths occurred in the context of seizures. At least of the rats surviving the first postoperative day developed neocortical epilepsy with recurrent spontaneous seizures. Conclusions. The novel TeT/CoCl2 approach targets at a new model of neocortical epilepsy in rats and allows the investigation of local epilepsy therapy strategies. In this vehicle-controlled study, local application of VPA significantly enhanced survival in rats, possibly by focal antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic mechanisms.

  3. Failure to Achieve a PSA Level ≤1 ng/mL After Neoadjuvant LHRHA Therapy Predicts for Lower Biochemical Control Rate and Overall Survival in Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Darren M.; McAleese, Jonathan; Park, Richard M.; Stewart, David P.; Stranex, Stephen; Eakin, Ruth L.; Houston, Russell F.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether failure to suppress the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to ≤1 ng/mL after ≥2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in patients scheduled to undergo external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma is associated with reduced biochemical failure-free survival. Methods and Materials: A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer treated between January 2001 and December 2002 with neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy, followed by concurrent hormonal therapy and radiotherapy was performed. Patient data were divided for analysis according to whether the PSA level in Week 1 of radiotherapy was ≤1.0 ng/mL. Biochemical failure was determined using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (Phoenix) definition. Results: A total of 119 patients were identified. The PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy was ≤1 ng/mL in 67 patients and >1 ng/mL in 52. At a median follow-up of 49 months, the 4-year actuarial biochemical failure-free survival rate was 84% vs. 60% (p = 0.0016) in favor of the patients with a PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy of ≤1 ng/mL. The overall survival rate was 94% vs. 77.5% (p = 0.0045), and the disease-specific survival rate at 4 years was 98.5% vs. 82.5%. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that patients with a PSA level >1 ng/mL at the beginning of external beam radiotherapy after ≥2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy have a significantly greater rate of biochemical failure and lower survival rate compared with those with a PSA level of ≤1 ng/mL. Patients without adequate PSA suppression should be considered a higher risk group and considered for dose escalation or the use of novel treatments

  4. Controlling chaotic transients: Yorke's game of survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Jacobo; D'ovidio, Francesco; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2004-01-01

    . This problem is focused as a two-person, mathematical game between two players called "the protagonist" and "the adversary." The protagonist's goal is to survive. He can lose but cannot win; the best he can do is survive to play another round, struggling ad infinitum. In the absence of actions by either player...... knows the action of the adversary in choosing his response and is permitted to choose the initial point x(0) of the game. We use the "slope 3" tent map in an example of this problem. We show that it is possible for the protagonist to survive....

  5. Embedded controllers for local board-control

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, Niko; Mini, Giuseppe; Sannino, Mario; Guzik, Zbigniew; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has a large number of custom electronic boards performing high-speed data-processing. Like in any large experiment the control and monitoring of these crate-mounted boards must be integrated into the overall control-system. Traditionally this has been done by using buses like VME on the back-plane of the crates. LHCb has chosen to equip every board with an embedded micro-controller and connecting them in a large Local Area Network. The intelligence of these devices allows complex (soft) real-time control and monitoring, required for modern powerful FPGA driven electronics. Moreover each board has its own, isolated control access path, which increases the robustness of the entire system. The system is now in pre-production at several sites and will go into full production during next year. The hardware and software will be discussed and experiences from the R&D and pre-production will be reviewed, with an emphasis on advantages and difficulties of this approach to board-control.

  6. High-dose radiation improved local tumor control and overall survival in patients with inoperable/unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: Long-term results of a radiation dose escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, F.-M.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Schipper, Matthew J.; Sullivan, Molly A.; Chen, Ming; Lopez, Carlos; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Hayman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether high-dose radiation leads to improved outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: This analysis included 106 patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent Stages I-III NSCLC, treated with 63-103 Gy in 2.1-Gy fractions, using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) per a dose escalation trial. Targets included the primary tumor and any lymph nodes ≥1 cm, without intentionally including negative nodal regions. Nineteen percent of patients (20/106) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patient, tumor, and treatment factors were evaluated for association with outcomes. Estimated median follow-up was 8.5 years. Results: Median survival was 19 months, and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 13%. Multivariate analysis revealed weight loss (p = 0.011) and radiation dose (p = 0.0006) were significant predictors for OS. The 5-year OS was 4%, 22%, and 28% for patients receiving 63-69, 74-84, and 92-103 Gy, respectively. Although presence of nodal disease was negatively associated with locoregional control under univariate analysis, radiation dose was the only significant predictor when multiple variables were included (p = 0.015). The 5-year control rate was 12%, 35%, and 49% for 63-69, 74-84, and 92-103 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Higher dose radiation is associated with improved outcomes in patients with NSCLC treated in the range of 63-103 Gy

  7. Long-Term Survival and Local Relapse Following Surgery Without Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Upper Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Simon, NG Siu Man; Law, Wai Lun; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shan, Hester Cheung Yui; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Choi, Gyu-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversy remains regarding whether preoperative chemoradiation protocol should be applied uniformly to all rectal cancer patients regardless of tumor height. This pooled analysis was designed to evaluate whether preoperative chemoradiation can be safely omitted in higher rectal cancer. An international consortium of 7 institutions was established. A review of the database that was collected from January 2004 to May 2008 identified a series of 2102 patients with stage II/III rectal or sigmoid cancer (control arm) without concurrent chemoradiation. Data regarding patient demographics, recurrence pattern, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. The primary end point was the 5-year local recurrence rate. The local relapse rate of the sigmoid colon cancer (SC) and upper rectal cancer (UR) cohorts was significantly lower than that of the mid/low rectal cancer group (M-LR), with 5-year estimates of 2.5% for the SC group, 3.5% for the UR group, and 11.1% for the M-LR group, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that tumor depth, nodal metastasis, venous invasion, and lower tumor level were strongly associated with local recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate of local failure was 90.6%, 92.5%, and 94.4% for tumors located within 5, 7, and 9 cm from the anal verge, respectively. Routine use of preoperative chemoradiation for stage II/III rectal tumors located more than 8 to 9 cm above the anal verge would be excessive. The integration of a more individualized approach focused on systemic control is warranted to improve survival in patients with upper rectal cancer. PMID:27258487

  8. growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    suggested that there is no economic justification for keeping local chicken under intensive management ... Poultry meat and eggs provide proteins of high biological value. Poultry production is a relatively simpler means of generating family income and employment ... In both cases, clean water was made available at.

  9. Survival probability of a local excitation in a non-Markovian environment: Survival collapse, Zeno and anti-Zeno effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufeil-Fiori, E.; Pastawski, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The decay dynamics of a local excitation interacting with a non-Markovian environment, modeled by a semi-infinite tight-binding chain, is exactly evaluated. We identify distinctive regimes for the dynamics. Sequentially: (i) early quadratic decay of the initial-state survival probability, up to a spreading time t S , (ii) exponential decay described by a self-consistent Fermi Golden Rule, and (iii) asymptotic behavior governed by quantum diffusion through the return processes, leading to an inverse power law decay. At this last cross-over time t R a survival collapse becomes possible. This could reduce the survival probability by several orders of magnitude. The cross-over times t S and t R allow to assess the range of applicability of the Fermi Golden Rule and give the conditions for the observation of the Zeno and anti-Zeno effect.

  10. Primary localization and tumor thickness as prognostic factors of survival in patients with mucosal melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Mehra

    Full Text Available Data on survival with mucosal melanoma and on prognostic factors of are scarce. It is still unclear if the disease course allows for mucosal melanoma to be treated as primary cutaneous melanoma or if differences in overall survival patterns require adapted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, this investigation is the first to present 10-year survival rates for mucosal melanomas of different anatomical localizations.116 cases from Sep 10 1984 until Feb 15 2011 retrieved from the Comprehensive Cancer Center and of the Central Register of the German Dermatologic Society databases in Tübingen were included in our analysis. We recorded anatomical location and tumor thickness, and estimated overall survival at 2, 5 and 10 years and the mean overall survival time. Survival times were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival times by localizations and by T-stages.We found a median overall survival time of 80.9 months, with an overall 2-year survival of 71.7%, 5-year survival of 55.8% and 10-year survival of 38.3%. The 10-year survival rates for patients with T1, T2, T3 or T4 stage tumors were 100.0%, 77.9%, 66.3% and 10.6% respectively. 10-year survival of patients with melanomas of the vulva was 64.5% in comparison to 22.3% of patients with non-vulva mucosal melanomas.Survival times differed significantly between patients with melanomas of the vulva compared to the rest (p = 0.0006. It also depends on T-stage at the time of diagnosis (p < 0.0001.

  11. Local deterministic theory surviving the violation of Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier-Delanoue, C.

    1984-01-01

    Bell's theorem which asserts that no deterministic theory with hidden variables can give the same predictions as quantum theory, is questioned. Such a deterministic theory is presented and carefully applied to real experiments performed on pairs of correlated photons, derived from the EPR thought experiment. The ensuing predictions violate Bell's inequalities just as quantum mechanics does, and it is further shown that this discrepancy originates in the very nature of radiations. Complete locality is therefore restored while separability remains more limited [fr

  12. Influence of low-dose daily cisplatin on the distant metastasis-free survival of patients with locally advanced nonmetastatic head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, Branislav; Milicic, Biljana

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact of low dose daily cisplatin on distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in locally advanced head and neck cancer treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 70 fractions in 35 treatment days). In locally controlled tumors cisplatin led to better DMFS (p = 0.0272); Cisplatin may have acted independently of micrometastasis in locally advanced H and N cancer

  13. Local survival of pied flycatcher males and females in a pollution gradient of a Cu smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeva, T.; Hakkarainen, H.; Belskii, E.

    2009-01-01

    Survival is one of the most central population measures when the effects of the pollution are studied in natural bird populations. However, only few studies have actually measured rigorous survival estimates on adult birds. In recent years there has been a methodological advance in survival analyses by mark-recapture models. We modelled local survival (including mortality and emigration) with the program MARK in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), around a point source of heavy metals. The local survival of females in the polluted area was about 50% lower than in the other areas. Males, however, survived relatively well in the heavily polluted area, but showed somewhat lower survival in the moderately polluted area. Different pollution effects between two sexes might be due to pollution-related differences in reproductive effort in females and males, and/or more intensive uptake of heavy metals by laying females. - Female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) show decreased local survival around a copper smelter.

  14. Local and Integral Control of Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); J. Wijngaard (Jacob)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn most of the literature on performance analysis of production systems, buffer are assumed to be controlled locally. In automated production systems buffers are not always the result of local physical space restrictions, but may also be software- controlled. Software-controlled buffers

  15. Control of territorial communities in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Смоляр

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to Art. 5 of the Constitution of Ukraine all power in Ukraine belong to people, which is primary, unified, inalienable and carried people through free will through elections, referendum and other forms of direct democracy, including those intended to control the activity of bodies and officials of the government and local government. Paper objective. At the local level the main supervisory entity in local government is local community. Consolidation of the Constitution of Ukraine the primary subject of local self-government territorial community not only meets current international practice, but also the historical traditions of Ukrainian people. Control territorial community in all phases of local government is one of the most important functions of managing the development of appropriate settlements, and therefore needs an effective mechanism of legal regulation, clearly define mutual rights and responsibilities of controlling and controlled entities. Recent research and publications analysis. Problems Assessment of local communities and the activities of local government officials in their works viewed Y.G. Barabash, P.M. Liubchenko, O.D. Skopych, Y.P. Strilets. However, given the variety of aspects of this area of research remain many questions that need resolving, on which depends largely on the further process of local governance. The paper main body. The existing regulation territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The existing regulation of territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The author emphasizes that only by implementing self-control powers local

  16. Globalization and localization of Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Through an empirical case study this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems; cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls are glocal systems and reward & compensation controls assume local characteristics. The finding leads...... controls, through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. The analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, whereby some are universal throughout the organization and others...

  17. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits has been observed to survive for >34 years in stored melon and watermelon seeds. To better understand this remarkable longevity, we investigated the bacterium's tolerance to desiccation and the effect of bacterial localization in different watermelon seed tissues on its survival. We compared the ability of A. citrulli to tolerate desiccation on filter paper discs and on host (watermelon) and nonhost (cabbage, corn and tomato) seeds to two seedborne (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) and one soilborne (Ralstonia solanacearum) plant-pathogenic bacteria. A. citrulli survival on dry filter paper (>12 weeks) was similar to that of X. campestris pv. campestris but longer than P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Ralstonia solanacearum survived longer than all other bacteria tested. On all seeds tested, A. citrulli and X. campestris pv. campestris populations declined by 5 orders of magnitude after 12 weeks of incubation at 4°C and 50% relative humidity, while R. solanacearum populations declined by 3 orders. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii was not recovered after 12 weeks of incubation. To determine the effect of tissue localization on bacterial survival, watermelon seeds infested with A. citrulli by flower stigma inoculation (resulting in bacterial localization in the embryo/endosperm) or by ovary pericarp inoculations (resulting in bacterial localization under the testa) were treated with peroxyacetic acid or chlorine (Cl2) gas. Following these treatments, a significantly higher reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission was observed for seeds generated by ovary pericarp inoculation (≥89.5%) than for those generated by stigma inoculation (≤76.5%) (Pseed coat, suggesting that tissue localization is important for bacterial survival in seed. This observation was confirmed when P. stewartii subsp. stewartii survived significantly longer in stigma

  18. Survival and Complications Following Surgery and Radiation for Localized Prostate Cancer: An International Collaborative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher J D; Glaser, Adam; Hu, Jim C; Huland, Hartwig; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Moon, Daniel; Murphy, Declan G; Nguyen, Paul L; Resnick, Matthew J; Nam, Robert K

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of treatment options for localized prostate cancer (PCa) remains among the highest priorities for comparative effectiveness research. Surgery and radiotherapy (RT) are the two interventions most commonly used. To provide a critical narrative review of evidence of the comparative effectiveness and harms of surgery and RT in the treatment of localized PCa. A collaborative critical narrative review of the literature was conducted. Evidence to clearly guide treatment choice in PCa remains insufficient. Randomized trials are underpowered for clinically meaningful endpoints and have demonstrated no difference in overall or PCa-specific survival. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated an absolute survival benefit for men treated with radical prostatectomy, but are limited by selection bias and residual confounding errors. Surgery and RT are associated with comparable health-related quality of life following treatment in three randomized trials. Randomized data regarding urinary, erectile, and bowel function show few long-term (>5 yr) differences, although short-term continence and erectile function were worse following surgery and short-term urinary bother and bowel function were worse following RT. There has been recent recognition of other complications that may significantly affect the life trajectory of those undergoing PCa treatment. Of these, hospitalization, the need for urologic, rectoanal, and other major surgical procedures, and secondary cancers are more common among men treated with RT. Androgen deprivation therapy, frequently co-administered with RT, may additionally contribute to treatment-related morbidity. Technological innovations in surgery and RT have shown inconsistent oncologic and functional benefits. Owing to underpowered randomized control studies and the selection biases inherent in observational studies, the question of which treatment provides better PCa control cannot be definitively answered now or in the near future

  19. Localized climate control in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, P.S.; Sijs, J.; Fransman, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for controlling the indoor climate in greenhouses are based on a few sensors and actuators in combination with an assumption that climate variables, such as temperature, are uniform throughout the greenhouse. While this is already an improper assumption for conventional greenhouses, it

  20. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  1. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated that the ......The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated...... that the placement of perches increased local hunting activity of at least the Black Shouldered Kite but there were no obvious effects on rodent population size or survival. In a single field where avian predation was prevented by covering the field with a net, an increase in survival was observed. The opposite...

  2. Quality Controlled Local Climatological Data (QCLCD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quality Controlled Local Climatological Data (QCLCD) contains summaries from major airport weather stations that include a daily account of temperature extremes,...

  3. Do pathological fractures influence survival and local recurrence rate in bony sarcomas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, J. A. M.; Abudu, A. A.; Grimer, R. J.; Carter, S. R.; Tillman, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of pathological fracture on surgical management, local recurrence and survival was established in patients with high grade, localised, extremity osteosarcoma (n=484), chondrosarcoma (n=130) and Ewing's sarcoma (n=156). Limb salvage was possible in 79% of patients with a fracture

  4. Local-scale drivers of tree survival in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xugao; Comita, Liza S; Hao, Zhanqing; Davies, Stuart J; Ye, Ji; Lin, Fei; Yuan, Zuoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Tree survival plays a central role in forest ecosystems. Although many factors such as tree size, abiotic and biotic neighborhoods have been proposed as being important in explaining patterns of tree survival, their contributions are still subject to debate. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the relative importance of tree size, local abiotic conditions and the density and identity of neighbors on tree survival in an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern China at three levels (community, guild and species). Tree size and both abiotic and biotic neighborhood variables influenced tree survival under current forest conditions, but their relative importance varied dramatically within and among the community, guild and species levels. Of the variables tested, tree size was typically the most important predictor of tree survival, followed by biotic and then abiotic variables. The effect of tree size on survival varied from strongly positive for small trees (1-20 cm dbh) and medium trees (20-40 cm dbh), to slightly negative for large trees (>40 cm dbh). Among the biotic factors, we found strong evidence for negative density and frequency dependence in this temperate forest, as indicated by negative effects of both total basal area of neighbors and the frequency of conspecific neighbors. Among the abiotic factors tested, soil nutrients tended to be more important in affecting tree survival than topographic variables. Abiotic factors generally influenced survival for species with relatively high abundance, for individuals in smaller size classes and for shade-tolerant species. Our study demonstrates that the relative importance of variables driving patterns of tree survival differs greatly among size classes, species guilds and abundance classes in temperate forest, which can further understanding of forest dynamics and offer important insights into forest management.

  5. Fifteen-Year Biochemical Relapse-Free Survival, Cause-Specific Survival, and Overall Survival Following I125 Prostate Brachytherapy in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Seattle Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, John E.; Grimm, Peter D.; Wong, Jason; Galbreath, Robert W.; Merrick, Gregory; Blasko, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report 15-year biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) outcomes of patients treated with I 125 brachytherapy monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer early in the Seattle experience. Methods and Materials: Two hundred fifteen patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were consecutively treated from 1988 to 1992 with I 125 monotherapy. They were prospectively followed as a tight cohort. They were evaluated for BRFS, CSS, and OS. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate outcomes by pretreatment clinical prognostic factors. BRFS was analyzed by the Phoenix (nadir + 2 ng/mL) definition. CSS and OS were evaluated by chart review, death certificates, and referring physician follow-up notes. Gleason scoring was performed by general pathologists at a community hospital in Seattle. Time to biochemical failure (BF) was calculated and compared by Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: Fifteen-year BRFS for the entire cohort was 80.4%. BRFS by D'Amico risk group classification cohort analysis was 85.9%, 79.9%, and 62.2% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients, respectively. Follow-up ranged from 3.6 to 18.4 years; median follow-up was 15.4 years for biochemically free of disease patients. Overall median follow-up was 11.7 years. The median time to BF in those who failed was 5.1 years. CSS was 84%. OS was 37.1%. Average age at time of treatment was 70 years. There was no significant difference in BRFS between low and intermediate risk groups. Conclusion: I 125 monotherapy results in excellent 15-year BRFS and CSS, especially when taking into account the era of treatment effect.

  6. Cerebral control and survival after stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Elmar Till

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study, including 275 patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy due to brain metastases between 2003 and 2008, investigates influencing factors regarding cerebral control and survival, symptomatic effects and a potential benefit for patients older than 70 years. We were able to identify risk factors for remote brain failure which leads to a therapeutic recommendation. Furthermore we confirm a positive symptomatic effect and a benefit of stereotactic readiotherapy for patients over 70 years.

  7. The survive and thrive program: encouraging coaching, mentoring, and peer learning among new local health officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Vonna; Sarpy, Sue Ann; Green, Rachel; Kaplan, Seth; Bonzon, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for programs tailored to train the approximately 300 new local health officials (LHOs) who emerge each year with the knowledge and skills needed to build, maintain, and enhance public health capacity and infrastructure. The Survive and Thrive program incorporates a curriculum that is designed to address the challenges faced by a new LHO. The Survive and Thrive program seeks to address these issues by leveraging the expertise of the current generation of local public health leadership by incorporating experienced LHOs as coaches. Coaching, mentoring, and peer assistance by seasoned LHOs is critical to these new learning opportunities. This article highlights aspects of the coaching component of Survive and Thrive program. Actual examples of its relevance to the professional growth and development of new LHOs and the coaches themselves are presented. The article also describes the novel approach of including coaches in evaluating program effectiveness. The Survive and Thrive program's coaching component can serve as a template for other public health leadership programs and related workforce development initiatives as well as a model to help facilitate lifelong learning of LHOs.

  8. Electrochemotherapy increases local control after incomplete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2016-11-24

    Nov 24, 2016 ... The treatment was well tolerated, and the patient is still disease free after 12 months. ECT resulted in improved local control and should be considered among the available adjuvant treatments in equines carrying soft tissue tumors. Keywords: Cisplatin, Electrochemotherapy, Equine, Fibrosarcoma.

  9. Chemotherapy-related leukopenia as a biomarker predicting survival outcomes in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Maltese, Giuseppa; Lecce, Francesca; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Indini, Alice; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Borghi, Chiara; Fucà, Giovanni; Ditto, Antonino; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Lorusso, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of hematologic toxicity and leukopenia in locally advanced cervical cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Data of consecutive patients undergoing platinum-based NACT followed by surgery were retrospectively searched in order to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy-related toxicity on survival outcomes. Toxicity was graded per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAEv.4.03). Survival outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meir and Cox hazard models. Overall, 126 patients were included. Among those, 94 (74.6%) patients experienced grade2+ hematologic toxicity; while, grade2+ non-hematologic toxicity occurred in 11 (8.7%) patients. After a median follow-up of 37.1 (inter-quartile range, 12-57.5) months, 21 (16.6%) patients experienced recurrence. Via multivariate analysis, no factor was independently associated with disease-free survival; while a trend toward worse prognosis was observed for patients experiencing grade2+ leukopenia at cycle-3 (HR:3.13 (95%CI: 0.94, 10.3); p=0.06). Similarly, grade2+ leukopenia (HR:9.98 (95%CI: 1.14, 86.6); p=0.03), lymph-node positivity (HR:14.6 (95%CI:1.0, 214.4); p=0.05) and vaginal involvement (HR:5.81 (95%CI:1.43, 23.6); p=0.01) impacted on overall survival, at multivariate analysis. Magnitude of leukopenia correlated with survival (p<0.001). Although, our data have to be confirmed by prospective investigations, the present study shows an association between the occurrence of leukopenia and survival outcomes. NACT-related immunosuppression might reduce the response against the tumor, thus promoting cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival of localized NSCLC patients without active treatment or treated with SBRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, S S; Hansen, N C G; Schytte, T

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little information on the natural history of patients with localized NSCLC is available since many of the studies covering the subject lack information on pathological confirmation, staging procedures and comorbidity. No randomized studies have compared SBRT with no treatment for pati......BACKGROUND: Little information on the natural history of patients with localized NSCLC is available since many of the studies covering the subject lack information on pathological confirmation, staging procedures and comorbidity. No randomized studies have compared SBRT with no treatment...... for patients with localized NSCLC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether SBRT has influence on overall survival for patients with localized NSCLC and investigate the effect of baseline ventilatory lung function on overall survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2013, 136 patients treated...... with SBRT at Odense University Hospital were prospectively recorded. The thoracic SBRT consisted of three fractions of 15-22 Gy delivered in 9 days. For comparison, a national group of 73 untreated patients in the same time period was extracted from the Danish Lung Cancer Registry. All patients had...

  11. Local quantum control of Heisenberg spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heule, Rahel; Bruder, C.; Stojanovic, Vladimir M.; Burgarth, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by some recent results of quantum control theory, we discuss the feasibility of local operator control in arrays of interacting qubits modeled as isotropic Heisenberg spin chains. Acting on one of the end spins, we aim at finding piecewise-constant control pulses that lead to optimal fidelities for a chosen set of quantum gates. We analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the gate fidelities to random errors in the control fields, finding that with faster switching between piecewise-constant controls the system is less susceptible to these errors. The observed behavior falls into a generic class of physical phenomena that are related to a competition between resonance- and relaxation-type behavior, exemplified by motional narrowing in NMR experiments. Finally, we discuss how the obtained optimal gate fidelities are altered when the corresponding rapidly varying piecewise-constant control fields are smoothened through spectral filtering.

  12. A six-gene signature predicts survival of patients with localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeran K Stratford

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC remains a lethal disease. For patients with localized PDAC, surgery is the best option, but with a median survival of less than 2 years and a difficult and prolonged postoperative course for most, there is an urgent need to better identify patients who have the most aggressive disease.We analyzed the gene expression profiles of primary tumors from patients with localized compared to metastatic disease and identified a six-gene signature associated with metastatic disease. We evaluated the prognostic potential of this signature in a training set of 34 patients with localized and resected PDAC and selected a cut-point associated with outcome using X-tile. We then applied this cut-point to an independent test set of 67 patients with localized and resected PDAC and found that our signature was independently predictive of survival and superior to established clinical prognostic factors such as grade, tumor size, and nodal status, with a hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-10.0. Patients defined to be high-risk patients by the six-gene signature had a 1-year survival rate of 55% compared to 91% in the low-risk group.Our six-gene signature may be used to better stage PDAC patients and assist in the difficult treatment decisions of surgery and to select patients whose tumor biology may benefit most from neoadjuvant therapy. The use of this six-gene signature should be investigated in prospective patient cohorts, and if confirmed, in future PDAC clinical trials, its potential as a biomarker should be investigated. Genes in this signature, or the pathways that they fall into, may represent new therapeutic targets. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging-detected tumor response for locally advanced rectal cancer predicts survival outcomes: MERCURY experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Uday B; Taylor, Fiona; Blomqvist, Lennart; George, Christopher; Evans, Hywel; Tekkis, Paris; Quirke, Philip; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Moran, Brendan; Heald, Richard; Guthrie, Ashley; Bees, Nicola; Swift, Ian; Pennert, Kjell; Brown, Gina

    2011-10-01

    To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathologic staging after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer in a prospectively enrolled, multicenter study. In a prospective cohort study, 111 patients who had rectal cancer treated by neoadjuvant therapy were assessed for response by MRI and pathology staging by T, N and circumferential resection margin (CRM) status. Tumor regression grade (TRG) was also assessed by MRI. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations between staging of good and poor responders on MRI or pathology and survival outcomes after controlling for patient characteristics. On multivariate analysis, the MRI-assessed TRG (mrTRG) hazard ratios (HRs) were independently significant for survival (HR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.65 to 11.7) and disease-free survival (DFS; HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.22 to 8.80). Five-year survival for poor mrTRG was 27% versus 72% (P = .001), and DFS for poor mrTRG was 31% versus 64% (P = .007). Preoperative MRI-predicted CRM independently predicted local recurrence (LR; HR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.45 to 12.51). Five-year survival for poor post-treatment pathologic T stage (ypT) was 39% versus 76% (P = .001); DFS for the same was 38% versus 84% (P = .001); and LR for the same was 27% versus 6% (P = .018). The 5-year survival for involved pCRM was 30% versus 59% (P = .001); DFS, 28 versus 62% (P = .02); and LR, 56% versus 10% (P = .001). Pathology node status did not predict outcomes. MRI assessment of TRG and CRM are imaging markers that predict survival outcomes for good and poor responders and provide an opportunity for the multidisciplinary team to offer additional treatment options before planning definitive surgery. Postoperative histopathology assessment of ypT and CRM but not post-treatment N status were important postsurgical predictors of outcome.

  14. Palliative Radiotherapy in the Local Management of Stage IVB Esophageal Cancer: Factors Affecting Swallowing and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Gen; Yamazaki, Hideya; Aibe, Norihiro; Masui, Koji; Tatekawa, Kotoha; Sasaki, Naomi; Kimoto, Takuya; Nishimura, Takeshi; Nakashima, Akihiro; Takenaka, Tadashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Yamada, Kei

    2017-06-01

    To clarify the role of external-beam radiotherapy in the local management of state IVB esophageal cancer. We reviewed records of 31 patients with histopathologically-proven squamous cell carcinoma who underwent radiotherapy for their primary lesion. The change in dysphagia score from before to after treatment was assessed. Nutritional support-free survival (NSFS) was also evaluated. The median overall survival was 6 months. The overall rate of improvement in dysphagia score was 73% (23/31). The median NSFS was 5 months. Age at presentation esophageal cancer is an effective treatment option for dysphagia. Factors highly associated with improvement of swallowing are age, tumor location, and tumor length. Response to radiotherapy is the most important factor in improving NSFS. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Local control after brachytherapy for localized prostatic carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, T.; Peneau, M.; Sabattier, R.; Breteau, N.

    1996-01-01

    From 1991 to 1995; 31 patients (mid-age: 70 years) underwent prostatic brachytherapy for localized prostate cancers using Iridium 192 transperineal percutaneous interstitial implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography. Initial staging included among other evaluations a bilateral staging, iliac and obturator lymph nodes dissection. Classification according to stage was : T1b=16%, T1c=36%, T2a=19%, T2b=13%, T2c=13%, T3a=3%. All patients were N (-). Gleason score was 5 for 55%. 77% of the initial PSA was < 25μg/l. Follow-up included one clinical control and psa determination at 1-3-6-12 and 18 months, bone scanning at 12 months and prostate biopsy guided by transrectal ultrasonography at 18, 24, 30 months. Up to now, mean follow-up is 32 months. At one month, psa was normal (< 2,5μg/l) in 21% of the patients, at 12 months 60% and 67% two years after brachytherapy. Biopsies at 18 months were negative for 60% of the patients and 63% at 24 months. 3 patients were metastased after 3 years. 4 patients had severe complications with colostomy and/or urinary derivation. This technic seems to be interesting for localized prostate cancers T1 and T2 with initial psa < 25μg/l. Two third of the patients had normal psa and negative biopsies after 2 years. The rate of ano-rectal and urinary morbidity is high but is explained by the technic used at the beginning of this study

  16. Prognostic nomograms for predicting survival and distant metastases in locally advanced rectal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Peng

    Full Text Available To develop prognostic nomograms for predicting outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal cancers who do not receive preoperative treatment.A total of 883 patients with stage II-III rectal cancers were retrospectively collected from a single institution. Survival analyses were performed to assess each variable for overall survival (OS, local recurrence (LR and distant metastases (DM. Cox models were performed to develop a predictive model for each endpoint. The performance of model prediction was validated by cross validation and on an independent group of patients.The 5-year LR, DM and OS rates were 22.3%, 32.7% and 63.8%, respectively. Two prognostic nomograms were successfully developed to predict 5-year OS and DM-free survival rates, with c-index of 0.70 (95% CI = [0.66, 0.73] and 0.68 (95% CI = [0.64, 0.72] on the original dataset, and 0.76 (95% CI = [0.67, 0.86] and 0.73 (95% CI = [0.63, 0.83] on the validation dataset, respectively. Factors in our models included age, gender, carcinoembryonic antigen value, tumor location, T stage, N stage, metastatic lymph nodes ratio, adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Predicted by our nomogram, substantial variability in terms of 5-year OS and DM-free survival was observed within each TNM stage category.The prognostic nomograms integrated demographic and clinicopathological factors to account for tumor and patient heterogeneity, and thereby provided a more individualized outcome prognostication. Our individualized prediction nomograms could help patients with preoperatively under-staged rectal cancer about their postoperative treatment strategies and follow-up protocols.

  17. Effect of Radiotherapy Planning Complexity on Survival of Elderly Patients With Unresected Localized Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang H.; Bonomi, Marcelo; Cesaretti, Jamie; Neugut, Alfred I.; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether complex radiotherapy (RT) planning was associated with improved outcomes in a cohort of elderly patients with unresected Stage I-II non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry linked to Medicare claims, we identified 1998 patients aged >65 years with histologically confirmed, unresected stage I-II NSCLC. Patients were classified into an intermediate or complex RT planning group using Medicare physician codes. To address potential selection bias, we used propensity score modeling. Survival of patients who received intermediate and complex simulation was compared using Cox regression models adjusting for propensity scores and in a stratified and matched analysis according to propensity scores. Results: Overall, 25% of patients received complex RT planning. Complex RT planning was associated with better overall (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.95) and lung cancer-specific (hazard ratio 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.93) survival after controlling for propensity scores. Similarly, stratified and matched analyses showed better overall and lung cancer-specific survival of patients treated with complex RT planning. Conclusions: The use of complex RT planning is associated with improved survival among elderly patients with unresected Stage I-II NSCLC. These findings should be validated in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  18. A Dependable Localization Algorithm for Survivable Belt-Type Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingqiang; Song, Fei; Xu, Lei; Seo, Jung Taek; You, Ilsun

    2017-11-29

    As the key element, sensor networks are widely investigated by the Internet of Things (IoT) community. When massive numbers of devices are well connected, malicious attackers may deliberately propagate fake position information to confuse the ordinary users and lower the network survivability in belt-type situation. However, most existing positioning solutions only focus on the algorithm accuracy and do not consider any security aspects. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive scheme for node localization protection, which aims to improve the energy-efficient, reliability and accuracy. To handle the unbalanced resource consumption, a node deployment mechanism is presented to satisfy the energy balancing strategy in resource-constrained scenarios. According to cooperation localization theory and network connection property, the parameter estimation model is established. To achieve reliable estimations and eliminate large errors, an improved localization algorithm is created based on modified average hop distances. In order to further improve the algorithms, the node positioning accuracy is enhanced by using the steepest descent method. The experimental simulations illustrate the performance of new scheme can meet the previous targets. The results also demonstrate that it improves the belt-type sensor networks' survivability, in terms of anti-interference, network energy saving, etc.

  19. Correlation between response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival in locally advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Fuentes-Ferrer, M; López Garcia-Asenjo, J A; Furió, V; Román, J M; Moreno, A; de la Hoya, M; Díaz-Rubio, E; Martín, M; Caldés, T

    2013-03-01

    Measurement of residual disease following neoadjuvant chemotherapy that accurately predicts long-term survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is an essential requirement for clinical trials development. Several methods to assess tumor response have been described. However, the agreement between methods and correlation with survival in independent cohorts has not been reported. We report survival and tumor response according to the measurement of residual breast cancer burden (RCB), the Miller and Payne classification and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria, in 151 LABC patients. Kappa Cohen's coefficient (К) was used to test the agreement between methods. We assessed the correlation between the treatment outcome and overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) by calculating Harrell's C-statistic (c). The agreement between Miller and Payne classification and RCB classes was very high (К = 0.82). In contrast, we found a moderate-to-fair agreement between the Miller and Payne classification and RECIST criteria (К = 0.52) and RCB classes and RECIST criteria (К = 0.38). The adjusted C-statistic to predict OS for RCB index (0.77) and RCB classes (0.75) was superior to that of RECIST criteria (0.69) (P = 0.007 and P = 0.035, respectively). Also, RCB index (c = 0.71), RCB classes (c = 0.71) and Miller and Payne classification (c = 0.67) predicted better RFS than RECIST criteria (c = 0.61) (P = 0.005, P = 0.006 and P = 0.028, respectively). The pathological assessment of tumor response might provide stronger prognostic information in LABC patients.

  20. Electronically controllable spoof localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong Jin; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Liu; Xun Xiao, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Electronically controllable multipolar spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) are experimentally demonstrated in the microwave frequencies. It has been shown that half integer order LSPs modes exist on the corrugated ring loaded with a slit, which actually arise from the Fabry-Perot-like resonances. By mounting active components across the slit in the corrugated rings, electronic switchability and tunability of spoof LSPs modes have been accomplished. Both simulated and measured results demonstrate efficient dynamic control of the spoof LSPs. These elements may form the basis of highly integrated programmable plasmonic circuits in microwave and terahertz regimes.

  1. Surgical management of neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater: Local resection or pancreatoduodenectomy and prognostic factors for survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; van Heek, N. T.; Kuhlmann, K. F. D.; Busch, O. R. C.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    yBackground. Neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater have a better 5-year survival than pancreatic and bile duct neoplasms after resection. This study was Performed to analyze the outcome after local resection and pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and to identify predictive factors for survival. Methods. We used

  2. Imported anthropogenic bacteria may survive the Antarctic winter and introduce new genes into local bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brat Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied dynamic changes in anthropogenic bacterial communities at a summer-operated Czech research base (the Mendel Research Station in the Antarctic during 2012 and 2013. We observed an increase in total numbers of detected bacteria between the beginning and the end of each stay in the Antarctic. In the first series of samples, bacteria of Bacillus sp. predominated. Surprisingly, high numbers of Gram-positive cocci and coliforms were found (including opportunistic human pathogens, although the conditions for bacterial life were unfavourable (Antarctic winter. In the second series of samples, coliforms and Gram-positive cocci predominated. Dangerous human pathogens were also detected. Yersinia enterocolitica was identified as serotype O:9. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed medium-to-high resistance rates to ampicillin, cefalotin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanate and gentamicin in Enterobacteriaceae. 16S rRNA sequencing showed high rates of accordance between nucleotide sequences among the tested strains. Three conclusions were drawn: (1 Number of anthropogenic bacteria were able to survive the harsh conditions of the Antarctic winter (inside and outside the polar station. Under certain circumstances (e.g. impaired immunity, the surviving bacteria might pose a health risk to the participants of future expeditions or to other visitors to the base. (2 The bacteria released into the outer environment might have impacts on local ecosystems. (3 New characteristics (e.g. resistance to antibiotics may be introduced into local bacterial communities.

  3. Survival of women with locally advanced breast cancer at a teaching hospital in Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, J.; Bano, K.; Saeed, A.; Akram, M.; Aziz, Z.

    2010-01-01

    To correlate the clinical features of women presenting with locally advanced breast cancer with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) and to evaluate the patterns of relapse. Methods: A total of 200 patients presenting consecutively over 9 years with Stage III breast cancer were evaluated for age, socio-economic status (SES), tumour size and grade, number of involved lymph nodes, stage III sub-categories, estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, treatment profiles and responses, and sites of relapse. EFS and OS at 5 and 10 years were calculated. Results: Median age was 45 years. Poorly differentiated tumours were found in 127 patients, while 128 had larger tumours (T3 and T4). Eighty women had extensive nodal involvement (N2 and N3), and 86 had Stage IIIA tumours. Chemotherapy was given to 44 patients before surgery and one of these patients achieved pathological complete response. At 5 and 10 years, EFS was 25% and 7%, and OS was 52% and 31%, respectively. By Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of EFS included tumour size (95% CI 1.14-1.72), nodal involvement (95% CI 1.06-1.59) and ER/PR positive tumours (95% CI 1.08-2.29). Predictors of OS included nodal involvement (95% CI 0.98-3.3) and ER/PR positive tumours (95% CI 1.08-2.29). No patient in stage IIIC was alive at 10 years. Loco-regional disease was the most common site of relapse (28.5%). Conclusions: Locally advance breast cancer at our centre is associated with poor survival, and most patients relapsed by 5 years. (author)

  4. Improved local control with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal carcinoma: Long-term analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakfoor, Bruce M.; Willett, Christopher G.; Kaufman, S. Donald; Shellito, Paul C.; Daly, William J.

    1996-01-01

    difference in survival was seen based on the administration of chemotherapy. Conclusions: With long-term follow-up, the addition of 5-FU chemotherapy provides a significant local control benefit for patients presenting with locally advanced rectal carcinoma. The benefit was limited to those patients with complete resections and transmural disease. This finding supports escalating the role of 5-FU chemotherapy: firstly, with continuous infusion concurrent with irradiation; and secondly, with maintenance therapy postoperatively

  5. Local control of striatal dopamine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eCachope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA systems play a key role in the physiology of reward seeking, motivation and motor control. Importantly, they are also involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Control of DA release in the striatum is tightly linked to firing of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the substantia nigra (SN. However, local influences in the striatum affect release by exerting their action directly on axon terminals. For example, endogenous glutamatergic and cholinergic activity is sufficient to trigger striatal DA release independently of cell body firing. Recent developments involving genetic manipulation, pharmacological selectivity or selective stimulation have allowed for better characterization of these phenomena. Such termino-terminal forms of control of DA release transform considerably our understanding of the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, and have strong implications as potential mechanisms to modify impaired control of DA release in the diseased brain. Here, we review these and related mechanisms and their implications in the physiology of ascending DA systems.

  6. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Ahn, Ki Jung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Han [Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) in local control was evaluated. The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m{sup 2} as a cutoff value. Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted.

  7. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Ahn, Ki Jung; Lee, Yun Han

    2016-01-01

    The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m 2 ) in local control was evaluated. The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m 2 as a cutoff value. Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted

  8. Description and physical localization of the bovine survival of motor neuron gene (SMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Goldammer, T; Meinert, S; Schwerin, M; Förster, M

    1998-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease in humans and other mammals, characterized by degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. In humans, the survival of motor neuron gene (SMN) has been recognized as the SMA-determining gene and has been mapped to 5q13. In cattle, SMA is a recurrent, inherited disease that plays an important economic role in breeding programs of Brown Swiss stock. Now we have identified the full- length cDNA sequence of the bovine SMN gene. Molecular analysis and characterization of the sequence documents 85% identity to its human counterpart and three evolutionarily conserved domains in different species. Physical mapping data reveals that bovine SMN is localized to chromosome region 20q12-->q13, supporting the conserved synteny of this chromosomal region between humans and cattle.

  9. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector; Control local de seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona, J I; Alberdi, J; Gamero, E; Blanco, J

    1992-07-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  10. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector. Control local de Seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona Maeztu, J.I.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Gamero Aranda, E.; Blanco, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. the provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of 8 logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of a P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical ecuations of the control system. the memory output lines give the control commands of the parabolic trough collector motor. (author)

  11. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector; Control local de Seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona Maeztu, J.I.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Gamero Aranda, E.; Blanco, J.

    1991-12-31

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. the provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of 8 logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of a P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical ecuations of the control system. the memory output lines give the control commands of the parabolic trough collector motor. (author)

  12. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  13. Control of neural stem cell survival by electroactive polymer substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lundin

    Full Text Available Stem cell function is regulated by intrinsic as well as microenvironmental factors, including chemical and mechanical signals. Conducting polymer-based cell culture substrates provide a powerful tool to control both chemical and physical stimuli sensed by stem cells. Here we show that polypyrrole (PPy, a commonly used conducting polymer, can be tailored to modulate survival and maintenance of rat fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. NSCs cultured on PPy substrates containing different counter ions, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS, tosylate (TsO, perchlorate (ClO(4 and chloride (Cl, showed a distinct correlation between PPy counter ion and cell viability. Specifically, NSC viability was high on PPy(DBS but low on PPy containing TsO, ClO(4 and Cl. On PPy(DBS, NSC proliferation and differentiation was comparable to standard NSC culture on tissue culture polystyrene. Electrical reduction of PPy(DBS created a switch for neural stem cell viability, with widespread cell death upon polymer reduction. Coating the PPy(DBS films with a gel layer composed of a basement membrane matrix efficiently prevented loss of cell viability upon polymer reduction. Here we have defined conditions for the biocompatibility of PPy substrates with NSC culture, critical for the development of devices based on conducting polymers interfacing with NSCs.

  14. Nanoparticle tumor localization, disruption of autophagosomal trafficking, and prolonged drug delivery improve survival in peritoneal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Colby, Aaron H; Gilmore, Denis; Schulz, Morgan; Zeng, Jialiu; Padera, Robert F; Shirihai, Orian; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-09-01

    The treatment outcomes for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma are poor and associated with high co-morbidities due to suboptimal drug delivery. Thus, there is an unmet need for new approaches that concentrate drug at the tumor for a prolonged period of time yielding enhanced antitumor efficacy and improved metrics of treatment success. A paclitaxel-loaded pH-responsive expansile nanoparticle (PTX-eNP) system is described that addresses two unique challenges to improve the outcomes for peritoneal mesothelioma. First, following intraperitoneal administration, eNPs rapidly and specifically localize to tumors. The rate of eNP uptake by tumors is an order of magnitude faster than the rate of uptake in non-malignant cells; and, subsequent accumulation in autophagosomes and disruption of autophagosomal trafficking leads to prolonged intracellular retention of eNPs. The net effect of these combined mechanisms manifests as rapid localization to intraperitoneal tumors within 4 h of injection and persistent intratumoral retention for >14 days. Second, the high tumor-specificity of PTX-eNPs leads to delivery of greater than 100 times higher concentrations of drug in tumors compared to PTX alone and this is maintained for at least seven days following administration. As a result, overall survival of animals with established mesothelioma more than doubled when animals were treated with multiple doses of PTX-eNPs compared to equivalent dosing with PTX or non-responsive PTX-loaded nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Else, Tobias; Griffith, Kent A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Williams, Andrew; Miller, Barbra S.; Worden, Francis; Hammer, Gary D.; Jolly, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed

  16. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabolch, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Else, Tobias [Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Center for Cancer Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Williams, Andrew [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Miller, Barbra S. [Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of General Surgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Worden, Francis [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Hammer, Gary D. [Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Jolly, Shruti, E-mail: shrutij@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed.

  17. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G

    2004-07-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q{sub 95} and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q{sub 95} (>4.5) with {delta}W{sub ELM}/W{sub ped}<5% was demonstrated in high triangularity ({delta} {approx} 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high {delta} and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and

  18. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q 95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q 95 (>4.5) with ΔW ELM /W ped <5% was demonstrated in high triangularity (δ ∼ 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and modelling (JETTO) demonstrated that the edge

  19. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  20. Coyote removal, understory cover, and survival of white-tailed deer neonates: Coyote Control and Fawn Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service; Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service; Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Ray, H. Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River; New Ellenton, SC (United States); Shaw, Christopher E. [USDA Forest Service; Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Ruth, Charles [South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates has led to reduced recruitment in many deer populations in southeastern North America. This low recruitment combined with liberal antlerless deer harvest has resulted in declines in some deer populations, and consequently, increased interest in coyote population control. We investigated whether neonate survival increased after coyote removal, whether coyote predation on neonates was additive to other mortality sources, and whether understory vegetation density affected neonate survival. We monitored neonate survival for 4 years prior to (2006–2009) and 3 years during (2010–2012) intensive coyote removal on 3 32-km2 units on the United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina. We removed 474 coyotes (1.63 coyotes/km2 per unit per year), reducing coyote abundance by 78% from pre-removal levels. The best model (wi = 0.927) describing survival probability among 216 radio-collared neonates included a within-year quadratic time trend variable, date of birth, removal treatment, and a varying removal year effect. Under this model, survival differed between pre-treatment and removal periods and it differed among years during the removal period, being >100% greater than pre-treatment survival (0.228) during the first removal year (0.513), similar to pre-treatment survival during the second removal year (0.202), and intermediate during the third removal year (0.431). Despite an initial increase, the overall effect of coyote removal on neonate survival was modest. Mortality rate attributable to coyote predation was lowest during the first removal year (0.357) when survival was greatest, but the mortality rate from all other causes did not differ between the pretreatment period and any year during removals, indicating that coyote predation acted as an additive source of mortality. Survival probability was not related to

  1. Clinical Outcome in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors from the Primary Breast Cancer : Prognostic Factors in Local Treatment Failure and Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seung Won; Kwon, Do Hoon; Kim, Chang Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Brain metastases in primary breast cancer patients are considerable sources of morbidity and mortality. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has gained popularity as an up-front therapy in treating such metastases over traditional radiation therapy due to better neurocognitive function preservation. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic factors for local tumor control and survival in radiosurgery for brain metastases from primary breast cancer. Methods From March 2001 to Ma...

  2. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  3. IMRT for Sinonasal Tumors Minimizes Severe Late Ocular Toxicity and Preserves Disease Control and Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, Fréderic; Madani, Indira; Morbée, Lieve; Bonte, Katrien; Deron, Philippe; Domján, Vilmos; Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report late ocular (primary endpoint) and other toxicity, disease control, and survival (secondary endpoints) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2009, 130 patients with nonmetastatic sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT at Ghent University Hospital. Prescription doses were 70 Gy (n = 117) and 60–66 Gy (n = 13) at 2 Gy per fraction over 6–7 weeks. Most patients had adenocarcinoma (n = 82) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23). One hundred and one (101) patients were treated postoperatively. Of 17 patients with recurrent tumors, 9 were reirradiated. T-stages were T1–2 (n = 39), T3 (n = 21), T4a (n = 38), and T4b (n = 22). Esthesioneuroblastoma was staged as Kadish A, B, and C in 1, 3, and 6 cases, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 52, range 15–121 months. There was no radiation-induced blindness in 86 patients available for late toxicity assessment (≥6 month follow-up). We observed late Grade 3 tearing in 10 patients, which reduced to Grade 1–2 in 5 patients and Grade 3 visual impairment because of radiation-induced ipsilateral retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma in 1 patient. There was no severe dry eye syndrome. The worst grade of late ocular toxicity was Grade 3 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 31), Grade 1 (n = 33), and Grade 0 (n = 11). Brain necrosis and osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year local control and overall survival were 59% and 52%, respectively. On multivariate analysis local control was negatively affected by cribriform plate and brain invasion (p = 0.044 and 0.029, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.009); overall survival was negatively affected by cribriform plate and orbit invasion (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT for sinonasal tumors allowed delivering high doses to targets at minimized ocular toxicity, while maintaining disease control and

  4. IMRT for Sinonasal Tumors Minimizes Severe Late Ocular Toxicity and Preserves Disease Control and Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprez, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.duprez@ugent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Madani, Indira; Morbee, Lieve [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Bonte, Katrien; Deron, Philippe; Domjan, Vilmos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report late ocular (primary endpoint) and other toxicity, disease control, and survival (secondary endpoints) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2009, 130 patients with nonmetastatic sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT at Ghent University Hospital. Prescription doses were 70 Gy (n = 117) and 60-66 Gy (n = 13) at 2 Gy per fraction over 6-7 weeks. Most patients had adenocarcinoma (n = 82) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23). One hundred and one (101) patients were treated postoperatively. Of 17 patients with recurrent tumors, 9 were reirradiated. T-stages were T1-2 (n = 39), T3 (n = 21), T4a (n = 38), and T4b (n = 22). Esthesioneuroblastoma was staged as Kadish A, B, and C in 1, 3, and 6 cases, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 52, range 15-121 months. There was no radiation-induced blindness in 86 patients available for late toxicity assessment ({>=}6 month follow-up). We observed late Grade 3 tearing in 10 patients, which reduced to Grade 1-2 in 5 patients and Grade 3 visual impairment because of radiation-induced ipsilateral retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma in 1 patient. There was no severe dry eye syndrome. The worst grade of late ocular toxicity was Grade 3 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 31), Grade 1 (n = 33), and Grade 0 (n = 11). Brain necrosis and osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year local control and overall survival were 59% and 52%, respectively. On multivariate analysis local control was negatively affected by cribriform plate and brain invasion (p = 0.044 and 0.029, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.009); overall survival was negatively affected by cribriform plate and orbit invasion (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT for sinonasal tumors allowed delivering high doses to targets at minimized ocular toxicity, while maintaining disease control and survival

  5. Effect of time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1–2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals (1,650 mg/m2/day). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.

  6. Towards structural controllability of local-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shiwen; Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.

  7. Towards structural controllability of local-world networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shiwen, E-mail: sunsw80@126.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.

  8. Trastuzumab use during pregnancy: long-term survival after locally advanced breast cancer and long-term infant follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jurandyr M de; Brito, Luiz G O; Moises, Elaine C D; Amorim, Andréa C; Rapatoni, Liane; Carrara, Hélio H A; Tiezzi, Daniel G

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe the case of a patient diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer 8 years ago. Her treatment course was neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by mastectomy and then adjuvant radiotherapy and trastuzumab (TTZ). During the use of adjuvant targeted therapy, an incidental pregnancy was diagnosed. Four years later, she developed bone and cerebral metastases, and since then, she has received courses of TTZ, capecitabine, lapatinib, and radiotherapy with intermittent control of the disease. Her 7-year-old son presents a normal physical and long-term neurological developmental curve according to specialized evaluation. This case is unique for several reasons: the patient received the highest dose of TTZ yet described during pregnancy (4400 mg); there has been a long period of disease-free survival after treatment for locally advanced breast cancer and long overall survival despite successive disease progressions during the metastatic phase of the disease (97 months), and there was a monitored pediatric follow-up period (7 years).

  9. Survival After Conservative Management Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy in Elderly Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Oglio, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.delloglio@gmail.com [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Boehm, Katharina [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Trudeau, Vincent [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Tian, Zhe [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Larcher, Alessandro [Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Moschini, Marco; Capitanio, Umberto [Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Shariat, Shahrokh F. [Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital, Vienna (Austria); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To compare survival in elderly men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) according to treatment type, defined as radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus conservative management (observation). Methods and Materials: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database, we identified 23,790 patients aged 80 years or more with clinically localized PCa treated with either RT or observation between 1991 and 2009. Competing risks analyses focused on cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality, after accounting for confounders. All analyses were repeated after stratification according to grade (well-differentiated vs moderately differentiated vs poorly differentiated disease), race, and United States region, in patients with no comorbidities and in patients with at least 1 comorbidity. Analyses were repeated within most contemporary patients, namely those treated between 2001 and 2009. Results: Radiation therapy was associated with more favorable cancer-specific mortality rates than observation in patients with moderately differentiated disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.94; P=.009) and in patients with poorly differentiated disease (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.49-0.69; P<.001). Conversely, the benefit of RT was not observed in well-differentiated disease. The benefit of RT was confirmed in black men (HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.35-0.83; P=.004), across all United States regions (all P≤.004), in the subgroups of the healthiest patients (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.57-0.78; P<.001), in patients with at least 1 comorbidity (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.56-0.83; P<.001), and in most contemporary patients (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.46-0.66; P<.001). Conclusions: Radiation therapy seems to be associated with a reduction in the risk of death from PCa relative to observation in elderly patients with clinically localized PCa, except for those with well-differentiated disease.

  10. Survival After Conservative Management Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy in Elderly Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Boehm, Katharina; Trudeau, Vincent; Tian, Zhe; Larcher, Alessandro; Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi; Moschini, Marco; Capitanio, Umberto; Shariat, Shahrokh F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare survival in elderly men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) according to treatment type, defined as radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus conservative management (observation). Methods and Materials: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database, we identified 23,790 patients aged 80 years or more with clinically localized PCa treated with either RT or observation between 1991 and 2009. Competing risks analyses focused on cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality, after accounting for confounders. All analyses were repeated after stratification according to grade (well-differentiated vs moderately differentiated vs poorly differentiated disease), race, and United States region, in patients with no comorbidities and in patients with at least 1 comorbidity. Analyses were repeated within most contemporary patients, namely those treated between 2001 and 2009. Results: Radiation therapy was associated with more favorable cancer-specific mortality rates than observation in patients with moderately differentiated disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.94; P=.009) and in patients with poorly differentiated disease (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.49-0.69; P<.001). Conversely, the benefit of RT was not observed in well-differentiated disease. The benefit of RT was confirmed in black men (HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.35-0.83; P=.004), across all United States regions (all P≤.004), in the subgroups of the healthiest patients (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.57-0.78; P<.001), in patients with at least 1 comorbidity (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.56-0.83; P<.001), and in most contemporary patients (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.46-0.66; P<.001). Conclusions: Radiation therapy seems to be associated with a reduction in the risk of death from PCa relative to observation in elderly patients with clinically localized PCa, except for those with well-differentiated disease.

  11. Is sterilisation of the operating theatre, after radio-chemotherapy of locally advanced oesophageal cancers, predictive of a better local control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubiere, Amandine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose and objectives: To search if the pathological complete response (pCR) of the 102 patients treated at the University Hospital Center of Tours between 1990 and 2010 with concomitant radio-chemotherapy for an esophageal cancer is correlated to an increase of local control, with correct R0 resection and acceptable mortality rate. To analyze the Impact of histological tumor or nodal down-staging on the loco regional control and the disease free survival. Search if there are some predictive factors of pCR. Materials and methods: The combined preoperative treatment was based on an association of two cycles of 5FU R and cisplatin R with concomitant radiotherapy at the dose of 40 to 44 Gy. The survival curves of both recurrence free survival and disease free survival were calculated and then analyzed according to the histological response. Results: With a mean follow-up of 38 months, 70 patients were dead, 47 of their cancer. Thirty patients were still alive and 26 without recurrence. The postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were respectively of 53% and 27%. The median of survival was estimated to 27 months. Overall survival (p= 0.33), disease free survival (p= 0.14), were analysed with no statistical difference between our 3 groups (pCR, near pCR and other). However, there was an interest in doing the combined treatment for the responders (p R , Cisplatin R , and external beam radiotherapy at the dose of 40 to 44 Gy for the patients with a locally advanced esophageal cancer allow us to obtain the same results on survival, tolerance, morbidity and mortality rates than in the literature. The pCR seems to increase the local control and the disease free survival. Tumor or nodal down-staging is a major prognostic factor. (author)

  12. Combined modality treatment improves tumor control and overall survival in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed A; Brillant, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    as well as conference proceedings from January 1980 to February 2009 for randomized controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone versus the same chemotherapy regimen plus radiotherapy. Progression free survival and similar outcomes were analyzed together as tumor control. Effect measures used were......Combined modality treatment (CMT) of chemotherapy followed by localized radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, the role of radiotherapy has been questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication....... We thus performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma with respect to response rate, tumor control and overall survival (OS). We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library...

  13. Overall Survival of Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated with Nimotuzumab in the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumell, Yaimarelis; Sanchez, Lizet; González, Sandra; Ortiz, Ramón; Medina, Edadny; Galán, Yaima; Lage, Agustin

    2017-12-01

    Despite improvements in surgical techniques and treatments introduced into clinical practice, the overall survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma remains low. Several epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are being evaluated in the context of clinical trials, but there is little evidence of effectiveness in real-world conditions. This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of nimotuzumab combined with onco-specific treatment in Cuban real-life patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A comparative and retrospective effectiveness study was performed. The 93 patients treated with nimotuzumab were matched, with use of propensity score matching, with patients who received a diagnosis of locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in three Cuban provinces reported between 2011 and 2015 to the National Cancer Registry. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate event-time distributions. Log-rank statistics were used for comparisons of overall survival between groups. A two-component mixture model assuming a Weibull distribution was fitted to assess the effect of nimotuzumab on short-term and long-term survival populations. There was an increase in median overall survival in patients treated with nimotuzumab (11.9 months versus 6.5 months without treatment) and an increase in the 1-year survival rate (54.0% versus 21.9% without treatment). The 2-year survival rates were 21.1% for patients treated with nimotuzumab and 0% in the untreated cohort. There were statistically significant differences in survival between groups treated and not treated with nimotuzumab, both in the short-term survival population (6.0 months vs 4.0 months, p = 0.009) and in the long-term survival population (18.0 months vs 11.0 months, p = 0.001). Our study shows that nimotuzumab treatment concurrent with chemoradiotherapy increases the survival of real-world patients with locally advanced

  14. Degradation and Local Survival of Permafrost Through the Last Interglaciation in Interior Alaska and Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A. V.; Froese, D. G.; Jensen, B. J.

    2006-12-01

    interglaciation is present at Ch'ijee's Bluff in northern Yukon Territory. At multiple sites along the bluff, OCt underlies a 10-20 cm thick organic-rich silt horizon that grades laterally into wedge-shaped accumulations of deformed organic-rich silt and woody debris, including large stumps and tree stems. These wedge-shaped accumulations consistently truncate OCt and represent melting and subsequent infilling of ice wedge networks. The exposures at these three sites, separated by nearly 1000 km, illustrate the variable response of permafrost to climate warming during the last interglaciation that probably reflects the importance of local site factors (ie. aspect, slope, vegetation cover) in determining the extent of permafrost degradation. Significantly, relict ice below OCt indicates that permafrost survived peak warmth of the last interglaciation at Thistle Creek, despite the dramatic melting suggested by the steeply dipping thaw unconformity. It is commonly assumed that permafrost disappeared from interior Alaska during the last interglaciation and that peak warmth was likely 3°C higher than present, based on the apparent absence of massive ice bodies underlying OCt in the Fairbanks region. Our observations suggest that reports of the death of permafrost in interior Alaska and Yukon during the last interglaciation may be greatly exaggerated, and that deep permafrost is likely to persist in the discontinuous permafrost zone, at least locally, despite future global warming.

  15. Upgrading the Fermilab Linac local control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, E.S.; Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1991-02-01

    A new control system for the Fermilab Linac is being designed, built and implemented. First, the nine-year-old linac control system is being replaced. Second, a control system for the new 805 MHz part of the linac is being built. The two systems are essentially identical, so that when the installations are complete, we will still have a single Linac Control System. 8 refs., 5 figs

  16. Impact of Blood Transfusions on Survival of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Radical Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Indini, Alice; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Transfusions represent one of the main progresses of modern medicine. However, accumulating evidence supports that transfusions correlate with worse survival outcomes in patients affected by solid cancers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of perioperative blood transfusion in locally advanced cervical cancer. Data of consecutive patients affected by locally advanced cervical cancer scheduled to undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical surgery were retrospectively searched to test the impact of perioperative transfusions on survival outcomes. Five-year survival outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. The study included 275 patients. Overall, 170 (62%) patients had blood transfusion. Via univariate analysis, we observed that transfusion correlated with an increased risk of developing recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-4.40; P = 0.02). Other factors associated with 5-year disease-free survival were noncomplete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 2.99; 95% CI, 0.92-9.63; P = 0.06) and pathological (P = 0.03) response at neoadjuvant chemotherapy as well as parametrial (P = 0.004), vaginal (P < 0.001), and lymph node (P = 0.002) involvements. However, via multivariate analysis, only vaginal (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.20-7.85; P = 0.01) and lymph node involvements (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.00-6.06; P = 0.05) correlate with worse disease-free survival. No association with worse outcomes was observed for patients undergoing blood transfusion (HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 0.91-8.03; P = 0.07). Looking at factors influencing overall survival, we observed that lymph node status (P = 0.01) and vaginal involvement (P = 0.06) were independently associated with survival. The role of blood transfusions in increasing the risk of developing recurrence in LAAC patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical surgery remains unclear; further prospective studies are warranted.

  17. Hearing aid controlled by binaural source localizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive directional hearing aid system comprising a left hearing aid and a right hearing aid, wherein a binaural acoustic source localizer is located in the left hearing aid or in the right hearing aid or in a separate body- worn device connected wirelessly to the left hearing aid and the right

  18. Deciding the Fate of Local Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental job of school board members is to view themselves as moral and cultural leaders and to transform the needs of groups to a higher and more noble framework. Lists the National School Boards Association's statement on the governance role of the local school board. (MLF)

  19. Electrochemotherapy increases local control after incomplete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... horse with electrochemotherapy (ECT) using cisplatin as chemotherapy agent. Two sessions of ECT were performed at two-week intervals using local cisplatin followed by trains of biphasic electric pulses applied using different electrodes until complete coverage of the area was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated ...

  20. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brainstem metastases: Survival, tumor control, and patient outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Aamir; Brown, Paul D.; Stafford, Scott L.; Pollock, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with brainstem metastases have limited treatment options. In this study, we reviewed outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of patients with brainstem metastases. Methods and Materials: Records were reviewed of 22 consecutive patients presenting with brainstem metastases who underwent SRS. The most frequent primary malignancy was the lung (n = 11), followed by breast (n = 3) and kidney (n = 2). Three patients (14%) also underwent whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The median tumor volume was 0.9 mL (range, 0.1-3.3 mL); the median tumor margin dose was 16 Gy (range, 14-23 Gy). Results: Median survival time after SRS was 8.5 months. Although local tumor control was achieved in all patients with imaging follow-up (n = 19), 5 patients died from development and progression of new brain metastases. Two patients (9%) had symptom improvement after SRS, whereas 1 patient (5%) developed a new hemiparesis after SRS. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is safe and provides a high local tumor control rate for patients with small brainstem metastases. Patients with limited systemic disease and good performance status should be strongly considered for SRS

  1. Impact of radiation dose and standardized uptake value of (18)FDG PET on nodal control in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Kroon, Petra S; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite local control now exceeding 90% with image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT), regional and distant metastases continue to curb survival in locally advanced cervical cancer. As regional lymph nodes often represent first site of metastatic spread, improved nodal control could...... improve survival. The aim of this study was to examine optimal volume and dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to maximize regional control including dose contribution from IGABT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 139 patients from the EMBRACE study were analyzed. Individual nodal dose was determined...

  2. Apc1 is required for maintenance of local brain organizers and dorsal midbrain survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridaen, Judith T M L; Danesin, Catherine; Elas, Abu Tufayal; van de Water, Sandra; Houart, Corinne; Zivkovic, Danica

    2009-07-15

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which is vital for induction and patterning of the early vertebrate brain. However, its role in later brain development is less clear. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying effects of an Apc1 zygotic-effect mutation on late brain development in zebrafish. Apc1 is required for maintenance of established brain subdivisions and control of local organizers such as the isthmic organizer (IsO). Caudal expansion of Fgf8 from IsO into the cerebellum is accompanied by hyperproliferation and abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis. Loss of apc1 results in reduced proliferation and apoptosis in the dorsal midbrain. Mosaic analysis shows that Apc is required cell-autonomously for maintenance of dorsal midbrain cell fate. The tectal phenotype occurs independently of Fgf8-mediated IsO function and is predominantly caused by stabilization of beta-catenin and subsequent hyperactivation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, which is mainly mediated through LEF1 activity. Chemical activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin in wild-type embryos during late brain maintenance stages phenocopies the IsO and tectal phenotypes of the apc mutants. These data demonstrate that Apc1-mediated restriction of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is required for maintenance of local organizers and tectal integrity.

  3. Radiotherapy of the chest wall following mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer: impact on local recurrence and overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janni, Wolfgang; Dimpfl, Thomas; Braun, Stephan; Knobbe, Angelika; Peschers, Ursula; Rjosk, Dorothea; Lampe, Bjoern; Genz, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies have renewed an old controversy about the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy for breast cancer. Radiotherapy is usually recommended for advanced disease, but whether or not to use it in pT1-T2 pN0 situations is still being debated. This study was designed to clarify whether or not routine radiotherapy of the chest wall following mastectomy reduces the risk of local recurrence and if it influences the overall survival rate. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients treated with mastectomy for pT1-T2 pN0 tumors and no systemic treatment. Patients treated with radiotherapy of the chest wall following mastectomy (Group A) are compared with those treated with mastectomy alone (Group B). Results: A total of 918 patients underwent mastectomy. Patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy after mastectomy (n = 114) had a significantly lower risk for local recurrence. Ten years after the primary diagnosis, 98.1% of the patients with radiotherapy were disease free compared to 86.4% of the patients without radiotherapy. The average time interval from primary diagnosis until local recurrence was 8.9 years in Group A and 2.8 years in Group B. The Cox regression analysis including radiotherapy, tumor size and tumor grading found the highest risk for local recurrence for patients without radiotherapy (p < 0.0004). In terms of overall survival however, the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no difference between the two groups (p = 0.8787) and the Cox regression analysis failed to show any impact on overall survival. Conclusion: With observation spanning over 35 years, this study shows that adjuvant radiotherapy of the chest wall following mastectomy reduces the risk for local recurrence in node-negative patients with pT1-T2 tumors but has no impact on the overall survival rate

  4. Survival of egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine cells during reproductive senescence of a mollusc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, C.

    2004-01-01

    During brain aging neuronal degradation occurs. In some neurons this may result in degeneration and cell death, still other neurons may survive and maintain their basic properties. The present study deals with survival of the egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine caudodorsal cells (CDCs) during

  5. Enhancing the Situational Awareness of Airfield Local Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mowery, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    .... In air traffic control operations, situational awareness of a local controller at an airfield such as Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton, California, is critical to prevention of catastrophic...

  6. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  7. Topography printing to locally control wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zijian; Azzaroni, Omar; Zhou, Feng; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2006-06-21

    This paper reports a new patterning method, which utilizes NaOH to facilitate the irreversible binding between the PDMS stamp and substrates and subsequent cohesive mechanical failure to transfer the PDMS patterns. Our method shows high substrate tolerance and can be used to "print" various PDMS geometries on a wide range of surfaces, including Si100, glass, gold, polymers, and patterned SU8 photoresist. Using this technique, we are able to locally change the wettability of substrate surfaces by printing well-defined PDMS architectures on the patterned SU8 photoresist. It is possible to generate differential wetting and dewetting properties in microchannels and in the PDMS printed area, respectively.

  8. Towards probabilistic synchronisation of local controllers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herzallah, R.; Kárný, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2017), s. 604-615 ISSN 0020-7721 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : cooperative control * optimal control * complex system s * stochastic system s * fully probabilistic desing Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.285, year: 2016

  9. Survival Strategies and Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifekwem Nkiruka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in the sustainable development of countries. They help in employment generation, industrial production increase, and export, social enrichment as well as political stability. This study investigates the survival strategies and sustainability of SMEs using selected small businesses in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area, Lagos State. It examines the type of growth strategies that SMEs adopt, ascertains what influences their survival strategies as well as the challenges that hinder their growth. Fifty (50 SMEs were randomly sampled. Their owners and managers were interviewed using questionnaires. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient statistics. Our findings reveal that there is a statistically significant relationship between survival strategies and SMEs’ sustainability. The major implication of the findings is that maintaining small but committed and motivated employees is critical in guaranteeing the survival of the SMEs in a volatile economy. The study recommends that there be a need for orientation and educational programmes to change the mindset of business owners to enable them to graduate from sole atomistic proprietor devoid of modern scientific business practice and effective succession to corporate status with an apparatus of modern business management practices and corporate vision. Finally, the study further suggests some imperatives for policy makers concerned with promoting small businesses’ growth and sustainability in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

  10. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Counsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Kamiya, K.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Loennroth, J.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focussing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. Present experiment and theory pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q 95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area and conductive energy losses in Type I ELMs. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type II, Grassy, QH, Type III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ ) and their relevance for ITER are reviewed. Recent studies of active control of ELMs using stochastic boundaries, small pellets and edge current generation are presented

  11. Electro-statically controllable graphene local heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Shan; Deng, Lian-Wen; Li, Lei; Sun, Qiu-Juan; Xie, Hong; Wang, Hao-Min

    2018-03-01

    We report on current-induced thermal power investigation of graphene nanostructure for potential local-heating applications. It is found that the efficiency of heating can be greatly improved if graphene is patterned into structures with narrow width and long channel. In a narrow graphene-ribbon, the Joule heating power exhibits an obvious dependence on the back-gate voltage. By monitoring Raman spectra, the temperature of graphene-ribbon can be determined. The temperature of graphene-ribbon is modulated by the electric field effect when the sample is sourced with a relatively high current. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFF0206106), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB04040300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51772317), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 16ZR1442700).

  12. Habitat edges have weak effects on duck nest survival at local spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquel, Amelia J; Ringelman, Kevin M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Edge effects on nesting success have been documented in breeding birds in a variety of contexts, but there is still uncertainty in how edge type and spatial scale determine the magnitude and detectability of edge effects. Habitat edges are often viewed as predator corridors that surround or penetrate core habitat and increase the risk of predation for nearby nests. We studied the effects of three different types of potential predator corridors (main perimeter roads, field boundaries, and ATV trails within fields) on waterfowl nest survival in California. We measured the distance from duck nests to the nearest edge of each type, and used distance as a covariate in a logistic exposure analysis of nest survival. We found only weak evidence for edge effects due to predation. The best supported model of nest survival included all three distance categories, and while all coefficient estimates were positive (indicating that survival increased with distance from edge), 85% coefficient confidence intervals approached or bounded zero indicating an overall weak effect of habitat edges on nest success. We suggest that given the configuration of edges at our site, there may be few areas far enough from hard edges to be considered ‘core’ habitat, making edge effects on nest survival particularly difficult to detect.

  13. Ovulation rate and early embryonic survival rate in female rabbits of a synthetic line and a local Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Belabbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A higher litter size at birth has been reported in female rabbits from a Synthetic line than in those of the Local Algerian population. The aim of this work was to analyse whether this difference in litter size was due to a higher ovulation rate and/or embryonic survival rate in Synthetic line than in Local Algerian population. In total, 24 multiparous female rabbits from Synthetic line and 23 from Local population were used in this experiment. Litter size at birth was recorded up to the first 3 parities. Litter size was 20% higher in Synthetic line than Local population. At their 4th gestation, the females were euthanized at 72 h post coitum. Synthetic line females had 50% more ova and embryos than those of Local population (+4.42 ova and +3.92 embryos, respectively. Synthetic line displayed a lower percentage of normal embryos and a larger number of unfertilized oocytes than Local population (–2.81% and +0.64 oocytes, respectively, but differences were not relevant. Synthetic line showed a lesser embryonic stage of development at 72 h post coitum, showing a higher percentage of early morulae (31.50 vs. 8.50% and a lower percentage of compact morulae (51.45 vs. 78.65% than Local population. No relevant difference was found for early embryonic survival rate between Synthetic line and Local population. In conclusion, the difference in litter size was mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in the Synthetic line, allowing more embryos to develop in this line.

  14. Survival benefit of early androgen receptor inhibitor therapy in locally advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of endocrine therapy in non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is still an issue of debate. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial comparing bicalutamide 150mg once daily with placebo in addition to standard care in patients with hormone-naïve, non......-metastatic PCa. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was performed to analyse time-to-event (death). FINDINGS: A total of 1218 patients were included into the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG)-6 study of which 607 were randomised...... disease (hazard ratios (HR)=0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-0.94, p=0.01), regardless of baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), with a survival benefit which was apparent throughout the study period. In contrast, survival favoured randomisation to the placebo arm in patients with localised...

  15. Globalization and Localization of the Management Control System package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Through an empirical case study, this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems – cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... the organization and others have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls and reward and compensation controls are glocal systems. The finding leads to the conclusion...... controls – through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. Based on a single-case study, the analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, some of which are universal throughout...

  16. Radiotherapy in supraglottic carcinoma -with respect to locoregional control and survival-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Taek Keun; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Chung, Woong Ki; Cho, Jae Shik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nah, Byung Sik

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the role of conventional radiotherapy with or without surgery for treating a supraglottic carcinoma in terms of the local control and survival. From Jan. 1986 to Oct. 1996, a total of 134 patients were treated for a supraglottic carcinoma by radiotherapy with or without surgery. Of them, 117 patients who had completed the radiotherapy formed the base of this study. The patients were redistributed according to the revised AJCC staging system (1997). The number of patients of stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB were 6 (5%), 16 (14%), 53 (45%), 32 (27%), 10 (9%), respectively. Eighty patients were treated by radical radiotherapy in the range of 61.2 ∼ 79.2 Gy (mean:69.2 Gy) to the primary tumor and 45.0 ∼ 93.6 Gy (mean:54.0 Gy) to regional lymphatics. All patients with stage I and IVB were treated by radiotherapy alone. Thirty-seven patients underwent surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy in the range of 45.0 ∼ 68.4 Gy (mean:56.1 Gy) to the primary tumor bed and 45.0 ∼ 59.4 Gy (mean:47.2 Gy) to the regional lymphatics. Of them, 33 patients received a total laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), three had a supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), and one had a primary excision alone. The 5-year survival rate (5YSR) of all patients was 43%. The 5YSR of the patients with stage I + II, III + IV were 49.9%, 41.2%, respectively (ρ = 0.27). However, the disease-specific survival rate of the patients with stage I (n=6) was 100%. The 5YSRs of patients who underwent surgery plus radiotherapy (S + RT) vs radiotherapy alone (RT) in stage II, III, IVA were 100% vs 43% (ρ = 0.17), 62% vs 52% (ρ =0.32), 58% vs 6% (ρ < 0.001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate (5YLCR) of all the patients was 57%. The 5YLCR of the patients with stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB was 100%, 74%, 60%, 44%, 30%, respectively (ρ = 0.008). The 5YLCR of the patients with S + RT vs RT in stage II, III, IVA

  17. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  18. Enabling Controlling Complex Networks with Local Topological Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xiao, Gaoxi; Tang, Pei; Wen, Changyun; Hu, Wuhua; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping; Stanley, H Eugene

    2018-03-15

    Complex networks characterize the nature of internal/external interactions in real-world systems including social, economic, biological, ecological, and technological networks. Two issues keep as obstacles to fulfilling control of large-scale networks: structural controllability which describes the ability to guide a dynamical system from any initial state to any desired final state in finite time, with a suitable choice of inputs; and optimal control, which is a typical control approach to minimize the cost for driving the network to a predefined state with a given number of control inputs. For large complex networks without global information of network topology, both problems remain essentially open. Here we combine graph theory and control theory for tackling the two problems in one go, using only local network topology information. For the structural controllability problem, a distributed local-game matching method is proposed, where every node plays a simple Bayesian game with local information and local interactions with adjacent nodes, ensuring a suboptimal solution at a linear complexity. Starring from any structural controllability solution, a minimizing longest control path method can efficiently reach a good solution for the optimal control in large networks. Our results provide solutions for distributed complex network control and demonstrate a way to link the structural controllability and optimal control together.

  19. Pregnancy associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A retrospective case-control analysis of maternal survival outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi-Kan; Zhang, Fan; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Kang, Tie-Bang; Jia, Wei-Hua; Shao, Jian-Yong; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Guo, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (PANPC) has been associated with poor survival. Recent advances in radiation technology and imaging techniques, and the introduction of chemotherapy have improved survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not clear whether these changes have improved survival in PANPC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare five-year maternal survival in patients with PANPC and non-pregnant patients with NPC. Methods: After adjusting for age, stage and chemotherapy mode, we conducted a retrospective case-control study among 36 non-metastatic PANPC patients and 36 non-pregnant NPC patients (control group) who were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Results: The median age of both groups was 30 years (range, 23–35 years); median follow-up for all patients was 70 months. Locoregionally-advanced disease accounted for 83.3% of all patients with PANPC and 92.9% of patients who developed NPC during pregnancy. In both the PANPC and control groups, 31 patients (86.1%) received chemotherapy and all patients received definitive radiotherapy. The five-year rates for overall survival (70% vs. 78%, p = 0.72), distant metastasis-free survival (79% vs. 76%, p = 0.77), loco-regional relapse-free survival (97% vs. 91%, p = 0.69) and disease-free survival (69% vs. 74%, p = 0.98) were not significantly different between the PANPC and control groups. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed that only N-classification was significantly associated with five-year OS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, in the modern treatment era, pregnancy itself may not negatively influence survival outcomes in patients with NPC; however, pregnancy may delay the diagnosis of NPC

  20. Local Recurrence After Complete Clinical Response and Watch and Wait in Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Impact of Salvage Therapy on Local Disease Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habr-Gama, Angelita; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; São Julião, Guilherme P.; Proscurshim, Igor; Sabbagh, Charles; Lynn, Patricio B.; Perez, Rodrigo O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results: 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation

  1. Local Recurrence After Complete Clinical Response and Watch and Wait in Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Impact of Salvage Therapy on Local Disease Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habr-Gama, Angelita, E-mail: gamange@uol.com.br [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); São Julião, Guilherme P. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Colorectal Surgery Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); Proscurshim, Igor; Sabbagh, Charles; Lynn, Patricio B. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Perez, Rodrigo O. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, São Paulo Branch (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results: 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation.

  2. Error Control in Distributed Node Self-Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Location information of nodes in an ad hoc sensor network is essential to many tasks such as routing, cooperative sensing, and service delivery. Distributed node self-localization is lightweight and requires little communication overhead, but often suffers from the adverse effects of error propagation. Unlike other localization papers which focus on designing elaborate localization algorithms, this paper takes a different perspective, focusing on the error propagation problem, addressing questions such as where localization error comes from and how it propagates from node to node. To prevent error from propagating and accumulating, we develop an error-control mechanism based on characterization of node uncertainties and discrimination between neighboring nodes. The error-control mechanism uses only local knowledge and is fully decentralized. Simulation results have shown that the active selection strategy significantly mitigates the effect of error propagation for both range and directional sensors. It greatly improves localization accuracy and robustness.

  3. The survival analysis on localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy followed by intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hong; Li Gaofeng; Wu Qinhong; Li Xuenan; Zhong Qiuzi; Xu Yonggang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively investigate clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy followed by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Between March 2003 and October 2008, 54 localized prostate cancer treated by IMRT were recruited. All patients had received endocrine therapy before IMRT. The endocrine therapy included surgical castration or medical castration in combination with antiandrogens. The target of IMRT was the prostate and seminal vesicles with or without pelvis. The biochemical failure was defined according to the phoenix definition. By using the risk grouping standard proposed by D'Amico, patients were divided into three groups: low-risk group (n = 5), intermediate-risk group (n = 12), and high-risk group (n = 37). Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the overall survival rate. Prognostic factors were analyzed by univariate and multiple Cox regression analysis. Results: The follow-up rate was 98%. The number of patients under follow-up was 39 at 3 years and 25 at 5 years. Potential prognostic factors, including risk groups, mode of endocrine therapy, time of endocrine therapy, phoenix grouping before IMRT, the prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) before radiotherapy, PSA value before IMRT, interval of endocrine therapy and IMRT, irradiation region, and irradiation dose were analyzed by survival analysis. In univariate analysis, time of endocrine therapy (75 % vs 95 %, χ 2 = 6. 45, P = 0. 011), phoenix grouping before IMRT (87% vs 96%, χ 2 = 4. 36, P = 0. 037), interval of endocrine therapy and IMRT (80% vs 95%, χ 2 = 11.60, P= 0. 001), irradiation dose (75% vs 91%, χ 2 =5.92, P= 0. 015) were statistically significant prognostic factors for 3 - year overall survival , and risk groups (85 vs 53 vs 29, χ 2 = 6. 40, P =0. 041) and PSADT before IMRT (62 vs 120, U =24. 50, P =0. 003) were significant factors for the median survival time. In the multiple Cox

  4. QUESTION OF IMPROVEMENT OF BUDGET CONTROL AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Vatslavskyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyse the current practice of budgetary control to develop its areas of improvement at the local level. The subject of the research is theoretical and methodological principles of functioning of budgetary control at the local level. The methodological basis of the study comprises research approaches, general theoretical principles of scientific knowledge, system of methods and techniques. The paper clarifies the nature of budgetary control at the local level. The main bodies that implement budget control, namely the State Audit Office, the Accounting Chamber, the State Treasury, the State Fiscal Service, financial and management departments are singled out. It is found that the leading part among all of the special budgetary control bodies in the rational and efficient use of local financial resources is performed by the State Audit Office. Analysis of the State Audit Office in three regions of Ukraine for the period 2013-2015 has been carried out. We distinguish two main types of violations that the State Audit Service reveals during its work at the local level: 1 shortfall in the financial resources of public enterprises, institutions and organizations; 2 violations that lead to illegal, non-target costs and shortages. It is proved that the efficiency of budgetary control is low. The paper states basic problems of budget control at the local level, namely, low income funds and reimbursements from violations revealed by regulatory agencies; insufficient work with the public to explain the problems of budget control and eliminate violations in the public sector; lack of a consolidated legal act, which would have regulated all the major components of budgetary control; insufficient use of controlling and auditing methods aimed at determining the effectiveness of budget funds; low preventive function on the part of budget control bodies. We offer ways to improve budget control at the local level through: standardization system of

  5. Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Mehta, Vivek; Blough, David; Tock, Lauri; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

  6. A mobile console for local access to accelerator control systems.

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors were installed as auxiliary crate controllers (ACCs) in the CAMAC interface of control systems for various accelerators. The same ACC was also at the hearth of a stand-alone system in the form of a mobile console. This was also used for local access to the control systems for tests and development work (Annual Report 1981, p. 80, Fig. 10).

  7. Local hierarchical control for industrial microgrids with improved frequency regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey, Juan M.; Vergara, Pedro P.; Castilla, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Local control strategies that operate without relying on communication systems enhance flexibility and reliability of AC industrial microgrids. Based on a previous work in which a secondary switched control was proposed, this paper presents a complementary strategy to improve the frequency......-use of communications. Experimental results obtained on a laboratory microgrid are presented to validate the performance of the proposed complementary control strategy....

  8. Should Aggressive Surgical Local Control Be Attempted in All Patients with Metastatic or Pelvic Ewing's Sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Steven W.; Weiss, Kurt R.; Goodman, Mark A.; Heyl, Alma E.; McGough, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In previous reports, patients with Ewing's sarcoma received radiation therapy (XRT) for definitive local control because metastatic disease and pelvic location were thought to preclude aggressive local treatment. We sought to determine if single-site metastatic disease should be treated differently from multicentric-metastatic disease. We also wanted to reinvestigate the impact of XRT, pelvic location, and local recurrence on outcomes. Our results demonstrated a significant difference in overall survival (OS) between patients with either localized disease or a single-metastatic site and patients with multicentric-metastatic disease (P = 0.004). Local control was also found to be an independent predictor of outcomes as demonstrated by a significant difference in OS between those with and without local recurrence (P = 0.001). Axial and pelvic location did not predict a decreased OS. Based on these results, we concluded that pelvic location and the diagnosis of metastatic disease at diagnosis should not preclude aggressive local control, except in cases of multicentric-metastatic disease. PMID:22550427

  9. Transition from LDR to HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Evaluation of tumor control, survival, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, K D; Pugh, K J; Trifiletti, D M; Libby, B; Showalter, T N

    In 2012, our institution transitioned from low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. We report clinical outcomes after brachytherapy for cervical cancer at our institution over a continuous 10-year period. From 2004 to 2014, 258 women (184 LDR and 74 HDR) were treated with tandem and ovoid brachytherapy in the multidisciplinary management of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stages IA-IVB cervical cancer. Clinical and treatment-related prognostic factors including age, stage, smoking status, relevant doses, and toxicity data were recorded. Median followup for the LDR and HDR groups was 46 months and 12 months, respectively. The majority of patients (92%) received external beam radiotherapy as well as concurrent chemotherapy (83%) before the start of brachytherapy. For all stages, the 1-year local control and overall survival (OS) rates were comparable between the LDR and HDR groups (87% vs. 81%, p = 0.12; and 75% vs. 85%, p = 0.16), respectively. Factors associated with OS on multivariate analysis include age, stage, and nodal involvement. On multivariate analysis, severe toxicity (acute or chronic) was higher with HDR than LDR (24% vs. 10%, p = 0.04). Additional prognostic factors associated with increased severe toxicity include former/current smokers and total dose to lymph nodes. This comparative retrospective analysis of a large cohort of women treated with brachytherapy demonstrates no significant difference in OS or local control between the LDR and HDR. Acute and chronic toxicity increased shortly after the implementation of HDR, highlighting the importance of continued refinement of HDR methods, including integrating advanced imaging. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blockage-induced condensation controlled by a local reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Colangeli, Matteo; Muntean, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    We consider the setup of stationary zero range models and discuss the onset of condensation induced by a local blockage on the lattice. We show that the introduction of a local feedback on the hopping rates allows us to control the particle fraction in the condensed phase. This phenomenon results in a current versus blockage parameter curve characterized by two nonanalyticity points.

  11. STAR-TYPE LOCAL AREA NETWORK ACCESS CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯昭义; 齐藤忠夫

    1990-01-01

    The multiple access fashion is a new resolution for the star-type local area network (LAN) access control and star-type optical fibre LAN. Arguments about this network are discussed, and the results are introduced.

  12. Traditional methods of social control in Afikpo north local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional methods of social control in Afikpo north local government area, Ebonyi state south eastern Nigeria. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... simple percentage was used in presenting and interpreting the quantitative data.

  13. Detritus Quality and Locality Determines Survival and Mass, but Not Export, of Wood Frogs at Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Milanovich

    Full Text Available Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts. We used aquatic mesocosms to raise wood frogs (Rana sylvatica from two regions of the United States with whole plants from purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria, leaf litter from native hardwood trees, and a mixture of both. We examined several metrics of amphibian fitness and life history, including survival, number of days to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. Further, we quantified whether the effects of detritus type could translate to variation in anuran biomass or standing stock of nitrogen or phosphorus export. Our results show detritus with high nutrient quality (purple loosestrife negatively influenced survival of wood frogs, but increased size of metamorphic individuals in two different regions of the United States. Despite the decrease in survival, the increase in size of post-metamorphic anurans raised with high quality detritus resulted in anuran biomass and standing stock of N and P export being similar across treatments at both locations. These results further demonstrate the role of plant quality in shaping wetland ecosystem dynamics, and represent the first demonstration that effects are consistent within species across ecoregional boundaries.

  14. Focal Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation Improves Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidative Chemoradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Sunil, E-mail: skrishnan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chadha, Awalpreet S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chen, Hsiang-Chun [Department of Biostatistics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Sawakuchi, Gabriel O. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: To review outcomes of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with dose-escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A total of 200 patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation between 2006 and 2014. Of these, 47 (24%) having tumors >1 cm from the luminal organs were selected for dose-escalated IMRT (biologically effective dose [BED] >70 Gy) using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, inspiration breath hold, and computed tomographic image guidance. Fractionation was optimized for coverage of gross tumor and luminal organ sparing. A 2- to 5-mm margin around the gross tumor volume was treated using a simultaneous integrated boost with a microscopic dose. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), local-regional and distant RFS, and time to local-regional and distant recurrence, calculated from start of chemoradiation, were the outcomes of interest. Results: Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (BED = 59.47 Gy) with a concurrent capecitabine-based (86%) regimen. Patients who received BED >70 Gy had a superior OS (17.8 vs 15.0 months, P=.03), which was preserved throughout the follow-up period, with estimated OS rates at 2 years of 36% versus 19% and at 3 years of 31% versus 9% along with improved local-regional RFS (10.2 vs 6.2 months, P=.05) as compared with those receiving BED ≤70 Gy. Degree of gross tumor volume coverage did not seem to affect outcomes. No additional toxicity was observed in the high-dose group. Higher dose (BED) was the only predictor of improved OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Radiation dose escalation during consolidative chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy for LAPC patients improves OS and local-regional RFS.

  15. Preoperative radiation with concurrent chemotherapy for resectable rectal cancer: Effect of dose escalation on pathologic complete response, local recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Ward, Iain G.; Swallow, Carol; Oza, Amit M.; Cummings, Bernard; Pond, Gregory R.; Catton, Pamela; Kim, John; Ringash, Jolie; Wong, Chong S.; Wong, Rebecca; Siu, Lillian L.; Moore, Malcolm; Brierley, James

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Three Phase II studies of preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent 5FU chemotherapy were undertaken. The primary endpoints were acute toxicity and pathologic complete response rate (pCR). Secondary endpoints were local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: A total of 134 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum (clinical T3/T4 or N1/N2) were treated. The initial cohort received 40 Gy in 20 fractions, the second 46 Gy in 23 fractions, and the third 50 Gy in 25 fractions. 5FU (225 mg/m 2 /day) was given continuously throughout radiotherapy. A total of 121 patients underwent surgical resection. Results: Treatment was well tolerated. Grade 3/4 acute toxicity was observed in 13%, 4%, and 14% of patients in the 40 Gy, 46 Gy, and 50 Gy cohorts, respectively (p = 0.20). pCR was documented in 15%, 23%, and 33% of patients, respectively (p = 0.07). The 2-year actuarial LRFS was 72%, 90%, and 89% (p = 0.02); DFS was 62%, 84%, and 78% (p = 0.02); and OS was 72%, 94%, and 92%, respectively (p = 0.03). Conclusions: All treatment schedules were well tolerated. There was a trend toward increased pCR with higher doses. A statistically significant increase in LRFS, DFS, and OS was seen with radiation doses of 46 Gy and greater, but there was no difference between 46 Gy and 50 Gy

  16. Local linear density estimation for filtered survival data, with bias correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Perch; Tanggaard, Carsten; Jones, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    it comes to exposure robustness, and a simple alternative weighting is to be preferred. Indeed, this weighting has, effectively, to be well chosen in a 'pilot' estimator of the survival function as well as in the main estimator itself. We also investigate multiplicative and additive bias-correction methods...... within our framework. The multiplicative bias-correction method proves to be the best in a simulation study comparing the performance of the considered estimators. An example concerning old-age mortality demonstrates the importance of the improvements provided....

  17. Local Linear Density Estimation for Filtered Survival Data with Bias Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Carsten; Nielsen, Jens Perch; Jones, M.C.

    it comes to exposure robustness, and a simple alternative weighting is to be preferred. Indeed, this weighting has, effectively, to be well chosen in a ‘pilot' estimator of the survival function as well as in the main estimator itself. We also investigate multiplicative and additive bias correction methods...... within our framework. The multiplicative bias correction method proves to be best in a simulation study comparing the performance of the considered estimators. An example concerning old age mortality demonstrates the importance of the improvements provided....

  18. Local control of Ewing's sarcoma: an analysis of 67 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.P.; Fixsen, J.A.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Local control of Ewing's sarcoma was analysed in a series of 67 patients treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy as well as combination chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was employed with or without surgery in 60 patients and produced an overall local control rate of 55%; complete excision of the primary lesion seemed to be beneficial. There was a marked variation in control rates depending on the site of the primary lesion: limb 85%, rib 53%, pelvis 31% and other sites 33%.Primary tumours greater than 10 cm in diameter were significantly less likely to be controlled. Using daily fractions of approximately 180 cGy, total doses in excess of 6000 cGy seem more likely to produce serious late morbidity amd may not increase the local control rate. No cases of second malignancy arising in irradiated tissue have been observed to date, but one patient developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (author)

  19. Race and Survival Following Brachytherapy-Based Treatment for Men With Localized or Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkfield, Karen M.; Chen Minghui; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Salenius, Sharon A.; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D’Amico, Anthony V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether race was associated with risk of death following brachytherapy-based treatment for localized prostate cancer, adjusting for age, cardiovascular comorbidity, treatment, and established prostate cancer prognostic factors. Methods: The study cohort was composed of 5,360 men with clinical stage T1-3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent brachytherapy-based treatment at 20 centers within the 21st Century Oncology consortium. Cox regression multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the risk of death in African-American and Hispanic men compared to that in Caucasian men, adjusting for age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, clinical T stage, year and type of treatment, median income, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Results: After a median follow-up of 3 years, there were 673 deaths. African-American and Hispanic races were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77 and 1.79; 95% confidence intervals, 1.3–2.5 and 1.2–2.7; p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Other factors significantly associated with an increased risk of death included age (p < 0.001), Gleason score of 8 to 10 (p = 0.04), year of brachytherapy (p < 0.001), and history of myocardial infarction treated with stent or coronary artery bypass graft (p < 0.001). Conclusions: After adjustment for prostate cancer prognostic factors, age, income level, and revascularized cardiovascular comorbidities, African-American and Hispanic races were associated with higher ACM in men with prostate cancer. Additional causative factors need to be identified.

  20. Deficiency of the Survival of Motor Neuron Protein Impairs mRNA Localization and Local Translation in the Growth Cone of Motor Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallini, Claudia; Donlin-Asp, Paul G; Rouanet, Jeremy P; Bassell, Gary J; Rossoll, Wilfried

    2016-03-30

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting spinal motor neurons. It is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays an essential role in the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins in all tissues. The etiology of the specific defects in the motor circuitry in SMA is still unclear, but SMN has also been implicated in mediating the axonal localization of mRNA-protein complexes, which may contribute to the axonal degeneration observed in SMA. Here, we report that SMN deficiency severely disrupts local protein synthesis within neuronal growth cones. We also identify the cytoskeleton-associated growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) mRNA as a new target of SMN and show that motor neurons from SMA mouse models have reduced levels ofGAP43mRNA and protein in axons and growth cones. Importantly, overexpression of two mRNA-binding proteins, HuD and IMP1, restoresGAP43mRNA and protein levels in growth cones and rescues axon outgrowth defects in SMA neurons. These findings demonstrate that SMN plays an important role in the localization and local translation of mRNAs with important axonal functions and suggest that disruption of this function may contribute to the axonal defects observed in SMA. The motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays a key role in assembling RNA/protein complexes that are essential for mRNA splicing. It remains unclear whether defects in this well characterized housekeeping function cause the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons observed in SMA. Here, we describe an additional role of SMN in regulating the axonal localization and local translation of the mRNA encoding growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43). This study supports a model whereby SMN deficiency impedes transport and local translation of mRNAs important for neurite outgrowth and stabilization

  1. Analysis of locally controlled esophageal carcinomas treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Yasuo; Yamada, Shogo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hoshi, Akihiko; Ariga, Hisanori; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1996-01-01

    Of 227 esophageal carcinomas treated with a radiation dose of 60 Gy or more, 100 patients had no tumor or ulceration (with or without stenosis) of the esophagus after irradiation. We analyzed local control factors of these 100 patients to determine the need for further treatment. The cumulative local control rate at five years was 40% in all cases, 37% in 21 cases without any stenosis of the esophagus and 40% in 79 cases with stenosis. The presence of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation was not a critical factor in predicting final local control. Local recurrence of tumors with findings of Borrmann III or Borrmann IV by the pretreatment esophageal barium study, tumors controlled after a total dose of more than 80 Gy, tumors without low dose rate telecobalt therapy (LDRT: 1 Gy/hour, 5 to 7 Gy/day, a total dose of 12 to 15 Gy) as boost therapy, and apparently controlled tumors with a stenotic ratio of 60% or more or with 5 cm or more length of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation was significantly higher than that of the others (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that findings of pretreatment barium study, total dose, with or without LDRT, and length of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation were significantly important factors in local control. Members of the high risk group of apparently controlled tumors should undertake surgical treatment or further intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  2. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, Christopher; Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James; Joffres, Michel; Khaira, Mandip; Kwan, Winkle; Moiseenko, Vitali; Pickles, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51–176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%–94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%–71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%–100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%–91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p 90%.

  3. Do sex-specific densities affect local survival of free-ranging great tits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Komdeur, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Competition within sexes is expected when resources are sex specific, whereas competition between sexes can occur when similar resources are exploited. Local population density and sex ratio will determine the amount of sex-specific interactions and thus the potential degree of sex-specific

  4. Impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Volkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal carcinoma.Subjects and methods. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with pT1–3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma and normally functioning secondkidney who had undergone radical nephrectomy (n = 226 (49.9 % or kidney resection (n = 227 (50.1 % were selected for the investigation. The patient groups who had undergone different-volume operations were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, side of involvement, tumor sizes, and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR (p > for all. The median baseline Charlson index and the rate of ASA classes III–IV operative risk were significantly higher in candidates for radical nephrectomy (p < 0.05 for all, the rate of diseases affecting kidney function, pT1a category, and G1 anaplasia were higher in the kidney resection group (p < 0.0001. The median follow-up was 50 (12–224 months.Results. Within 28 days postsurgery, the rate of acute renal dysfunction (ARD was 36.2 %. The independent risk factors of ARD were kidney resection (risk ratio (RR = 0.210; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.115–0.288; р < 0.0001 and ischemia time (RR = 0.012; 95 % CI 0.004–0.021; p = 0.004. The degree of ARD after kidney resection was significantly lower than that following radical nephrectomy (p < 0.0001. In the late postoperative period, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD Stage ≥ III was 38.4 %. Its independent risk factors were low baseline GFR (RR = 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002–0.005; p < 0.0001, radical nephrectomy (RR = 0.195; 95 % CI 0.093–0.298; p < 0.0001, and ARD (RR = 0.281; 95 % CI 0.187–0.376; p = 0.0001. Ten-year specific and cardiospecific survival rates in all the patients were 98.5 and 94.9 %, respectively, and unrelated to surgical volume. The independent predictors of poor cardiospecific survival were BMI, Charlson index, and ASA risk

  5. Impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Volkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal carcinoma.Subjects and methods. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with pT1–3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma and normally functioning secondkidney who had undergone radical nephrectomy (n = 226 (49.9 % or kidney resection (n = 227 (50.1 % were selected for the investigation. The patient groups who had undergone different-volume operations were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, side of involvement, tumor sizes, and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR (p > for all. The median baseline Charlson index and the rate of ASA classes III–IV operative risk were significantly higher in candidates for radical nephrectomy (p < 0.05 for all, the rate of diseases affecting kidney function, pT1a category, and G1 anaplasia were higher in the kidney resection group (p < 0.0001. The median follow-up was 50 (12–224 months.Results. Within 28 days postsurgery, the rate of acute renal dysfunction (ARD was 36.2 %. The independent risk factors of ARD were kidney resection (risk ratio (RR = 0.210; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.115–0.288; р < 0.0001 and ischemia time (RR = 0.012; 95 % CI 0.004–0.021; p = 0.004. The degree of ARD after kidney resection was significantly lower than that following radical nephrectomy (p < 0.0001. In the late postoperative period, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD Stage ≥ III was 38.4 %. Its independent risk factors were low baseline GFR (RR = 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002–0.005; p < 0.0001, radical nephrectomy (RR = 0.195; 95 % CI 0.093–0.298; p < 0.0001, and ARD (RR = 0.281; 95 % CI 0.187–0.376; p = 0.0001. Ten-year specific and cardiospecific survival rates in all the patients were 98.5 and 94.9 %, respectively, and unrelated to surgical volume. The independent predictors of poor cardiospecific survival were BMI, Charlson index, and ASA risk

  6. Notions of local controllability and optimal feedforward control for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Local controllability is an essential concept for regulation and control of time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems; in the classical control logic it is at the foundation of neighboring optimal feedback and feedforward control. We introduce notions of local controllability suited to feedforward control of classical input disturbances in bilinear quantum systems evolving on projective spaces and Lie groups. Tests for local controllability based on a Gramian matrix analogous to the nonlinear local controllability Gramian, which allow assessment of which trajectories can be regulated by perturbative feedforward in the presence of classical input noise, are presented. These notions explicitly incorporate system bilinearity and the geometry of quantum states into the definition of local controllability of quantum systems. Associated feedforward strategies are described.

  7. Notions of local controllability and optimal feedforward control for quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Raj, E-mail: rchakra@purdue.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Local controllability is an essential concept for regulation and control of time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems; in the classical control logic it is at the foundation of neighboring optimal feedback and feedforward control. We introduce notions of local controllability suited to feedforward control of classical input disturbances in bilinear quantum systems evolving on projective spaces and Lie groups. Tests for local controllability based on a Gramian matrix analogous to the nonlinear local controllability Gramian, which allow assessment of which trajectories can be regulated by perturbative feedforward in the presence of classical input noise, are presented. These notions explicitly incorporate system bilinearity and the geometry of quantum states into the definition of local controllability of quantum systems. Associated feedforward strategies are described.

  8. Combining local and global optimisation for virtual camera control

    OpenAIRE

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2010 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games

    2010-01-01

    Controlling a virtual camera in 3D computer games is a complex task. The camera is required to react to dynamically changing environments and produce high quality visual results and smooth animations. This paper proposes an approach that combines local and global search to solve the virtual camera control problem. The automatic camera control problem is described and it is decomposed into sub-problems; then a hierarchical architecture that solves each sub-problem using the most appropriate op...

  9. Competing with giants. Survival strategies for local companies in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, N; Frost, T

    1999-01-01

    The arrival of a multinational corporation often looks like a death sentence to local companies in an emerging market. After all, how can they compete in the face of the vast financial and technological resources, the seasoned management, and the powerful brands of, say, a Compaq or a Johnson & Johnson? But local companies often have more options than they might think, say the authors. Those options vary, depending on the strength of globalization pressures in an industry and the nature of a company's competitive assets. In the worst case, when globalization pressures are strong and a company has no competitive assets that it can transfer to other countries, it needs to retreat to a locally oriented link within the value chain. But if globalization pressures are weak, the company may be able to defend its market share by leveraging the advantages it enjoys in its home market. Many companies in emerging markets have assets that can work well in other countries. Those that operate in industries where the pressures to globalize are weak may be able to extend their success to a limited number of other markets that are similar to their home base. And those operating in global markets may be able to contend head-on with multinational rivals. By better understanding the relationship between their company's assets and the industry they operate in, executives from emerging markets can gain a clearer picture of the options they really have when multinationals come to stay.

  10. Radiological response and survival in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with three-drug induction chemotherapy followed by radical local treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Laura; Zago, Giulia; Marulli, Giuseppe; Del Bianco, Paola; Schiavon, Marco; Pasello, Giulia; Polo, Valentina; Canova, Fabio; Tonetto, Fabrizio; Loreggian, Lucio; Rea, Federico; Conte, PierFranco; Favaretto, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    If concurrent chemoradiotherapy cannot be performed, induction chemotherapy followed by radical-intent surgical treatment is an acceptable option for non primarily resectable non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). No markers are available to predict which patients may benefit from local treatment after induction. This exploratory study aims to assess the feasibility and the activity of multimodality treatment, including triple-agent chemotherapy followed by radical surgery and/or radiotherapy in locally advanced NSCLCs. We retrospectively collected data from locally advanced NSCLCs treated with induction chemotherapy with carboplatin (area under the curve 6, d [day]1), paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2), d1), and gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) d1, 8) for three to four courses, followed by radical surgery and/or radiotherapy. We analyzed radiological response and toxicity. Estimated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were correlated to response, surgery, and clinical features. In all, 58 NSCLCs were included in the study: 40 staged as IIIA, 18 as IIIB (according to TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors-7th edition staging system). A total of 36 (62%) patients achieved partial response (PR), and six (10%) progressions were recorded. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicity was observed in 36 (62%) cases. After chemotherapy, 37 (64%) patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, and two patients received radical-intent radiotherapy. The median PFS and OS were 11 months and 23 months, respectively. Both PFS and OS were significantly correlated to objective response (P<0.0001) and surgery (P<0.0001 and P=0.002). Patients obtaining PR and receiving local treatment achieved a median PFS and OS of 35 and 48 months, respectively. Median PFS and OS of patients not achieving PR or not receiving local treatment were 5-7 and 11-15 months, respectively. The extension of surgery did not affect the outcome. The multimodality treatment was feasible, and triple

  11. Incidence, Survival, and Treatment of Localized and Metastatic Neuroblastoma in Germany 1979-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Frank; Spix, Claudia; Kaatsch, Peter; Lampert, Fritz

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive clinical long-term survey over the complete spectrum of neuroblatoma disease is lacking in the literature. Our objective was to describe the incidence, risk profiles, therapies, and outcomes for the total cohort of German patients with neuroblastoma including all clinical stages and risk groups. Epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of neuroblastoma patients who participated in one of the six consecutive national trials between 1979 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Of all German neuroblastoma patients known to the national childhood cancer registry, ninety seven percent enrolled in one of the trials. The absolute neuroblastoma rate has increased slightly, whereas the median age at diagnosis has decreased. Except for the screening period (1995-2000), the risk factors lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, chromosome 1p, and the MYCN oncogene have remained largely constant, with the exception of an increase in MYCN amplification at stage 4 for those aged ≥18 months between trials NB97 (27%) and NB2004 (35%). The 10-year overall survival increased in patients with stage 1-3 neuroblastoma from 83 to 91%, for stage 4S from 80 to 85%, and for stage 4 aged ≥18 months from 2 to 38%. The fraction of patients in stages 1-3 who never received chemotherapy (neither for frontline nor at recurrence) increased from 35 to 60%. The proportion of macroscopically complete surgical resections of the primary tumor decreased for the total population as well as for patients with stage 4 aged ≥18 months. The impact of chemotherapy response on the outcome was trial dependent. The overall proportion of toxic death during the time of the protocol therapy was 6% for stage 4 patients aged ≥18 months and 2% for low-/intermediate-risk patients. The most frequently reported late sequelae in stage 4 patients aged ≥18 months were renal dysfunctions, hypothyroidism, major hearing impairment, and second malignancies. The body of data for incidences, risk

  12. Dental implant survival rate in well-controlled diabetic patients. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental implants have now become one of the most popular options for replacing a missing tooth. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease that affects a large part of the population and is generally considered an absolute or relative contraindication to implant therapy. Aim: To determine the survival rate of dental implants in controlled diabetic patients through a systematic review. Material and methods: A systematic search in Pubmed, SciELO and RedALyC databases was performed. The selection criteria were: studies published in the last 10 years, with at least 20 controlled diabetic patients, reporting survival rate and number of implants placed, with follow-up periods equal to or longer than 1 year, including a control group of healthy patients. Methodological quality was analyzed with the follwing scales: Jadad and Downs & Black’s CMQ. Results: Three articles with a follow-up period between 1 and 12 years were analyzed. The overall survival rate of dental implants in diabetic controlled patients was 97.43%. Conclusion: The reviewed literature suggests that survival rate of dental implants in well-controlled diabetic patients is similar to non-diabetic patients.

  13. Local Control With 21-Gy Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Kushner, Brian H.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Modak, Shakeel; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control after 21-Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the primary site in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Methods and Materials: After receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy and gross total resection (GTR), 246 patients (aged 1.2-17.9 years, median 4.0 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma underwent RT to the primary site at Memorial Sloan Kettering from 2000 to 2014. Radiation therapy consisted of 21 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy each. Local failure (LF) was correlated with biologic prognostic factors and clinical findings at the time of diagnosis and start of RT. Results: Median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.4 years. Cumulative incidence of LF was 7.1% at 2 years after RT and 9.8% at 5 years after RT. The isolated LF rate was 3.0%. Eighty-six percent of all local failures were within the RT field. Local control was worse in patients who required more than 1 surgical resection to achieve GTR (22.4% vs 8.3%, P=.01). There was also a trend toward inferior local control with MYCN-amplified tumors or serum lactate dehydrogenase ≥1500 U/L (P=.09 and P=.06, respectively). Conclusion: After intensive chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking, hyperfractionated RT with 21 Gy in high-risk neuroblastoma results in excellent local control. Given the young patient age, concern for late effects, and local control >90%, dose reduction may be appropriate for patients without MYCN amplification who achieve GTR.

  14. Local Control With 21-Gy Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Dana L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kushner, Brian H.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Modak, Shakeel [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control after 21-Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the primary site in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Methods and Materials: After receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy and gross total resection (GTR), 246 patients (aged 1.2-17.9 years, median 4.0 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma underwent RT to the primary site at Memorial Sloan Kettering from 2000 to 2014. Radiation therapy consisted of 21 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy each. Local failure (LF) was correlated with biologic prognostic factors and clinical findings at the time of diagnosis and start of RT. Results: Median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.4 years. Cumulative incidence of LF was 7.1% at 2 years after RT and 9.8% at 5 years after RT. The isolated LF rate was 3.0%. Eighty-six percent of all local failures were within the RT field. Local control was worse in patients who required more than 1 surgical resection to achieve GTR (22.4% vs 8.3%, P=.01). There was also a trend toward inferior local control with MYCN-amplified tumors or serum lactate dehydrogenase ≥1500 U/L (P=.09 and P=.06, respectively). Conclusion: After intensive chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking, hyperfractionated RT with 21 Gy in high-risk neuroblastoma results in excellent local control. Given the young patient age, concern for late effects, and local control >90%, dose reduction may be appropriate for patients without MYCN amplification who achieve GTR.

  15. Local Control After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Amarinthia E.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Chintagumpala, Murali; Teh, Bin S.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of failure in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2005, 19 patients with a diagnosis of head-and-neck RMS received IMRT at The Methodist Hospital. There were 11 male and 8 female patients, with a median age of 6 years at time of irradiation. Tumor location was parameningeal in 7, orbital in 6, and other head-and-neck RMS in 6. Chemotherapy was given to all patients, with vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide being the most common regimen (n = 18). The median prescribed dose was 5040 cGy. The clinical target volume included the gross tumor volume with a 1.5-cm margin. The median duration of follow-up for surviving patients was 56 months. Results: The 4-year overall survival and local control rates were 76% and 92.9%, respectively. One patient developed a local failure in the high-dose region of the radiation field; there were no marginal failures. Distant metastasis was seen in 4 patients. Overall survival was 42.9% for parameningeal sites and 100% for other sites (p < 0.01). Late toxicities were seen in 7 patients. Two secondary malignancies occurred in 1 child with embryonal RMS of the face and a p53 mutation. Conclusions: Local control was excellent in patients receiving IMRT for head-and-neck RMS. Patterns of local failure reveal no marginal failures in this group of patients

  16. The improvement of PWR(OPR-1000) Local Control Pannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Youl; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Lee, Jun-Kou [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The malfunction of feature in NPP could be occurred by physical aging, electrical false signal and natural disaster. The first recognition of malfunction is almost done by alarm system. Due to the importance of alarm system, design basis of alarm system is described in FSAR 18.1.4.20(alarm system design review). Operators can recognize malfunction of feature and importance of alarm in short distance. The sound of alarm is also changed depending on frequency so it contributes recognition of alarm. This system is not helpful in recognition of alarm for filed operators. In this study, the way that FSAR(priority of alarm and color indication) is also applied on local control is suggested. The alarm sound considering field situation, alarm name, status indication in circuit breaker are suggested to improve overall local control panel. These can contribute to safety operation. This paper is made from improvement items of local control panel in the sight of field operator. The research of local panel is necessary to apply these improvements and the collaboration of related department is also needed. In this study, The alarm sound considering field situation, alarm name, status indication in circuit breaker are suggested to improve overall local control panel based on Hanul Unit 6. If the improvement is applied, the qualitative effect of safe operation will be increased, and fatigue of work stress will be lower.

  17. Population-based cancer survival in the United States: Data, quality control, and statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Harewood, Rhea; Johnson, Christopher J; Carreira, Helena; Spika, Devon; Bonaventure, Audrey; Ward, Kevin; Weir, Hannah K; Coleman, Michel P

    2017-12-15

    Robust comparisons of population-based cancer survival estimates require tight adherence to the study protocol, standardized quality control, appropriate life tables of background mortality, and centralized analysis. The CONCORD program established worldwide surveillance of population-based cancer survival in 2015, analyzing individual data on 26 million patients (including 10 million US patients) diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common malignancies. In this Cancer supplement, we analyzed data from 37 state cancer registries that participated in the second cycle of the CONCORD program (CONCORD-2), covering approximately 80% of the US population. Data quality checks were performed in 3 consecutive phases: protocol adherence, exclusions, and editorial checks. One-, 3-, and 5-year age-standardized net survival was estimated using the Pohar Perme estimator and state- and race-specific life tables of all-cause mortality for each year. The cohort approach was adopted for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003, and the complete approach for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. Articles in this supplement report population coverage, data quality indicators, and age-standardized 5-year net survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Examples of tables, bar charts, and funnel plots are provided in this article. Population-based cancer survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of services in providing equitable health care. The high quality of US cancer registry data, 80% population coverage, and use of an unbiased net survival estimator ensure that the survival trends reported in this supplement are robustly comparable by race and state. The results can be used by policymakers to identify and address inequities in cancer survival in each state and for the United States nationally. Cancer 2017;123:4982-93. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U

  18. The challenge in treating locally recurrent T3-4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the survival benefit and severe late toxicities of re-irradiation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yun-Ming; Huang, Wei-Zeng; Yuan, Xia; Bai, Li; Zhao, Chong; Han, Fei

    2017-06-27

    Effective treatments for patients with advanced locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are limited. This investigation was to determine the potential benefits from re-irradiation by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on survival and the effects of severe late toxicities. A retrospective study was conducted in 245 patients diagnosed with locally recurrent T3-T4 NPC who had undergone re-irradiation with IMRT. Follow-up data was colletedand factors associated with survival and severe late toxicities were analyzed. The 5-year local-regional failure-free survival, distant failure-free survival and overall survival rates were 60.9%, 78.3% and 27.5%, respectively. The presence of severe late complications, recurrent T4 disease and gross tumor volume >30 cm3 were associated with poor survival. The incidences of mucosal necrosis, temporal lobe necrosis, cranial neuropathy and trismus were 22.0%, 14.6%, 27.0% and 14.6% respectively. Re-irradiation with IMRT is an effective choice in patients with locally recurrent T3-T4 NPC. However, the survival benefits can be partly offset by severe late complications and optimum treatments in these patients remain a challenge.

  19. Robust controller for synchronous generator with local load via VSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Vazquez, J. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, Departamento de Electronica, Av. Revolucion No. 1500, Modulo ' ' O' ' , Apdo. Postal 44840, Guadalajara Jalisco (Mexico); Loukianov, Alexander G.; Canedo, Jose M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 31-438, Plaza La Luna, C. P. 44550, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Utkin, Vadim I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Ohio-State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1272 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to design a nonlinear observer-based excitation controller for power system comprising a single synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus with local load. The controller proposed is based on the using first singular perturbation systems concepts and then Sliding Mode Control technique combining with Block Control Principle. To reduce ''chattering'' a nonlinear observer with estimation of the mechanical torque and rotor fluxes is designed. This combined approach enables to compensate the inherent nonlinearities of the generator and to reject external disturbances. (author)

  20. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.; Alberdi, J.; Gamero, E.; Blanco, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  1. Combined radiotherapy and surgery : Local control and complications in early carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbaulet, A.L.; Haie, C.; Michel, G.; Prade, M.; Lhomme, C.; Masselot, M.; Albano, M.; Dutreix, A.; Chassagne, D.; Kunkler, I.H.; Kerr, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    From January 1975 to December 1984, 41 patients were treated by combined radiotherapy and surgery at Institut Gustave Roussy for Stage IB (288) and II (proximal) (103) carcinoma of uterine cervix. Standard treatment consisted of pre-operative utero-vaginal brachytherapy (60 Gy) using a mould technique followed by colpho-hysterectomy and external iliac lymphadenectomy. Overall 5 year actuarial survival for whole population was 87% and disease-free survival 85%. Locoregional relapse occurred in 23 patients (5%). Of these, 12 where central pelvic failures, 8 regional failures and 3 combined central and regional failures. Of 36 systemic relapses (8%), 12 relapsed concurrently in pelvis. Five year actuarial pelvic disease-free, disease-free and overall survival was 87, 85 and 87%, resp., for the whole population. 340 patients developed one or more complications [Grade 1: 198/441 (44%), Grade 2: 121/441 (27%) and Grade 3 or 4: 21/441 (4.7%)]. Five year actuarial survival for the whole population was poorer for histologically node positive than for node negative (89 vs. 55%, p<0.0001). Pre-operative brachytherapy by surgery can provide good local control with acceptable morbidity in early cervical cancer. (author). 39 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Influence of oral glutamine supplementation on survival outcomes of patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topkan, Erkan; Parlak, Cem; Topuk, Savas; Pehlivan, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine (Gln) supplementation during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT) effectively reduces the incidence and severity of acute radiation-induced esophagitis (RIE). However, there are concerns that Gln might stimulate tumor growth, and therefore negatively impact the outcomes of anticancer treatment. We retrospectively investigated the effect of co-administration of oral Gln during C-CRT on survival outcomes of patients with stage IIIB non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We additionally evaluated role of oral Gln in preventing C-CRT-induced weight change, acute and late toxicities. The study included 104 patients: 56 (53.8%) received prophylactic powdered Gln (Gln+) orally at a dose of 10 g/8 h and 48 (46.2%) did not receive Gln (Gln-) and served as controls. The prescribed radiation dose to the planning target volume was 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Primary endpoints of progression-free survival (PFS), local/regional progression-free survival (LRPFS), and overall survival (OS) were correlated with status of Gln supplementation. Oral Gln was well tolerated except for mild nausea/vomiting in 14 (25.0%) patients. There was no C-CRT-related acute or late grade 4–5 toxicity. Administration of Gln was associated with a decrease in the incidence of grade 3 acute radiation-induced esophagitis (RIE) (7.2% vs. 16.7% for Gln+ vs. Gln-; p=0.02) and late-RIE (0% vs. 6.3%; p=0.06), a reduced need for unplanned treatment breaks (7.1% vs. 20.8%; p=0.04), and reduced incidence of weight loss (44.6% vs. 72.9%; p=0.002). At a median follow-up of 24.2 months (range 9.2-34.4) the median OS, LRPFS, and PFS for Gln+ vs. Gln- cohorts were 21.4 vs. 20.4 (p=0.35), 14.2 vs.11.3 (p=0.16), and 10.2 vs. 9.0 months (p=0.11), respectively. In our study, supplementation with Gln during C-CRT had no detectable negative impact on tumor control and survival outcomes in patients with Stage IIIB NSCLC. Furthermore, Gln appeared to have a beneficial effect with respect to prevention of weight loss

  3. Impact of retropharyngeal adenopathy on distant control and survival in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Spector, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Mohannad; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Tao, Yebin; Schipper, Matthew; Worden, Francis; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Retropharyngeal adenopathy (RPA) is poor prognostic factor in head and neck (HN) cancer. However, the prognostic significance of RPA in Human Papillomavirus-related (HPV+) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is unknown. Patients and methods: 185 patients with HPV + OPC were assessed. Pre-therapy images reviewed by a HN radiologist to determine presence of RPA. Doses to the RPAs were determined from treatment plans. Outcomes analyzed using Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank tests, and correlations determined using Spearman’s rank analyses. Results: 29 (16%) of the HPV + patients had RPA. At median follow-up 49 months, 5-year overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS) and distant failure-free survival (DFFS) were 57% vs. 81% (P = 0.02), 63% vs 80% (P = 0.015) and 70% vs 91% (P = 0.002) for patients with/without RPA, respectively. No differences observed in local/ regional control rates, exceeding 90% in both groups, and No RPA recurrences were observed. In multivariable analysis, stages T4 or N3, and RPA, were independently, statistically significantly associated with both OS and distant failure, while N2c, age, disease site, and smoking status, were not. Conclusion: RPA in HPV + OPC is an independent prognostic factor for distant failure, translating into worse OS. Patients with RPA may not be suitable candidates for trials of systemic treatment de-escalation

  4. A six-gene signature predicts survival of patients with localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeran K Stratford; David J Bentrem; Judy M Anderson; Cheng Fan; Keith A Volmar; J S Marron; Elizabeth D Routh; Laura S Caskey; Jonathan C Samuel; Channing J Der; Leigh B Thorne; Benjamin F Calvo; Hong Jin Kim; Mark S Talamonti; Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Pancreatic cancer kills nearly a quarter of a million people every year. It begins when a cell in the pancreas (an organ lying behind the stomach that produces digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin, which controls blood sugar levels) acquires genetic changes that allow it to grow uncontrollably and to spread around the body (metastasize). Nearly all pancreatic cancers are “pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas” (PDACs)—tumors that start in the cells that line ...

  5. Local control station for development, testing and maintenance of mirror fusion facility subsystem controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ables, E.; Kelly, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A Local Control Station (LCS) was designed and built to provide a simplified ad easily configurable means of controlling any Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) subsystem for the purpose of development, testing and maintenance of the subsystem. All MFTF-B Subsystems incorporate at least one Local Control Computer (LCC) that is connected to and accepts high level commands from one of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) computers. The LCS connects directly to the LCC in place of SCDS. The LCS communicates with the subsystem hardware using the same SCDS commands that the local control computer recognizes and as such requires no special configuration of the LCC

  6. Duodenal localization is a negative predictor of survival after small bowel adenocarcinoma resection: A population-based, propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Alexander; Galata, Christian; Beutner, Ulrich; Schmied, Bruno M; Warschkow, Rene; Steffen, Thomas; Brunner, Walter; Post, Stefan; Marti, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the influence of tumor localization of small bowel adenocarcinoma on survival after surgical resection. Patients with resected small bowel adenocarcinoma, ACJJ stage I-III, were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2004 to 2013. The impact of tumor localization on overall and cancer-specific survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models with and without risk-adjustment and propensity score methods. Adenocarcinoma was localized to the duodenum in 549 of 1025 patients (53.6%). There was no time trend for duodenal localization (P = 0.514). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 48.2% (95%CI: 43.3-53.7%) for patients with duodenal carcinoma and 66.6% (95%CI: 61.6-72.1%) for patients with cancer located in the jejunum or ileum. Duodenal localization was associated with worse overall and cancer-specific survival in univariable (HR = 1.73; HR = 1.81, respectively; both P matrimonial status were positive, independent prognostic factors. Duodenal localization is an independent risk factor for poor survival after resection of adenocarcinoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  8. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-01-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system

  9. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K., E-mail: ogawa@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakatani, N. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa (Japan); Otake, H. [JAXA Space Exploration Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  10. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI, survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients’ hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p=0.230. The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.. Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor.

  11. Determinates of tumor response to radiation: Tumor cells, tumor stroma and permanent local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wende; Huang, Peigen; Chen, David J.; Gerweck, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The causes of tumor response variation to radiation remain obscure, thus hampering the development of predictive assays and strategies to decrease resistance. The present study evaluates the impact of host tumor stromal elements and the in vivo environment on tumor cell kill, and relationship between tumor cell radiosensitivity and the tumor control dose. Material and methods: Five endpoints were evaluated and compared in a radiosensitive DNA double-strand break repair-defective (DNA-PKcs −/− ) tumor line, and its DNA-PKcs repair competent transfected counterpart. In vitro colony formation assays were performed on in vitro cultured cells, on cells obtained directly from tumors, and on cells irradiated in situ. Permanent local control was assessed by the TCD 50 assay. Vascular effects were evaluated by functional vascular density assays. Results: The fraction of repair competent and repair deficient tumor cells surviving radiation did not substantially differ whether irradiated in vitro, i.e., in the absence of host stromal elements and factors, from the fraction of cells killed following in vivo irradiation. Additionally, the altered tumor cell sensitivity resulted in a proportional change in the dose required to achieve permanent local control. The estimated number of tumor cells per tumor, their cloning efficiency and radiosensitivity, all assessed by in vitro assays, were used to predict successfully, the measured tumor control doses. Conclusion: The number of clonogens per tumor and their radiosensitivity govern the permanent local control dose

  12. Changes in survival in locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma over past three decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Zawahry, I.M.Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the commonest carcinoma of the head and neck region with Squamous-cell carcinomas (SCC) in 90 % of cases (Birchall Met al 2008) The incidence of laryngeal cancer was relatively about 160,000 new cases per year. The disease predominantly affects men; about 2.4% of all cancer cases and 2.1% of all cancer deaths worldwide ,also in United States in 2012 the Es)mated new cases is 12,360 and deaths from laryngeal cancer is 3,650. The majority of patients with SCC of larynx present with locally advanced (LA) disease.(American Cancer Society, 2012) The incidence of laryngeal cancer in the Kasr El-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University from year 2005 - 2008 is 3.1%per year. Advanced laryngeal cancer is generally considered as the disease in stages III and IV based on the primary tumor extension and/or the presence of metastatic lymph node(s) in the neck and it accounts for roughly 40% to 50% of patients with laryngeal cancer (Chen AY, et al 2006). From the second half of the 20th century total laryngectomy combined with a neck dissection was considered a treatment of choice for advanced laryngeal cancer (Genden EM et al, 2007). In most institutions, postoperative radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment following ablative surgery with radiation doses up to 60-66 Gy has also become the standard approach for patients with stage III-IV laryngeal cancer (Corvo R , 2007). However, the treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer seams to be a permanent challenge, but the management of patients with advanced laryngeal cancer has become more complex as other modalities including induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemo-radiotherapy have evolved with the goal of preserving the larynx and reserved total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for cases with less than 50% response to induction chemotherapy or in those who have persistent disease following concurrent chemo

  13. Local gate control in carbon nanotube quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biercuk, Michael Jordan

    This thesis presents transport measurements of carbon nanotube electronic devices operated in the quantum regime. Nanotubes are contacted by source and drain electrodes, and multiple lithographically-patterned electrostatic gates are aligned to each device. Transport measurements of device conductance or current as a function of local gate voltages reveal that local gates couple primarily to the proximal section of the nanotube, hence providing spatially localized control over carrier density along the nanotube length. Further, using several different techniques we are able to produce local depletion regions along the length of a tube. This phenomenon is explored in detail for different contact metals to the nanotube. We utilize local gating techniques to study multiple quantum dots in carbon nanotubes produced both by naturally occurring defects, and by the controlled application of voltages to depletion gates. We study double quantum dots in detail, where transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability diagrams. We extract values of energy-level spacings, capacitances, and interaction energies for this system, and demonstrate independent control over all relevant tunneling rates. We report rf-reflectometry measurements of gate-defined carbon nanotube quantum dots with integrated charge sensors. Aluminum rf-SETs are electrostatically coupled to carbon nanotube devices and detect single electron charging phenomena in the Coulomb blockade regime. Simultaneous correlated measurements of single electron charging are made using reflected rf power from the nanotube itself and from the rf-SET on microsecond time scales. We map charge stability diagrams for the nanotube quantum dot via charge sensing, observing Coulomb charging diamonds beyond the first order. Conductance measurements of carbon nanotubes containing gated local depletion regions exhibit plateaus as a function of gate voltage, spaced by approximately 1e2/h, the quantum of conductance for a single

  14. Virtual HDR CyberKnife SBRT for Localized Prostatic Carcinoma: 5-year Disease-free Survival and Toxicity Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Blake Fuller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSEProstate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT may substantially recapitulate the dose distribution of high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy, representing an externally delivered Virtual HDR treatment method. Herein we present 5-year outcomes from a cohort of consecutively treated Virtual HDR SBRT prostate cancer patients.METHODSSeventy-nine patients were treated from 2006 - 2009, 40 low-risk and 39 intermediate-risk, under IRB-approved clinical trial, to 38 Gy in 4 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV included prostate plus a 2-mm volume expansion in all directions, with selective use of a 5-mm prostate-to-PTV expansion and proximal seminal vesicle coverage in intermediate-risk patients, to better cover potential extraprostatic disease; rectal PTV margin reduced to zero in all cases. The prescription dose covered > 95% of the PTV (V100 >= 95%, with a minimum 150% PTV dose escalation to create HDR-like PTV dose distribution.RESULTSMedian pre-SBRT PSA level of 5.6 ng/mL decreased to 0.05 ng/mL 5 years out and 0.02 ng/mL 6 years out. At least one PSA bounce was seen in 55 patients (70% but only 3 of them subsequently relapsed, Biochemical-relapse-free survival was 100% and 92% for low-risk and intermediate-risk patients, respectively, by ASTRO definition (98% and 92% by Phoenix definition. Local relapse did not occur, distant metastasis-free survival was 100% and 95% by risk-group, and disease-specific survival was 100%. Acute and late grade 2 GU toxicity incidence was 10% and 9%, respectively; with 6% late grade 3 GU toxicity. Acute urinary retention did not occur. Acute and late grade 2 GI toxicity was 0% and 1%, respectively, with no grade 3 or higher toxicity. Of patients potent pre-SBRT, 65% remained so at 5 years.CONCLUSIONSVirtual HDR prostate SBRT creates a very low PSA nadir, a high rate of 5-year disease-free survival and an acceptable toxicity incidence, with results closely resembling those reported post-HDR brachytherapy.

  15. Local Model Predictive Control for T-S Fuzzy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Hu, Jianghai

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a new linear matrix inequality-based model predictive control (MPC) problem is studied for discrete-time nonlinear systems described as Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems. A recent local stability approach is applied to improve the performance of the proposed MPC scheme. At each time k , an optimal state-feedback gain that minimizes an objective function is obtained by solving a semidefinite programming problem. The local stability analysis, the estimation of the domain of attraction, and feasibility of the proposed MPC are proved. Examples are given to demonstrate the advantages of the suggested MPC over existing approaches.

  16. Radiological response and survival in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with three-drug induction chemotherapy followed by radical local treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonanno L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laura Bonanno,1 Giulia Zago,1 Giuseppe Marulli,2 Paola Del Bianco,3 Marco Schiavon,2 Giulia Pasello,1 Valentina Polo,1,4 Fabio Canova,1 Fabrizio Tonetto,5 Lucio Loreggian,5 Federico Rea,2 PierFranco Conte,1,4 Adolfo Favaretto1 1Medical Oncology Unit 2, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, 2Thoracic Surgery Department, University of Padova, 3Clinical Trials and Biostatistics Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, 4Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, 5Radiotherapy Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padova, Italy Objectives: If concurrent chemoradiotherapy cannot be performed, induction chemotherapy followed by radical-intent surgical treatment is an acceptable option for non primarily resectable non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs. No markers are available to predict which patients may benefit from local treatment after induction. This exploratory study aims to assess the feasibility and the activity of multimodality treatment, including triple-agent chemotherapy followed by radical surgery and/or radiotherapy in locally advanced NSCLCs. Methods: We retrospectively collected data from locally advanced NSCLCs treated with induction chemotherapy with carboplatin (area under the curve 6, d [day]1, paclitaxel (200 mg/m2, d1, and gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2 d1, 8 for three to four courses, followed by radical surgery and/or radiotherapy. We analyzed radiological response and toxicity. Estimated progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were correlated to response, surgery, and clinical features. Results: In all, 58 NSCLCs were included in the study: 40 staged as IIIA, 18 as IIIB (according to TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors–7th edition staging system. A total of 36 (62% patients achieved partial response (PR, and six (10% progressions were recorded. Grade 3–4 hematological toxicity was observed in 36 (62% cases. After chemotherapy, 37 (64% patients underwent surgery

  17. Long-term survival of bladder preservation therapy with radiation and chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Sumio; Takase, Kazunori; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Masuda, Mitsunobu; Yao, Masahiro; Hosaka, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    The prognoses and prognostic factors of the 54 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer who underwent bladder preservation therapy at Yokohama City University Hospital between 1977 and 1995 were analyzed statistically. The therapeutic modalities of bladder preservation were mainly radiation or chemotherapy. The prognosis for the patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy was worse than that for the patients who underwent total cystectomy. The prognostic factors of these patients were size and grade of tumor, presence of hydronephrosis and performance status (PS) of the patients by univariate analysis. Tumor grade was the most predictable prognostic factor using multivariate analysis. Only 17 patients survived more than 5 years after treatment; 78% of the survivors had good PS (0 or 1). Five of them died of cancer and two patients were alive with cancer. All of them had G3 tumors. These results suggest that patients with locally invasive G2 tumor could be candiates for bladder preservation therapy and patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy should be evaluated at 10 years post-therapy. (author)

  18. Ciudadania, el poder local e controle do Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Moulin Simões Penalva Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian society is experiencing a population expansion within the context of decentralisation of public policies, from the central government to local institutions. Following this line of thought, in this article we analyse the public expenses in the Brazilian Federation in the period 1996-1998 in order to identify the institutions that have assumed the financial right of the citizens, as well as to estimate if there has been a transfer of responsibilities among federal institutions. The success of this process is related to the integrated performance of the external control from the public administration. In that sense, we also study the control exercised by Parliaments, Administrative Courts, Public Prosecution Offices and the Judicial Power beyond social control, taking into consideration their improvement and highlighting the control of the Public Prosecution Office as well as the control exercised by the popular councils.

  19. Bronchoscopic findings and bleeding control predict survival in patients with solid malignancies presenting with mild hemoptysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Horiana B; Casal, Roberto F; Morice, Rodolfo C; Nogueras-González, Graciela M; Eapen, Georgie A; Ost, David; Sarkiss, Mona G; Jimenez, Carlos A

    2013-08-01

    Regardless of its volume, hemoptysis is a concerning symptom. Mild hemoptysis and its significance in patients with solid malignancies has not been studied. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with solid malignancies who presented for evaluation of mild hemoptysis. In this population, we studied the impact of bronchoscopic findings and endobronchial therapies on overall survival and bleeding recurrence. Patients were categorized into four groups on the basis of the presence or absence of active bleeding and endobronchial disease at the time of initial bronchoscopy: active bleeding with endobronchial lesion (AB/EBL), active bleeding without endobronchial lesion (AB/no-EBL), absence of active bleeding but with endobronchial lesion (no-AB/EBL), and absence of active bleeding and endobronchial lesion (no-AB/no-EBL). Ninety-five of the 112 patients with solid malignancies and mild hemoptysis underwent bronchoscopies. There was a significantly lower median survival time for patients with bronchoscopic findings of active bleeding and endobronchial lesion compared with patients with no active bleeding and/or no endobronchial lesion (3.48 mo; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14-6.05). On a multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with improved survival were higher hemoglobin values (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91) and cessation of hemoptysis without recurrence at 48 hours (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.84). Variables independently associated with worse survival were disease stage (HR, 10.8; 95% CI, 2.53-46.08) and AB/EBL (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.74-5.89). In patients with solid malignancies presenting with mild hemoptysis, bronchoscopic findings of AB/EBL are associated with decreased survival. Hemoptysis control without recurrence at 48 hours after endobronchial intervention may improve survival.

  20. PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation controls ATXN2L localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehler, Christian; Guenther, Anika; Uhlich, Anja; Krobitsch, Sylvia, E-mail: krobitsc@molgen.mpg.de

    2015-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the methylation state of ATXN2L and its significance for ATXN2L localization. We first confirmed that ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo, and observed that the nuclear localization of ATXN2L is altered under methylation inhibition. We further discovered that ATXN2L associates with the protein arginine-N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Finally, we showed that neither mutation of the arginine–glycine-rich motifs of ATXN2L nor methylation inhibition alters ATXN2L localization to stress granules, suggesting that methylation of ATXN2L is probably not mandatory. - Highlights: • ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo. • ATXN2L interacts with PRMT1 under normal and stress conditions. • PRMT1-mediated dimethylation of ATXN2L controls its nuclear localization. • ATXN2L localization to stress granules appears independent of its methylation state.

  1. Tuberculosis control: decentralization, local planning and management specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueiro, Janaína Von Söhsten; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Trigueiro, Débora Raquel Soares Guedes

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to analyze, according to the perception of health managers, the practices that guide tuberculosis control actions in cities in the metropolitan region of João Pessoa - PB, Brazil. This qualitative study involved eight professionals in management functions. Testimonies were collected through semi-structured interviews between May and June 2009 and organized through content analysis. Despite the acknowledged benefits of tuberculosis control action decentralization, local planning indicates the predominance of a bureaucratic model that is restricted to negotiation and supplies. Local programming is centered on the coordinator, which shows a command line and vertical management that lead to the fragmentation of the work process. Management action should follow an innovative and transformative route that surpasses bureaucratic barriers and faces the biggest challenge it is proposed: to balance professional interrelations with a view to improving health work performance.

  2. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  3. Locally advanced pancreatic cancer: association between prolonged preoperative treatment and lymph-node negativity and overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadera, Brian E; Sunjaya, Dharma B; Isacoff, William H; Li, Luyi; Hines, O Joe; Tomlinson, James S; Dawson, David W; Rochefort, Matthew M; Donald, Graham W; Clerkin, Barbara M; Reber, Howard A; Donahue, Timothy R

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of patients with locally advanced/borderline resectable (LA/BR) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not standardized. To (1) perform a detailed survival analysis of our institution's experience with patients with LA/BR PDAC who were downstaged and underwent surgical resection and (2) identify prognostic biomarkers that may help to guide a decision for the use of adjuvant therapy in this patient subgroup. Retrospective observational study of 49 consecutive patients from a single institution during 1992-2011 with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III LA/BR PDAC who were initially unresectable, as determined by staging computed tomography and/or surgical exploration, and who were treated and then surgically resected. Clinicopathologic variables and prognostic biomarkers SMAD4, S100A2, and microRNA-21 were correlated with survival by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling. All 49 patients were deemed initially unresectable owing to vascular involvement. After completing preoperative chemotherapy for a median of 7.1 months (range, 5.4-9.6 months), most (75.5%) underwent a pylorus-preserving Whipple operation; 3 patients (6.1%) had a vascular resection. Strikingly, 37 of 49 patients were lymph-node (LN) negative (75.5%) and 42 (85.7%) had negative margins; 45.8% of evaluable patients achieved a complete histopathologic (HP) response. The median overall survival (OS) was 40.1 months (range, 22.7-65.9 months). A univariate analysis of HP prognostic biomarkers revealed that perineural invasion (hazard ratio, 5.5; P=.007) and HP treatment response (hazard ratio, 9.0; P=.009) were most significant. Lymph-node involvement, as a marker of systemic disease, was also significant on univariate analysis (P=.05). Patients with no LN involvement had longer OS (44.4 vs 23.2 months, P=.04) than LN-positive patients. The candidate prognostic biomarkers, SMAD4 protein loss (P=.01) in tumor cells and microRNA-21 expression in the stroma (P=.05

  4. Simultaneous PLK1 inhibition improves local tumour control after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Kummer, Berit; Deparade, Andre; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Pfitzmann, Dorothee; Yaromina, Ala; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays an important role in mitotic progression, is frequently overexpressed and associated with a poor prognosis of cancer patients, thus providing a promising target in anticancer treatment. Aim of the current project was to evaluate the effect of the novel PLK1 inhibitor BI 6727 in combination with irradiation. Material and methods: In vitro proliferation and radiation cell survival assays as well as in vivo local tumour control assays after single treatment and combined radiation and drug application were carried out using the squamous cell carcinoma models A431 and FaDu. In addition, cell cycle phases were monitored in vitro and in vivo. Results: BI 6727 showed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect and an increase in the mitotic fraction. BI 6727 alone reduced clonogenic cell survival, while radiosensitivity in vitro (SF2) and in vivo (single-dose TCD 50 under clamped hypoxia) was not affected. In contrast, local tumour control was significantly improved after application of BI 6727 simultaneously to fractionated irradiation (A431: TCD 50 = 60.5 Gy [95% C.I. 57; 63] after IR alone and <30 Gy after combined treatment; FaDu: 49.5 Gy [43; 56 Gy] versus 32.9 Gy [26; 40]). Conclusions: Despite the lack of direct cellular radiosensitisation, PLK1 inhibition with BI 6727 during fractionated irradiation significantly improves local tumour control when compared to irradiation alone. This result is likely explained by a considerable effect on cell cycle and an independent cytotoxic potential of BI 6727

  5. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  6. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  7. Improvement of survival in C6 rat glioma model by a sustained drug release from localized PLGA microspheres in a thermoreversible hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Daiki; Hashizawa, Kosuke; Imai, Yoshihiro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-05-10

    A local drug delivery system based on sustained drug release is an attractive approach to treat brain tumors. We have developed a novel device using drug-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres embedded in thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) formulation (drug/PLGA/TGP formulation). TGP forms a gel at body temperature but sol at room temperature. Therefore, when this formulation is injected into the brain tumor, the PLGA microspheres in TGP gel are localized at the injection site and do not diffuse throughout the brain tissue; eventually, sustained drug release from PLGA microspheres is achieved at the target site. In this study, two chemotherapeutic drugs (camptothecin (CPT) or vincristine (VCR)) were incorporated into PLGA microspheres to prepare drug/PLGA/TGP formulations. VCR/PLGA microspheres exhibited the higher encapsulation efficiency than CPT/PLGA microspheres (70.1% versus 30.1%). In addition, VCR/PLGA microspheres showed a higher sustained release profile than CPT/PLGA microspheres (54.5% versus 72.5% release, at 28 days). Therapeutic effect (mean survival) was evaluated in the C6 rat glioma model (control group, 18 days; CPT/PLGA/TGP treatment group, 24 days; VCR/PLGA/TGP treatment group, 33 days). In particular, the VCR/PLGA/TGP formulation produced long-term survivors (>60 days). Therefore, this formulation can be therapeutically effective formulation for the glioma therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Galectin-1 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Local Recurrence and Survival After Definitive Radiation Therapy for Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Lin, Hao; Wang, Chung-Chi; Wang, Chong-Jong; Huang, Chao-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of galectin-1 in patients with cervical cancer after definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 154 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma. Patients underwent curative-intent radiation therapy. Paraffin-embedded tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry staining for galectin-1. The rates of cancer-specific survival (CSS), local recurrence (LR), and distant metastasis were compared among patient tissue samples with no, weak, and strong galectin-1 expression. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Results: The areas under the curve for the intracellular expression scores of galectin-1 for both LR and CSS were significantly higher than those for stromal expression. There were no significant differences in the demographic data, such as stage and serum tumor markers, between patients with and without intracellular expression of galectin-1 in cancer tissue samples. Using multivariate analyses, the hazard ratios of LR and CSS were 2.60 (95% CI 1.50-4.52) (P=.001) and 1.94 (95% CI 1.18-3.19) (P=.010), respectively. Conclusion: Galectin-1 is an independent prognostic factor associated with LR and CSS in stage I-II cervical cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy. Further studies targeting galectin-1 may improve the local control of cervical cancer

  9. Galectin-1 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Local Recurrence and Survival After Definitive Radiation Therapy for Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eng-Yen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Lin, Hao [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chung-Chi; Wang, Chong-Jong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Cheng, E-mail: huangcc@cgmh.org.tw [Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of galectin-1 in patients with cervical cancer after definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 154 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma. Patients underwent curative-intent radiation therapy. Paraffin-embedded tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry staining for galectin-1. The rates of cancer-specific survival (CSS), local recurrence (LR), and distant metastasis were compared among patient tissue samples with no, weak, and strong galectin-1 expression. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Results: The areas under the curve for the intracellular expression scores of galectin-1 for both LR and CSS were significantly higher than those for stromal expression. There were no significant differences in the demographic data, such as stage and serum tumor markers, between patients with and without intracellular expression of galectin-1 in cancer tissue samples. Using multivariate analyses, the hazard ratios of LR and CSS were 2.60 (95% CI 1.50-4.52) (P=.001) and 1.94 (95% CI 1.18-3.19) (P=.010), respectively. Conclusion: Galectin-1 is an independent prognostic factor associated with LR and CSS in stage I-II cervical cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy. Further studies targeting galectin-1 may improve the local control of cervical cancer.

  10. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as an independent predictor for survival in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tieshi; Wang, Wei; Guo, Hongqian

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic indicator in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radiofrequency ablation. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent radiofrequency ablation from 2006 to 2013. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves according to different categories of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Relationships between preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio or the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and survival were evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A propensity score matching analysis was carried out to avoid confounding bias. A total of 185 patients were included in present study. When stratified by preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cutoff value of 2.79, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio analysis, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ratio with the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, patients with both preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥2.79 and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥0.40 had the worst disease-free survival. Results of multivariable analysis showed that preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated with cancer relapse remarkably. High preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and elevated postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are associated with significant increase in risk of local recurrence as well as distant metastasis. The combination of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio with the other prognostic indicators can be applied in the evaluation of relapse risk in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation.

  11. Dissociation of Survival, Proliferation, and State Control in Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, David J H F; Hammond, Colin A; Miller, Paul H; Rabu, Gabrielle M; Beer, Philip A; Ricicova, Marketa; Lecault, Véronique; Da Costa, Daniel; VanInsberghe, Michael; Cheung, Alice M; Pellacani, Davide; Piret, James; Hansen, Carl; Eaves, Connie J

    2017-01-10

    The role of growth factors (GFs) in controlling the biology of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains limited by a lack of information concerning the individual and combined effects of GFs directly on the survival, Mitogenesis, and regenerative activity of highly purified human HSCs. We show that the initial input HSC activity of such a purified starting population of human cord blood cells can be fully maintained over a 21-day period in serum-free medium containing five GFs alone. HSC survival was partially supported by any one of these GFs, but none were essential, and different combinations of GFs variably stimulated HSC proliferation. However, serial transplantability was not detectably compromised by many conditions that reduced human HSC proliferation and/or survival. These results demonstrate the dissociated control of these three human HSC bio-responses, and set the stage for future improvements in strategies to modify and expand human HSCs ex vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Clark, Andrew T; Clark, Jessica A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; McConnell, Kevin W; Chang, Katherine C; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-06-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1(-/-) animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1(-/-) mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4(+) but not CD8(+), gammadelta, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1(-/-) mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1(-/-) mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4(+) lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality.

  13. Improvement of chick survival and zootechnical performance of the local hen in a village environment in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nahimana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A one-year longitudinal survey was carried out in 45 poultry farms in Salemata Department (Senegal to assess two management methods of the mother-chick couple, with the aim to improve the productivity of family poultry farming. At hatching, the hens belonging to treatment A (HTA were partially reared in confinement (they were removed from the brooder pen after two weeks, whereas the chicks were kept there for up to four weeks of age. In contrast, hens in treatment B (HTB were kept free range. The results showed that the zootechnical performance of HTAs had improved. The duration of the reproductive cycle was reduced from 113.5 to 62.2 days. As a result, the number of breeding cycles increased from 3.4 to 5.6 per year and the annual egg production from 35.3 to 57.6. The rapid return of HTAs to egg laying did not affect the number of eggs laid per brood (10.3 compared to 10.2 and the hatching rate (82.4% compared to 79.5%. The weight growth of chicks from both hen types has been influenced by the breeding type, genotype and sex. The weight of crossbred chicks was higher than that of the local chick except at hatching. After the first month, the weight of male chicks (crossbred or local was still higher than that of female chicks. The average daily weight gain of HTA chicks has always been higher than that of HTB chicks and has been highest between the 13th and 24th week of age. Chick survival was improved by 41.2%, and the most frequent causes of mortality were predators (raptors, cats. This study showed that the farming type where hens and their chicks are semiconfined optimized poultry productivity.

  14. Impact of prostate edema on cell survival and tumor control after permanent interstitial brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe (Jay); Roberts, Kenneth; Decker, Roy; Pathare, Pradip; Rockwell, Sara; Nath, Ravinder

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the procedure-induced prostate edema during permanent interstitial brachytherapy (PIB) can cause significant variations in the dose delivered to the prostate gland. Because the clinical impact of edema-induced dose variations depends strongly on the magnitude of the edema, the temporal pattern of its resolution and its interplay with the decay of radioactivity and the underlying biological processes of tumor cells (such as tumor potential doubling time), we investigated the impact of edema-induced dose variations on the tumor cell survival and tumor control probability after PIB with the 131Cs, 125I and 103Pd sources used in current clinical practice. The exponential edema resolution model reported by Waterman et al. (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41, 1069–1077–1998) was used to characterize the edema evolutions observed previously during clinical PIB for prostate cancer. The concept of biologically effective dose (BED), taking into account tumor cell proliferation and sublethal damage repair during dose delivery, was used to characterize the effects of prostate edema on cell survival and tumor control probability. Our calculation indicated that prostate edema, if not taken into account appropriately, can increase the cell survival and decrease the probability of local control of PIB. The edema-induced increase in cell survival increased with increasing edema severity, decreasing half-life for radioactive decay and decreasing energy of the photons energy emitted by the source. At the doses currently prescribed for PIB and for prostate cancer cells characterized by nominal radiobiology parameters recommended by AAPM TG-137, PIB using 125I sources was less affected by edema than PIB using 131Cs or 103Pd sources due to the long radioactive decay half-life of 125I. The effect of edema on PIB using 131Cs or 103Pd was similar. The effect of edema on 103Pd PIB was slightly greater, even though the decay half-life of 103Pd (17 days

  15. The impact of prostate edema on cell survival and tumor control after permanent interstitial brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Roberts, Kenneth; Decker, Roy; Pathare, Pradip; Rockwell, Sara; Nath, Ravinder

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that procedure-induced prostate edema during permanent interstitial brachytherapy (PIB) can cause significant variations in the dose delivered to the prostate gland. Because the clinical impact of edema-induced dose variations strongly depends on the magnitude of the edema, the temporal pattern of its resolution and its interplay with the decay of radioactivity and the underlying biological processes of tumor cells (such as tumor potential doubling time), we investigated the impact of edema-induced dose variations on the tumor cell survival and tumor control probability after PIB with the 131 Cs, 125 I and 103 Pd sources used in current clinical practice. The exponential edema resolution model reported by Waterman et al (1998 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41 1069-77) was used to characterize the edema evolutions previously observed during clinical PIB for prostate cancer. The concept of biologically effective dose, taking into account tumor cell proliferation and sublethal damage repair during dose delivery, was used to characterize the effects of prostate edema on cell survival and tumor control probability. Our calculation indicated that prostate edema, if not appropriately taken into account, can increase the cell survival and decrease the probability of local control of PIB. The magnitude of an edema-induced increase in cell survival increased with increasing edema severity, decreasing half-life of radioactive decay and decreasing photon energy emitted by the source. At the doses currently prescribed for PIB and for prostate cancer cells characterized by nominal radiobiology parameters recommended by AAPM TG-137, PIB using 125 I sources was less affected by edema than PIB using 131 Cs or 103 Pd sources due to the long radioactive decay half-life of 125 I. The effect of edema on PIB using 131 Cs or 103 Pd was similar. The effect of edema on 103 Pd PIB was slightly greater, even though the decay half-life of 103 Pd (17 days) is

  16. Adaptive chaos control and synchronization in only locally Lipschitz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei

    2008-01-01

    In the existing results on chaos control and synchronization based on the adaptive controlling technique (ACT), a uniform Lipschitz condition on a given dynamical system is always assumed in advance. However, without this uniform Lipschitz condition, the ACT might be failed in both theoretical analysis and in numerical experiment. This Letter shows how to utilize the ACT to get a rigorous control for the system which is not uniformly Lipschitz but only locally Lipschitz, and even for the system which has unbounded trajectories. In fact, the ACT is proved to possess some limitation, which is actually induced by the nonlinear degree of the original system. Consequently, a piecewise ACT is proposed so as to improve the performance of the existing techniques

  17. Software for the Local Control and Instrumentation System for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    There are nine different systems requiring over fifty computers in the Local Control and Instrumentation System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Each computer system consists of an LSI-11/2 processor with 32,000 words of memory, a serial driver that implements the CAMAC serial highway protocol. With this large number of systems it is important that as much software as possible be common to all systems. A serial communications system has been developed for data transfers between the LSI-11/2's and the supervisory computers. This system is based on the RS 232 C interface with modem control lines. Six modem control lines are used for hardware handshaking, which allows totally independent full duplex communications to occur. Odd parity on each byte and a 16-bit checksum are used to detect errors in transmission

  18. Control of group of mobile autonomous agents via local strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin GAO; Daizhan CHENG; Yiguang HONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the formation control problem of multi-agent systems in a distributed fashion.Two cases of the information propagating topologies among multiple agents,characterized by graphics model,are considered.One is fixed topology.The other is switching topology which represents the limited and less reliable information exchange.The local formation control strategies established in this paper are based on a simple modification of the existing consensus control strategies.Moreover,some existing convergence conditions ale shown to be a special case of our model even in the continuous-time consensus case.Therefore.the results of this paper extend the existing results about the consensus problem.

  19. The bifunctional autophagic flux by 2-deoxyglucose to control survival or growth of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong Yong; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Ki Cheong; Yun, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports using metabolism regulating drugs showed that nutrient deprivation was an efficient tool to suppress cancer progression. In addition, autophagy control is emerging to prevent cancer cell survival. Autophagy breaks down the unnecessary cytoplasmic components into anabolic units and energy sources, which are the most important sources for making the ATP that maintains homeostasis in cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) has been used as an anticancer reagent due to its inhibition of glycolysis. Prostate cancer cells (PC3) were treated with 2DG for 6 h or 48 h to analyze the changing of cell cycle and autophagic flux. Rapamycin and LC3B overexpressing vectors were administered to PC3 cells for autophagy induction and chloroquine and shBeclin1 plasmid were used to inhibit autophagy in PC3 cells to analyze PC3 cells growth and survival. The samples for western blotting were prepared in each culture condition to confirm the expression level of autophagy related and regulating proteins. We demonstrated that 2DG inhibits PC3 cells growth and had discriminating effects on autophagy regulation based on the different time period of 2DG treatment to control cell survival. Short-term treatment of 2DG induced autophagic flux, which increased microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) conversion rates and reduced p62 levels. However, 2DG induced autophagic flux is remarkably reduced over an extended time period of 2DG treatment for 48 h despite autophagy inducing internal signaling being maintained. The relationship between cell growth and autophagy was proved. Increased autophagic flux by rapamycin or LC3B overexpression powerfully reduced cell growth, while autophagy inhibition with shBeclin1 plasmid or chloroquine had no significant effect on regulating cell growth. Given these results, maintaining increased autophagic flux was more effective at inhibiting cancer cell progression than inhibition of

  20. Salivary gland carcinomas: prognostic factors for local control and distant metastasis, the role of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhaard, C.H.J.; Lubsen, H.; Tweel, I. van der; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Eijkenboom, W.M.H.; Marres, H.A.M.; Tjho-Heslinga, R.E.; Jong, J.M.A. de; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in which head and neck groups of all University hospitals and the two cancer institutes are represented, initiated a retrospective study concerning salivary gland carcinomas. A majority of Dutch patients with head and neck carcinomas are treated in the participating centres, and the follow-up is precise. Prognostic factors for local control and survival were studied, with special interest in the role of treatment and the role of histologic type. Methods and materials: Results were obtained of 568 patients with a mean follow-up time of 5 years. The parotid gland was involved in 59%, the submandibular gland in 14%, oral cavity in 24% and 3% was located elsewhere. Mean age was 59 years (range 8-100 yr), 48% was female. T-stage was T 1 in 27%, T 2 in 44%, T 3 in 19% and T 4 in 11%. Positive necknodes were seen in 15%, 3% was initially M 1 . Histologic type was acinic cell carcinoma in 12%, mucoepidermoid ca. in 16%, adenoid cystic ca. in 26%, adenoca. in 24%, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma in 8%, squamous cell ca. in 6% and undifferentiated ca. in 7%. Resection margins were radical in 37%, close in 20% and irradical in 40% (3% unknown). Surgery was the primary treatment in 501 patients, combined with postoperative radiotherapy (50-70 Gy, mean dose 62 Gy) in 389 patients. Radiotherapy was the primary treatment in 40 patients (18 M 1 , 30% N+), 20 patients were not treated and 7 patients were treated otherwise. For statistical analysis the Cox PH regression analysis was used (SPSS-PC+). Results: Actuarial local control after 8 years was 80% for surgery alone and 92% for the combined modality (in which more advanced cases prevaled). Independent factors for local control in the surgery±radiotherapy group were: I:T-stage (T 3 vs T 1-2 : RR 3.7; T 4 vs T 1-2 : RR 11.7), II: anatomic site (oral cavity vs parotid and submandibular gland: RR 0.2) and III: treatment modality (surgery alone vs surgery

  1. Localization of the brainstem GABAergic neurons controlling paradoxical (REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sapin

    Full Text Available Paradoxical sleep (PS is a state characterized by cortical activation, rapid eye movements and muscle atonia. Fifty years after its discovery, the neuronal network responsible for the genesis of PS has been only partially identified. We recently proposed that GABAergic neurons would have a pivotal role in that network. To localize these GABAergic neurons, we combined immunohistochemical detection of Fos with non-radioactive in situ hybridization of GAD67 mRNA (GABA synthesis enzyme in control rats, rats deprived of PS for 72 h and rats allowed to recover after such deprivation. Here we show that GABAergic neurons gating PS (PS-off neurons are principally located in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG and the dorsal part of the deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus immediately ventral to it (dDpMe. Furthermore, iontophoretic application of muscimol for 20 min in this area in head-restrained rats induced a strong and significant increase in PS quantities compared to saline. In addition, we found a large number of GABAergic PS-on neurons in the vlPAG/dDPMe region and the medullary reticular nuclei known to generate muscle atonia during PS. Finally, we showed that PS-on neurons triggering PS localized in the SLD are not GABAergic. Altogether, our results indicate that multiple populations of PS-on GABAergic neurons are distributed in the brainstem while only one population of PS-off GABAergic neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDpMe region exist. From these results, we propose a revised model for PS control in which GABAergic PS-on and PS-off neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDPMe region play leading roles.

  2. Political control and perceptions of corruption in Icelandic local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Political control is an important value of democratic governance and without it democratic accountability can hardly mean much. This is why a number of authors have seen politicization of public service appointments and greater control by the centre as a potential counterweight against trends in recent decades towards more networked and less hierarchical organizational forms of directing public policy. It may help to reassert democratic control. The option of strengthening political control, however, has not been much studied with regard to its likely effects on corruption. Power has the potential to corrupt unless adequately controlled and strengthening political power in a networked environment may create a structure of temptation which conventional deterrents to corruption are unable to curb. The impact of strong political leadership on corruption is here studied in the context of Icelandic local government, making use of institutional variations in the office of Mayor, which provide a unique opportunity for testing the effects of strong political control on corruption. The analysis indicates that municipalities with strong political mayors are likely to be associated with perceptions of corruption even when other factors, such as the structure of temptation and deterrents, are accounted for.

  3. Enhanced Control for Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierren, C.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Perry, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) experiments on Pegasus rely upon programmable control of a 250 MVA modular power supply system that drives the electromagnets and helicity injection systems. Precise control of the central solenoid is critical to experimental campaigns that test the LHI Taylor relaxation limit and the coupling efficiency of LHI-produced plasmas to Ohmic current drive. Enhancement and expansion of the present control system is underway using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology for digital logic and control, coupled to new 10 MHz optical-to-digital transceivers for semiconductor level device communication. The system accepts optical command signals from existing analog feedback controllers, transmits them to multiple devices in parallel H-bridges, and aggregates their status signals for fault detection. Present device-level multiplexing/de-multiplexing and protection logic is extended to include bridge-level protections with the FPGA. An input command filter protects against erroneous and/or spurious noise generated commands that could otherwise cause device failures. Fault registration and response times with the FPGA system are 25 ns. Initial system testing indicates an increased immunity to power supply induced noise, enabling plasma operations at higher working capacitor bank voltage. This can increase the applied helicity injection drive voltage, enable longer pulse lengths and improve Ohmic loop voltage control. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  4. Highly tunable local gate controlled complementary graphene device performing as inverter and voltage controlled resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Ya; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-10-04

    Using single-layer CVD graphene, a complementary field effect transistor (FET) device is fabricated on the top of separated back-gates. The local back-gate control of the transistors, which operate with low bias at room temperature, enables highly tunable device characteristics due to separate control over electrostatic doping of the channels. Local back-gating allows control of the doping level independently of the supply voltage, which enables device operation with very low VDD. Controllable characteristics also allow the compensation of variation in the unintentional doping typically observed in CVD graphene. Moreover, both p-n and n-p configurations of FETs can be achieved by electrostatic doping using the local back-gate. Therefore, the device operation can also be switched from inverter to voltage controlled resistor, opening new possibilities in using graphene in logic circuitry.

  5. The effect of initial density and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate on classical biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yanni; Tang Sanyi

    2008-01-01

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interaction of a parasitoid and its host. The host-parasitoid systems have identified several important and general factors affecting the long-term dynamics of interacting populations. However, much less is known about how the initial densities of host-parasitoid populations affect the biological control as well as the stability of host-parasitoid systems. To do this, the classical Nicholson-Bailey model with host self-regulation and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate is used to uncover the effect of initial densities on the successful biological control. The results indicate that the simplest Nicholson-Bailey model has various coexistence with a wide range of parameters, including boundary attractors where the parasitoid population is absent and interior attractors where host-parasitoid coexists. The final stable states of host-parasitoid populations depend on their initial densities as well as their ratios, and those results are confirmed by basins of attraction of initial densities. The results also indicate that the parasitoid intergenerational survival rate increases the stability of the host-parasitoid systems. Therefore, the present research can help us to further understand the dynamical behavior of host-parasitoid interactions, to improve the classical biological control and to make management decisions

  6. Impact of biochemical failure on overall survival after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer in the PSA era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.; Patel, Chandrika; Elshaikh, Mohamed; Reddy, Chandana A.; Zippe, Craig; Klein, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of biochemical failure on overall survival rates during the first 10 years after definitive radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The analysis was performed on 936 cases treated at a single institution between 1986 and 1998 with definitive radiotherapy. The median age of treatment was 69 years (range: 46-86 years). Pretreatment PSA levels (iPSA) and biopsy Gleason scores (bGS) were available for all cases. The clinical stage was T1/T2A in 63%, T2B/C in 27%, and T3 in 10%. The median iPSA level was 9.6 ng/mL (range: 0.4-692.9 ng/mL). The iPSA was ≤10 in 53% and >10 in 47%. The bGS was ≤6 in 59% and ≥7 in 41%. Androgen deprivation (AD) was administered in 181 cases (19%) for a median duration of 6 months (range: 1-6 months). All 181 cases received AD neoadjuvantly, i.e., before and/or during the radiotherapy. No AD was delivered after the completion of radiation. The median radiation dose was 70 Gy (range: 60-78 Gy). The radiotherapy technique was conformal in 376 (40%) cases. The American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition of biochemical failure (bF) was used; 316 cases (34%) had failed biochemically, and 620 (66%) had not. The end point was overall survival (OS). Time to death was determined from the time of definitive radiotherapy. The median PSA follow-up was 58 months. The median follow-up times for bF vs. no-bF cases were 77 and 49 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis of factors affecting OS using the proportional hazards model was performed for all cases using the following variables: age (>65 vs. ≤65 years), race (African-American vs. Caucasian), clinical T stage (T1-2A vs. T2B-C vs. T3), bGS (≤6 vs. 7 vs. ≥8), iPSA (continuous variable), use of AD (yes vs. no), year of therapy (continuous variable), radiation dose (continuous variable), radiation technique (conformal vs. standard), and biochemical failure (yes vs. no). Results: The 5-year OS rate for the

  7. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  8. [The survival and development conditions of community-based organizations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among men who have sex with men in three Chinese cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Shan, Duo; Qi, Jinlei; Ouyang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jie; Sun, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the survival and development conditions of community-based organizations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chinese cities including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Chongqing. This study employed both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (questionnaire survey) methods to obtain information from 15 MSM CBOs in three Chinese cities. The mean work time of the 15 CBOs for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among MSM was 6.7 years (2.1-11.3 years), and the majority of their funds was from international cooperation projects (80 447 000 RMB, 73.0%) from 2006 to 2013. The survival cost of MSM CBOs apart from expenditure of activities was 2 240-435 360 RMB per year. As it was shown in the graph, the survival and development of MSM CBOs was closely related to the development of international cooperation projects. There was a few small size MSM CBOs taking part in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and their work content was limited before 2006. From 2006 to 2008, some international cooperation projects were launched in China, such as the China Global Fund AIDS project and the China-Gates Foundation HIV Prevention Cooperation program. As a result, the number of MSM CBOs was increased sharply, and both the scale and 2012, the performance of these programs further promote the establishment of new MSM CBOs and the development of all MSM CBOs with regard to the work places, full-time staffs, work contents, work patterns and the specific targeted population. After 2012, most international cooperation programs were completed and the local department of disease prevention and control continued to cooperate with MSM CBOs. However, the degree of support funds from the local department was different among different regions. Where the funds were below the half of program funds, the development of MSM CBOs ceased and work slowed down. Besides, there were still some constraints for the survival and development of MSM CBOs, such

  9. Typing Local Control and State Using Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Arjun; Saftoiu, Claudiu; Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Programs written in scripting languages employ idioms that confound conventional type systems. In this paper, we highlight one important set of related idioms: the use of local control and state to reason informally about types. To address these idioms, we formalize run-time tags and their relationship to types, and use these to present a novel strategy to integrate typing with flow analysis in a modular way. We demonstrate that in our separation of typing and flow analysis, each component remains conventional, their composition is simple, but the result can handle these idioms better than either one alone.

  10. Survival advantage by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in locally advanced non-inflammatory breast cancer; Ueberlebensvorteil durch praeoperative Radiochemotherapie beim lokal fortgeschrittenen, nicht-inflammatorischen Brustkrebs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Innokenti

    2011-07-01

    This study compares retrospectively, in terms of pathological complete response (pCR) and ten year survival rate, preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) with postoperative RCT for locally advanced or surgically in terms of breast conserving surgery or simple mastectomy unfavourable, non inflammatory breast cancers (LABC).

  11. Impact of weight loss on survival after chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck Cancer: secondary results of a randomized phase III trial (SAKK 10/94)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Hayoz, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Frank; Bodis, Stephan; Kaul, David; Badakhshi, Harun; Bernier, Jacques; Studer, Gabriela; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Budach, Volker; Aebersold, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the impact of weight loss before and during chemoradiation on survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. From 07/1994-07/2000 a total of 224 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were randomized to either hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone or the same radiation therapy combined with two cycles of concomitant cisplatin. The primary endpoint was time to any treatment failure (TTF); secondary endpoints were locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS). Patient weight was measured 6 months before treatment, at treatment start and treatment end. The proportion of patients with >5% weight loss was 32% before, and 51% during treatment, and the proportion of patients with >10% weight loss was 12% before, and 17% during treatment. After a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range, 0.1 – 15.4 years) weight loss before treatment was associated with decreased TTF, LRRFS, DMFS, cancer specific survival and OS in a multivariable analysis. However, weight loss during treatment was not associated with survival outcomes. Weight loss before and during chemoradiation was commonly observed. Weight loss before but not during treatment was associated with worse survival

  12. Local system for control by console-mobile crane for russian depository of fissionable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshchenko, V.G.; Kapustin, V.N.; Zinina, N.V.; Derbyshev, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Description of crane of console-mobile type used for transportation of fissionable materials in depository with local control system is represented. Local control system realizes program control in real time [ru

  13. Spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2009-05-01

    Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners' head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.

  14. Environmental control of phase transition and polyp survival of a massive-outbreaker jellyfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Prieto

    Full Text Available A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa. Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records.

  15. Impact of radiation therapy fraction size on local control of early glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Edward; Shenouda, George; Beaudet, Marie P.; Black, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Different radiotherapy fractionation schedules were used over a 10-year period to treat patients with early squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cords at McGill University. A retrospective analysis was performed to study the effect of fraction size on local control in this group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 previously untreated patients with T1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the true vocal cords were irradiated between January 1978 and December 1988 in the Department of Radiation Oncology at McGill University. All patients received megavoltage irradiation, 94 patients received daily fractions > 2 Gy (64 patients received 50 Gy with once-daily 2.5-Gy fractions, and 30 received 65.25 Gy in 29 fractions of 2.25 Gy each), and 32 patients were treated to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 2 Gy/fraction. Patients' characteristics of prognostic importance were equally distributed between the two fractionation groups. Results: At a median follow-up of 84 months, the 10-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 76% and 93%, respectively. Local control for patients treated with > 2 Gy fraction was 84%, compared to 65.6% for those treated with 2-Gy fractions (p = 0.026). Among the prognostic factors tested, such as gender, age, stage, anterior and posterior commissure involvement, smoking history, and fraction size, the latter was the only significant predictor of local control for the whole group of patients in univariate (p = 0.041) and multivariate (p = 0.023) analysis. There was no observed difference in the incidence of complications between the two fraction groups. Conclusions: From the results of this retrospective review of patients treated with radiotherapy for T1 true vocal cord cancer, and within the range of total doses and overall treatment times used in our patients, it was found that fractionation schedules using daily fraction size > 2 Gy are associated with a better local control than schedules delivering 2 Gy

  16. Edge localized modes control by resonant magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, E.

    2007-10-01

    The present work is dedicated to one of the most promising methods of control of the ELMs (Edge Localized Modes), based on a system of coils producing Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs). Our main objectives are, on the one hand, to improve the physical understanding of the mechanisms at play, and on the other hand to propose a concrete design of ELMs control coils for ITER. In order to calculate and analyze the magnetic perturbations produced by a given set of coils, we have developed the ERGOS code. The first ERGOS calculation was for the DIII-D ELMs control coils, the I-coils. It showed that they produce magnetic islands chains which overlap at the edge of the plasma, resulting in the ergodization of the magnetic field. We have then used ERGOS for the modelling of the experiments on ELMs control using the error field correction coils at JET and MAST. In the case of JET, we have shown the existence of a correlation between the mitigation of the ELMs and the ergodization of the magnetic field at the edge, in agreement with the DIII-D result. In order to design the ELMs control coils for ITER we have used ERGOS intensively, taking the case of the DIII-D I-coils as a reference. Three candidate designs came out, which we presented at the ITER Design Review, in 2007. Recently, the ITER management decided to provide a budget for building ELMs control coils, the design of which remains to be chosen between two of the three options that we proposed. Finally, in order to understand better the non-linear magnetohydrodynamics phenomena taking place in ELMs control by RMPs, we performed numerical simulations, in particular with the JOREK code for a DIII-D case. The simulations reveal the existence of convection cells induced at the edge by the magnetic perturbations, and the possible screening of the RMPs in presence of rotation

  17. Relationship Between Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival After Induction Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Carcinoma: A Subset Analysis of TAX 324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Posner, Marshall R.; Tishler, Roy B.; Sarlis, Nicholas J.; Haddad, Robert I.; Holupka, Edward J.; Devlin, Phillip M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of ≥ 70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary (≤ 8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Results: A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p = 0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p = 0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential

  18. Relationship Between Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival After Induction Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Carcinoma: A Subset Analysis of TAX 324

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Posner, Marshall R. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sarlis, Nicholas J. [Sanofi-Aventis US, Bridgewater, NJ (United States); Haddad, Robert I. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Holupka, Edward J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); Devlin, Phillip M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of {>=} 70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary ({<=} 8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Results: A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p = 0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p = 0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential

  19. Relationship between radiation treatment time and overall survival after induction chemotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma: a subset analysis of TAX 324.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, David J; Posner, Marshall R; Tishler, Roy B; Sarlis, Nicholas J; Haddad, Robert I; Holupka, Edward J; Devlin, Phillip M

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of ≥70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary (≤8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p=0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p=0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential for optimizing OS in LAHNC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  20. Differences in clinical characteristics and disease-free survival for Latino, African American, and non-Latino white men with localized prostate cancer: data from CaPSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, David M; Elkin, Eric P; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Sadetsky, Natalia; Duchane, Janeen; Carroll, Peter R

    2006-02-15

    Few studies of ethnicity and prostate cancer have included Latino men in analyses of baseline clinical characteristics, treatment selection, and disease-free survival (DFS). The present study examines the impact of Latino ethnicity on these parameters in a large, multiinstitutional database of men with prostate cancer. We compared baseline disease characteristics and clinical outcomes for Latino (N = 138), non-Latino White (NLW, N = 5619), and African-American (AA, N = 608) men with localized prostate cancer by using chi-square and ANOVA for baseline variables and survival analysis to examine differences in time to recurrence. Latino men resembled AA men more than NLW on sociodemographic characteristics. AA men had higher Gleason scores and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis than Latino or NLW men (both P Latino and AA men presented with advanced disease (T3b/T4/N+/M+) versus 4% of NLW (P Latino men did not receive different treatments than NLW or AA men after controlling for clinical and demographic factors; however, AA men were more likely to receive external beam radiation (OR = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-2.31) and hormone treatment (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.32) then NLW men. For prostatectomy patients, 3-year actuarial DFS rates were 83% for NLW men and 86% for Latino men versus 69% for AA men (P Latinos are more similar to African Americans on sociodemographic characteristics but more similar to NLW on clinical presentation, treatments received, and DFS. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  1. The effect of delayed postoperative irradiation on local control of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity and torso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, David L.; Einck, John; Hunt, Karen; Bruckner, James; Conrad, Ernest; Koh, W.-J.; Laramore, George E.

    2002-01-01

    for postoperative radiation negatively impacted distant relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, or overall survival. Patterns of failure analysis revealed that 11/12 disease failures in the long-delay group had a local component, with five patients presenting with solitary local recurrences. Severe chronic radiation-related soft tissue or peripheral nerve morbidity was infrequent (5/58 or 8.6%) and similar in both groups. Conclusions: Postoperative radiation delays of 4 months or greater were associated with inferior local disease control for intermediate- and high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity and torso. Our results suggest that timing postoperative radiation before postoperative chemotherapy may optimize local therapy for such patients without adversely affecting distant disease control, long-term morbidity, or overall survival. Prospective testing of this hypothesis is warranted

  2. High speed, locally controlled data acquisition system for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.K.; Bradish, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A high speed, locally controlled, data acquisition and transmission system has been developed by the CICADA (Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition) Group for extracting certain timecritical data during a TFTR pulse and passing it to the control room, 1000 feet distant, to satisfy realtime requirements of frequently sampled variables. The system is designed to utilize any or all of the standard CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) modules now employed on the CAMAC links for retrieval of the main body of data, but to operate them in a much faster manner than in a standard CAMAC system. To do this, a pre-programmable ROM sequencer is employed as a controller to transmit commands to the modules at intervals down to one microsecond, replacing the usual CAMAC dedicated computer, and increasing the command rate by an order of magnitude over what could be sent down a Branch Highway. Data coming from any number of channels originating within a single CAMAC ''crate'' is then time-multiplexed and transmitted over a single conductor pair in bi-phase at a 2.5 MHz bit rate using Manchester coding techniques. Benefits gained from this approach include: Reduction in the number of conductors required, elimination of line-to-line skew found in parallel transmission systems, and the capability of being transformer coupled or transmitted over a fiber optic cable to avoid safety hazards and ground loops. The main application for this system so far has been as the feedback path in this closed loop control of currents through the Tokamak's field coils. The paper will treat the system's various applications

  3. Suspected survivor bias in case-control studies: stratify on survival time and use a negative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rein, Nienke; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Rosendaal, Frits R; Reitsma, Pieter H; Lijfering, Willem M

    2014-02-01

    Selection bias in case-control studies occurs when control selection is inappropriate. However, selection bias due to improper case sampling is less well recognized. We describe how to recognize survivor bias (i.e., selection on exposed cases) and illustrate this with an example study. A case-control study was used to analyze the effect of statins on major bleedings during treatment with vitamin K antagonists. A total of 110 patients who experienced such bleedings were included 18-1,018 days after the bleeding complication and matched to 220 controls. A protective association of major bleeding for exposure to statins (odds ratio [OR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.29-1.08) was found, which did not become stronger after adjustment for confounding factors. These observations lead us to suspect survivor bias. To identify this bias, results were stratified on time between bleeding event and inclusion, and repeated for a negative control (an exposure not related to survival): blood group non-O. The ORs for exposure to statins increased gradually to 1.37 with shorter time between outcome and inclusion, whereas ORs for the negative control remained constant, confirming our hypothesis. We recommend the presented method to check for overoptimistic results, that is, survivor bias in case-control studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Local control rate and prognosis after sequential chemoradiation for small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Richard P.; Meinhardt, Wim; Poel, Henk G. van der; Rhijn, Bas W. van; Kerst, J. Martijn; Pos, Floris J.; Horenblas, Simon; Bex, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the long-term outcome and the risk for local recurrence of patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by external beam radiotherapy (sequential chemoradiation). All consecutive patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder (n=66), treated in our institution between 1993 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated from an institutional database. Only patients with limited disease (Tx-4N0-1M0) small cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with sequential chemoradiation (n=27) were included in this study. Recurrence rates, overall survival and cancer-specific survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Median time to recurrence was 20 months, median overall survival 26 months, 5-year overall survival 22.2%, median cancer-specific survival 47 months and 5-year cancer-specific survival 39.6%. For complete responders after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n=19), median cancer-specific survival was 52 months with a 5-year cancer-specific survival 45.9% versus a median cancer-specific survival of 22 months and 5-year cancer-specific survival 0.0% for incomplete responders (n=8; P=0.034). Eight patients (29.6%) underwent transurethral resections (TUR-BT) for local recurrences in the bladder. At the end of follow up, four patients had undergone cystectomy for recurrence of disease resulting in a bladder-preservation rate of 85.2%. Median time to local recurrence was 29 months and median time to distant recurrence was 10 months. Sequential chemoradiation for limited disease small cell carcinoma of the bladder results in a reasonable outcome with a high bladder preservation rate. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy represents a significant prognostic factor in this patient population. (author)

  5. Controllable photon and phonon localization in optomechanical Lieb lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liang-Liang; Lü, Xin-You; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying

    2017-07-24

    The Lieb lattice featuring flat band is not only important in strongly-correlated many-body physics, but also can be utilized to inspire new quantum devices. Here we propose an optomechanical Lieb lattice, where the flat-band physics of photon-phonon polaritons is demonstrated. The tunability of the band structure of the optomechanical arrays allows one to obtain an approximate photon or phonon flat band as well as the transition between them. This ultimately leads to the result that the controllable photon or phonon localization could be realized by the path interference effects. This study offers an alternative approach to explore the exotic photon and phonon many-body effects, which has potential applications in the future hybrid-photon-phonon quantum network and engineering new type solid-state quantum devices.

  6. Controlling Anderson localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernández, David; Smolka, Stephan; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Quantum optics and quantum information technologies require enhancement of light-matter interaction by, for example, confining light in a small volume. A very recently demonstrated route towards light confinement makes use of multiple scattering of light and wave interference in disordered photonic...... structures [1,2]. Originally proposed for electrons by P. W. Anderson [3], only completely random systems without any long-range correlation between the scattering sites have been used so far, meaning that the Anderson-localized modes cannot be controlled. In disordered photonic crystals, these modes...... denoted by ng. By coupling light into a PCW with a tapered fiber (Fig. 1a), we have measured the ensemble-averaged exponential decay of the light distribution in the range 885 nm

  7. Novel radiosensitizers for locally advanced epithelial tumors: inhibition of the PI3K/Akt survival pathway in tumor cells and in tumor-associated endothelial cells as a novel treatment strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesterer, Oliver; Tenzer, Angela; Zingg, Daniel; Hofstetter, Barbara; Vuong, Van; Pruschy, Martin; Bodis, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    In locally advanced epithelial malignancies, local control can be achieved with high doses of radiotherapy (RT). Concurrent chemoradiotherapy can improve tumor control in selected solid epithelial adult tumors; however, treatment-related toxicity is of major concern and the therapeutic window often small. Therefore, novel pharmacologic radiosensitizers with a tumor-specific molecular target and a broad therapeutic window are attractive. Because of clonal heterogeneity and the high mutation rate of these tumors, combined treatment with single molecular target radiosensitizers and RT are unlikely to improve sustained local tumor control substantially. Therefore, radiosensitizers modulating entire tumor cell survival pathways in epithelial tumors are of potential clinical use. We discuss the preclinical efficacy and the mechanism of three different, potential radiosensitizers targeting the PTEN/PI3K/Akt survival pathway. These compounds were initially thought to act as single-target agents against growth factor receptors (PKI 166 and PTK 787) or protein kinase C isoforms (PKC 412). We describe an additional target for these compounds. PKI 166 (an epidermal growth factor [EGF] receptor inhibitor) and PKC 412, target the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway mainly in tumor cells, and PTK 787 (a vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] receptor inhibitor) in endothelial cells. Even for these broader range molecular radiosensitizers, the benefit could be restricted to human epithelial tumor cell clones with a distinct molecular profile. Therefore, these potential radiosensitizers have to be carefully tested in specific model systems before introduction in early clinical trials

  8. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of glomus jugulare tumors. Local control, toxicity, symptomatology, and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G.; Sitter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For glomus jugulare tumors, the goal of treatment is microsurgical excision. To minimize postoperative neurologic deficits, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was performed as an alternative treatment option. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) could be a further alternative. This study aims at the assessment of local control, side effects, and quality of life (QoL). Patients and Methods: Between 1999-2005, 17 patients were treated with SRT. 11/17 underwent previous operations. 6/17 received primary SRT. Treatment was delivered by a linear accelerator with 6-MV photons. Median cumulative dose was 57.0 Gy. Local control, radiologic regression, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated half-yearly by clinical examination and MRI scans. QoL was assessed by Short Form-36 (SF-36). Results: Median follow-up was 40 months. Freedom from progression and overall survival for 5 years were 100% and 93.8%. Radiologic regression was seen in 5/16 cases, 11/16 patients were stable. Median tumor shrinkage was 17.9% (p = 0.14). Severe acute toxicity (grade 3-4) or any late toxicity was never seen. Main symptoms improved in 9/16 patients, 7/16 were stable. QoL was not affected in patients receiving primary SRT. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with less side effects, especially in cases of large tumors, morbidity, or recurrences after incomplete resections. (orig.)

  9. Predictors of Individual Tumor Local Control After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; DeWees, Todd; Simpson, Joseph R.; Huang, Jiayi; Drzymala, Robert E.; Barani, Igor J.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Rich, Keith M.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control rates and predictors of individual tumor local control for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Between June 1998 and May 2011, 401 brain metastases in 228 patients were treated with Gamma Knife single-fraction SRS. Local failure was defined as an increase in lesion size after SRS. Local control was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify an optimal cutpoint for conformality index relative to local control. A P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Median age was 60 years (range, 27-84 years). There were 66 cerebellar metastases (16%) and 335 supratentorial metastases (84%). The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 14-24 Gy). Median overall survival from time of SRS was 12.1 months. The estimated local control at 12 months was 74%. On multivariate analysis, cerebellar location (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94, P=.009), larger tumor volume (HR 1.09, P<.001), and lower conformality (HR 0.700, P=.044) were significant independent predictors of local failure. Conformality index cutpoints of 1.4-1.9 were predictive of local control, whereas a cutpoint of 1.75 was the most predictive (P=.001). The adjusted Kaplan-Meier 1-year local control for conformality index ≥1.75 was 84% versus 69% for conformality index <1.75, controlling for tumor volume and location. The 1-year adjusted local control for cerebellar lesions was 60%, compared with 77% for supratentorial lesions, controlling for tumor volume and conformality index. Conclusions: Cerebellar tumor location, lower conformality index, and larger tumor volume were significant independent predictors of local failure after SRS for brain metastases from NSCLC. These results warrant further investigation in a prospective

  10. Notch controls the survival of memory CD4+ T cells by regulating glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yoichi; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-ichi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Yagita, Hideo; Yasutomo, Koji

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells differentiate into memory T cells that protect the host from subsequent infection. In contrast, autoreactive memory CD4+ T cells harm the body by persisting in the tissues. The underlying pathways controlling the maintenance of memory CD4+ T cells remain undefined. We show here that memory CD4+ T cell survival is impaired in the absence of the Notch signaling protein known as recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin κ J region (Rbpj). Treatment of mice with a Notch inhibitor reduced memory CD4+ T cell numbers and prevented the recurrent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Rbpj-deficient CD4+ memory T cells exhibit reduced glucose uptake due to impaired AKT phosphorylation, resulting in low Glut1 expression. Treating mice with pyruvic acid, which bypasses glucose uptake and supplies the metabolite downstream of glucose uptake, inhibited the decrease of autoimmune memory CD4+ T cells in the absence of Notch signaling, suggesting memory CD4+ T cell survival relies on glucose metabolism. Together, these data define a central role for Notch signaling in maintaining memory CD4+ T cells through the regulation of glucose uptake.

  11. Gamma knife radiosurgery of radiation-induced intracranial tumors: Local control, outcomes, and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Ashley W.; Brown, Paul D.; Pollock, Bruce E.; Stafford, Scott L.; Link, Michael J.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Foote, Robert L.; Gorman, Deborah A.; Schomberg, Paula J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine local control (LC) and complication rates for patients who underwent radiosurgery for radiation-induced intracranial tumors. Methods and Materials: Review of a prospectively maintained database (2,714 patients) identified 16 patients (20 tumors) with radiation-induced tumors treated with radiosurgery between 1990 and 2004. Tumor types included typical meningioma (n = 17), atypical meningioma (n = 2), and schwannoma (n 1). Median patient age at radiosurgery was 47.5 years (range, 27-70 years). The median tumor margin dose was 16 Gy (range, 12-20 Gy). Median follow-up was 40.2 months (range, 10.8-146.2 months). Time-to-event outcomes were calculated with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results: Three-year and 5-year LC rates were 100%. Three-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 92% and 80%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 3 and 5 years were 100%. Three patients died: 1 had in-field progression 65.1 months after radiosurgery and later died of the tumor, 1 died of progression of a preexisting brain malignancy, and 1 died of an unrelated cause. One patient had increased seizure activity that correlated with development of edema seen on neuroimaging. Conclusions: LC, survival, and complication rates in our series are comparable to those in previous reports of radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas. Also, LC rates with radiosurgery are at least comparable to those of surgical series for radiation-induced meningiomas. Radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment option for radiation-induced intracranial tumors, most of which are typical meningiomas

  12. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  13. Effects of environmental factors on child survival in Bangladesh: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A; Chakraborty, J; Chowdhury, J T; Chowdhury, U K; Ali, M; el Arifeen, S; Sack, R B

    1999-03-01

    The need for further studies on relationships between deaths and environmental variables has been reported in the literature. This case-control study was, therefore, carried out to find out the associations between several social and environmental variables and deaths of children due to infectious diseases such as those leading to diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection, measles and other diseases. Six hundred and twenty-five deaths (cases) and an equal number of matched living children (controls) aged 1-59 months, were studied in rural Matlab. An analysis of crude and adjusted odds ratio showed differential associations. Sources of drinking water, amount of stored water, conditions of latrines, number of persons sleeping with the child and the type of cooking site were statistically significantly associated with deaths due to infectious diseases after controlling for breast feeding, immunization, and the family size. Significant associations were also observed between: (i) the sources of drinking water and deaths due to ARI, and (ii) conditions of latrines and deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases, after controlling for the confounding variables. Several other environmental factors also showed associations with these various death groups, but they were not statistically significant. The size of the samples in death groups (small) and the prevalence of more or less homogeneous environmental health conditions probably diminished the magnitude of the effects. The results of the study reconfirm the importance of environmental health intervention in child survival, irrespective of breast-feeding, immunization, and selected social variables.

  14. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine/cisplatin and methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin in patients with locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, J. T.; Maase, Hans von der; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare long-term survival in patients with locally advanced       and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium treated       with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) or       methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin (MVAC). PATIENTS AND       METHODS: Efficacy.......       CONCLUSIONS: Long-term overall and progression-free survival following       treatment with GC or MVAC are similar. These results strengthen the role       of GC as a standard of care in patients with locally advanced and       metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC)....

  15. Effect of External Boost Volume in Breast-Conserving Therapy on Local Control With Long-Term Follow-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobsen, Jan J.; Palen, Job van der; Ong, Francisca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of boost volume (BV) in relation to margin status and tumor size on the development of local recurrence with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1995, 1,073 patients with invasive breast cancer underwent 1,101 breast-conserving therapies. Of these 1,101 BCTs, 967 were eligible for analysis. The BV was categorized into tertiles: 3 (n = 330), 66-98 cm 3 (n = 326), and >98 cm 3 (n = 311). The median follow-up was 141 months. Separate analyses were done for women ≤40 years and >40 years. Results: No significant difference in local recurrence was shown between the tertiles and the recurrence site. The 15-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 87.9% for the first tertile, 88.7% for the second, and 89% for the third. For women ≤40 years old, the corresponding 15-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 80%, 74.5%, and 69.2%. For women >40 years old, the corresponding rate was 88.7%, 89.5%, and 90.9%. At 5 years, women >40 years old had significantly more local failures in the first tertile; this difference disappeared with time. A test for trend showed significance at 5 years (p = 0.0105) for positive margins for ductal carcinoma in situ in women >40 years of age. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the size of the external BV has no major impact on local control. For women >40 years old, positive margins for ductal carcinoma in situ showed a trend with respect to BV at 5 years. The BV had no influence on local control in the case of positive margins for invasive carcinoma

  16. Climate Controls AM Fungal Distributions from Global to Local Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, S. N.; Hawkes, C.; Muscarella, R.; Treseder, K. K.; Kazenel, M.; Lynn, J.; Rudgers, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have key functions in terrestrial biogeochemical processes; thus, determining the relative importance of climate, edaphic factors, and plant community composition on their geographic distributions can improve predictions of their sensitivity to global change. Local adaptation by AM fungi to plant hosts, soil nutrients, and climate suggests that all of these factors may control fungal geographic distributions, but their relative importance is unknown. We created species distribution models for 142 AM fungal taxa at the global scale with data from GenBank. We compared climate variables (BioClim and soil moisture), edaphic variables (phosphorus, carbon, pH, and clay content), and plant variables using model selection on models with (1) all variables, (2) climatic variables only (including soil moisture) and (3) resource-related variables only (all other soil parameters and NPP) using the MaxEnt algorithm evaluated with ENMEval. We also evaluated whether drivers of AM fungal distributions were phylogenetically conserved. To test whether global correlates of AM fungal distributions were reflected at local scales, we then surveyed AM fungi in nine plant hosts along three elevation gradients in the Upper Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA. At the global scale, the distributions of 55% of AM fungal taxa were affected by both climate and soil resources, whereas 16% were only affected by climate and 29% were only affected by soil resources. Even for AM fungi that were affected by both climate and resources, the effects of climatic variables nearly always outweighed those of resources. Soil moisture and isothermality were the main climatic and NPP and soil carbon the main resource related factors influencing AM fungal distributions. Distributions of closely related AM fungal taxa were similarly affected by climate, but not by resources. Local scale surveys of AM fungi across elevations confirmed that climate was a key driver of AM fungal

  17. Favorable Local Control From Consolidative Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Despite Gross Residual Disease, Positive Margins, or Nodal Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Matthew J., E-mail: mjferri@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Danish, Hasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deng, Claudia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); George, Bradley A.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Wasilewski, Karen J.; Cash, W. Thomas [Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K.; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38.8%) failed distantly; 4 of these patients also failed locally. One patient progressed locally without distant failure. Local control was 92.5%, and total disease control was 59.5%. No benefit was demonstrated for RT doses over 21.6 Gy with respect to local relapse–free survival (P=.55), disease-free survival (P=.22), or OS (P=.72). With respect to local relapse–free survival, disease-free survival, and OS, no disadvantage was seen for positive lymph nodes on surgical pathology, positive surgical margins, or gross residual disease. Of the patients with gross residual disease, 75% (6 of 8) went on to have no evidence of disease at time of last follow-up, and the 2 patients who failed did so distantly. Conclusions: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in this series maintained excellent local control, with no benefit demonstrated for radiation doses over 21.6 Gy, and no disadvantage demonstrated for gross residual disease after surgery, positive surgical margins, or pathologic lymph node positivity. Though the limitations of a retrospective review for an uncommon disease must be kept in mind, with small numbers in some of the subgroups, it seems that dose escalation should be considered only in exceptional circumstances.

  18. Radiotherapy in desmoid tumors. Treatment response, local control, and analysis of local failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santti, Kirsi; Beule, Annette; Tuomikoski, Laura; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Anna-Stina; Saarilahti, Kauko; Tarkkanen, Maija; Blomqvist, Carl [Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helsinki (Finland); Roenty, Mikko [HUSLAB and University of Helsinki, Department of Pathology, Helsinki (Finland); Ihalainen, Hanna [Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-04-15

    Desmoid tumors (aggressive fibromatosis) are rare soft tissue tumors which frequently recur after surgery. Desmoid tumors arise from musculoaponeurotic tissue in the extremities, head and neck, abdominal wall, or intra-abdominally. Our aim was to examine the outcome of radiotherapy of desmoid tumors in a single institution series. We evaluated 41 patients with desmoid tumors treated with 49 radiotherapies between 1987 and 2012. Radiologic images for response evaluation were reassessed and responses to treatment registered according to RECIST criteria 1.1. For patients with local failures radiation dose distribution was determined in each local failure volume using image co-registration. Recurrences were classified as in-target, marginal, or out-of-target. Prognostic factors for radiotherapy treatment failure were evaluated. Radiotherapy doses varied from 20-63 Gy (median 50 Gy) with a median fraction size of 2 Gy. The objective response rate to definitive radiotherapy was 55% (12/22 patients). Median time to response was 14 months. A statistically significant dose-response relation for definitive and postoperative radiotherapy was observed both in univariate (p-value 0.002) and in multivariate analysis (p-value 0.02) adjusted for potential confounding factors. Surgery before radiotherapy or surgical margin had no significant effect on time to progression. Nine of 11 (82%) local failures were classified as marginal and two of 11 (18%) in-target. None of the recurrences occurred totally out-of-target. Radiotherapy is a valuable option for treating desmoid tumors. Radiotherapy dose appears to be significantly associated to local control. (orig.) [German] Desmoide (aggressive Fibromatosen) sind seltene Weichteiltumore der muskulaeren Membranen von Kopf, Hals, Extremitaeten und Bauchwand. Ziel war es, die Wirksamkeit der Strahlentherapie bei aggressiver Fibromatose an einer einzelnen Klinik zu untersuchen. Ausgewertet wurden 41 Patienten mit aggressiver Fibromatose, die

  19. Decayed, missing and filled teeth and dental anomalies in long term survived leukemic children: a prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritano, D; Petruzzi, M; Baldoni, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective controlled study is the comparison between long-term children survived leukaemia and a control group in terms of the decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and dental anomalies. Study design: Fifty-two long term children survived leukaemia, aged from 8 to 15 years (27 females, 25 males; mean age 11.5 years) were evaluated for the possible effects of the anti-leukaemic therapy on dental development and compared to a control group of 52 healthy ...

  20. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Patterns of Failure and Predictors of Local Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Megan E.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Kozak, Margaret M.; Maxim, Peter G.; Murphy, James D.; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy W.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have evaluated the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity (OC). We report clinical outcomes and failure patterns for these patients. Methods and Materials: Between October 2002 and June 2009, 37 patients with newly diagnosed SCC of the OC underwent postoperative (30) or definitive (7) IMRT. Twenty-five patients (66%) received systemic therapy. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 10-87 months). The median interval from surgery to RT was 5.9 weeks (range, 2.1-10.7 weeks). Results: Thirteen patients experienced local-regional failure at a median of 8.1 months (range, 2.4-31.9 months), and 2 additional patients experienced local recurrence between surgery and RT. Seven local failures occurred in-field (one with simultaneous nodal and distant disease) and two at the margin. Four regional failures occurred, two in-field and two out-of-field, one with synchronous metastases. Six patients experienced distant failure. The 3-year actuarial estimates of local control, local-regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival were 67%, 53%, 81%, and 60% among postoperative patients, respectively, and 60%, 60%, 71%, and 57% among definitive patients. Four patients developed Grade ≥2 chronic toxicity. Increased surgery to RT interval predicted for decreased LRC (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Local-regional control for SCC of the OC treated with IMRT with or without surgery remains unsatisfactory. Definitive and postoperative IMRT have favorable toxicity profiles. A surgery-to-RT interval of <6 weeks improves local-regional control. The predominant failure pattern was local, suggesting that both improvements in target delineation and radiosensitization and/or dose escalation are needed.

  1. Local control of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: preoperative radiotherapy and cystectomy versus cystectomy alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Christopher J; Pollack, Alan; Zagars, Gunar K; Dinney, Colin P; Swanson, David A; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von

    1995-05-15

    Purpose: The role of preoperative radiotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer remains controversial. Since 1985, the primary modality for treatment of these patients at our institution has been radical cystectomy alone. Prior to that time, the use of preoperative radiotherapy and cystectomy had been the mainstay of treatment. In this retrospective review we compare the results of these treatments, focusing on local control. Methods and Materials: The preoperative radiotherapy and radical cystectomy (PREOP) group was comprised of 338 patients with muscle-invasive (Stages T2-T4) transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder treated between 1960 and 1983. A mean total dose of 49.3 {+-} 0.2 Gy ({+-} SE) was administered at 2 Gy per fraction 4-6 weeks prior to cystectomy. The radical cystectomy alone (CYST) group was comprised of 232 patients treated between 1985 and 1990. The median follow-up for the PREOP group was 91 months and for the CYST group was 54 months. Only those patients who completed planned PREOP (n = 301) and CYST (n = 220) treatments were included in the analyses described below. Results: The treatment groups were stratified by clinical stage and compared in terms of actuarial local control. There were no differences between the groups for Stage T2 or T3a patients, and there were not enough Stage T4 patients in the PREOP group with which to make a meaningful comparison. However, for those with T3b disease, actuarial 5 year local control for the PREOP group (n = 92) was 91%, compared to 72% for the CYST group (n = 43). This difference was significant at p = 0.003 (log rank). Patients with T3b disease who received PREOP also fared slightly better at 5 years in terms of freedom from distant metastasis (67% vs. 54%), disease freedom (59% vs. 47%), and overall survival (52% vs. 40%); although, these differences did not reach statistical significance. The distribution of prognostic factors in the groups was analyzed to determine if this could

  2. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Teel, David J; Peterson, William T; Baptista, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)) and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and a copepod community index (CCI)) accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70). However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value) compared with those based on

  3. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Miller

    Full Text Available Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE and a copepod community index (CCI accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70. However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value compared with

  4. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix

  5. Fault-tolerant design of local controller for the poloidal field converter control system on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jun; Fu, Peng; Gao, Ge; He, Shiying; Huang, Liansheng; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Xiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The requirements on the Local Control Cubicles (LCC) for ITER Poloidal Field Converter are analyzed. • Decoupled service-based software architecture is proposed to make control loops on LCC running at varying cycle-time. • Fault detection and recovery methods for the LCC are developed to enhance the system. • The performance of the LCC with or without fault-tolerant feature is tested and compared. - Abstract: The control system for the Poloidal Field (PF) on ITER is a synchronously networked control system, which has several kinds of computational controllers. The Local Control Cubicles (LCC) play a critical role in the networked control system for they are the interface to all input and output signals. Thus, some additional work must be done to guarantee the LCCs proper operation under influence of faults. This paper mainly analyzes the system demands of the LCCs and faults which have been encountered recently. In order to handle these faults, decoupled service-based software architecture has been proposed. Based on this architecture, fault detection and system recovery methods, such as redundancy and rejuvenation, have been incorporated to achieve a fault-tolerant private network with the aid of QNX operating system. Unlike the conventional method, this method requires no additional hardware and can be achieved relatively easily. To demonstrate effectiveness the LCCs have been successfully tested during the recent PF Converter Unit performance tests for ITER.

  6. Fault-tolerant design of local controller for the poloidal field converter control system on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jun; Fu, Peng; Gao, Ge; He, Shiying; Huang, Liansheng, E-mail: huangls@ipp.ac.cn; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Xiaojiao

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The requirements on the Local Control Cubicles (LCC) for ITER Poloidal Field Converter are analyzed. • Decoupled service-based software architecture is proposed to make control loops on LCC running at varying cycle-time. • Fault detection and recovery methods for the LCC are developed to enhance the system. • The performance of the LCC with or without fault-tolerant feature is tested and compared. - Abstract: The control system for the Poloidal Field (PF) on ITER is a synchronously networked control system, which has several kinds of computational controllers. The Local Control Cubicles (LCC) play a critical role in the networked control system for they are the interface to all input and output signals. Thus, some additional work must be done to guarantee the LCCs proper operation under influence of faults. This paper mainly analyzes the system demands of the LCCs and faults which have been encountered recently. In order to handle these faults, decoupled service-based software architecture has been proposed. Based on this architecture, fault detection and system recovery methods, such as redundancy and rejuvenation, have been incorporated to achieve a fault-tolerant private network with the aid of QNX operating system. Unlike the conventional method, this method requires no additional hardware and can be achieved relatively easily. To demonstrate effectiveness the LCCs have been successfully tested during the recent PF Converter Unit performance tests for ITER.

  7. Survival in Malnourished Older Patients Receiving Post-Discharge Nutritional Support; Long-Term Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelemaat, F; van Keeken, S; Langius, J A E; de van der Schueren, M A E; Thijs, A; Bosmans, J E

    2017-01-01

    Previous analyses have shown that a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention had positive effects on body weight, lean body mass, functional limitations and fall incidents in malnourished older patients. However, the impact of this intervention on survival has not yet been studied. The objective of this randomized controlled study was to examine the effect of a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention on survival in malnourished older patients. Malnourished older patients, aged ≥ 60 years, were randomized during hospitalization to a three-months post-discharge nutritional intervention group (protein and energy enriched diet, oral nutritional supplements, vitamin D3/calcium supplement and telephone counseling by a dietitian) or to a usual care regimen (control group). Survival data were collected 4 years after enrollment. Survival analyses were performed using intention-to-treat analysis by Log-rank tests and Cox regression adjusted for confounders. The study population consisted of 94 men (45%) and 116 women with a mean age of 74.5 (SD 9.5) years. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics. Survival data was available in 208 out of 210 patients. After 1 and 4 years of follow-up, survival rates were respectively 66% and 29% in the intervention group (n=104) and 73% and 30% in the control group (n=104). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between the two groups 1 year (HR= 0.933, 95% CI=0.675-1.289) and 4 years after enrollment (HR=0.928, 95% CI=0.671-1.283). The current study failed to show an effect of a three-months post-discharge multi-component nutritional intervention in malnourished older patients on long-term survival, despite the positive effects on short-term outcome such as functional limitations and falls.

  8. Adjuvant brachytherapy removes survival disadvantage of local disease extension in stage IIIC endometrial cancer: a SEER registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Peter J; Jani, Ashesh B; Horowitz, Ira R; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2008-01-01

    To assess the role of radiotherapy (RT) in women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer. The 17-registry Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was searched for patients with lymph node-positive non-Stage IV epithelial endometrial cancer diagnosed and treated between 1988 and 1998. Two subgroups were identified: those with organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and those with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. RT was coded as external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT). Observed survival (OS) was reported with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up; the survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. The therapy data revealed 611 women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer during this period. Of these women, 51% were treated with adjuvant EBRT, 21% with EBRT and BT, and 28% with no additional RT (NAT). Of the 611 patients, 293 had organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and 318 patients had Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. The 5-year OS rate for all patients was 40% with NAT, 56% after EBRT, and 64% after EBRT/BT. Adjuvant RT improved survival compared with NAT (p primary tumor was present, the addition of BT to EBRT was even more beneficial.

  9. Survival of pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and control with calcium oxide in frozen meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eun Young; Ko, Young Mi; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated both the level of microbial contamination and the presence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in frozen meat products, followed by the evaluation of its survival over 180 days under frozen temperature. We also examined the effect of calcium oxide on the populations of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC under both 10 °C and -18 °C storage conditions. Afterward, the morphological changes occurring in EHEC cells in response to freezer storage temperature and calcium oxide (CaO) treatments were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Among the frozen meat products tested, the highest contamination levels of total aerobic counts, coliforms and E. coli were observed in pork cutlets. Examination showed that 20% of the frozen meat products contained virulence genes, including verotoxin (VT) 1 and 2. Over 180 days of frozen storage and after 3 freeze-thaw cycles, the population of EHEC did not change regardless of the type of products or initial inoculated concentration, indicating the strong survival ability of EHEC. Subsequent testing revealed that the growth of three pathogenic E. coli strains was completely inhibited in meat patties prepared with 1% CaO, stored at 10 °C. However, the addition of 2% CaO was necessary to control the survival of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC in meat patties stored at -18 °C. CaO reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 more effectively than the other EHEC and EPEC strains at both 10 °C and -18 °C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that exposed EHEC cells were resistant to the freezer storage temperature, although some cells incurred injury and death after several freeze-thaw cycles. Most of the cells exposed to CaO were found to have died or lost their cellular integrity and membranes, indicating that CaO has the potential to be used as a powerful antimicrobial agent for manufacturing frozen meat products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival prognostic factors for patients with synchronous brain oligometastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma receiving local therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Xu, Jianlin; Yang, Haitang; Jin, Bo; Lou, Yuqing; Wu, Dan; Han, Baohui

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinical evidence for patients with synchronous brain oligometastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma is limited. We aimed to summarize the clinical data of these patients to explore the survival prognostic factors for this population. Methods From September 1995 to July 2011, patients with 1–3 synchronous brain oligometastases, who were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or surgical resection as the primary treatment, were identified at Shanghai Chest Hospital. Results A total of 76 patients (22 patients underwent brain surgery as primary treatment and 54 patients received SRS) were available for survival analysis. The overall survival (OS) for patients treated with SRS and brain surgery as the primary treatment were 12.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3–14.9) and 16.4 months (95% CI 8.8–24.1), respectively (adjusted hazard ratio =0.59, 95% CI 0.33–1.07, P=0.08). Among 76 patients treated with SRS or brain surgery, 21 patients who underwent primary tumor resection did not experience a significantly improved OS (16.4 months, 95% CI 9.6–23.2), compared with those who did not undergo resection (11.9 months, 95% CI 9.7–14.0; adjusted hazard ratio =0.81, 95% CI 0.46–1.44, P=0.46). Factors associated with survival benefits included stage I–II of primary lung tumor and solitary brain metastasis. Conclusion There was no significant difference in OS for patients with synchronous brain oligometastasis receiving SRS or surgical resection. Among this population, the number of brain metastases and stage of primary lung disease were the factors associated with a survival benefit. PMID:27471395

  11. Initial Stage Affects Survival Even After Complete Pathologic Remission is Achieved in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Analysis of 70 Patients With Pathologic Major Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Park, Seung-Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and factors predictive for recurrence and survival in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma who achieved pathologic complete response (PCR) or microscopic residual disease (MRD) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: Outcomes were assessed in 70 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who achieved pathologic major response (53 with PCR and 17 with MRD) after preoperative CRT. Results: At a median follow-up of 38.6 months for surviving patients, 17 of 70 patients (24.3%) experienced disease recurrence and 31 (44.3%) died. Clinical stage (II vs III; p = 0.013) and pathologic response (PCR vs. MRD; p = 0.014) were independent predictors of disease recurrence. Median overall survival (OS) was 99.6 months (95% CI, 44.1-155.1 months) and the 5-year OS rate was 57%. Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 71.5 months (95% CI, 39.5-103.6 months) and the 5-year RFS rate was 51.3%. Median OS of patients with Stage II and Stage III disease was 108.8 months and 39.9 months, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 68.2% and 27.0%, respectively (p = 0.0003). In a subgroup of patients with PCR, median OS and RFS were also significantly different according to clinical stage. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical stage was an independent predictor of RFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Even though patients achieved major response after preoperative CRT, pretreatment clinical stage is an important prognostic marker for recurrence and survival. Patients with MRD have an increased recurrence risk but similar survival compared with patients achieved PCR.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF A LOCAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIUM USING 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE THAT WAS USED FOR FIELD TRIAL TO ENHANCED WHITELEG SHRIMP (Litopenaeus vannamei SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tb. Haeru Rahayu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of local probiotics in the culture of aquatic organisms is increasing with the demand for more environmental-friendly aquaculture practices. The local bacterium isolate considered as a probiotic was added into the water of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture in a field trial. Four rectangular plastic ponds (ca. 20 m x 30 m per pond were used for 100 days experimentation for six consecutive crops in two years experiment. Survival, harvest size, feed conversion ratio (FCR and Vibrio bacterial count was compared with those of shrimp receiving and none of local isolate. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence shown those isolate was Bacillus pumilus strain DURCK14 with 99% homology. Water shrimp pond added a local isolate had significantly higher survival at about 10.0% to 11.7% than shrimp without added the isolate (p<0.05, and better FCR, but no significant different in shrimp harvest size. Vibrio bacterial was undetected by total plate count. Moreover, it shown better projected yields on an annual basis (three crops per year.

  13. Predicting bat colony survival under controls targeting multiple transmission routes of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A D; Stevens, D F; Blackwood, J C

    2016-11-21

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a lethal infection of bats caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Since the first cases of WNS were documented in 2006, it is estimated that as many as 5.5million bats have succumbed in the United States-one of the fastest mammalian die-offs due to disease ever observed, and the first known sustained epizootic of bats. WNS is contagious between bats, and mounting evidence suggests that a persistent environmental reservoir of Pd plays a significant role in transmission as well. It is unclear, however, the relative contributions of bat-to-bat and environment-to-bat transmission to disease propagation within a colony. We analyze a mathematical model to investigate the consequences of both avenues of transmission on colony survival in addition to the efficacy of disease control strategies. Our model shows that selection of the most effective control strategies is highly dependent on the primary route of WNS transmission. Under all scenarios, however, generalized culling is ineffective and while targeted culling of infected bats may be effective under idealized conditions, it primarily has negative consequences. Thus, understanding the significance of environment-to-bat transmission is paramount to designing effective management plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct lexical control of eye movements in reading: Evidence from a survival analysis of fixation durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Eyal M.; Reichle, Erik D.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; Sheridan, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Participants’ eye movements were monitored in an experiment that manipulated the frequency of target words (high vs. low) as well as their availability for parafoveal processing during fixations on the pre-target word (valid vs. invalid preview). The influence of the word-frequency by preview validity manipulation on the distributions of first fixation duration was examined by using ex-Gaussian fitting as well as a novel survival analysis technique which provided precise estimates of the timing of the first discernible influence of word frequency on first fixation duration. Using this technique, we found a significant influence of word frequency on fixation duration in normal reading (valid preview) as early as 145 ms from the start of fixation. We also demonstrated an equally rapid non-lexical influence on first fixation duration as a function of initial landing position (location) on target words. The time-course of frequency effects, but not location effects was strongly influenced by preview validity, demonstrating the crucial role of parafoveal processing in enabling direct lexical control of reading fixation times. Implications for models of eye-movement control are discussed. PMID:22542804

  15. Adoption of SO2 emission control technologies - An application of survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, Jialu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Using data on coal-fired electric power plants, this article investigates the contributing factors affecting the investment decisions on flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), a capital-intensive emission control technology. The paper makes two contributions to the literature. First, the public regulatory status of electric power plants is found to have a strong influence on whether FGD investment is made. Compared to deregulated power plants, those that are still under rate-of-return regulations by Public Utility Commissions are more likely to install FGD. Second, a higher rate of inspections of polluting facilities (not just electric utility power plants) in a state in the previous year is associated with a higher probability of power plants adopting FGD this year. In addition, sulfur content of coal and plant size are both positively associated with the likelihood of FGD installation. The service length of boilers is negatively associated with the likelihood. - Highlights: • Contributing factors affecting investment decisions on emission control devices. • A survival analysis framework is applied in estimation. • Data cover over 300 coal-fired electric utility power plants, 2002–2012. • Still-regulated power plants are more likely to install FGD than deregulated ones. • State-level inspection frequency leads to more FGD installation.

  16. T1/T2 glottic cancer managed by external beam radiotherapy - the influence of pretreatment hemoglobin on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warde, P.R.; O'Sullivan, B.; Panzarella, T.; Keane, T.J.; Gullane, P.; Payne, D.; Liu, F.-F.; McLean, M.; Waldron, J.; Cummings, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) level has been reported to be an important prognostic factor for local control and survival in various malignancies. However in many settings, the adverse effect of a low Hb may be related to more advanced disease and the purpose of this analysis was to assess the influence of pretreatment Hb on local control in a large series of patients with a localised cancer (T1/T2 glottic cancer, AJCC 1992) treated in a standard fashion. Materials and Methods: Between Jan 1981 and Dec 1989, 735 patients (median age 63, 657 males 78 females) with T1/T2 glottic cancer were treated with RT. The standard RT prescription was 50Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks (97% patients). Factors studied for prognostic importance for local failure included pretreatment Hb (assessed as a continuous variable) age, sex, T category, anterior commissure involvement, subglottic extension, tumour bulk (presence of visible tumour vs subclinical disease), treatment time and RT technique (Cobalt vs 6 MV). Results: With a median follow-up of 6.8 years (range 0.2 - 14.3), 131 patients have relapsed for an actuarial 5-year relapse free rate of 81.7%. The 5-year actuarial survival was 75.8%, cause specific survival - 92.4%. The median pretreatment hemoglobin level was 14.8 g/dl and was the same in all T categories. On multivariate analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, pretreatment Hb (p=0.001) predicted for local failure after RT. The relative risk (RR) for relapse was calculated for various Hb levels eg the RR for a Hb of 12 g/dl vs a Hb of 15 g/dl was 1.8, (95% C.I. 1.3 - 2.7). Previously noted factors including gender (p=0.0038), T category (p=0.007)) as well as tumour bulk (p=0.02) were also prognostically important for local control. Conclusions: This analysis, in a large number of similarly treated patients, indicates that pretreatment Hb is an independent prognostic factor for local control in patients with T1/T2 carcinoma of the glottis treated with

  17. Optimal Local Dimming for LC Image Formation With Controllable Backlighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Xiao; Wu, Xiaolin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED)-backlit liquid crystal displays (LCDs) hold the promise of improving image quality while reducing the energy consumption with signal-dependent local dimming. However, most existing local dimming algorithms are mostly motivated by simple implementation, and they often la...

  18. Effective local control of vertebral metastases by simultaneous integrated boost radiotherapy. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubgan, Dorota; Ziegaus, Anke; Semrau, Sabine; Lambrecht, Ulrike; Lettmaier, Sebastian; Fietkau, Rainer [Erlangen University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-11-14

    The primary endpoint was to improve local tumour control of patients with metastatic spinal tumours by stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and dose escalation by simultaneous, integrated boost (PTV-boost). We used a whole vertebral body (PTV-elective) contouring approach. Secondary endpoints were severity of acute and chronic adverse effects and overall survival. In all, 33 patients with metastases of the vertebral column were treated at Erlangen University Hospital. SBRT was given in 12 or 10 fractions. The metastatic lesion (PTV-boost) received 3.6 Gy (range 3.0-4.51 Gy) per fraction for a total of 42.0 Gy (24.36-48.0 Gy) and the whole vertebra (PTV-elective) received 2.85 Gy (range 1.8-3.6 Gy) per fraction for a total of 32.39 Gy (range 21.60-38.0 Gy). Patients were followed up every 3 months. Local control rate of all patients was 93 % at 12 and 24 months. The overall survival rate was 54 % at 12 months, 38 % at 24 months and 18 % at 36 months. No radiation myelopathy occurred. The most frequently observed adverse events in 3 cases was oesophagitis grade 2. SBRT with simultaneous, integrated boost was associated with excellent local control of 93 % after 24 months. This result shows the possibility of delivering escalated doses to the target while still keeping the incidence of side effects low. This study forms the basis for a future randomised controlled trial comparing conventional radiotherapy (10 fractions of 3 Gy) with hypofractionated dose intensified SBRT (12 fractions of 3 Gy + integrated boost 12 fractions of 4 Gy) for improvement of local tumour control and pain. (orig.) [German] Das primaere Ziel der Studie war die Verbesserung der lokalen Tumorkontrolle von Patienten mit Wirbelkoerpermetastasen mittels stereotaktischer Radiotherapie (SBRT) mit Dosiseskalation durch einen simultan integrierten Boost (PTV-Boost). Dabei wurde der ganze Wirbelkoerper konturiert (PTV-Elektive). Zu den sekundaeren Endpunkten der Studie gehoerten der Schweregrad von

  19. Supervisor localization a top-down approach to distributed control of discrete-event systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic top-down approach to distributed control synthesis of discrete-event systems (DES). The approach is called supervisor localization; its essence is the allocation of external supervisory control action to individual component agents as their internal control strategies. The procedure is: first synthesize a monolithic supervisor, to achieve globally optimal and nonblocking controlled behavior, then decompose the monolithic supervisor into local controllers, one for each agent. The collective behavior of the resulting local controllers is identical to that achieved by the monolithic supervisor. The basic localization theory is first presented in the Ramadge–Wonham language-based supervisory control framework, then demonstrated with distributed control examples of multi-robot formations, manufacturing systems, and distributed algorithms. An architectural approach is adopted to apply localization to large-scale DES; this yields a heterarchical localization procedure, which is...

  20. Clinical utility of the percentage of positive prostate biopsies in predicting prostate cancer-specific and overall survival after radiotherapy for patients with localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Manola, Judith; Cote, Kerri; Loffredo, Marian; Iskrzytzky, Olga; Renshaw, Andrew A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the percentage of positive prostate biopsies provides clinically relevant information to a previously established risk stratification system with respect to the end points of prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and overall survival after radiotherapy for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A Cox regression multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the ability of the percentage of positive prostate biopsies to predict PCSS and overall survival for 381 men who underwent radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer during the prostate-specific antigen era. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years (range 0.8-13.3), the presence of ≤50% positive biopsies vs. >50% positive biopsies provided a clinically relevant stratification of the 7-year estimates of PCSS (100% vs. 57%, p=0.004) in intermediate-risk patients. Moreover, all patients could be stratified into a minimal or high-risk cohort on the basis of the 10-year estimates of PCSS (100% vs. 55%, p 50%] intermediate-risk + high-risk) cohort for prostate cancer-specific death after conventional dose radiotherapy. Additional follow-up and independent validation are needed to confirm these findings

  1. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) stored under controlled atmosphere and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Marcy, Joseph; Welbaum, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that represents a high risk for consumers because it can grow under refrigeration conditions and can also develop acid tolerance. Fresh blueberries are hand-picked, packed, and transported under refrigeration without receiving a microbial inactivation treatment. The aim of this work was to study the survival of L. monocytogenes in fresh highbush blueberries stored at 4 or 12 °C under different controlled atmosphere conditions, including air (control); 5% O2, 15% CO2, 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage [CAS]); or ozone gas (O3), 4 ppm at 4 °C or 2.5 ppm at 12 °C, at high relative humidity (90 to 95%) for a total of 10 days. Fresh blueberries inside a plastic clamshell were spot inoculated with the bacteria and were stored at 4 or 12 °C in isolated cabinets under air, CAS, and O3 atmospheric conditions. Samples were evaluated on days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 for microbial growth using modified Oxford agar. CAS did not delay or inhibit L. monocytogenes growth in fresh blueberries after 10 days. O3 achieved 3- and 2-log reductions when compared with air treatment at 4 and 12 °C, respectively. Low concentrations of O3 together with proper refrigeration temperature can ensure product safety throughout transportation. O3 is a strong antimicrobial that safely decomposes to oxygen and water without leaving residues and can be used as an alternative method to prevent bacterial growth during a long transport period.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Evaluation After Initial Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Predicts Local Control in Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmarajan, Kavita V., E-mail: dharmark@mskcc.org [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H.; Gavane, Somali; Fox, Josef J.; Schoder, Heiko; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Price, Alison N.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is already an integral part of staging in rhabdomyosarcoma. We investigated whether primary-site treatment response characterized by serial PET imaging at specific time points can be correlated with local control. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively examined 94 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma who received initial chemotherapy 15 weeks (median) before radiotherapy and underwent baseline, preradiation, and postradiation PET. Baseline PET standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the presence or absence of abnormal uptake (termed PET-positive or PET-negative) both before and after radiation were examined for the primary site. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) was calculated according to baseline SUVmax, PET-positive status, and PET-negative status by the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons were tested with the log-rank test. Results: The median patient age was 11 years. With 3-year median follow-up, LRFS was improved among postradiation PET-negative vs PET-positive patients: 94% vs 75%, P=.02. By contrast, on baseline PET, LRFS was not significantly different for primary-site SUVmax {<=}7 vs >7 (median), although the findings suggested a trend toward improved LRFS: 96% for SUVmax {<=}7 vs 79% for SUVmax >7, P=.08. Preradiation PET also suggested a statistically insignificant trend toward improved LRFS for PET-negative (97%) vs PET-positive (81%) patients (P=.06). Conclusion: Negative postradiation PET predicted improved LRFS. Notably, 77% of patients with persistent postradiation uptake did not experience local failure, suggesting that these patients could be closely followed up rather than immediately referred for intervention. Negative baseline and preradiation PET findings suggested statistically insignificant trends toward improved LRFS. Additional study may further understanding of relationships between PET findings at these time points and outcome in rhabdomyosarcoma.

  3. Survival prognostic factors for patients with synchronous brain oligometastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma receiving local therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hao Bai,1,* Jianlin Xu,1,* Haitang Yang,2,* Bo Jin,1 Yuqing Lou,1 Dan Wu,3 Baohui Han1 1Department of Pulmonary, 2Department of Pathology, 3Central Laboratory, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Clinical evidence for patients with synchronous brain oligometastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma is limited. We aimed to summarize the clinical data of these patients to explore the survival prognostic factors for this population. Methods: From September 1995 to July 2011, patients with 1–3 synchronous brain oligometastases, who were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or surgical resection as the primary treatment, were identified at Shanghai Chest Hospital.Results: A total of 76 patients (22 patients underwent brain surgery as primary treatment and 54 patients received SRS were available for survival analysis. The overall survival (OS for patients treated with SRS and brain surgery as the primary treatment were 12.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3–14.9 and 16.4 months (95% CI 8.8–24.1, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio =0.59, 95% CI 0.33–1.07, P=0.08. Among 76 patients treated with SRS or brain surgery, 21 patients who underwent primary tumor resection did not experience a significantly improved OS (16.4 months, 95% CI 9.6–23.2, compared with those who did not undergo resection (11.9 months, 95% CI 9.7–14.0; adjusted hazard ratio =0.81, 95% CI 0.46–1.44, P=0.46. Factors associated with survival benefits included stage I–II of primary lung tumor and solitary brain metastasis. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in OS for patients with synchronous brain oligometastasis receiving SRS or surgical resection. Among this population, the number of brain metastases and stage of primary lung disease were the factors associated with a survival benefit. Keywords: non-small-cell lung carcinoma

  4. Analysis of the relationship between tumor dose inhomogeneity and local control in patients with skull base chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terahara, Atsuro; Niemierko, Andrzej; Goitein, Michael; Finkelstein, Dianne; Hug, Eugen; Liebsch, Norbert; O'Farrell, Desmond; Lyons, Sue; Munzenrider, John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: When irradiating a tumor that abuts or displaces any normal structures, the dose constraints to those structures (if lower than the prescribed dose) may cause dose inhomogeneity in the tumor volume at the tumor-critical structure interface. The low-dose region in the tumor volume may be one of the reasons for local failure. The aim of this study is to quantitate the effect of tumor dose inhomogeneity on local control and recurrence-free survival in patients with skull base chordoma. Methods and Materials: 132 patients with skull base chordoma were treated with combined photon and proton irradiation between 1978 and 1993. This study reviews 115 patients whose dose-volume data and follow-up data are available. The prescribed doses ranged from 66.6 Cobalt-Gray-Equivalent (CGE) to 79.2 CGE (median of 68.9 CGE). The dose to the optic structures (optic nerves and chiasma), the brain stem surface, and the brain stem center was limited to 60, 64, and 53 CGE, respectively. We used the dose-volume histogram data derived with the three-dimensional treatment planning system to evaluate several dose-volume parameters including the Equivalent Uniform Dose (EUD). We also analyzed several other patient and treatment factors in relation to local control and recurrence-free survival. Results: Local failure developed in 42 of 115 patients, with the actuarial local control rates at 5 and 10 years being 59% and 44%. Gender was a significant predictor for local control with the prognosis in males being significantly better than that in females (P 0.004, hazard ratio = 2.3). In a Cox univariate analysis, with stratification by gender, the significant predictors for local control (at the probability level of 0.05) were EUD, the target volume, the minimum dose, and the D 5cc dose. The prescribed dose, histology, age, the maximum dose, the mean dose, the median dose, the D 90% dose, and the overall treatment time were not significant factors. In a Cox multivariate analysis, the

  5. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging assessment of circumferential resection margin predicts disease-free survival and local recurrence: 5-year follow-up results of the MERCURY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona G M; Quirke, Philip; Heald, Richard J; Moran, Brendan J; Blomqvist, Lennart; Swift, Ian R; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Tekkis, Paris; Brown, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic relevance of preoperative high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement is unknown. This follow-up study of 374 patients with rectal cancer reports the relationship between preoperative MRI assessment of CRM staging, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM stage, and clinical variables with overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and time to local recurrence (LR). Patients underwent protocol high-resolution pelvic MRI. Tumor distance to the mesorectal fascia of ≤ 1 mm was recorded as an MRI-involved CRM. A Cox proportional hazards model was used in multivariate analysis to determine the relationship of MRI assessment of CRM to survivorship after adjusting for preoperative covariates. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 62 months. The 5-year OS was 62.2% in patients with MRI-clear CRM compared with 42.2% in patients with MRI-involved CRM with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.97 (95% CI, 1.27 to 3.04; P < .01). The 5-year DFS was 67.2% (95% CI, 61.4% to 73%) for MRI-clear CRM compared with 47.3% (95% CI, 33.7% to 60.9%) for MRI-involved CRM with an HR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.69; P < .05). Local recurrence HR for MRI-involved CRM was 3.50 (95% CI, 1.53 to 8.00; P < .05). MRI-involved CRM was the only preoperative staging parameter that remained significant for OS, DFS, and LR on multivariate analysis. High-resolution MRI preoperative assessment of CRM status is superior to AJCC TNM-based criteria for assessing risk of LR, DFS, and OS. Furthermore, MRI CRM involvement is significantly associated with distant metastatic disease; therefore, colorectal cancer teams could intensify treatment and follow-up accordingly to improve survival outcomes.

  6. Early or Up-Front Radiotherapy Improved Survival of Localized Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal-Type in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Meijuan; Jiang Yu; Liu Weiping; Li Zhiping; Li Mei; Zhou Lin; Xu Yong; Yu Chunhua; Li Qiu; Peng Feng; Liu Jiyan; Luo Feng; Lu You

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of early or up-front radiotherapy (RT), the optimal RT dose required to achieve appropriate treatment outcome and prognostic factors for patients with localized extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, in the upper aerodigestive tract. Methods and Materials: Eighty-two patients were reviewed. Eight patients were treated with chemotherapy (CT) alone, 9 patients received RT alone, and 65 patients were given combined modality treatment of CT and RT (CMT). Of those 74 patients receiving RT, 31 patients were given up-front RT, whereas CT was the initial therapy for 43 patients and 41 of those 43 patients received early RT. Results: Five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 52.3% and 39.2%, respectively. RT was the only independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS at both the univariate and multivariate level. The 5-year OS and DFS were better in patients receiving ≥54 Gy of RT as compared with that of <54 Gy (5-year OS 75.5% vs. 46.1%, p = 0.019; 5-year DFS 60.3% vs. 33.4%, p = 0.004). Up-front RT presented better survival in Stage I patients when compared with that of initial CT followed by early RT (5-year OS 90.0% vs. 48.9%, p = 0.012; 5-year DFS 78.7% vs. 39.9%, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Early or up-front RT had an essential role in improved OS and DFS in patients with localized extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, in the upper aerodigestive tract. The recommended tumor dose was at least 54 Gy. Up-front RT may yield more benefits on survival in patients with Stage I disease

  7. Supervisor Localization: A Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, K.; Wonham, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    A purely distributed control paradigm is proposed for discrete-event systems (DES). In contrast to control by one or more external supervisors, distributed control aims to design built-in strategies for individual agents. First a distributed optimal nonblocking control problem is formulated. To solve it, a top-down localization procedure is developed which systematically decomposes an external supervisor into local controllers while preserving optimality and nonblockingness. An efficient localization algorithm is provided to carry out the computation, and an automated guided vehicles (AGV) example presented for illustration. Finally, the 'easiest' and 'hardest' boundary cases of localization are discussed.

  8. Control room, emergency control system and local control panels in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The requirements on planning and construction of control boards including ergonomic-technical designing are specified in this rule. The specifications put the requirements on the design of place, process and environment of work, which are mentioned in the sections 90 and 91 of the labor-management relations act, into more concrete terms for the safety-relevant control panels as work places in a nuclear power station. The work places at control panels are not considered as video workstations in the sense of the 'Safety Rules for Video Workstations in the Office Sector' published by the General Association of the Industrial Trade Associations. The requirements are based on the operation and information technology realized at present in control panels of stationary nuclear power plants. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Propensity Score Matched Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy vs Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Survival Analysis from the National Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ricco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available PurposeNo direct comparisons between extreme hypofractionation and conventional fractionation have been reported in randomized trials for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. The goal of this study is to use a propensity score matched (PSM analysis with the National Cancer Database (NCDB for the comparison of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT for organ confined prostate cancer.MethodsMen with localized prostate cancer treated with radiation dose ≥72 Gy for IMRT and ≥35 Gy for SBRT to the prostate only were abstracted from the NCDB. Men treated with previous surgery, brachytherapy, or proton therapy were excluded. Matching was performed to eliminate confounding variables via PSM. Simple 1–1 nearest neighbor matching resulted in a matched sample of 5,430 (2,715 in each group. Subset analyses of men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA > 10, GS = 7, and GS > 7 yielded matched samples of 1,020, 2,194, and 247, respectively.ResultsNo difference in survival was noted between IMRT and SBRT at 8 years (p = 0.65. Subset analyses of higher risk men with PSA > 10 or GS = 7 histology or GS > 7 histology revealed no difference in survival between IMRT and SBRT (p = 0.58, p = 0.68, and p = 0.62, respectively. Variables significant for survival for the matched group included: age (p < 0.0001, primary payor (p = 0.0001, Charlson/Deyo Score (p = 0.0002, PSA (p = 0.0013, Gleason score (p < 0.0001, and use of hormone therapy (p = 0.02.ConclusionUtilizing the NCDB, there is no difference in survival at 8 years comparing IMRT to SBRT in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Subset analysis confirmed no difference in survival even for intermediate- and high-risk patients based on Gleason Score and PSA.

  10. Fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens (Pisces: Syngnathidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la fecundidad, supervivencia, y crecimiento del caballito de mar, Hippocampus ingens en condiciones semi-controladas. Tres machos reproductores silvestres de 14.8, 24.5 y 32.0 g produjeron 1 598, 1 703 y 1 658 jóvenes. La densidad utilizada fue de 12 jóvenes por acuario de 60 l. Se agruparon en 1, 12 y 20 días de nacidos por acuario. La supervivencia fue de 78.5, 38.1 y 41.0 % en 35 días. Se les alimentó con una mezcla de rotíferos B. plicatilis y nauplios de Artemia para después transferirlos a estanques de 100 000 l a una densidad de 50/1 000 l, donde se les alimentó con Artemia adulta durante 60 días más. Crecieron de un promedio de 0.7, 1.5, y 2.7 a 4.5, 5.4 6.7 cm, respectivamente, en 95 días. La temperatura del agua marina utilizada varió de 17 a 23 ºC.We studied fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens under semi-controlled conditions. Three wild brood stock mature males of 14.8, 24.5, and 32.0 g released 1 598, 1 703, and 1 658 juveniles. Juvenile stocking densities of 12 were settled in 60-l aquariums in groups of 1, 12, and 20 days old organisms. The rate of survival was 21.5, 61.9, and 59.0 %, respectively, in 35 days. Juveniles were fed a mix diet of rotifers B. plicatilis and Artemia nauplii, then they were transferred to a cement tank of 100 000 l at a density of 50/1 000 l and fed with live adult Artemia for 60 days more. They grew from an average of 0.7, 1.5, and 2.7 to 4.5, 5.4, and 6.7 cm, respectively, in 95 days. The seawater temperature varied from 17 to 23 ºC. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1099-1102. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.

  11. Precise Localization and Control of Catalytic Janus Micromotors using Weak Magnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the precise localization of spherical Pt-Silica Janus micromotors (diameter 5 mu m) under the influence of controlled magnetic fields. First, we control the motion of the Janus micromotors in two-dimensional (2D) space. The control system achieves precise localization

  12. Factors associated with initial treatment and survival for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the CDC-NPCR Patterns of Care Study (PoC1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schymura, Maria J; Kahn, Amy R; German, Robert R; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Cress, Rosemary D; Finch, Jack L; Fulton, John P; Shen, Tiefu; Stuckart, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Despite the large number of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, there is as yet no consensus concerning appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial treatment patterns for localized prostate cancer in a population-based sample and to determine the clinical and patient characteristics associated with initial treatment and overall survival. The analysis included 3,300 patients from seven states, diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer in 1997. We examined the association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with four treatment options: radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and watchful waiting. Diagnostic and treatment information was abstracted from medical records. Socioeconomic measures were derived from the 2000 Census based on the patient's residence at time of diagnosis. Vital status through December 31, 2002, was obtained from medical records and linkages to state vital statistics files and the National Death Index. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with initial treatment and overall survival, respectively. Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received the following treatments: radical prostatectomy (39.7%), radiation therapy (31.4%), hormone therapy (10.3%), or watchful waiting (18.6%). After multivariable adjustment, the following variables were associated with conservative treatment (hormone therapy or watchful waiting): older age, black race, being unmarried, having public insurance, having non-screen detected cancer, having normal digital rectal exam results, PSA values above 20, low Gleason score (2-4), comorbidity, and state of residence. Among patients receiving definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy), older age, being unmarried, PSA values above 10, unknown Gleason score, state of residence, as well as black race in patients under 60 years of age, were

  13. Factors associated with initial treatment and survival for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the CDC-NPCR Patterns of Care Study (PoC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton John P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the large number of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, there is as yet no consensus concerning appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial treatment patterns for localized prostate cancer in a population-based sample and to determine the clinical and patient characteristics associated with initial treatment and overall survival. Methods The analysis included 3,300 patients from seven states, diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer in 1997. We examined the association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with four treatment options: radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and watchful waiting. Diagnostic and treatment information was abstracted from medical records. Socioeconomic measures were derived from the 2000 Census based on the patient's residence at time of diagnosis. Vital status through December 31, 2002, was obtained from medical records and linkages to state vital statistics files and the National Death Index. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with initial treatment and overall survival, respectively. Results Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received the following treatments: radical prostatectomy (39.7%, radiation therapy (31.4%, hormone therapy (10.3%, or watchful waiting (18.6%. After multivariable adjustment, the following variables were associated with conservative treatment (hormone therapy or watchful waiting: older age, black race, being unmarried, having public insurance, having non-screen detected cancer, having normal digital rectal exam results, PSA values above 20, low Gleason score (2-4, comorbidity, and state of residence. Among patients receiving definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, older age, being unmarried, PSA values above 10, unknown Gleason score, state of residence, as well as black

  14. Prognostic model for long-term survival of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and resection integrating clinical and histopathologic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pöttgen, Christoph; Stuschke, Martin; Graupner, Britta; Theegarten, Dirk; Gauler, Thomas; Jendrossek, Verena; Freitag, Lutz; Jawad, Jehad Abu; Gkika, Eleni; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Welter, Stefan; Hoiczyk, Matthias; Schuler, Martin; Stamatis, Georgios; Eberhardt, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Outcome of consecutive patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and histopathologically proven mediastional lymph node metastases treated with induction chemotherapy, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and thoracotomy at the West German Cancer Center between 08/2000 and 06/2012 was analysed. A clinico-pathological prognostic model for survival was built including partial or complete response according to computed tomography imaging (CT) as clinical parameters as well as pathologic complete remission (pCR) and mediastinal nodal clearance (MNC) as histopathologic factors. Proportional hazard analysis (PHA) and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) were used to identify prognostic factors for survival. Long-term survival was defined as survival ≥ 36 months. A total of 157 patients were treated, median follow-up was 97 months. Among these patients, pCR and MNC were observed in 41 and 85 patients, respectively. Overall survival was 56 ± 4% and 36 ± 4% at 24 and 60 months, respectively. Sensitivities of pCR and MNC to detect long-term survivors were 38% and 61%, specificities were 84% and 52%, respectively. Multivariable survival analysis revealed pCR, cN3 category, and gender, as prognostic factors at a level of α < 0.05. Considering only preoperative available parameters, CT response became significant. Classifying patients with a predicted hazard above the median as high risk group and the remaining as low risk patients yielded better separation of the survival curves by the inclusion of histopathologic factors than by preoperative factors alone (p < 0.0001, log rank test). Using RPA, pCR was identified as the top prognostic factor above clinical factors (p = 0.0006). No long term survivors were observed in patients with cT3-4 cN3 tumors without pCR. pCR is the dominant histopathologic response parameter and improves prognostic classifiers, based on clinical parameters. The validated prognostic model can be used to estimate individual prognosis and

  15. Malaria control. generating evidence from local to global level

    OpenAIRE

    Plüss, Bianca

    2009-01-01

    In addition of the provision of effective treatment to each case, malaria control is heavily relying on vector control with either insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). The effectiveness of ITNs in controlling malaria in many different settings has already been comprehensively documented. On the other hand, while IRS has a long and distinguished history in malaria control, its health effects have never been properly quantified. The present thesis aimed...

  16. Local and global control of ecological and biological networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2014-01-01

    Recently, I introduced a methodological framework so that ecological and biological networks can be controlled both from inside and outside by coupling network dynamics and evolutionary modelling. The endogenous control requires the network to be optimized at the beginning of its dynamics (by acting upon nodes, edges or both) so that it will then go inertially to the desired state. Instead, the exogenous control requires that exogenous controllers act upon the network at each time step. By th...

  17. Randomized study of control of the primary tumor and survival using preoperative radiation, radiation alone, or surgery alone in head and beck carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, B.; Charyulu, K.; Chandler, J.R.; Sudarsanam, A.; Garciga, C.

    1979-01-01

    Fifty-five selected patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck regions were studied in a randomized, prospective manner. The three treatment categories were primary radiation (Gp R), primary surgery (Gp S), and preoperative radiation of 4000 rads in four weeks (Gp R/S). The local control rates for the 44 evaluable patients with a two-year minimum followup were 24%, 39%, and 43%, respectively. Further treatment attempts in patients failing initial therapy yielded local control rates of 35%, 39%, and 43% for Gp R, Gp S, and Gp R/S, respectively. None of the local control rates nor the corresponding survival curves were significantly different at P < 0.10. However, the group sizes were sufficiently small that true differences might not have been detected. Postoperative complications were higher in the primary radiation failures subsequently operated upon compared to the primary surgery group (P = 0.07). A table is included in which the types of postoperative complications are listed and enumerated according to treatment regime

  18. Thailand Momentum on Policy and Practice in Local Legislation on Dengue Vector Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a past decade, an administrative decentralization model, adopted for local administration development in Thailand, is replacing the prior centralized (top-down command system. The change offers challenges to local governmental agencies and other public health agencies at all the ministerial, regional, and provincial levels. A public health regulatory and legislative framework for dengue vector control by local governmental agencies is a national topic of interest because dengue control program has been integrated into healthcare services at the provincial level and also has been given priority in health plans of local governmental agencies. The enabling environments of local administrations are unique, so this critical review focuses on the authority of local governmental agencies responsible for disease prevention and control and on the functioning of local legislation with respect to dengue vector control and practices.

  19. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  20. High symptom improvement and local tumor control using stereotactic radiotherapy when given early after diagnosis of meningioma. A multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compter, I.; Houben, R.M.A.; Bosmans, G.; Baumert, B.G. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology (MAASTRO); Zaugg, K.; Buescher, C. [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Clinic and Policlinic of Radiation-Oncology; Dings, J.T.A. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Anten, M.M.H.M.E. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The goal of the present study was to analyze long-term results of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with a meningioma. Methods and materials: A total of 72 patients treated between 1996 and 2008 in MAASTRO clinic (n = 45) and University Hospital Zurich (n = 27) were included. SRT was given as primary treatment (n = 46), postoperatively (n = 19) or at recurrence (n = 7); 49 tumours (68%) were located in the skull base. Median total dose was 54 Gy. Results: Median follow-up was 4.13 years (range 0.66-11 years). The 3- and 5-year overall survival were 92 and 79% for grade 0 and I meningioma. Progression-free survival for grade 0 and I was 95% at 3 and 5 years, and 40% for grade II and III at 3 years. In 98.4% of patients, clinical symptoms were stable or improved. The majority of symptoms improved within 24 months after SRT. Local control is significantly better if patients are irradiated immediately after diagnosis compared to a watchful waiting policy (p = 0.017). Grade IV toxicity was low (4.2%, n = 3) Conclusion: SRT is an effective treatment with high local and clinical control. Early SRT resulted in better outcome than late treatment at progression. (orig.)

  1. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  2. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  3. The effect of local control on metastatic dissemination in carcinoma of the prostate: Long-term results in patients treated with 125I implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, Z.; Leibel, S.A.; Wallner, K.E.; Begg, C.B.; Fair, W.R.; Anderson, L.L.; Hilaris, B.S.; Whitmore, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    The study evaluates the effect of the locally recurring tumor on the incidence of metastatic disease in early stage carcinoma of the prostate. The probability of distant metastases was studied in 679 patients with Stage B-C/N0 carcinoma of the prostate treated at MSKCC between 1970 and 1985 (median follow-up of 97 months). Patients were staged with pelvic lymph node dissection and treated with retropubic 125I implantation. The actuarial distant metastases free survival (DMFS) for patients at risk at 15 years after initial therapy was 37%. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis of covariates affecting the metastatic outcome showed that local failure, used in the model as a time dependent variable, was the most significant covariate, although stage, grade, and implant volume were also found to be independent variables. The relative risk of metastatic spread subsequent to local failure was 4-fold increased compared to the risk without evidence of local relapse. The 15-year actuarial DMFS in 351 patients with local control was 77% compared to 24% in 328 patients who developed local relapses (p less than 0.00001). The relation of distant spread to the local outcome was observed regardless of stage, grade, or implant dose. Even stage B1/N0-Grade I patient with local control showed a 15-year actuarial DMFS of 82%, compared to 22% in patients with local relapse (p less than 0.00001). The median local relapse-free survival (LRFS) in the 268 patients with local recurrences who did not receive hormonal therapy before distant metastases were detected was 51 months, compared to a median of 71 months for DMFS in the same patients (p less than 0.001), consistent with the possibility that distant dissemination may develop secondary to local failure

  4. Predictive factors for response and prognostic factors for long-term survival in consecutive, single institution patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma following cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Christian; Agerbaek, Mads; Von Der Maase, Hans

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study was undertaken to identify pre-treatment clinical and histopathological factors of importance for response and survival after cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. PATIENTS...

  5. The design schemes of database and intelligent local controller in the SRRC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.; Chen, Jenny; Chen, J.S.; Jan, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The control system of the SRRC has been utilized to facilitate commisioning since the beginning, and it provides operators an easy to use environment. Hence, we would like to discuss the design schemes and relationships between the user's interface, the database and the ILC (Intelligent Local Controller) levels. The whole control system in SRRC is a two-level design connected by Ethernet. From operator's view, the upper level is the CONSOLE level and the lower one is the ILC level. Those signals from, or to, equipment are connected to ILCs through analog/digital interfaces, GPIB buses, RS232 serial links, etc.; the ILC is an IEEE 1014 bus (VMEbus) based system running PSOS+ real-time multi-tasking kernel and PNA+ (TCP/IP protocols) communication software. The control software of CONSOLE level is developed in the VMS operating system on DEC workstations, and The Graphic User Interfaces are built on the X-Window/Motif environment. The control system has fulfilled the expectations of the facility commissioning group. It has also proved to be a simple, stable, accurate, easily maintained system. ((orig.))

  6. Local control of murine melanoma xenografts in nude mice by neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Corderoy-Buck, S.; Moore, D.E.; Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in the development and implementation of neutron capture therapy (NCT) for the treatment of cancer. In particular, the boron analogue of the melanin precursor phenylalanine, i.e., DL-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used to demonstrate the regression and cure of Harding-Passey (HP) melanoma in syngeneic mice. However, 18 to 25% cures were obtained for neutron irradiations without boron, suggesting that the neutron dose alone plays an important role. Neutron capture therapy of B-16 melanoma xenografts in nude mice showed substantial tumor regression over 35 days, but the survival rate of NCT treated mice after 7 weeks was only 40-60%. In this paper the authors demonstrate the equivalence of the nude mouse model with a syngeneic model, using the same Harding-Passey murine melanoma line, and delineate the conditions required for maximum differential response between neutron irradiation with and without BPA administration, with complete local control as the end point

  7. Aspect controls the survival of ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2018-04-24

    Supraglacial ice cliffs exist on debris-covered glaciers worldwide, but despite their importance as melt hot spots, their life cycle is little understood. Early field observations had advanced a hypothesis of survival of north-facing and disappearance of south-facing cliffs, which is central for predicting the contribution of cliffs to total glacier mass losses. Their role as windows of energy transfer suggests they may explain the anomalously high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in High Mountain Asia (HMA) despite the insulating debris, currently at the center of a debated controversy. We use a 3D model of cliff evolution coupled to very high-resolution topographic data to demonstrate that ice cliffs facing south (in the Northern Hemisphere) disappear within a few months due to enhanced solar radiation receipts and that aspect is the key control on cliffs evolution. We reproduce continuous flattening of south-facing cliffs, a result of their vertical gradient of incoming solar radiation and sky view factor. Our results establish that only north-facing cliffs are recurrent features and thus stable contributors to the melting of debris-covered glaciers. Satellite observations and mass balance modeling confirms that few south-facing cliffs of small size exist on the glaciers of Langtang, and their contribution to the glacier volume losses is very small ([Formula: see text]1%). This has major implications for the mass balance of HMA debris-covered glaciers as it provides the basis for new parameterizations of cliff evolution and distribution to constrain volume losses in a region where glaciers are highly relevant as water sources for millions of people.

  8. Comparison of three radiotherapy modalities on biochemical control and overall survival for the treatment of prostate cancer: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieters, Bradley R.; Back, Djuna Z. de; Koning, Caro C.E.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For the radiation treatment of prostate cancer high dose should be delivered for optimal biochemical control. Treatment can be given by dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or external beam radiotherapy combined with a radioactive seed implantation (EBSeeds) or high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy (EBTI). Differences in outcome between the modalities were assessed by a systematic review. Materials and methods: A systematic search was performed resulting in 40 articles to be used. Data were extracted on biochemical control and overall survival at 3, 5, and 8 years and other time points mentioned in the articles. Also known prognostic parameters were noted. Comparison of the modalities was done by a Weibull survival analysis and estimation of Hazard Ratio's (HR) was done with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: The HR for biochemical recurrence was 1.40 (95% CI 1.31-1.51) for EBRT relative to EBTI, and was 1.37 (95% CI 1.26-1.49) for EBSeeds relative to EBTI. The HR for overall survival was 1.50 (95% CI 1.29-1.73) for EBRT relative to EBTI, and was 2.33 (95% CI 2.04-2.66) for EBSeeds relative to EBTI. Conclusion: The combination of external beam radiotherapy and HDR brachytherapy results in a superior biochemical control and overall survival found in a systematic review on radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  9. Scalable quantum computation via local control of only two qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Maruyama, Koji; Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Calarco, Tommaso; Nori, Franco; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-01-01

    We apply quantum control techniques to a long spin chain by acting only on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on these qubits and indirect swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging.

  10. Robot Formations Using Only Local Sensing and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Matarić, Maja J

    2001-01-01

    , behaviorbased algorithm that solves the problem for N robots each equipped with sonar, laser, camera, and a radio link for communicating with other robots. The method uses the idea of keeping a single friend at a desired angle (by panning the camera and keeping the friend centered in the image), and only......We study the problem of achieving global behavior in a group of robots using only local sensing and interaction, in the context of formations, where the goal is to have N mobile robots establish and maintain some predetermined geometric shape. We have devised a simple, general, robust, localized...... communicating heartbeat messages. We also developed a general analytical method for evaluating formations and applied it to our algorithm. We validate our algorithm both in simulation and with physical robots....

  11. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Heap, Michael J; Damby, David E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-01-12

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called 'vitrified forts'. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  12. Meteorological Controls on Local and Regional Volcanic Ash Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P; Phillips, Jeremy C; Renfrew, Ian A; Barclay, Jenni; Hogg, Andrew; Jenkins, Susanna F; Robertson, Richard; Pyle, David M

    2018-05-02

    Volcanic ash has the capacity to impact human health, livestock, crops and infrastructure, including international air traffic. For recent major eruptions, information on the volcanic ash plume has been combined with relatively coarse-resolution meteorological model output to provide simulations of regional ash dispersal, with reasonable success on the scale of hundreds of kilometres. However, to predict and mitigate these impacts locally, significant improvements in modelling capability are required. Here, we present results from a dynamic meteorological-ash-dispersion model configured with sufficient resolution to represent local topographic and convectively-forced flows. We focus on an archetypal volcanic setting, Soufrière, St Vincent, and use the exceptional historical records of the 1902 and 1979 eruptions to challenge our simulations. We find that the evolution and characteristics of ash deposition on St Vincent and nearby islands can be accurately simulated when the wind shear associated with the trade wind inversion and topographically-forced flows are represented. The wind shear plays a primary role and topographic flows a secondary role on ash distribution on local to regional scales. We propose a new explanation for the downwind ash deposition maxima, commonly observed in volcanic eruptions, as resulting from the detailed forcing of mesoscale meteorology on the ash plume.

  13. Strontium-89 for prostate cancer with bone metastases. The potential of cancer control and improvement of overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Strontium-89 (Sr-89) has been considered to have a tumoricidal effect with minimal adverse events. However, few reports have investigated these effects in detail. In this study, we examined the tumoricidal and pain-relief effects of Sr-89 on prostate cancer with bone metastasis as well as survival. A retrospective study was performed involving 31 prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis treated with Sr-89. Using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as an evaluation criterion of cancer control, patients were divided into PSA responder and non-responder groups, and the survival rates of these groups were compared. In addition, using the total amount of painkillers administered as an evaluation criterion of pain relief, patients were divided into pain responder and non-responder groups, and the survival rates of these groups were also compared. As secondary investigation items, age, PSA (ng/ml), pain site, extent of the disease, the presence or absence of castration-resistant prostatic cancer (CRPC), the presence or absence of a past medical history of treatment with docetaxel in CRPC cases, Gleason Score, hemoglobin (g/dl), platelet (Plt) (/μl), serum carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ng/ml), and bone-alkaline phosphatase (BAP) (U/l) were investigated. Longer survival was expected for the PSA responder group than for the PSA non-responder group, and whether the spine was the pain site and the presence or absence of CRPC were useful as predictors of this. Plt was suggested to be a useful indicator. Furthermore, the survival time was significantly longer in the pain responder group than in the pain non-responder group, and whether the pain site was present in the spine was considered to be a predictor; however, no significant difference was noted in any of the items assumed to be biomarkers. Sr-89 has the potential to control PSA and prolong survival. A large-scale prospective study of the therapeutic effect of Sr-89 is expected. (author)

  14. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  15. Long-term Survival of Personalized Surgical Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Based on Molecular Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Approximately 35%-40% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell Lung cancer have locally advanced disease. The average survival time of these patients only have 6-8 months with chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to explore and summarize the probability of detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood for molecular staging, and for selection of indication of surgical treatment, and beneficiary of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant therapy in locally advanced lung cancer; to summarize the long-time survival result of personalized surgical treatment of 516 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer based on molecular staging methods. Methods CK19 mRNA expression of peripheral blood samples was detected in 516 lung cancer patients by RT-PCR before operation for molecular diagnosis of micrometastasis, personalized molecular staging, and for selection of indication of surgical treatment and the beneficiary of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer invaded heart, great vessels or both. The long-term survival result of personalized surgical treatment was retrospectively analyzed in 516 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer based on molecular staging methods. Results There were 322 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 194 cases with adenocarcinoma in the series of 516 patients with locally advanced lung cancer involved heart, great vessels or both. There were 112 patients with IIIA disease and 404 cases with IIIB disease according to P-TNM staging. There were 97 patients with M-IIIA disease, 278 cases with M-IIIB disease and 141 cases with III disease according to our personalized molecular staging. Of the 516 patients, bronchoplastic procedures and pulmonary artery reconstruction was carried out in 256 cases; lobectomy combined with resection and reconstruction of partial left

  16. Local Government Planning Tool to Calculate Institutional and Engineering Control Costs for Brownfield Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cost calculator is designed as a guide for municipal or local governments to assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfield properties.

  17. Local tumor control and toxicity in HIV-associated anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehler-Jänne, Christoph; Seifert, Burkhardt; Lütolf, Urs M; Ciernik, I Frank

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the outcome of HIV-seropositive patients under highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with anal cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy (CT). Clinical outcome of 81 HIV-seronegative patients (1988 – 2003) and 10 consecutive HIV-seropositive patients under HAART (1997 – 2003) that were treated with 3-D conformal RT of 59.4 Gy and standard 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C were retrospectively analysed. 10 TNM-stage and age matched HIV-seronegative patients (1992 – 2003) were compared with the 10 HIV-seropositive patients. Pattern of care, local disease control (LC), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and toxicity were assessed. RT with or without CT resulted in complete response in 100 % of HIV-seropositive patients. LC was impaired compared to matched HIV-seronegative patients after a median follow-up of 44 months (p = 0.03). OS at 5 years was 70 % in HIV-seropositive patients receiving HAART and 69 % in the matched controls. Colostomy-free survival was 70 % (HIV+) and 100 % (matched HIV-) and 78 % (all HIV-). No HIV-seropositive patient received an interstitial brachytherapy boost compared to 42 % of all HIV-seronegative patients and adherence to chemotherapy seemed to be difficult in HIV-seropositive patients. Acute hematological toxicity reaching 50 % was high in HIV-seropositive patients receiving MMC compared with 0 % in matched HIV-seronegative patients (p = 0.05) or 12 % in all HIV-seronegative patients. The rate of long-term side effects was low in HIV-seropositive patients. Despite high response rates to organ preserving treatment with RT with or without CT, local tumor failure seems to be high in HIV-positive patients receiving HAART. HIV-seropositive patients are subject to treatment bias, being less likely treated with interstitial brachytherapy boost probably due to HIV-infection, and they are at risk to receive less chemotherapy

  18. High-dose-rate stereotactic body radiation therapy for postradiation therapy locally recurrent prostatic carcinoma: Preliminary prostate-specific antigen response, disease-free survival, and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Donald B; Wurzer, James; Shirazi, Reza; Bridge, Stephen S; Law, Jonathan; Mardirossian, George

    2015-01-01

    Patients with locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate following radiation therapy (RT) present a challenging problem. We prospectively evaluated the use of "high-dose-rate-like" prostate stereotactic body RT (SBRT) salvage for this circumstance, evaluating prostate-specific antigen response, disease-free survival, and toxicity. Between February 2009 and March 2014, 29 patients with biopsy-proven recurrent locally prostate cancer >2 years post-RT were treated. Median prior RT dose was 73.8 Gy and median interval to SBRT salvage was 88 months. Median recurrence Gleason score was 7 (79% was ≥7). Pre-existing RT toxicity >grade 1 was a reason for exclusion. Magnetic resonance imaging-defined prostate volume including any suspected extraprostatic extension, comprising the planning target volume. A total of 34 Gy/5 fractions was given, delivering a heterogeneous, high-dose-rate-like dose-escalation pattern. Toxicities were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, criteria. Twenty-nine treated patients had a median 24-month follow-up (range, 3-60 months). A median pre-SBRT salvage baseline prostate-specific antigen level of 3.1 ng/mL decreased to 0.65 ng/mL and 0.16 ng/mL at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Actuarial 2-year biochemical disease-free survival measured 82%, with no local failures. Toxicity >grade 1 was limited to the genitourinary domain, with 18% grade 2 or higher and 7% grade 3 or higher. No gastrointestinal toxicity >grade 1 occurred. Two-year disease-free survival is encouraging, and the prostate-specific antigen response kinetic appears comparable with that seen in de novo patients treated with SBRT, albeit still a preliminary finding. Grade ≥2 genitourinary toxicity was occasionally seen with no obvious predictive factor. Noting that our only brachytherapy case was 1 of the 2 cases with ≥grade 3 genitourinary toxicity, caution is recommended treating these patients. SBRT salvage of post-RT local recurrence

  19. The role of Ki67 proliferation assessment in predicting local control in bladder cancer patients treated by radical radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, P.C.; Gonzalez, G.; Rey, A.; Apolinario, R.; Santana, C.; Afonso, J.L.; Diaz, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether tumour proliferation as measured by Ki67 immunostaining has any predictive value for local control in bladder cancer patients treated by radiotherapy. Patients and methods: Fifty-five patients suffering from infiltrating bladder carcinoma recommended for radical radiotherapy (66 Gy/6-7weeks) were included in this study. Paraffin-embedded pre-treatment tumour sections were stained with the Ki67 antibody. The percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei was correlated with established prognostic factors, local control and survival. Results27%) Ki67 expression indices (31.5%) (P<0.05; log-rank test). Conclusions: Ki67 immunostaining was a feasible method to estimate tumour proliferation. Patients with very low proliferating tumours seemed to achieve better local control after fractionated radiotherapy compared to other patients. Further studies are needed with a greater number of patients to accurately define the role of Ki67 expression in predicting tumour repopulation during fractionated radiotherapy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi C. Dreyer; Jan O. Strandhagen; Maria K. Thomassen; Anita Romsdal; Erik Gran

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic design...

  1. Subwavelength atom localization via amplitude and phase control of the absorption spectrum-II

    OpenAIRE

    Kapale, Kishore T.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-01-01

    Interaction of the internal states of an atom with spatially dependent standing-wave cavity field can impart position information of the atom passing through it leading to subwavelength atom localization. We recently demonstrated a new regime of atom localization [Sahrai {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 72}, 013820 (2005)], namely sub-half-wavelength localization through phase control of electromagnetically induced transparency. This regime corresponds to extreme localization of atoms within a...

  2. Progress in sub-femtosecond control of electron localization in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-04

    Jan 4, 2014 ... Recent advances in controlled generation of intense, ultrashort ... of the electric field for near infrared (IR) wavelength at 800 nm is about 2.7 fs. .... Furthermore, the oscillation contrast and phase, depends on the kinetic energy.

  3. Local uncontrollability for affine control systems with jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanţă, Savin

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates affine control systems with jumps for which the ideal If(g1, …, gm) generated by the drift vector field f in the Lie algebra L(f, g1, …, gm) can be imbedded as a kernel of a linear first-order partial differential equation. It will lead us to uncontrollable affine control systems with jumps for which the corresponding reachable sets are included in explicitly described differentiable manifolds.

  4. Scalable Harmonization of Complex Networks With Local Adaptive Controllers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Herzallah, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2017), s. 394-404 ISSN 2168-2216 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive control * Adaptive estimation * Bayes methods * Complex networks * Decentralized control * Fee dback * Fee dforward systems * Recursive estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/karny-0457337.pdf

  5. Local, distributed topology control for large-scale wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieberg, T.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this document, topology control of a large-scale, wireless network by a distributed algorithm that uses only locally available information is presented. Topology control algorithms adjust the transmission power of wireless nodes to create a desired topology. The algorithm, named local power

  6. Distributed illumination control with local sensing and actuation in networked lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caicedo Fernandez, D.R.; Pandharipande, A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of illumination control in a networked lighting system wherein luminaires have local sensing and actuation capabilities. Each luminaire (i) consists of a light emitting diode (LED) based light source dimmable by a local controller, (ii) is actuated based on sensing

  7. Controlling spatio-temporal extreme events by decreasing the localized energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Lin; Xu Wei; Li Zhanguo; Zhou Bingchang

    2011-01-01

    The problem of controlling extreme events in spatially extended dynamical systems is investigated in this Letter. Based on observations of the system state, the control technique we proposed locally decreases the spatial energy of the amplitude in the vicinity of the highest burst, without needs of any knowledge or prediction of the system model. Considering the specific Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, we provide theoretical analysis for designing the localized state feedback controller. More exactly, a simple control law by varying a damping parameter at control region is chose to achieve the control. Numerical simulations and statistic analysis demonstrate that extreme events can be efficiently suppressed by our strategy. In particular, the cost of the control and the tolerant time delay in applying the control is considered in detail. - Highlights: → We propose a local control scheme to suppress spatio-temporal extreme events. → The control is address by decreasing the spatial energy of the system locally. → The detail control law is to apply localized state feedback based on observations. → The cost of the control increases with the size of the control region exponentially. → The tolerant delay of the control is about 5-6 times of lifetime of extreme events.

  8. Protecting and rescuing the effectors: roles of differentiation and survival in the control of memory T cell development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema eKurtulus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines, arguably the single most important intervention in improving human health, have exploited the phenomenon of immunological memory. The elicitation of memory T cells is often an essential part of successful long-lived protective immunity. Our understanding of T cell memory has been greatly aided by the development of TCR Tg mice and MHC tetrameric staining reagents that have allowed the precise tracking of antigen-specific T cell responses. Indeed, following acute infection or immunization, naïve T cells undergo a massive expansion culminating in the generation of a robust effector T cell population. This peak effector response is relatively short-lived and, while most effector T cells die by apoptosis, some remain and develop into memory cells. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this cell fate decision remain incompletely defined, substantial progress has been made, particularly with regards to CD8+ T cells. For example, the effector CD8+ T cells generated during a response are heterogeneous, consisting of cells with more or less potential to develop into full-fledged memory cells. Development of CD8+ T cell memory is regulated by the transcriptional programs that control the differentiation and survival of effector T cells. While the type of antigenic stimulation and level of inflammation control effector CD8+ T cell differentiation, availability of cytokines and their ability to control expression and function of Bcl-2 family members governs their survival. These distinct differentiation and survival programs may allow for finer therapeutic intervention to control both the quality and quantity of CD8+ T cell memory. Effector to memory transition of CD4+ T cells is less well characterized than CD8+ T cells, emerging details will be discussed. This review will focus on the recent progress made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of T cell memory with an emphasis on factors controlling survival of

  9. Excision margin status: does it impact on local control of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoury, G.; Morgan, G.; Ward, R.

    2003-01-01

    Whilst many patients treated with breast conservation undergo re-excision(s) to obtain clear margins, the relationship between clear margins and local recurrence remains unclear. We aimed to determine the impact of final pathological margin status on local recurrence and other breast cancer outcomes. Our study cohort consisted of 755 consecutive patients treated with breast conservation between January 1984 and December 1995. Pathology reports were available for review in 681subjects (90%). Patients were stratified into 8 groups based on final pathological margin status: 1) negative (>3mm, n = 307), close [further divided into two groups 2) >0 1< 2mm, (n = 67)], 4) positive (n= 79), 5) indeterminate (n= 144), 6) low grade DCIS at the margin (n= 3), 7) high grade DCIS at the margin (n= 23) and 8) LCIS at the margin (n= 4). There were no differences between the groups based on histology, T size, grade, LN positivity or total radiation dose. At a median follow-up of 71 months, the breast relapse free survival (BRFS) was 97%, the distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) 78% and the overall survival (OS) 86%, for the entire cohort. There were no statistically significant differences between the negative, close, and positive groups in terms of BRFS: 96% vs. 94% vs. 93% (p=0.59), MFS: 98% vs. 97% vs. 98% (p=0.87) or OS: 84%vs. 85% vs. 86% (p=0.78). Although not statistically significant, the presence of EIC, in the context of close or positive margins, impacted adversely upon local and overall disease free survival. Patients undergoing breast conservation carry a lifelong risk of local recurrence. It is still not clear whether obtaining a radical margin decreases this risk. Tissue microarray analysis will be performed to further elucidate the causes of ipsilateral recurrence at a molecular and genetic level

  10. Antigen localization controls T cell-mediated tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; van Maren, Wendy W C; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike A; Den Brok, Martijn H M G M; Wagenaars, Jori A L; van der Schaaf, Alie; Jansen, Eric J R; Amigorena, Sebastian; Théry, Clotilde; Figdor, Carl G; Adema, Gosse J

    2011-08-01

    Effective antitumor immunotherapy requires the identification of suitable target Ags. Interestingly, many of the tumor Ags used in clinical trials are present in preparations of secreted tumor vesicles (exosomes). In this study, we compared T cell responses elicited by murine MCA101 fibrosarcoma tumors expressing a model Ag at different localizations within the tumor cell in association with secreted vesicles (exosomes), as a nonsecreted cell-associated protein, or as secreted soluble protein. Remarkably, we demonstrated that only the tumor-secreting vesicle-bound Ag elicited a strong Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell response, CD4(+) T cell help, Ag-specific Abs, and a decrease in the percentage of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells in the tumor. Moreover, in a therapeutic tumor model of cryoablation, only in tumors secreting vesicle-bound Ag could Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells still be detected up to 16 d after therapy. We concluded that the localization of an Ag within the tumor codetermines whether a robust immunostimulatory response is elicited. In vivo, vesicle-bound Ag clearly skews toward a more immunogenic phenotype, whereas soluble or cell-associated Ag expression cannot prevent or even delay outgrowth and results in tumor tolerance. This may explain why particular immunotherapies based on these vesicle-bound tumor Ags are potentially successful. Therefore, we conclude that this study may have significant implications in the discovery of new tumor Ags suitable for immunotherapy and that their location should be taken into account to ensure a strong antitumor immune response.

  11. [Eutrophication control in local area by physic-ecological engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Hua; Xia, Pin-Hua; Wu, Hong; Lin, Tao; Zhang, You-Chun; Li, Cun-Xiong; Chen, Li-Li; Yang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    An integrated physical and ecological engineering experiment for ecological remediation was performed at the Maixi River bay in Baihua Reservoir Guizhou Province, China. The results show that eutrophic parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and chemical oxygen demand from the experimental site (enclosed water) were significantly lower than those of the reference site. The largest differences between the sites were 0.61 mg x L(-1), 0.041 mg x L(-1), 23.06 microg x L(-1), 8.4 mg x L(-1) respectively; experimental site transparency was > 1.50 m which was significantly higher than that of the reference site. The eutrophic index of the experimental site was oligo-trophic and mid-trophic, while the control site was mid-trophic state and eutrophic state. Phytoplankton abundance was 2 125.5 x 10(4) cells x L(-1) in June, 2011 at the control site,but phytoplankton abundance was lower at the experimental site with 33 x 10(4) cells x L(-1). Cyanobacteria dominated phytoplankton biomass at both sites, however the experimental site consisted of a higher proportion of diatoms and dinoflagellates. After more than one year of operation, the ecological engineering technology effectively controlled the occurrence of algae blooms, changed phytoplankton community structure, and controlled the negative impacts of eutrophication. Integrating physical and ecological engineering technology could improve water quality for reservoirs on the Guizhou plateau.

  12. Survival analysis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yi Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Survival analysis using Cox regression showed that the average consumption of opioids played an important role in postoperative nausea and vomiting, a result not found by logistic regression. Therefore, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients cannot be reliably determined on the basis of a single visit at one point in time.

  13. The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-6 protein co-localizes with EBNA-3 and survival of motor neurons protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauer, Kenia G.; Buck, Marion; Belzer, Deanna K.; Flanagan, James; Chojnowski, Grace M.; Sculley, Tom B.

    2004-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA)-6 protein is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced immortalization of primary human B-lymphocytes in vitro. In this study, fusion proteins of EBNA-6 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) have been used to characterize its nuclear localization and organization within the nucleus. EBNA-6 associates with nuclear structures and in immunofluorescence demonstrate a punctate staining pattern. Herein, we show that the association of EBNA-6 with these nuclear structures was maintained throughout the cell cycle and with the use of GFP-E6 deletion mutants, that the region amino acids 733-808 of EBNA-6 contains a domain that can influence the association of EBNA-6 with these nuclear structures. Co-immunofluorescence and confocal analyses demonstrated that EBNA-6 and EBNA-3 co-localize in the nucleus of cells. Expression of EBNA-6, but not EBNA-3, caused a redistribution of nuclear survival of motor neurons protein (SMN) to the EBNA-6 containing nuclear structures resulting in co-localization of SMN with EBNA-6

  14. Long-term functional and survival outcomes after induction chemotherapy and risk-based definitive therapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Katherine A; Lewin, Jan S; Holsinger, F Christopher; Steinhaus, Ganene; Lisec, Asher; Barringer, Denise A; Lin, Heather Y; Villalobos, Sandra; Garden, Adam S; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Kies, Merrill S

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes after induction chemotherapy followed by "risk-based" local therapy for locally-advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Forty-seven patients (stage IV; ≥N2b) were enrolled in a phase II trial. Baseline and 24-month functional measures included modified barium swallow (MBS) studies, oropharyngeal swallow efficiency (OPSE), and the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI). Functional status was assessed at 5 years. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81% to 99%). A nonsignificant 13% average reduction in swallowing efficiency (OPSE) was observed at 24 months relative to baseline (p = .191). MDADI scores approximated baseline at 24 months. Among 42 long-term survivors (median, 5.9 years), 3 patients (7.1%) had chronic dysphagia. The rate of final gastrostomy dependence was 4.8% (2 of 42). Sequential chemoradiotherapy achieved favorable outcomes among patients with locally advanced SCCHN, mainly of oropharyngeal origin. MBS and MDADI scores found modest swallowing deterioration at 2 years, and chronic aspiration was uncommon in long-term survivors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The efficacy of control environment as fraud deterrence in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuswantara Dian Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised scenario, the topic of an enormous increase of malfeasance in the local governments, posing catastrophic threats which come from vicious bureaucratic apparatus, becomes a global phenomenon. This current study uses case study material on the risk management control system specially the control environment in Indonesia local governments to extend existing theory by developing a contingency theory for the public sector. Within local government, contingency theory has emerged as a lens for exploring the links between public sector initiatives to improve risk mitigation and the structure of the control system. The case illustrates that the discretion of control environment - the encouragement of a local government’s control environment - is considered as a springboard for fraud deterrence and might be the loopholes in the government control systems.

  16. Descending and Local Network Interactions Control Adaptive Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    coupled CPGs also has the added benefit of making rhythms more robust. This improves both responses to perturbations to walking and the stability of...includes the sensory pathways identified in the insect and CPGs at each joint. We also developed a new robotic cockroach leg model that includes additional...controller. Campaniform sensilla (CS) are sensory neurons whose dendrites insert into a cuticular cap on the exoskeleton (Fig. 14). The elliptical

  17. Local Design Methodologies for a Hierarchic Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-12

    regional (in the sense of knowledge and influence) controllers which are distributed throughout the structure [9,39,54,56,65,68]. Many decentralized...occurs, it is necessary that - gpk = gk > 0 (3.74) I which is true provided Hk > 0 and gt 0 0. These conditions will be met near a strong minimum, but...Astronautics, 19763 Semester spent at Leningrad State University, 1975 PROFESSIONAL SUMMARY Current major area of teaching and research is in the design and

  18. Localized Tissue Surrogate Deformation due to Controlled Single Bubble Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    studies using ultrasound shock waves also support cavitation induced damage, e.g. hemorrhage and cellular membrane poration 26-28. In addition...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Cavitation -induced shock wave, as might occur in the head during exposure to blast waves, was investigated as a possible...damage mechanism for soft brain tissues. A novel experimental scheme was developed to visualize and control single bubble cavitation and its

  19. Local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome following IMRT for nasal tumors. An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Yuki [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Janssen, Stefan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Glanzmann, Christoph; Studer, Gabriela [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Institute for Radiation Oncology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Holzmann, David [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    This study aims to evaluate local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome in patients with cancer of the nose treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From June 2008 to September 2015, 36 consecutive patients presenting with nasal cavity, ala of the nose, or nasal vestibule tumors were treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich either postoperatively (n = 14; 3/14 with nasal ablation) or with definitive IMRT (n = 22). Of these 36 patients, 8 presented with recurrent disease after surgery only and 1/36 with N1 disease. Concurrent systemic therapy was administered in 18/36 patients (50%). Nasal follow-up (FU) imaging documentation of 13 patients with preserved organ and >6 months FU offers a pre/post IMRT FU comparison. In addition, these patients' subjective evaluation of cosmesis was assessed. Mean/median FU was 41/33 months (range 5-92 months). Salvage ablation with curative intent was undergone by 3 patients with local relapse after definitive (n = 2) and postoperative (n = 1) IMRT. The 3-year local control, ultimate local control, and overall survival rates were 90, 97, and 90 %, respectively. Subjective and objective cosmetic outcome after IMRT is very satisfying so far. IMRT for nasal tumors was found to be effective and well tolerated. Intermediate-term cosmetic results are good. Radical surgical procedures may be saved for curative salvage treatment. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der Lokalkontrolle und des mittelfristigen kosmetischen Resultats nach intensitaetsmodulierter Radiotherapie (IMRT) von Patienten mit Nasentumoren. Von Juni 2008 bis September 2015 wurden an der Klinik fuer RadioOnkologie am UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich 36 konsekutive Patienten mit Tumoren der Nasenhoehle, der Nasenfluegel oder des Vestibulum nasi postoperativ (n = 14; 3/14 nach Nasenablation) oder definitiv IMRT-bestrahlt (n = 22). Von diesen 36 Patienten zeigten 8 ein Lokalrezidiv nach alleiniger vorangegangener Chirurgie und

  20. Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso

    KAUST Repository

    Sampson, J. N.

    2013-04-09

    The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of "false positives" in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, λn, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given λn to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing λn to λn-δ is not associated with the outcome, where δ is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and λn, show lFDR =1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select λn so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen.

  1. Extension of local front reconstruction method with controlled coalescence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkotwala, A. H.; Mirsandi, H.; Peters, E. A. J. F.; Baltussen, M. W.; van der Geld, C. W. M.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Kuipers, J. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    The physics of droplet collisions involves a wide range of length scales. This poses a challenge to accurately simulate such flows with standard fixed grid methods due to their inability to resolve all relevant scales with an affordable number of computational grid cells. A solution is to couple a fixed grid method with subgrid models that account for microscale effects. In this paper, we improved and extended the Local Front Reconstruction Method (LFRM) with a film drainage model of Zang and Law [Phys. Fluids 23, 042102 (2011)]. The new framework is first validated by (near) head-on collision of two equal tetradecane droplets using experimental film drainage times. When the experimental film drainage times are used, the LFRM method is better in predicting the droplet collisions, especially at high velocity in comparison with other fixed grid methods (i.e., the front tracking method and the coupled level set and volume of fluid method). When the film drainage model is invoked, the method shows a good qualitative match with experiments, but a quantitative correspondence of the predicted film drainage time with the experimental drainage time is not obtained indicating that further development of film drainage model is required. However, it can be safely concluded that the LFRM coupled with film drainage models is much better in predicting the collision dynamics than the traditional methods.

  2. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Haga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2014-11-11

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59-95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40-1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications.

  3. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Haga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59–95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40–1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications

  4. Has 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) improved the local tumour control for stage I non-small cell lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Senan, Suresh; Meerbeeck, Jan P. van; Graveland, Wilfried J.

    2002-01-01

    Aims and background: The high local failure rates observed after radiotherapy in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be improved by the use of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT). Materials and methods: The case-records of 113 patients who were treated with curative 3D CRT between 1991 and 1999 were analysed. No elective nodal irradiation was performed, and doses of 60 Gy or more, in once-daily fractions of between 2 and 3 Gy, were prescribed. Results: The median actuarial survival of patients was 20 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival of 71, 25 and 12%, respectively. Local disease progression was the cause of death in 30% of patients, and 22% patients died from distant metastases. Grade 2-3 acute radiation pneumonitis (SWOG) was observed in 6.2% of patients. The median actuarial local progression-free survival (LPFS) was 27 months, with 85 and 43% of patients free from local progression at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Endobronchial tumour extension significantly influenced LPFS, both on univariate (P=0.023) and multivariate analysis (P=0.023). The median actuarial cause-specific survival (CSS) was 19 months, and the respective 1- and 3-year rates were 72 and 30%. Multivariate analysis showed T2 classification (P=0.017) and the presence of endobronchial tumour extension (P=0.029) to be adverse prognostic factors for CSS. On multivariate analysis, T-stage significantly correlated with distant failure (P=0.005). Conclusions: Local failure rates remain substantial despite the use of 3D CRT for stage I NSCLC. Additional improvements in local control can come about with the use of radiation dose escalation and approaches to address the problem of tumour mobility

  5. Improved progression free survival for patients with diabetes and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using metformin during concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, Krista C. J.; Belderbos, José S. A.; Dieleman, Edith M. T.; Rossi, Maddalena; Rasch, Coen R. N.; Damhuis, Ronald A. M.; Houben, Ruud M. A.; Troost, Esther G. C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the use of metformin during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) improved treatment outcome. A total of 682 patients were included in this retrospective cohort study (59 metformin users, 623 control patients).

  6. A prospective evaluation of the impact of 18-F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography staging on survival for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstock, A. William; Farmer, Michael R.; Lovato, James; Mishra, Girish; Melin, Susan A.; Oaks, Timothy; Aklilu, Mabea; Clark, Paige B.; Levine, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of 18-F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the staging and prognosis of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and October 2004, all patients with LAEC evaluated in the Department of Radiation Oncology were considered for enrollment into a Phase II trial of preoperative chemoradiation. Entry required a staging whole-body FDG-PET scan. Results: One hundred ten consecutive patients were evaluated; 38 were ineligible for reasons including treatment elsewhere, prior malignancy, or refusal of treatment. After conventional staging (clinical examination, endoscopic ultrasound, and chest/abdominal computerized tomography), 33 patients were ineligible because of metastatic disease or poor performance status. Of the remaining 39 patients, 23 were confirmed to have LAEC after FDG-PET staging and were treated in the Phase II trial (Cohort I). Sixteen patients, however, had FDG-PET findings consistent with occult metastatic disease and were deemed ineligible for the trial but were treated with curative intent (Cohort II). The 2-year survival rate for the 23 patients in Cohort I was 64%, compared with 17% (p = 0.003) for patients in Cohort II (FDG-PET positive). Conclusions: More than one-third of patients determined to have LAEC with conventional staging were upstaged with the use of FDG-PET. Despite comparable therapy, upstaging with FDG-PET predicts poor 2-year survival

  7. Impact of therapeutic factors on local control in T2-T3 anal carcinoma treated by radiation or radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allal, Abdelkarim S.; Mermillod, Bernadette; Kurtz, John M.; Marti, Marc-Claude

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of therapeutic parameters on local control in T2-T3 anal carcinoma treated by chemo-radiotherapy or radiation therapy alone. Materials and Methods: From 1976 to 1993, 137 patients with anal carcinoma staged T2 (85) or T3 (52) completed curative sphincter-conservating treatment, 54 with radiotherapy alone and 83 with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was delivered in two sequences with a median gap of 46 days. The two main techniques used for the first sequence were a direct perineal cobalt field ± a sacral arc field with a median dose of 30 Gy/10 fractions/19 days (27.7%) and two antero-posterior opposed pelvic fields (≥ 6 MV photons) with a median dose of 40 Gy/20 fractions/31 days (62%). Iridium-192 implant boost was used in 116 patients (median dose 20 Gy, Paris system) and external radiation boost in 21 patients (median dose 20 Gy/10 fractions/13 days). Generally the chemoradiotherapy patients received starting on day 1 an IV bolus of Mitomycin-C (0.4 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg) and a 5-day continuous infusion of 5-fluorourcil 600-800 mg/m 2 /day. For surviving patients median follow-up was 65 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine therapeutic parameters affecting local control after adjustment for clinical factors. Results: The 5-year actuarial local control was 77%. Factors associated with a decrease of local control in univariate analysis included: age less than 66 years (67% vs 85%), male gender (65% vs 81%), tumor extension more than (1(3)) circumference of the anal canal (68% vs 90%), lymph node involvement (64% vs 81%), use of external irradiation for the boost (62% vs 79%), and overall treatment time more than 74 days (69% vs 85%). In a multivariate analysis none of the therapeutic parameters remained significant when adjusted for the four significant clinical factors. The only therapeutic factor which might have had an impact was overall treatment time (p = .09

  8. Effect of overall treatment time on local control in radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajanti, Mikael; Kaleta, Remigiusz; Kankaanranta, Leena; Muhonen, Timo; Holsti, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of overall treatment time on local control in radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and fifty-three patients with inoperable esophageal cancer (tumor length ≤ 10 cm in all cases) treated during 1963-1988 by radical radiotherapy alone either as continuous or split-course therapy. The overall treatment time varied from 35 to 55 days and the total dosage from 50 to 71 Gy in the continuous therapy group (n = 138), and in the split-course group (n = 215) with a planned 3-week rest interval in the middle of the treatment from 56 to 70 days and from 55 to 70 Gy, respectively. The logit method of the linear-quadratic formula for local control at 1 year was used to examine the effect of treatment time on local control. All patients were pooled to obtain a wide range of overall treatment times. Results: The 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates according to the T-stage in the continuous therapy group from the first day of the radiotherapy were: 57%, 32%, and 10% for the T1 tumors and 23%, 8%, and 5% for the T2 tumors. The corresponding figures for the split-course group were: 50%, 19%, and 4% for the T1 tumors and 17%, 6%, and 3% for the T2 tumors. The 1-year local control rate was 56% for the T1 tumors and 15% for the T2 tumors in the continuous therapy group and 48% for the T1 tumors and 10% for the T2 tumors in the split-course group. The results of the logit method did not fit well with the T1 tumors. For the T2 tumors, they showed Dprolif to be about 0.24 Gy/day for local control at 1 year. As a consequence, protraction of overall time by 1 week should be compensated by increasing the total dose by 1.8 Gy for 1 year local control. Conclusions: More attention should be focused on repopulation. Shortening of overall treatment time might be beneficial for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

  9. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  10. Nomogram incorporating PSA level to predict cancer-specific survival for men with clinically localized prostate cancer managed without curative intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Cuzick, Jack; Fisher, Gabrielle; Berney, Daniel M.; Oliver, Tim; Foster, Christopher S.; Møller, Henrik; Reuter, Victor; Fearn, Paul; Eastham, James; Scardino, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prognosis of men with clinically localized prostate cancer is highly variable, and it is difficult to counsel a man who may be considering avoiding, or delaying, aggressive therapy. After collecting data on a large cohort of men who received no initial active prostate cancer therapy, we sought to develop, and to internally validate, a nomogram for prediction of disease-specific survival. Methods Working with 6 cancer registries within England and numerous hospitals in the region, we constructed a population-based cohort of men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1990 and 1996. All men had baseline serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurements, centralized pathologic grading, and centralized review of clinical stage assignment. Based upon the clinical and pathological data from 1,911 men, we developed and validated a statistical model that served as the basis for the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration of the nomogram were assessed with use of one third of the men, who were omitted from modeling and used as a test sample. Results The median age of the included men was 70.4 years. The 25th and 75th percentiles of PSA were 7.3 and 32.6 ng/ml respectively, and the median was 15.4 ng/ml. Forty-two percent of the men had high grade disease. The nomogram predicted well with a concordance index of 0.73 and had good calibration. Conclusions We have developed an accurate tool for predicting the probability that a man with clinically localized prostate cancer will survive his disease for 120 months if the cancer is not treated with curative intent immediately. The tool should be helpful for patient counseling and clinical trial design. PMID:18000803

  11. SU-F-R-27: Use Local Shape Descriptor Based On Geodesic Distance to Predict Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H; Yan, L; Huang, K; Kong, F; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The shape of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image represents the heterogeneity of tumor growth in various directions, and thus could be associated with tumor malignancy. We have proposed a median geodesic distance (MGD) to represent the local complexity of the shape and use a normalized MGD (NMGD) to quantify the shape, and found a potential correlation of NMGD to survival in a 20-patient pilot study. This study was to verify the finding in a larger patient cohort. Methods: Geodesic distance of two vertices on a surface is defined as the shortest path on the surface connecting the two vertices. The MGD was calculated for each vertex on the surface to display the local complexity of the shape. The NMGD was determined as: NMGD = 100*standard deviation(MGDs)/mean(MGDs). We applied the NMGD to 40 NSCLC patients who were enrolled in prospective PET image protocols and received radiotherapy. Each patient had a pre-treatment PET scan with the resolution of 4mm*4mm*5mm. Tumors were contoured by a professional radiation oncologist and triangulation meshes were built up based on the contours. Results: The mean and standard deviation of NMGD was 6.4±3.0. The OS was 33.1±16.9 months for low NMGD group, and 15.4±15.6 months for the high NMGD group. The low NMGD group had significant better OS than the high NMGD group (p=0.0013). Conclusion: NMGD could be used as a shape biomarker to predict survival and the MGD could be combined with image texture in future to increase prediction accuracy. This study was supported by Award Number 1R01CA166948 from the NIH and National Cancer Institute.

  12. Precise Localization and Formation Control of Swarm Robots via Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise localization and formation control are one of the key technologies to achieve coordination and control of swarm robots, which is also currently a bottleneck for practical applications of swarm robotic systems. Aiming at overcoming the limited individual perception and the difficulty of achieving precise localization and formation, a localization approach combining dead reckoning (DR with wireless sensor network- (WSN- based methods is proposed in this paper. Two kinds of WSN localization technologies are adopted in this paper, that is, ZigBee-based RSSI (received signal strength indication global localization and electronic tag floors for calibration of local positioning. First, the DR localization information is combined with the ZigBee-based RSSI position information using the Kalman filter method to achieve precise global localization and maintain the robot formation. Then the electronic tag floors provide the robots with their precise coordinates in some local areas and enable the robot swarm to calibrate its formation by reducing the accumulated position errors. Hence, the overall performance of localization and formation control of the swarm robotic system is improved. Both of the simulation results and the experimental results on a real schematic system are given to demonstrate the success of the proposed approach.

  13. Palliative Radiotherapy in the Presence of Well-Controlled Metastatic Disease after Initial Chemotherapy May Prolong Survival in Patients with Metastatic Esophageal and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingorani, Mohan; Dixit, Sanjay; Johnson, Miriam; Plested, Victoria; Alty, Kevin; Colley, Peter; Beavis, Andrew W; Roy, Rajarshi; Maraveyas, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    We report the outcomes of patients treated with palliative radiotherapy (pRT) to the primary tumour in the context of well-controlled metastatic disease after initial chemotherapy. Clinical records of 132 patients with metastatic esophago-gastric (OG) cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy (pCT) between January 2009 and June 2013 were reviewed. Ninetyseven patients had responding or stable disease after 3 months of chemotherapy, of whom 53 patients received pRT to the primary tumour after initial chemotherapy in the presence of well-controlled metastatic disease (group A, pCT-RT). The remaining 44 patients were treated with pCT alone (group B, pCT). Treatment-related outcomes were assessed in above groups including time to local progression (TTLP), progression-free and overall survival. The median overall survival for patients treated with pRT after initial chemotherapy (group A) was 23.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.70 to 28.89 months) and significantly higher than the 14 months (95% CI, 10.91 to 17.08 months) in patients treated with pCT alone (group B) (p < 0.001). The use of pCT-RT was an independent predictor of OS in multivariate analysis. Local recurrence was observed in 12/53 of patients (23%) in group A compared to 16/44 (36%) in group B. The median TTLP was significantly higher in patients after pCT-RT at 17.3 months (5.23 months to 44.50 months) compared to 8.3 months (range, 4.10 to 25.23 months) in patients treated with pCT alone (p=0.006). The possibility of pRT influencing systemic disease in advanced OG cancer has not been reported, and results from the present study present strong arguments for investigation of this therapeutic strategy in a randomized trial.

  14. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dholakia, Avani S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Raman, Siva P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hacker-Prietz, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wahl, Richard L. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pawlik, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Laheru, Daniel A. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wolfgang, Christopher L. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver{sub mean} + [2 × Liver{sub sd}]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm{sup 3} or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in

  15. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Chang, Daniel T.; Raman, Siva P.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan; Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Tryggestad, Erik; Pawlik, Timothy; Laheru, Daniel A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Koong, Albert C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV peak ) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver mean + [2 × Liver sd ]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm 3 or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in tailoring therapy

  16. Decreased local control following radiation therapy alone in early-stage glottic carcinoma with anterior commissure extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouhair, A.; Azria, D.; Coucke, P.; Matzinger, O.; Mirimanoff, R.O.; Ozsahin, M.; Bron, L.; Moeckli, R.; Do, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to assess the patterns of failure in the treatment of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. Patients and methods: between 1983-2000, 122 consecutive patients treated for early laryngeal cancer (UICC T1N0 and T2N0) by radical radiation therapy (RT) were retrospectively studied. Male-to-female ratio was 106: 16, and median age 62 years (35-92 years). There were 68 patients with T1a, 18 with T1b, and 36 with T2 tumors. Diagnosis was made by biopsy in 104 patients, and by laser vaporization or stripping in 18. Treatment planning consisted of three-dimensional (3-D) conformal RT in 49 (40%) patients including nine patients irradiated using arytenoid protection. A median dose of 70 Gy (60-74 Gy) was given (2 Gy/fraction) over a median period of 46 days (21-79 days). Median follow-up period was 85 months. Results: the 5-year overall, cancer-specific, and disease-free survival amounted to 80%, 94%, and 70%, respectively. 5-year local control was 83%. Median time to local recurrence in 19 patients was 13 months (5-58 months). Salvage treatment consisted of surgery in 17 patients (one patient refused salvage and one was inoperable; total laryngectomy in eleven, and partial laryngectomy or cordectomy in six patients). Six patients died because of laryngeal cancer. Univariate analyses revealed that prognostic factors negatively influencing local control were anterior commissure extension, arytenoid protection, and total RT dose < 66 Gy. Among the factors analyzed, multivariate analysis (cox model) demonstrated that anterior commissure extension, arytenoid protection, and male gender were the worst independent prognostic factors in terms of local control. Conclusion: for early-stage laryngeal cancer, outcome after RT is excellent. In case of anterior commissure extension, surgery or higher RT doses are warranted. Because of a high relapse risk, arytenoid protection should not be attempted. (orig.)

  17. Multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for U-tube steam generator in nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchalski Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear reactor operates insufficiently well in wide range of operational conditions, especially at the low thermal power level. Thus the steam generator is often controlled manually by operators. Incorrect water level in the steam generator may lead to accidental shutdown of the nuclear reactor and consequently financial losses. In the paper a comparison of proposed multi region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controllers designed only for nominal condition is presented. The gains of the local PID controllers have been derived by solving appropriate optimization tasks with the cost function in a form of integrated squared error (ISE criterion. In both cases, a model of steam generator which is readily available in literature was used for control algorithms synthesis purposes. The proposed multi-region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controller were subjected to broad-based simulation tests in rapid prototyping software - Matlab/Simulink. These tests proved the advantage of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers over its traditional counterpart.

  18. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations

  19. MicroRNA-125b-5p suppresses Brucella abortus intracellular survival via control of A20 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2016-07-29

    Brucella may establish chronic infection by regulating the expression of miRNAs. However, the role of miRNAs in modulating the intracellular growth of Brucella remains unclear. In this study, we show that Brucella. abortus infection leads to downregulation of miR-125b-5p in macrophages. We establish that miR-125b-5p targets A20, an inhibitor of the NF-kB activation. Additionally, expression of miR-125b-5p decreases A20 expression in B. abortus-infected macrophages and leads to NF-kB activation and increased production of TNFα. Furthermore, B. abortus survival is attenuated in the presence of miR-125b-5p. These results uncover a role for miR-125b-5p in the regulation of B. abortus intracellular survival via the control of A20 expression.

  20. The Norwegian dietary guidelines and colorectal cancer survival (CRC-NORDIET) study: a food-based multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Hege Berg; Ræder, Hanna; Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud; Paur, Ingvild; Kværner, Ane Sørlie; Billington, Siv Åshild; Eriksen, Morten Tandberg; Wiedsvang, Gro; Erlund, Iris; Færden, Arne; Veierød, Marit Bragelien; Zucknick, Manuela; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Blomhoff, Rune

    2017-01-30

    Colorectal cancer survivors are not only at risk for recurrent disease but also at increased risk of comorbidities such as other cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and functional decline. In this trial, we aim at investigating whether a diet in accordance with the Norwegian food-based dietary guidelines and focusing at dampening inflammation and oxidative stress will improve long-term disease outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer patients. This paper presents the study protocol of the Norwegian Dietary Guidelines and Colorectal Cancer Survival study. Men and women aged 50-80 years diagnosed with primary invasive colorectal cancer (Stage I-III) are invited to this randomized controlled, parallel two-arm trial 2-9 months after curative surgery. The intervention group (n = 250) receives an intensive dietary intervention lasting for 12 months and a subsequent maintenance intervention for 14 years. The control group (n = 250) receives no dietary intervention other than standard clinical care. Both groups are offered equal general advice of physical activity. Patients are followed-up at 6 months and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 years after baseline. The study center is located at the Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, and patients are recruited from two hospitals within the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority. Primary outcomes are disease-free survival and overall survival. Secondary outcomes are time to recurrence, cardiovascular disease-free survival, compliance to the dietary recommendations and the effects of the intervention on new comorbidities, intermediate biomarkers, nutrition status, physical activity, physical function and quality of life. The current study is designed to gain a better understanding of the role of a healthy diet aimed at dampening inflammation and oxidative stress on long-term disease outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer patients. Since previous research on the role of diet for

  1. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  2. China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Bennett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forests Program (CCFP is the world’s largest afforestation-based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES program, having retired and afforested over 24 million ha involving 32 million rural households. Prior research has primarily focused on the CCFP’s rural welfare impacts, with few studies on program-induced environmental improvements, particularly at the household level. In this study, data from a 2010 survey covering 2808 rural households from across China was analyzed using an interval regression model to explain household-reported survival rates of trees planted on program-enrolled cropland. In addition to household-level factors, we explore the influence of local conditions and institutional configurations by exploiting the wide diversity of contexts covered by the data set. We find that households with more available labor and more forestry experience manage trees better, but that higher opportunity costs for both land and labor have the opposite effect. We also find that the local implementation regime- e.g., the degree of prior consultation with participants and regular monitoring - has a strong positive effect on reported survivorship. We suggest that the level of subsidy support to participating households will be key to survivorship of trees in planted CCFP forests for some time to come.

  3. Local tumor control and cosmetic outcome following breast-conserving surgery and radiation up to a total dose of 56 Gy without boost in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayerl, A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate overall survival, local tumor control and cosmetic outcome after breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy without boost irradiation. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study 270 breast cancer patients were treated with breast conserving surgery combined with a homogenous radiation of the tumor bearing breast up to a total dose of 56 Gy without local boost irradiation. Mean follow-up was 48 months. Local tumor control, side effects, cosmetic results and contentment with treatment were assessed using physical examinations and interviews based on a standardized questionnaire. Results: Cause-specific survival at 5 years after treatment was 88.3%, actuarial disease-free survival at 5 years was 76.1%. Within 23 to 78 months after treatment 12 patients suffered from ipsilateral breast recurrence. The actuarial freedom from local recurrence (single tumor manifestation) was 96.8% at 5 years after treatment, 89% at 10 years. The occurrence of local failures was not significantly correlated to tumor size, margins, grading, nodal status, age or lymphangiosis. 15.6% of the patients developed distant metastases. In all patients treatment was performed without interruption. Side effects were predominantly of mild degree, no severe side effects were detected. 73% of physicians and 81% of patients scored their cosmetic outcome as excellent or good. 93% of patients would again decide in favor of this procedure. Whereas, use of adjuvant chemotherapy as well as subcutaneous reconstruction of breast tissue did not significantly affect breast cosmesis, analysis demonstrated impaired cosmetic results related to a larger breast size. Conclusion: The data of this study show that tumor control achieved by breast conserving surgery in combination with a radiation technique up to a total dose of 56 Gy which omits boost irradiation is within the range of literature data. Side effects of the therapy were tolerable. The treatment displayed a good

  4. Analysis of Local Control in Patients Receiving IMRT for Resected Pancreatic Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovino, Susannah; Maidment, Bert W.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pandya, Naimish; Goloubeva, Olga; Wolfgang, Chris; Schulick, Richard; Laheru, Daniel; Hanna, Nader; Alexander, Richard; Regine, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly incorporated into therapy for pancreatic cancer. A concern regarding this technique is the potential for geographic miss and decreased local control. We analyzed patterns of first failure among patients treated with IMRT for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients who underwent resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreas cancer are included in this report. IMRT was used for all to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-FU–based in 72% of patients and gemcitabine-based in 28%. Results: At median follow-up of 24 months, 49/71 patients (69%) had failed. The predominant failure pattern was distant metastases in 35/71 patients (49%). The most common site of metastases was the liver. Fourteen patients (19%) developed locoregional failure in the tumor bed alone in 5 patients, regional nodes in 4 patients, and concurrently with metastases in 5 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months. On univariate analysis, nodal status, margin status, postoperative CA 19-9 level, and weight loss during treatment were predictive for OS. On multivariate analysis, higher postoperative CA19-9 levels predicted for worse OS on a continuous basis (p < 0.01). A trend to worse OS was seen among patients with more weight loss during therapy (p = 0.06). Patients with positive nodes and positive margins also had significantly worse OS (HR for death 2.8, 95% CI 1.1–7.5; HR for death 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–6.2, respectively). Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting was seen in 8% of patients. Late complication of small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (6%) patients. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive report of patterns of failure among patients treated with adjuvant IMRT for pancreas cancer. IMRT was not associated with an increase in local recurrences in our cohort. These data support the use of IMRT in the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup/RTOG 0848 adjuvant

  5. Target area acquisition and control system survivability for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagans, K.; Stathis, P.; Wiedwald, J.; Campbell, D.

    1994-06-01

    The hardening of instruments to survive NIF target emission environments presents a significant challenge. Neutron flux is predicted to be as much as six orders of magnitude greater than the highest achieved neutron flux on NOVA. Not withstanding the high prompt radiation fields, the specifications for the instruments are demanding; requiring high resolution imaging and sub nanosecond transient measurements. We present an analysis of the sensitivity of the proposed NIF instrumentation design to EMP, X-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons. Major components assessed include fiber optic cable transport, high bandwidth cable and charge coupled detector (CCD) imaging systems

  6. Local control and image diagnosis of cases of esophageal carcinoma treated by external and intracavitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Yoshio; Miura, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Discussions are made on local control of 31 cases of esophageal carcinoma which were treated by external and intracavitary irradiation between May 1980 and March 1983. X-ray and endoscopic findings have been used for the image diagnosis. Before the begining of radiotherapy, types of esophageal carcinoma were determined from X-ray findings according to Borrmann's classification. There were 10 cases of types 1 and 2, and 21 cases of types 3 and 4. After completion of external and intracvitary irradiation, all 10 cases of types 1 and 2 were locally controlled. Of the 21 cases of types 3 and 4, 8 cases which developed stenosis or deep ulcer after external irradiation all failed in local control. The remaining 13 cases of types 3 and 4 were locally controlled except 2 by radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Effects of Anticipation in Individually Motivated Behaviour on Survival and Control in a Multi-Agent Scenario with Resource Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guckelsberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization and survival are inextricably bound to an agent’s ability to control and anticipate its environment. Here we assess both skills when multiple agents compete for a scarce resource. Drawing on insights from psychology, microsociology and control theory, we examine how different assumptions about the behaviour of an agent’s peers in the anticipation process affect subjective control and survival strategies. To quantify control and drive behaviour, we use the recently developed information-theoretic quantity of empowerment with the principle of empowerment maximization. In two experiments involving extensive simulations, we show that agents develop risk-seeking, risk-averse and mixed strategies, which correspond to greedy, parsimonious and mixed behaviour. Although the principle of empowerment maximization is highly generic, the emerging strategies are consistent with what one would expect from rational individuals with dedicated utility models. Our results support empowerment maximization as a universal drive for guided self-organization in collective agent systems.

  8. Application of radiotracer method for tightness control and leakage localization in industrial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, J; Walis, L.; Myczkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of 82 Br in the form of gaseous CH 3 Br for tightness control and leakage localization in large industrial apparatus as chemical reactors, columns, vessels, pipelines etc. has been presented. The tracer has been prepared at the place of measurements in a specially designed mobile chemical reactor. The paper presents different variants of the method convenient for: tightness control of underground pipelines, leakage control of technological objects working in chemical and petrochemical industry, tightness control of large metal vessels localized underground and on surface. The radiometric devices used in mentioned variants have ben performed as well

  9. Continuously tunable sub-half-wavelength localization via coherent control of spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Tan Xin-Yu; Gong Cheng; Shi Wen-Xing

    2012-01-01

    We propose a continuously tunable method of sub-half-wavelength localization via the coherent control of the spontaneous emission of a four-level Y-type atomic system, which is coupled to three strong coupling fields including a standing-wave field together with a weak probe field. It is shown that the sub-half-wavelength atomic localization is realized for both resonance and off-resonance cases. Furthermore, by varying the probe detuning in succession, the positions of the two localization peaks are tuned continuously within a wide range of probe field frequencies, which provides convenience for the realization of sub-half-wavelength atomic localization experimentally

  10. Foxp1 controls mature B cell survival and the development of follicular and B-1 B cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Thomas; Keppler, Selina J.; Gorka, Oliver; Thoene, Silvia; Wartewig, Tim; Reth, Michael; Förster, Irmgard; Lang, Roland; Buchner, Maike; Ruland, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    The transcription factor Foxp1 is critical for early B cell development. Despite frequent deregulation of Foxp1 in B cell lymphoma, the physiological functions of Foxp1 in mature B cells remain unknown. Here, we used conditional gene targeting in the B cell lineage and report that Foxp1 disruption in developing and mature B cells results in reduced numbers and frequencies of follicular and B-1 B cells and in impaired antibody production upon T cell-independent immunization in vivo. Moreover, Foxp1-deficient B cells are impaired in survival even though they exhibit an increased capacity to proliferate. Transcriptional analysis identified defective expression of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family gene Bcl2l1 encoding Bcl-xl in Foxp1-deficient B cells, and we identified Foxp1 binding in the regulatory region of Bcl2l1. Transgenic overexpression of Bcl2 rescued the survival defect in Foxp1-deficient mature B cells in vivo and restored peripheral B cell numbers. Thus, our results identify Foxp1 as a physiological regulator of mature B cell survival mediated in part via the control of Bcl-xl expression and imply that this pathway might contribute to the pathogenic function of aberrant Foxp1 expression in lymphoma. PMID:29507226

  11. Expression of Transketolase like gene 1 (TKTL1 predicts disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Wolf-Karsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended as standard therapy. So far, no predictive or prognostic molecular factors for patients undergoing multimodal treatment are established. Increased angiogenesis and altered tumour metabolism as adaption to hypoxic conditions in cancers play an important role in tumour progression and metastasis. Enhanced expression of Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor (VEGF-R and Transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1 are related to hypoxic conditions in tumours. In search for potential prognostic molecular markers we investigated the expression of VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and TKTL1 in patients with LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and cetuximab. Methods Tumour and corresponding normal tissue from pre-therapeutic biopsies of 33 patients (m: 23, f: 10; median age: 61 years with LARC treated in phase-I and II trials with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (cetuximab, irinotecan, capecitabine in combination with radiotherapy were analysed by quantitative PCR. Results Significantly higher expression of VEGFR-1/2 was found in tumour tissue in pre-treatment biopsies as well as in resected specimen after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy compared to corresponding normal tissue. High TKTL1 expression significantly correlated with disease free survival. None of the markers had influence on early response parameters such as tumour regression grading. There was no correlation of gene expression between the investigated markers. Conclusion High TKTL-1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in terms of 3 year disease-free survival in patients with LARC treated with intensified neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and may therefore serve as a molecular prognostic marker which should be further evaluated in randomised clinical trials.

  12. Spatial inequalities in infant survival at an early stage of the longevity revolution: A pan-European view across 5000+ regions and localities in 1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Klüsener

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spatial inequalities in human development are of great concern to international organisations and national governments. Demographic indicators like the infant mortality rate are important measures for determining these inequalities. Using demographic indicators over long time periods at relatively high levels of geographical detail, we can examine the long-term continuities and changes in spatial inequalities. Objective: This paper presents the initial outcomes of a larger project that aims to analyse spatial variation in infant survival across Europe over the last 100 years. In this paper, we focus on spatial disparities in infant survival in 1910. At that time, the longevity revolution was still at an early stage. We look at general spatial variation patterns within and across countries, and discuss some of the challenges related to the comparativeness of the data. Methods: We link official infant mortality data from more than 5,000 European regions and localities for the period around 1910 to a European historical GIS of administrative boundaries. The data are analysed using descriptive spatial analysis techniques. Results: In 1910, a number of countries in northern and western Europe led the longevity revolution in Europe, with the area of low infant mortality also extending into the northwestern parts of the German Empire. Other areas with low infant mortality levels included the Belgian region of Wallonia, most parts of Switzerland, as well as central and south-western France. In eastern and southern Europe, we find significant variation within and across countries, which might stem in part from data quality problems.

  13. Survival benefit of adding docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma with nodal Stage N2-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahira, Masahiro; Yokota, Tomoya; Hamauchi, Satoshi; Onozawa, Yusuke; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Kamijo, Tomoyuki; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Yasui, Hirofumi

    2017-08-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (CCRT-AC) has been established as the standard of care in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). The survival benefit of induction chemotherapy (ICT) for LA-NPC remains controversial. We analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) ICT followed by CCRT for LA-NPC with nodal Stage N2-3. We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 LA-NPC patients with nodal Stage N2-3 receiving induction TPF followed by CCRT (TPF group; n = 12) or CCRT-AC (CCRT group; n = 16) between October 2006 and May 2016. The median follow-up periods were 36.4 (range 6.7-55.2) and 40.1 months (range 4.3-99.0) for the TPF and CCRT groups, respectively. One- and three-year overall survival for the TPF group vs. the CCRT group were 100% and 100% vs. 94% and 75%, respectively (P = 0.21). The cumulative one- and three-year incidences of locoregional recurrence or progression for the TPF group vs. the CCRT group were 10% and 21% vs. 16% and 32% (P = 0.49), and those of distant metastasis were 0% and 0% vs. 26% and 26%, respectively (P = 0.08). The common Grade 3-4 acute toxicities were neutropenia, anorexia, febrile neutropenia, and stomatitis in the TPF group. The Grade 3-4 late toxicities did not differ significantly between the two groups. This study suggests that induction TPF followed by CCRT might reduce distant metastasis, so this combination may be feasible for the treatment of LA-NPC with nodal Stage N2-3. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Altered G1 checkpoint control determines adaptive survival responses to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, David A.; Meyers, Mark; Odegaard, Eric; Wang, Meizhi

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive survival responses (ASRs) are observed when cells become more resistant to a high dose of a cytotoxic agent after repeated low dose exposures to that agent or another genotoxic agent. Confluent (G 0 /G 1 ) human normal (GM2936B, GM2937A, AG2603, IMR-90), cancer-prone (XPV2359), and neoplastic (U1-Mel, HEp-2, HTB-152) cells were primed with repeated low doses of X-rays (ranging from 0.05-10 cGy/day for 4 days), then challenged with a high dose (290-450 cGy) on day 5. U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells showed greater than 2-fold transient survival enhancement when primed with 1-10 cGy. ASRs in U1-Mel or HEp-2 cells were blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Increases in cyclins A and D1 mRNAs were noted in primed compared to unirradiated U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells; however, only cyclin A protein levels increased. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels were constitutively elevated in HEp-2 and U1-Mel cells, compared to the other human normal and neoplastic cells examined, and were not altered by low or high doses of radiation. Low dose primed U1-Mel cells entered S-phase 4-6 h faster than unprimed U1-Mel cells upon low-density replating. Similar responses in terms of survival recovery, transcript and protein induction, and altered cell cycle regulation were not observed in the other human normal, cancer-prone or neoplastic cells examined. We hypothesize that only certain human cells can adapt to ionizing radiation by progressing to a point later in G 1 (the A point) where DNA repair processes and radioresistance can be induced. ASRs in human cells correlated well with constitutively elevated levels of PCNA and cyclin D1, as well as inducibility of cyclin A. We propose that a protein complex composed of cyclin D1, PCNA, and possibly cyclin A may play a role in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, which determine ASRs in human cells

  15. Survival and growth of balsam fir seedlings and saplings under multiple controlled ungulate densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, B.; Tremblay, J.P.; Cote, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Tree species composition in forests can be strongly modulated by high densities of cervid herbivores ultimately leading to local extirpation of species. To establish which cervid densities are compatible with the recruitment of a browse sensitive tree species, seedlings and saplings should be

  16. Transforming local government by project portfolio management: Identifying and overcoming control problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – As public organizations strive for higher e-government maturity, information technology (IT) Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. Assuming control is central in IT PPM, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Danish local government conducts...... to understand how local governments can improve IT PPM. Keywords IT project portfolio management, E-government, Control theory, Control problems, Formal mechanisms, Informal mechanisms, Local government, Denmark...... control in IT PPM. The authors identify control problems and formulate recommendations to address these. Design/methodology/approach – Adopting principles from Engaged Scholarship, the authors have conducted a case study using a wide variety of data collection methods, including 29 interviews, one...

  17. Does Response to Induction Chemotherapy Predict Survival for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Secondary Analysis of RTOG 8804/8808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAleer, Mary Frances; Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Byhardt, Roger W.; Cox, James D.; Sause, William T.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) improves survival compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LANSCLC) patients with good prognostic factors. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is superior to ICT followed by RT. The question arises whether ICT response predicts the outcome of patients subsequently treated with CCRT or RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 1992, 194 LANSCLC patients were treated prospectively with ICT (two cycles of vinblastine and cisplatin) and then CCRT (cisplatin plus 63 Gy for 7 weeks) in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8804 trial (n = 30) or ICT and then RT (60 Gy/6 wk) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8808 trial (n = 164). Of the 194 patients, 183 were evaluable and 141 had undergone a postinduction assessment. The overall survival (OS) of those with complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) was compared with that of patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) after ICT. Results: Of the 141 patients, 6, 30, 99, and 6 had CR, PR, SD, and PD, respectively. The log-rank test showed a significant difference (p <0.0001) in OS when the response groups were compared (CR/PR vs. SD/PD). On univariate and multivariate analyses, a trend was seen toward a response to ICT with OS (p = 0.097 and p = 0.06, respectively). A squamous histologic type was associated with worse OS on univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.031 and p = 0.018, respectively). SD/PD plus a squamous histologic type had a hazard ratio of 2.25 vs. CR/PR plus a nonsquamous histologic type (p = 0.007) on covariate analysis. Conclusion: The response to ICT was associated with a significant survival difference when the response groups were compared. A response to ICT showed a trend toward, but was not predictive of, improved OS in LANSCLC patients. Patients with SD/PD after ICT and a squamous histologic type had the poorest OS. These data suggest that patients with squamous LANSCLC might benefit

  18. Improved local and regional control with radiotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Tobin; Naghavi, Arash O; Messina, Jane L; Kim, Sungjune; Torres-Roca, Javier F; Russell, Jeffery; Sondak, Vernon K; Padhya, Tapan A; Trotti, Andy M; Caudell, Jimmy J; Harrison, Louis B

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that radiotherapy (RT) would improve both local and regional control with Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A single-institution institutional review board-approved study was performed including 113 patients with nonmetastatic Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Postoperative RT was delivered to the primary tumor bed (71.7% cases) ± draining lymphatics (33.3% RT cases). Postoperative local RT was associated with improved local control (3-year actuarial local control 89.4% vs 68.1%; p = .005; Cox hazard ratio [HR] 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06-0.55; p = .002). Similarly, regional RT was associated with improved regional control (3-year actuarial regional control 95.0% vs 66.7%; p = .008; Cox HR = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.69; p = .02). Regional RT played an important role for both clinical node-negative patients (3-year regional control 100% vs 44.7%; p = .03) and clinical/pathological node-positive patients (3-year regional control 90.9% vs 55.6%; p = .047). Local RT was beneficial for all patients with Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck, whereas regional RT was beneficial for clinical node-negative and clinical/pathological node-positive patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 48-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Post Laparoscopic Pain Control Using Local Anesthesia through Laparoscopic Port Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Amir Vejdan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe abdominal pain is not common after laparoscopic surgeries, but acute or chronic pain after operation is considerable in some patients. Post-operative Pain control after laparoscopic surgeries, is conventionally achieved using analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and narcotics, but their administration has a lot of side effects. This study compares the efficacy and side effects of local anesthetic drugs versus conventional analgesics in post-operative pain control.Materials and Methods: This prospective investigation was conducted into two groups of patients (n=93. Group 1, as control group, was given conventional analgesics such as narcotics and NSAIDs. In investigational group, at the end of laparoscopic surgery, prior to port withdrawal, a local anesthetic mixture, a short acting (Lidocaine 2% plus a long acting (Bupivacaine 0.5% is instilled through the port lumen between the abdominal wall layers. The efficacy of both types of medications was compared to their efficacy and side effects.Results: 85% of the control group, received 5 to 20 ml Morphine for pain control while the others were controlled with trans-rectal NSAIDs. In the treatment group, the pain of 65% of the patients was controlled only by local anesthetic drugs, 30% required NSAIDs and the other 5% required narcotics administration for pain control.Conclusion: The administration of local anesthetic drugs after laparoscopic surgery is an effective method for pain control with a low complications rate and side effects of narcotics.

  20. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  1. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won

    2012-01-01

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  2. Local-regional control in breast cancer patients with a possible genetic predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Laura M.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Thames, Howard D.; Strom, Eric A.; McNeese, Marsha D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Singletary, S. Eva; Heaton, Keith M.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Local control rates for breast cancer in genetically predisposed women are poorly defined. Because such a small percentage of breast cancer patients have proven germline mutations, surrogates, such as a family history for breast cancer, have been used to examine this issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate local-regional control following breast conservation therapy (BCT) in patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of all 58 patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history treated in our institution between 1959 and 1998. The primary surgical treatment was a breast-conserving procedure in 55 of the 116 breast cancer cases and a mastectomy in 61. The median follow-up was 68 months for the BCT patients and 57 months for the mastectomy-treated patients. Results: Eight local-regional recurrences occurred in the 55 cases treated with BCT, resulting in 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates of 86% and 76%, respectively. In the nine cases that did not receive radiation as a component of their BCT, four developed local-regional recurrences (5- and 10-year local-regional control rates of BCT without radiation: 49% and 49%). The 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates for the 46 cases treated with BCT and radiation were 94% and 83%, respectively. In these cases, there were two late local recurrences, developing at 8 years and 9 years, respectively. A log rank comparison of radiation versus no radiation actuarial data was significant at p = 0.009. In the cases treated with BCT, a multivariate analysis of radiation use, patient age, degree of family history, margin status, and stage revealed that only the use of radiation was associated with improved local control (Cox regression analysis p = 0.021). The 10-year actuarial rates of local-regional control following mastectomy with and without radiation were 91% and 89

  3. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, Pcontrol balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, Pcontrol rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, Pcontrols. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism using sensory feedback depends on the level of neuropathy and the history of diabetes.

  4. DEAR1 is a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis and an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Lott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1, a novel gene encoding a member of the TRIM (tripartite motif subfamily of RING finger proteins, and provide evidence for its role as a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis in the mammary gland and as an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.Suppression subtractive hybridization identified DEAR1 as a novel gene mapping to a region of high-frequency loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a number of histologically diverse human cancers within Chromosome 1p35.1. In the breast epithelium, DEAR1 expression is limited to the ductal and glandular epithelium and is down-regulated in transition to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, an early histologic stage in breast tumorigenesis. DEAR1 missense mutations and homozygous deletion (HD were discovered in breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Introduction of the DEAR1 wild type and not the missense mutant alleles to complement a mutation in a breast cancer cell line, derived from a 36-year-old female with invasive breast cancer, initiated acinar morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D basement membrane culture and restored tissue architecture reminiscent of normal acinar structures in the mammary gland in vivo. Stable knockdown of DEAR1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs recapitulated the growth in 3D culture of breast cancer cell lines containing mutated DEAR1, in that shDEAR1 clones demonstrated disruption of tissue architecture, loss of apical basal polarity, diffuse apoptosis, and failure of lumen formation. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray from a cohort of 123 young

  5. Benign meningiomas: primary treatment selection affects survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condra, Kellie S.; Buatti, John M.; Mendenhall, William M.; Friedman, William A.; Marcus, Robert B.; Rhoton, Albert L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of primary treatment selection on outcomes for benign intracranial meningiomas at the University of Florida. Methods and Materials: For 262 patients, the impact of age, Karnofsky performance status, pathologic features, tumor size, tumor location, and treatment modality on local control and cause-specific survival was analyzed (minimum potential follow-up, 2 years; median follow-up, 8.2 years). Extent of surgery was classified by Simpson grade. Treatment groups: surgery alone (n = 229), surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) (n = 21), RT alone (n = 7), radiosurgery alone (n = 5). Survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier method with univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: At 15 years, local control was 76% after total excision (TE) and 87% after subtotal excision plus RT (SE+RT), both significantly better (p = 0.0001) than after SE alone (30%). Cause-specific survival at 15 years was reduced after treatment with SE alone (51%), compared with TE (88%) or SE+RT (86%) (p = 0.0003). Recurrence after primary treatment portended decreased survival, independent of initial treatment group or salvage treatment selection (p = 0.001). Atypical pathologic features predicted reduced 15-year local control (54 vs. 71%) and cause-specific survival rates (57 vs. 86%). Multivariate analysis for cause-specific survival revealed treatment group (SE vs. others; p = 0.0001), pathologic features (atypical vs. typical; p = 0.0056), and Karnofsky performance status (≥80 vs. <80; p = 0.0153) as significant variables. Conclusion: Benign meningiomas are well managed by TE or SE+RT. SE alone is inadequate therapy and adversely affects cause-specific survival. Atypical pathologic features predict a poorer outcome, suggesting possible benefit from more aggressive treatment. Because local recurrence portends lower survival rates, primary treatment choice is important

  6. Data Acquistion Controllers and Computers that can Endure, Operate and Survive Cryogenic Temperatures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and future NASA exploration flight missions require Avionics systems, Computers, Controllers and Data processing units that are capable of enduring extreme...

  7. Development of ITER CODAC compatible gyrotron local control system and its operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Katsumi; Oda, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Koji; Terakado, Masayuki; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Moriyama, Shinichi; Kajiwara, Ken; Sakamoto, Keishi; Hayashi, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, an ITER relevant control system for ITER gyrotron was developed according to Plant Control Design Handbook. This control system was developed based on ITER CODAC Core System and implemented state machine control of gyrotron operation system, sequential timing control of gyrotron oscillation startup, and data acquisition. The operation of ITER 170 GHz gyrotron was demonstrated with ITER relevant power supply configuration. This system is utilized for gyrotron operation test for ITER procurement. This report describes the architecture of gyrotron local control system, its basic and detailed design, and recent operation results. (author)

  8. Local Control: Fear or Fantasy. A Report of the New Jersey Education Reform Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan H.

    Today local control over education seems to face the most serious challenge in its history. The movement to reform school finance raises the specter of the State assuming its formal consitutional powers and removing autonomy from the communities. Hence, it is argued, as the State takes over control of taxation and expenditures it will want to…

  9. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  10. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  11. Identification of a Novel TGFβ/PKA Signaling Transduceome in Mediating Control of Cell Survival and Metastasis in Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ashwani; Teggart, Carol A.; Brattain, Lisa E.; Weber, Hannah R.; Chowdhury, Aparajita; Brattain, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding drivers for metastasis in human cancer is important for potential development of therapies to treat metastases. The role of loss of TGFβ tumor suppressor activities in the metastatic process is essentially unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have shown that loss of TGFβ tumor suppressor signaling is necessary to allow the last step of the metastatic process - colonization of the metastatic site. This work demonstrates for the first time that TGFβ receptor reconstitution leads to decreased metastatic colonization. Moreover, we have identified a novel TGFβ/PKA tumor suppressor pathway that acts directly on a known cell survival mechanism that responds to stress with the survivin/XIAP dependent inhibition of caspases that effect apoptosis. The linkage between the TGFβ/PKA transduceome signaling and control of metastasis through induction of cell death was shown by TGFβ receptor restoration with reactivation of the TGFβ/PKA pathway in receptor deficient metastatic colon cancer cells leading to control of aberrant cell survival. Conclusion/Significance This work impacts our understanding of the possible mechanisms that are critical to the growth and maintenance of metastases as well as understanding of a novel TGFβ function as a metastatic suppressor. These results raise the possibility that regeneration of attenuated TGFβ signaling would be an effective target in the treatment of metastasis. Our work indicates the clinical potential for developing anti-metastasis therapy based on inhibition of this very important aberrant cell survival mechanism by the multifaceted TGFβ/PKA transduceome induced pathway. Development of effective treatments for metastatic disease is a pressing need since metastases are the major cause of death in solid tumors. PMID:21559296

  12. Identification of a novel TGFβ/PKA signaling transduceome in mediating control of cell survival and metastasis in colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Chowdhury

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding drivers for metastasis in human cancer is important for potential development of therapies to treat metastases. The role of loss of TGFβ tumor suppressor activities in the metastatic process is essentially unknown.Utilizing in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have shown that loss of TGFβ tumor suppressor signaling is necessary to allow the last step of the metastatic process - colonization of the metastatic site. This work demonstrates for the first time that TGFβ receptor reconstitution leads to decreased metastatic colonization. Moreover, we have identified a novel TGFβ/PKA tumor suppressor pathway that acts directly on a known cell survival mechanism that responds to stress with the survivin/XIAP dependent inhibition of caspases that effect apoptosis. The linkage between the TGFβ/PKA transduceome signaling and control of metastasis through induction of cell death was shown by TGFβ receptor restoration with reactivation of the TGFβ/PKA pathway in receptor deficient metastatic colon cancer cells leading to control of aberrant cell survival.This work impacts our understanding of the possible mechanisms that are critical to the growth and maintenance of metastases as well as understanding of a novel TGFβ function as a metastatic suppressor. These results raise the possibility that regeneration of attenuated TGFβ signaling would be an effective target in the treatment of metastasis. Our work indicates the clinical potential for developing anti-metastasis therapy based on inhibition of this very important aberrant cell survival mechanism by the multifaceted TGFβ/PKA transduceome induced pathway. Development of effective treatments for metastatic disease is a pressing need since metastases are the major cause of death in solid tumors.

  13. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  14. Local tumor control and toxicity in HIV-associated anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütolf Urs M

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To investigate the outcome of HIV-seropositive patients under highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART with anal cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy (CT. Patients and methods Clinical outcome of 81 HIV-seronegative patients (1988 – 2003 and 10 consecutive HIV-seropositive patients under HAART (1997 – 2003 that were treated with 3-D conformal RT of 59.4 Gy and standard 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C were retrospectively analysed. 10 TNM-stage and age matched HIV-seronegative patients (1992 – 2003 were compared with the 10 HIV-seropositive patients. Pattern of care, local disease control (LC, overall survival (OS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and toxicity were assessed. Results RT with or without CT resulted in complete response in 100 % of HIV-seropositive patients. LC was impaired compared to matched HIV-seronegative patients after a median follow-up of 44 months (p = 0.03. OS at 5 years was 70 % in HIV-seropositive patients receiving HAART and 69 % in the matched controls. Colostomy-free survival was 70 % (HIV+ and 100 % (matched HIV- and 78 % (all HIV-. No HIV-seropositive patient received an interstitial brachytherapy boost compared to 42 % of all HIV-seronegative patients and adherence to chemotherapy seemed to be difficult in HIV-seropositive patients. Acute hematological toxicity reaching 50 % was high in HIV-seropositive patients receiving MMC compared with 0 % in matched HIV-seronegative patients (p = 0.05 or 12 % in all HIV-seronegative patients. The rate of long-term side effects was low in HIV-seropositive patients. Conclusion Despite high response rates to organ preserving treatment with RT with or without CT, local tumor failure seems to be high in HIV-positive patients receiving HAART. HIV-seropositive patients are subject to treatment bias, being less likely treated with interstitial brachytherapy boost probably due to HIV-infection, and they are at

  15. Transforming local government by project portfolio management: Identifying and overcoming control problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – As public organizations strive for higher e-government maturity, information technology (IT) Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. Assuming control is central in IT PPM, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Danish local government conducts...... workshop, and analyses of documents. Findings – It is found that the local government relies vastly on informal control mechanisms and five control problems are identified: weak accountability processes between the political and administrative level; weak accountability between the director level...... the identified control problems. Research limitations/implications – As a single qualitative case study, the results are limited to one organization and subject. Practical implications – The paper has implications for IT PPM in Danish local governments and similar organizations in other countries. The paper...

  16. Government Internal Control System Maturity: The Role of Internal Guidance and External Control of Local Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaryo Sutaryo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the Government Internal Control System (SPIP. The purpose of this study is to obtain empirical evidence of influence of guidance, external control, and the characteristics of Local Governments on Internal Control (SPIP maturity of local governments in Indonesia. The samples used in this study are 188 local governments in 2014. The variables used include the dependent variable, i.e. the SPIP maturity of local government; Independent variables, i.e. guidance frequency, the number of internal control findings, total assets, total expenditure and the number of local government units. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Financial and Development Supervisory Agency (BPKP and the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK. This study uses multiple regression analysis and the results show that the guidace frequency and total expenditure have a positive influence on maturity of SPIP, SPI finding has a negative influence, and the total assets and the number of units do not have significant influence on the maturity of SPIP.

  17. Efficacy of locally produced papain enzyme for the production of protein bait for bactrocera invadens (diptera: tephritidae) control in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggrey-Korsah, R.

    2014-07-01

    .23 % for female flies. Similarly, female flies showed equal affinity to feed on the different protein baits in a choice assay. However, flies reared on the no papain protein bait (control) were more fecund than flies reared on the local laboratory diet formulation. There was a relation between survival duration and fecundity; high fecundity resulted in reduced survival duration for flies reared on the different protein baits and laboratory diet formulation. Papain extracted from the 'Red lady' pawpaw fruit latex and skin peels are as effective as the commercial papain for proteolysis of proteins, therefore, local protein baits can now be prepared using the extracted local papain for Bactrocera invadens control in Ghana. In conclusion, an aqueous two-phase extraction of 15 % (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 - 8 % PEG is effective for papain extraction from the 'Red lady' pawpaw fruit latex which can be used to produce local protein baits. Crude papain from local pawpaw variety is as effective as commercial papain for the proteolysis of protein bait. The phase concentration of the aqueous two-phase extraction system should be evaluated to improve especially the papain extraction from the pawpaw fruit skin peel. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation did not improve the purity of the crude papain, however, it can be a suitable treatment to enhance or maintain the proteolytic activity. (author)

  18. Subjective Symptomology and Postural Control During Simulation of a Survival Environmemt Aboard a Disabled Submarine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cymerman, Allen

    2000-01-01

    Subjective symptoms and postural control were assessed in 7 submariners during 5 days exposure to a simulated disabled submarine environment (DISSUB) (4C, 2.5% carbon dioxide, 16.75% oxygen, 85% humidity...

  19. With or without reirradiation in advanced local recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Li-Ting; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Tang, Lin-Quan; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Shan-Shan; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiang; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Hong, Ming-Huang; Shao, Jian-Yong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome in patients with advanced local recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with or without reirradiation. A total of 44 patients treated without reirradiation (non-RT + chemotherapy) were matched with 44 patients treated with reirradiation (re-RT+/-chemtherapy) by age, sex, Karnosky performance score (KPS), rT stage, rN stage, and time interval between initial radiation and recurrence (TI). Overall survival (OS) rate and time to progression (TTP) rate were assessed using Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. From March 2008 to December 2013, a total of 88 well-balanced rT3–4 N0-1 NPC patients were retrospectively analyzed. After a median follow-up of 27 months (range: 6–85), the 5-year OS rate and TTP rate was 23.4 %, 39.0 % in the non-RT + chemotherapy group and 27.5 %, 49.8 % in the re-RT+/-chemtherapy group, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that significant toxic effect was the only significant prognosticator correlated with OS (HR: 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.02–4.53, p = 0.044). No statistically significant survival differences were observed between the two treatment groups in either univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared with reiradiation, treating advanced local recurrent NPC with chemotherapy alone warrants further validation in the view of its similar survival and more acceptable toxicities. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2803-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Toosizadeh

    Full Text Available Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing. DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2 and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2 with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01, which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02, which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05 and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05. Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation

  1. Review: Local Government in England: Centralisation, Autonomy and Control by Colin Corpus, Mark Roberts, Rachel Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carr-West

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Local Government in England: Centralisation, Autonomy and Control is a serious book and an important contribution to the scholarship around local government. It opens however, with a pleasingly comic tableau as academics from England, Portugal and Poland bicker amiably at a conference and on Twitter about whose country is really the most centralised. The rest of the book is devoted to showing why the English academics were right, why it matters and what should be done about it. The main thrust of the text is an analysis of the impact of the dominant policy narratives around centralism and localism. The argument that Copus, Wall and Roberts put forward could be boiled down to the assertion that the problem with local government in England is that it is neither local nor government. But to make this case they first helpfully unpack several sets of concepts that are all too often elided together.

  2. Influence of postsurgical residual tumor volume on local control in radiotherapy for maxillary sinus cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Nihei, Keiji; Ito, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ebihara, Satoshi [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). Hospital East; Itai, Yuji

    2001-05-01

    The aim was to study the influence of postsurgical gross residual tumor volume on local control of maxillary sinus cancer treated with radiotherapy combined with debulking surgery. Forty-three patients who underwent combined surgery and radiotherapy (50-72 Gy, median 60 Gy) for squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus were reviewed. Gross residual tumor volume (GRTV) after surgery was measured on computed tomograms obtained during the radiotherapy planning. Patients were classified according to GRTV as follows: group AA, GRTV=0 (microscopic residual, n=2); group A, GRTV <10 cm{sup 3} (n=24); group B, 10-40 cm{sup 3} (n=9); and group C, {>=}40 cm{sup 3} (n=8). The relationship between local control and GRTV was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. The 2-year local control rate for all patients was 62%. The differences in local control rates between groups AA, A and B were not significant (P<0.05), but the rate was significantly lower in group C than in the other groups (69% at 2 years vs 31% at 1 year, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GRTV (P=0.002) and histological differentiation (poorly differentiated histology was favorable, P=0.035) were independent prognostic factors and that intraarterial chemotherapy and administered total dose were not. Local control in groups A and B significantly depended on the total dose of radiotherapy, with 2-year control rates of patients receiving 50 Gy (n=6) and {>=}60 Gy (n=27) of 17% vs 79%, respectively (P<0.001). Our data suggest that adequate, not complete, debulking associated with a total radiotherapy dose of {>=}60 Gy can provide satisfactory local control for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. (author)

  3. The hybridising of financial and service expertise in English local authority budget control : a practice perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, T.; Ferry, L.; Khalifa, R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to trace the hybridising of financial and service expertise in English local authority budget control to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the contexts that gave rise to hybridisation than do previous accountability research frameworks. Design/methodology/approach Using practice theory, this paper interprets the findings from a field study of Newcastle City Council and a review of relevant local authority regulation for England, stretching back to...

  4. A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-02

    AD-A282 787 " A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles Alonzo Kelly CMU-RI-TR-94-17 The Robotics...follow, or a direction to prefer, it cannot generate its own strategic goals. Therefore, it solves the local planning problem for autonomous vehicles . The... autonomous vehicles . It is intelligent because it uses range images that are generated from either a laser rangefinder or a stereo triangulation

  5. Control of mitochondrial pH by uncoupling protein 4 in astrocytes promotes neuronal survival

    KAUST Repository

    Lambert, Hélène Perreten

    2014-09-18

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival.

  6. Localized temperature and chemical reaction control in nanoscale space by nanowire array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C Yan; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R Stanley; Lee, K-Cheol; Park, Inkyu

    2011-11-09

    We introduce a novel method for chemical reaction control with nanoscale spatial resolution based on localized heating by using a well-aligned nanowire array. Numerical and experimental analysis shows that each individual nanowire could be selectively and rapidly Joule heated for local and ultrafast temperature modulation in nanoscale space (e.g., maximum temperature gradient 2.2 K/nm at the nanowire edge; heating/cooling time chemical reactions such as polymer decomposition/cross-linking and direct and localized hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nanowires were demonstrated.

  7. Direct subwavelength imaging and control of near-field localization in individual silver nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mårsell, Erik; Svärd, Robin; Miranda, Miguel; Guo, Chen; Harth, Anne; Lorek, Eleonora; Mauritsson, Johan; Arnold, Cord L.; L' Huillier, Anne; Mikkelsen, Anders; Losquin, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.losquin@fysik.lth.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Xu, Hongxing [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); School of Physics and Technology and Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate the control of near-field localization within individual silver nanocubes through photoemission electron microscopy combined with broadband, few-cycle laser pulses. We find that the near-field is concentrated at the corners of the cubes, and that it can be efficiently localized to different individual corners depending on the polarization of the incoming light. The experimental results are confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulations, which also provide an intuitive picture of polarization dependent near-field localization in nanocubes.

  8. Distributed model predictive control for constrained nonlinear systems with decoupled local dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Ding, Baocang

    2015-03-01

    This paper considers the distributed model predictive control (MPC) of nonlinear large-scale systems with dynamically decoupled subsystems. According to the coupled state in the overall cost function of centralized MPC, the neighbors are confirmed and fixed for each subsystem, and the overall objective function is disassembled into each local optimization. In order to guarantee the closed-loop stability of distributed MPC algorithm, the overall compatibility constraint for centralized MPC algorithm is decomposed into each local controller. The communication between each subsystem and its neighbors is relatively low, only the current states before optimization and the optimized input variables after optimization are being transferred. For each local controller, the quasi-infinite horizon MPC algorithm is adopted, and the global closed-loop system is proven to be exponentially stable. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is There a Role for Pelvic Irradiation in Localized Prostate Adenocarcinoma? Update of the Long-Term Survival Results of the GETUG-01 Randomized Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommier, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.pommier@lyon.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Chabaud, Sylvie [Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Lagrange, Jean-Leon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire H. Mondor, Créteil (France); Richaud, Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Bergognié, Bordeaux (France); Le Prise, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (France); Wagner, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Andrée Dutreix, Dunkerque (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Beckendorf, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Suchaud, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de Roanne, Roanne (France); Bernier, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Perol, David [Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To report the long-term results of the French Genitourinary Study Group (GETUG)-01 study in terms of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) and assess the potential interaction between hormonotherapy and pelvic nodes irradiation. Patients and Methods: Between December 1998 and June 2004, 446 patients with T1b-T3, N0pNx, M0 prostate carcinoma were randomly assigned to either pelvic nodes and prostate or prostate-only radiation therapy. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: “low risk” (T1-T2 and Gleason score 6 and prostate-specific antigen <3× the upper normal limit of the laboratory) (92 patients) versus “high risk” (T3 or Gleason score >6 or prostate-specific antigen >3× the upper normal limit of the laboratory). Short-term 6-month neoadjuvant and concomitant hormonal therapy was allowed only for high-risk patients. Radiation therapy was delivered with a 3-dimensional conformal technique, using a 4-field technique for the pelvic volume (46 Gy). The total dose recommended to the prostate moved from 66 Gy to 70 Gy during the course of the study. Criteria for EFS included biologic prostate-specific antigen recurrences and/or a local or metastatic progression. Results: With a median follow-up of 11.4 years, the 10-year OS and EFS were similar in the 2 treatment arms. A higher but nonsignificant EFS was observed in the low-risk subgroup in favor of pelvic nodes radiation therapy (77.2% vs 62.5%; P=.18). A post hoc subgroup analysis showed a significant benefit of pelvic irradiation when the risk of lymph node involvement was <15% (Roach formula). This benefit seemed to be limited to patients who did not receive hormonal therapy. Conclusion: Pelvic nodes irradiation did not statistically improve EFS or OS in the whole population but may be beneficial in selected low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with exclusive radiation therapy.

  10. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is the inevitable fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on fish eggs hatched using different systems has only recently been investigated. Fish were spawn...

  11. Wnt modulates MCL1 to control cell survival in triple negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lixin; Zhang, Hang; Zheng, Shu; Liu, Zheng; Ann, David; Yen, Yun; Perez, Aldwin Apollo; Fujie, Sayuri; Warden, Charles; Li, Jie; Wang, Yafan; Yung, Bryan; Chen, Yun-Ru; Liu, Xiyong

    2014-01-01

    enhanced metastasis and decreased disease-free survival. All our findings suggested that WNT5B/MCL1 cascade is critical for TNBC and understanding its regulatory apparatus provided valuable insight into the pathogenesis of the tumor development and the guidance for targeting therapeutics

  12. A new strategy for transient stability using augmented generator control and local dynamic braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsey, J; Jiang, H; Habetler, T [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Z [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A decentralized automatic control strategy for significantly improving the transient stability of a large power system is introduced. The strategy combines local dynamic braking and a straightforward augmentation of the existing turbine / governor control system that uses only local feedback. The brake resistor, which employs thick film, metal oxide technology, has no inductance and is of very low resistance, allowing its use during fault to show a generator`s acceleration. Simulation results using the 39 Bus New England system show that the strategy dramatically increases the global stability of a power system. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Nonparametric method for failures detection and localization in the actuating subsystem of aircraft control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, S. S.; Zybin, E. Yu; Kosyanchuk, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a nonparametric method for failures detection and localization in the aircraft control system that uses the measurements of the control signals and the aircraft states only. It doesn’t require a priori information of the aircraft model parameters, training or statistical calculations, and is based on algebraic solvability conditions for the aircraft model identification problem. This makes it possible to significantly increase the efficiency of detection and localization problem solution by completely eliminating errors, associated with aircraft model uncertainties.

  14. 'A potential fifth column': conflicts and struggles for control in the context of local NHS privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Rachel

    2009-09-01

    This article uses case study data to discuss how a new procurement policy (Local Improvement Finance Trust, or LIFT) in English primary care may affect general practitioners' control over their work. LIFT, a series of 51 public-private partnerships, will enable over the medium term a shift towards the corporate ownership of surgeries and the creation of polyclinics or 'onestop-shops'. In this article, I explore the struggles over work autonomy and control within these new LIFT structures, as expressed by clinicians and managers in meetings and in research interviews. More generally, I consider how the findings inform debates over the changing position of professionals within increasingly financialized 'local health economies'.

  15. The impact of locoregional control and the survival of patient with cancer tried with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The cost of the treatment of the fault of locoregional control of a neoplasia is bigger 5 at 10 that the initial treatment, when this it is successful. In the last 10 years every time it is spoken more of the treatment of the locoregional cancer. The surgery and the radiotherapy (intermediate dose 4500 to 5000 cGy) they are used to remove the primary tumor, the ganglion and the extensions of locoregional micro metastases. The chemotherapy is used to supplement the locoregional control and to give systemic treatment of distal micro metastases, it is spoken of the advantages of using the surgery, the chemotherapy and the radiotherapy and the kindness of each one inside this investigation

  16. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village s...

  17. STAT3 Controls the Long-Term Survival and Phenotype of Repair Schwann Cells during Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Cristina; Davis, Catherine M; Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Turmaine, Mark; Meijer, Dies; Poli, Valeria; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R

    2017-04-19

    After nerve injury, Schwann cells convert to a phenotype specialized to promote repair. But during the slow process of axonal regrowth, these repair Schwann cells gradually lose their regeneration-supportive features and eventually die. Although this is a key reason for the frequent regeneration failures in humans, the transcriptional mechanisms that control long-term survival and phenotype of repair cells have not been studied, and the molecular signaling underlying their decline is obscure. We show, in mice, that Schwann cell STAT3 has a dual role. It supports the long-term survival of repair Schwann cells and is required for the maintenance of repair Schwann cell properties. In contrast, STAT3 is less important for the initial generation of repair Schwann cells after injury. In repair Schwann cells, we find that Schwann cell STAT3 activation by Tyr705 phosphorylation is sustained during long-term denervation. STAT3 is required for maintaining autocrine Schwann cell survival signaling, and inactivation of Schwann cell STAT3 results in a striking loss of repair cells from chronically denervated distal stumps. STAT3 inactivation also results in abnormal morphology of repair cells and regeneration tracks, and failure to sustain expression of repair cell markers, including Shh, GDNF, and BDNF. Because Schwann cell development proceeds normally without STAT3, the function of this factor appears restricted to Schwann cells after injury. This identification of transcriptional mechanisms that support long-term survival and differentiation of repair cells will help identify, and eventually correct, the failures that lead to the deterioration of this important cell population. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although injured peripheral nerves contain repair Schwann cells that provide signals and spatial clues for promoting regeneration, the clinical outcome after nerve damage is frequently poor. A key reason for this is that, during the slow growth of axons through the proximal

  18. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-02-03

    To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers' homes, in rural village settings. 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by intervention birth attendants (0.37, 0.17 to 0.81) and by 81% within the first two days

  19. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  20. Precise Localization and Control of Catalytic Janus Micromotors Using Weak Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam S. M. Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally demonstrate the precise localization of spherical Pt-Silica Janus micromotors (diameter 5 μm under the influence of controlled magnetic fields. First, we control the motion of the Janus micromotors in two-dimensional (2D space. The control system achieves precise localization within an average region-of-convergence of 7 μm. Second, we show that these micromotors provide sufficient propulsion force, allowing them to overcome drag and gravitational forces and move both downwards and upwards. This propulsion is studied by moving the micromotors in three-dimensional (3D space. The micromotors move downwards and upwards at average speeds of 19.1 μm/s and 9.8 μm/s, respectively. Moreover, our closed-loop control system achieves localization in 3D space within an average region-of-convergence of 6.3 μm in diameter. The precise motion control and localization of the Janus micromotors in 2D and 3D spaces provides broad possibilities for nanotechnology applications.

  1. Autonomous Micro-Air-Vehicle Control Based on Visual Sensing for Odor Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Kurotsuchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel control method for autonomous-odor-source localization using visual and odor sensing by micro air vehicles (MAVs. Our method is based on biomimetics, which enable highly autonomous localization. Our method does not need any instruction signals, including even global positioning system (GPS signals. An experimenter simply blows a whistle, and the MAV will then start to hover, to seek an odor source, and to keep hovering near the source. The GPS-signal-free control based on visual sense enables indoor/underground use. Moreover, the MAV is light-weight (85 grams and does not cause harm to others even if it accidentally falls. Experiments conducted in the real world were successful in enabling odor source localization using the MAV with a bio-inspired searching method. The distance error of the localization was 63 cm, more accurate than the target distance of 120 cm for individual identification. Our odor source localization is the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system. These localization experiments were the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system to enable a safer and more secure society.

  2. Localized and Energy-Efficient Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy-Logic Control Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensor nodes in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are prone to failures due to many reasons, for example, running out of battery or harsh environment deployment; therefore, the WSNs are expected to be able to maintain network connectivity and tolerate certain amount of node failures. By applying fuzzy-logic approach to control the network topology, this paper aims at improving the network connectivity and fault-tolerant capability in response to node failures, while taking into account that the control approach has to be localized and energy efficient. Two fuzzy controllers are proposed in this paper: one is Learning-based Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (LFTC, of which the fuzzy controller is learnt from a training data set; another one is Rules-based Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (RFTC, of which the fuzzy controller is obtained through designing if-then rules and membership functions. Both LFTC and RFTC do not rely on location information, and they are localized. Comparing them with other three representative algorithms (LTRT, List-based, and NONE through extensive simulations, our two proposed fuzzy controllers have been proved to be very energy efficient to achieve desired node degree and improve the network connectivity when sensor nodes run out of battery or are subject to random attacks.

  3. Prediction of neoadjuvant radiation chemotherapy response and survival using pretreatment [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ji-In; Ha, Seunggyun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Bum; Oh, Heung-Kwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun-Wook [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye-Seung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Sung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic and textural parameters from pretreatment [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans for the prediction of neoadjuvant radiation chemotherapy response and 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). We performed a retrospective review of 74 patients diagnosed with LARC who were initially examined with [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT, and who underwent neoadjuvant radiation chemotherapy followed by complete resection. The standardized uptake value (mean, peak, and maximum), metabolic volume (MV), and total lesion glycolysis of rectal cancer lesions were calculated using the isocontour method with various thresholds. Using three-dimensional textural analysis, about 50 textural features were calculated for PET images. Response to neoadjuvant radiation chemotherapy, as assessed by histological tumour regression grading (TRG) after surgery and 3-year DFS, was evaluated using univariate/multivariate binary logistic regression and univariate/multivariate Cox regression analyses. MVs calculated using the thresholds mean standardized uptake value of the liver + two standard deviations (SDs), and mean standard uptake of the liver + three SDs were significantly associated with TRG. Textural parameters from histogram-based and co-occurrence analysis were significantly associated with TRG. However, multivariate analysis revealed that none of these parameters had any significance. On the other hand, MV calculated using various thresholds was significantly associated with 3-year DFS, and MV calculated using a higher threshold tended to be more strongly associated with 3-year DFS. In addition, textural parameters including kurtosis of the absolute gradient (GrKurtosis) were significantly associated with 3-year DFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that GrKurtosis could be a prognostic factor for 3-year DFS. Metabolic and textural parameters from initial [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans could be indexes to assess

  4. Controlling the delocalization-localization transition of light via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jing; Huang Guoxiang

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a transition from delocalization to localization of light waves via electromagnetically induced transparency. The system we suggested is a resonant cold atomic ensemble having N configuration, with a control field consisting of two pairs of laser beams with different cross angles, which produce an electromagnetically induced quasiperiodic waveguide (EIQPW) for the propagation of a signal field. By appropriately tuning the incommensurate rate or relative modulation strength between the two pairs of control-field components, the signal field can exhibit the delocalization-localization transition as it transports inside the atomic ensemble. The delocalization-localization transition point is determined and the propagation property of the signal field is studied in detail. Our work provides a way of realizing wave localization via atomic coherence, which is quite different from the conventional, off-resonant mechanism-based Aubry-Andre model, and the great controllability of the EIQPW also allows an easy manipulation of the delocalization-localization transition.

  5. Evaluation of secure capability-based access control in the M2M local cloud platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    delegation. Recently, the capability based access control has been considered as method to manage access in the Internet of Things (IoT) or M2M domain. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a proposed secure capability based access control in the M2M local cloud platform is presented......Managing access to and protecting resources is one of the important aspect in managing security, especially in a distributed computing system such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M). One such platform known as the M2M local cloud platform, referring to BETaaS architecture [1], which conceptually consists...... of multiple distributed M2M gateways, creating new challenges in the access control. Some existing access control systems lack in scalability and flexibility to manage access from users or entity that belong to different authorization domains, or fails to provide fine grained and flexible access right...

  6. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost Effect on Local Tumor Control in Young Women With Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinot, Jose-Luis; Baixauli-Perez, Cristobal; Soler, Pablo; Tortajada, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Araceli; Santos, Miguel Angel; Mut, Alejandro; Gozalbo, Francisco; Arribas, Leoncio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rate and complications of a single fraction of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) boost in women aged 45 yeas and younger after breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2007, 167 patients between the ages of 26 and 45 years old (72 were 40 years old or younger), with stages T1 to T2 invasive breast cancer with disease-free margin status of at least 5 mm after breast-conserving surgery received 46 to 50 Gy whole-breast irradiation plus a 7-Gy HDR-BT boost (“fast boost”). An axillary dissection was performed in 72.5% of the patients and sentinel lymph node biopsy in 27.5%. A supraclavicular area was irradiated in 19% of the patients. Chemotherapy was used in 86% of the patients and hormone treatment in 77%. Clinical nodes were present in 18% and pathological nodes in 29%. The pathological stage was pT0: 5%, pTis: 3%, pT1: 69% and pT2: 23%. Intraductal component was present in 40% and 28% were G3. Results: At a median follow-up of 92 months, 9 patients relapsed on the margin of the implant, and 1 patient in another quadrant, resulting in a 10-year local relapse rate of 4.3% and a breast relapse rate of 4.9%, with breast preservation in 93.4%; no case of mastectomy due to poor cosmesis arose. Actuarial 5- and 10-year disease-free, cause-specific, and overall survival rates were 87.9% and 85.8%, and 92.1% and 88.4%, and 92.1% and 87.3%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, triple-negative cases and negative hormone receptors did worse, but in a multivariate analysis, only the last factor was significant for local and breast control. Asymptomatic fibrosis G2 was recorded in 3 cases, and there were no other late complications. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 97% of cases. Conclusions: A single dose of 7 Gy using the fast-boost technique is well tolerated, with a low rate of late complications and improved local tumor control in women aged 45 and younger, compared to published data

  7. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost Effect on Local Tumor Control in Young Women With Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, Jose-Luis, E-mail: jguinot@fivo.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fundacion Instituto Valenciano de Oncologia, Valencia (Spain); Baixauli-Perez, Cristobal [Health Services Research Unit, Center for Public Health Research, Valencia (Spain); Soler, Pablo; Tortajada, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Araceli; Santos, Miguel Angel; Mut, Alejandro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fundacion Instituto Valenciano de Oncologia, Valencia (Spain); Gozalbo, Francisco [Department of Pathology, Fundacion Instituto Valenciano de Oncologia, Valencia (Spain); Arribas, Leoncio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fundacion Instituto Valenciano de Oncologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rate and complications of a single fraction of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) boost in women aged 45 yeas and younger after breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2007, 167 patients between the ages of 26 and 45 years old (72 were 40 years old or younger), with stages T1 to T2 invasive breast cancer with disease-free margin status of at least 5 mm after breast-conserving surgery received 46 to 50 Gy whole-breast irradiation plus a 7-Gy HDR-BT boost (“fast boost”). An axillary dissection was performed in 72.5% of the patients and sentinel lymph node biopsy in 27.5%. A supraclavicular area was irradiated in 19% of the patients. Chemotherapy was used in 86% of the patients and hormone treatment in 77%. Clinical nodes were present in 18% and pathological nodes in 29%. The pathological stage was pT0: 5%, pTis: 3%, pT1: 69% and pT2: 23%. Intraductal component was present in 40% and 28% were G3. Results: At a median follow-up of 92 months, 9 patients relapsed on the margin of the implant, and 1 patient in another quadrant, resulting in a 10-year local relapse rate of 4.3% and a breast relapse rate of 4.9%, with breast preservation in 93.4%; no case of mastectomy due to poor cosmesis arose. Actuarial 5- and 10-year disease-free, cause-specific, and overall survival rates were 87.9% and 85.8%, and 92.1% and 88.4%, and 92.1% and 87.3%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, triple-negative cases and negative hormone receptors did worse, but in a multivariate analysis, only the last factor was significant for local and breast control. Asymptomatic fibrosis G2 was recorded in 3 cases, and there were no other late complications. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 97% of cases. Conclusions: A single dose of 7 Gy using the fast-boost technique is well tolerated, with a low rate of late complications and improved local tumor control in women aged 45 and younger, compared to published data

  8. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    the grid voltage. The algorithms generating the local prices are dynamically adjusted according to the actual realised responses to the dynamic prices. Results are presented from an adapted version of the control principle implemented and tested in DTUs experimental research power system, SYSLAB, including...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...... system. A challenge is to find a cheap, simple and robust way to requests the proper power regulation by the DER power units. The use of broadcasted, dynamic power prices and volunteer responses is one option. The paper presents a proposal for and an illustration of advanced generation of local, dynamic...

  9. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J

    1998-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  10. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J.

    1997-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  11. Atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission in a five-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Yu Benli; Zhu Jun; Cao Zhigang; Zhen Shenglai; Wu Xuqiang; Xu Feng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the one- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in a coherently driven five-level atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition. It is found that the detecting probability and precision of atom localization behaviors can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters. More importantly, the two-dimensional atom localization patterns reveal that the maximal probability of finding an atom within the sub-wavelength domain of the standing waves can reach unity when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization. - Highlights: ► One- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in five-level atoms are investigated. ► An assisting radio-frequency field is used to control the atom localization behaviors. ► High-precision and high-resolution two-dimensional atom localization can be realized in this scheme.

  12. Mosquito control pesticides and sea surface temperatures have differential effects on the survival and oxidative stress response of coral larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cliff; Olsen, Kevin; Henry, Michael; Pierce, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The declining health of coral reefs is intensifying worldwide at an alarming rate due to the combined effects of land-based sources of pollution and climate change. Despite the persistent use of mosquito control pesticides in populated coastal areas, studies examining the survival and physiological impacts of early life-history stages of non-targeted marine organisms are limited. In order to better understand the combined effects of mosquito pesticides and rising sea surface temperatures, we exposed larvae from the coral Porites astreoides to selected concentrations of two major mosquito pesticide ingredients, naled and permethrin, and seawater elevated +3.5 °C. Following 18-20 h of exposure, larvae exposed to naled concentrations of 2.96 µg L(-1) or greater had significantly reduced survivorship compared to controls. These effects were not detected in the presence of permethrin or elevated temperature. Furthermore, larval settlement, post-settlement survival and zooxanthellae density were not impacted by any treatment. To evaluate the sub-lethal stress response of larvae, several oxidative stress endpoints were utilized. Biomarker responses to pesticide exposure were variable and contingent upon pesticide type as well as the specific biomarker being employed. In some cases, such as with protein carbonylation and catalase gene expression, the effects of naled exposure and temperature were interactive. In other cases pesticide exposure failed to induce any sub-lethal stress response. Overall, these results demonstrate that P. astreoides larvae have a moderate degree of resistance against short-term exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticides even in the presence of elevated temperature. In addition, this work highlights the importance of considering the complexity and differential responses encountered when examining the impacts of combined stressors that occur on varying spatial scales.

  13. The new local control systems for operating gaseous diffusion plant units at Pierrelatte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix, C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a local control network for operating gaseous diffusion plant units is presented. The objective of the control system up date was to replace all the information network hardware. The new generation HP1000 calculators and a network architecture were chosen. The validation tests performed in laboratory and in situ, and the management policies towards the personnel during the technical changes are summarized [fr

  14. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  15. WWER-440 control assembly local power peaking investigation on LR-0 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information concerning the local power peaking problem induced by the WWER-440 control assembly and the investigation possibilities on the light water, zero power reactor LR-0 at the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez plc. A brief description is given about the disposable control assembly model, experimental arrangement and conditions on the LR-0 reactor with regard to the earlier performed investigations as well as to the relevant measurements to be realized in the near future.(abstract)

  16. Express control of migration processes of radioactive substances during drilling works in 'Ukryttya' object local zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravdivyj, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Technical proposals are prepared to create a procedure for operative control of drilling works. Such a procedure will permit detecting the displacement of radioactively contaminated ground along borehole bore and correcting the drilling work procedure, which would prevent radioactive substance spreading, in boreholes of 'Ukryttya' object local zone and those of Exclusion Zone

  17. Local Control in the Era of Accountability: A Case Study of Wisconsin PreK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Wilinski, Bethany; Nocera, Amato

    2016-01-01

    The opposing principles of local control and increased standardization are a prominent tension in the United States' education system. Since at least the early 1990s, this tension has taken shape around the accountability movement, defined by educational reforms that hold schools, teachers, and students accountable for performance on new…

  18. Radiotherapy of tonsillar and base of the tongue carcinoma. Prediction of local control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak-Kregar, S.; Baris, G.; Lebesque, J. V.; Balm, A. J.; Hart, A. A.; Hilgers, F. J.

    1993-01-01

    119 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region (68) and the base of the tongue (51), who received external radiotherapy with curative intent between 1966 and 1984, are analysed with respect to overall treatment results, local tumour control and prognostic factors. Radiation doses

  19. The reasons for changes in the control of Dutch local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, H.J.; Haldma, T.

    2005-01-01

    The last fifteen years have seen a succession of changes in the management control of organizations in the Dutch local government sector, i.e. municipalities and provinces. These changes relate to, for example, organizational structures, financial management and human resources management, and also

  20. Controlling Lean Manufacturing in Multidivisional Organisations : Highlighting Local Interests and Contraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Martijn; Tillema, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the impact of a multidivisional structure on the implementation of lean manufacturing. It investigates how the controls employed by the corporate level impact the local implementation of lean manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reports on case studies

  1. Increasing Restorability for Local-to-Egress Restoration in GMPLS Controlled Networks with Limited Wavelength Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Buron, Jakob Due; Andriolli, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study the performance of the local-to-egress restoration method in GMPLS controlled optical networks, when a limited number of wavelength converters are available. We evaluate the recovery percentage for a converter-saving label assignment scheme and compare its performance to a simple scheme...

  2. Influence of complete administration of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles on overall and disease-free survival in locally advanced rectal cancer: post hoc analysis of a randomized, multicenter, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra-Petrescu, Flavius; Herrle, Florian; Burkholder, Iris; Kienle, Peter; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2018-04-03

    A randomized trial demonstrated that capecitabine is at least as effective as fluorouracil in the adjuvant treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, not all patients receive all planned cycles of chemotherapy. Therefore it is of interest how complete or partial administration of chemotherapy influences oncological outcome. A post hoc analysis of a trial with 401 randomized patients, nine being excluded because of missing data, was performed. 392 patients (197 - capecitabine, 195 - fluorouracil) could be analyzed regarding the number of administered adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. In the subgroup of 361 patients with an overall survival of at least six months, five-year overall and disease-free survival were analyzed in respect to completion (complete vs. incomplete) of chemotherapy cycles. Survival rates and curves were calculated and compared using the log-rank test. The effect of completion of chemotherapy was adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Two hundred fifty-one (64.0%) of analyzed patients received all postoperative scheduled cycles. Five-year overall survival was significantly better in these patients compared to the incomplete group (76.0 vs. 60.6%, p cycles. Five-year overall survival was also significantly better than in the incomplete group (76.0 vs. 66.4%, p = 0.0073). Five-year disease free survival was numerically better (64.9 vs. 58.7%, p = 0.0646; HR [not all cycles vs. all cycles] = 1.42 95% CI: [0.98, 2.07]). Cox regression models show a non-significant better OS (p = 0.061) and DFS (p = 0.083), if chemotherapy cycles were administered completely. Complete administration of chemotherapy cycles was associated with improved five-year overall and disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

  3. Patterns of Failure and Local Control After Intraoperative Electron Boost Radiotherapy to the Presacral Space in Combination with Total Mesorectal Excision in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Treiber, Martina; Oertel, Susanne; Dinkel, Julien; Timke, Carmen; Funk, Angela; Garcia-Huttenlocher, Helena; Bischof, Marc; Weitz, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang; Hensley, Frank W.; Buchler, Markus W.; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control and patterns of failure in patients treated with intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) after total mesorectal excision (TME), to appraise the effectiveness of intraoperative target definition. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the outcome of 243 patients with rectal cancer treated with IOERT (median dose, 10 Gy) after TME. Eighty-eight patients received neoadjuvant and 122 patients adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose, 41.4 Gy), and in 88% simultaneous chemotherapy was applied. Median follow-up was 59 months. Results: Local failure was observed in 17 patients (7%), resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 92%. Only complete resection and absence of nodal involvement correlated positively with local control. Considering IOERT fields, seven infield recurrences were seen in the presacral space, resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 97%. The remaining local relapses were located as follows: retrovesical/retroprostatic (5), anastomotic site (2), promontorium (1), ileocecal (1), and perineal (1). Conclusion: Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy as part of a multimodal treatment approach including TME is a highly effective regimen to prevent local failure. The presacral space remains the site of highest risk for local failure, but IOERT can decrease the percentage of relapses in this area

  4. Regression and local control rates after radiotherapy for jugulotympanic paragangliomas: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulsteijn, Leonie T. van; Corssmit, Eleonora P.M.; Coremans, Ida E.M.; Smit, Johannes W.A.; Jansen, Jeroen C.; Dekkers, Olaf M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary treatment goal of radiotherapy for paragangliomas of the head and neck region (HNPGLs) is local control of the tumor, i.e. stabilization of tumor volume. Interestingly, regression of tumor volume has also been reported. Up to the present, no meta-analysis has been performed giving an overview of regression rates after radiotherapy in HNPGLs. The main objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess regression of tumor volume in HNPGL-patients after radiotherapy. A second outcome was local tumor control. Design of the study is systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, COCHRANE and Academic Search Premier and references of key articles were searched in March 2012 to identify potentially relevant studies. Considering the indolent course of HNPGLs, only studies with ⩾12 months follow-up were eligible. Main outcomes were the pooled proportions of regression and local control after radiotherapy as initial, combined (i.e. directly post-operatively or post-embolization) or salvage treatment (i.e. after initial treatment has failed) for HNPGLs. A meta-analysis was performed with an exact likelihood approach using a logistic regression with a random effect at the study level. Pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Fifteen studies were included, concerning a total of 283 jugulotympanic HNPGLs in 276 patients. Pooled regression proportions for initial, combined and salvage treatment were respectively 21%, 33% and 52% in radiosurgery studies and 4%, 0% and 64% in external beam radiotherapy studies. Pooled local control proportions for radiotherapy as initial, combined and salvage treatment ranged from 79% to 100%. Radiotherapy for jugulotympanic paragangliomas results in excellent local tumor control and therefore is a valuable treatment for these types of tumors. The effects of radiotherapy on regression of tumor volume remain ambiguous, although the data suggest that regression can

  5. A neo-strategic planning approach to enhance local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Malinda R; Carter, Sara Sally R; Wilson, Andrew P; Chan, Andie

    2015-01-01

    Research in tobacco control demonstrating best practices is widely disseminated; however, application at the local level is often difficult. Translating research into practice requires a concerted effort to develop an understanding of the evidence and how it can be applied within diverse contexts. A strategic planning infrastructure was developed to support the translation of evidence-based interventions into community practice. This paper highlights the strategic process of turning "know-what" into "know-how" to facilitate the strategic planning and implementation of tobacco control best practices at the local level. The purpose, people, process, and product strategies of knowledge management and translation provided a framework for the strategic planning infrastructure. The knowledge translation concepts of audience, motivations, and mechanisms were synergized in the neo-strategic planning component design. The participants were 20 community coalitions funded to implement local tobacco control programs. From 2004 to 2011, the strategic planners facilitated a cyclical process to translate research into practice using a trio of integrated tools, skill-building workshops on strategic planning, and grantee-driven technical assistance and consultation. In the short term, the usefulness of the strategic planning components to the programs was measured. The intermediate outcome was the successful movement of the community programs from the planning stage to the implementation stage. The achievement of community-level changes in planned tobacco control efforts was the overall outcome measure for the success of the local coalitions. Seventeen of 20 communities that began the planning process implemented strategic plans. All 17 of the programs implemented evidence-based practices, resulting in numerous tobacco-free policies, increased cessation, and increased support from the media and community. Bridging the gap between research and practice can enhance the practicality

  6. Stereotactic radiotherapy following surgery for brain metastasis: Predictive factors for local control and radionecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, M; Martin, S; Delpon, G; Clément, K; Campion, L; Thillays, F

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate local control and adverse effects after postoperative hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with brain metastasis. We reviewed patients who had hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (7.7Gy×3 prescribed to the 70% isodose line, with 2mm planning target volume margin) following resection from March 2008 to January 2014. The primary endpoint was local failure defined as recurrence within the surgical cavity. Secondary endpoints were distant failure rates and the occurrence of radionecrosis. Out of 95 patients, 39.2% had metastatic lesions from a non-small cell lung cancer primary tumour. The median Graded Prognostic Assessment score was 3 (48% of patients). One-year local control rates were 84%. Factors associated with improved local control were no cavity enhancement on pre-radiation MRI (P<0.00001), planning target volume less than 12cm 3 (P=0.005), Graded Prognostic Assessment score 2 or above (P=0.009). One-year distant cerebral control rates were 56%. Thirty-three percent of patients received whole brain radiation therapy. Histologically proven radionecrosis of brain tissue occurred in 7.2% of cases. The size of the preoperative lesion and the volume of healthy brain tissue receiving 21Gy (V 21 ) were both predictive of the incidence of radionecrosis (P=0.010 and 0.036, respectively). Adjuvant hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to the postoperative cavity in patients with brain metastases results in excellent local control in selected patients, helps delay the use of whole brain radiation, and is associated with a relatively low risk of radionecrosis. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Localized modelling and feedback control of linear instabilities in 2-D wall bounded shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Henry; Kotsonis, Marios; de Visser, Coen

    2016-11-01

    A new approach is presented for control of instabilities in 2-D wall bounded shear flows described by the linearized Navier-Stokes equations (LNSE). The control design accounts both for spatially localized actuators/sensors and the dominant perturbation dynamics in an optimal control framework. An inflow disturbance model is proposed for streamwise instabilities that drive laminar-turbulent transition. The perturbation modes that contribute to the transition process can be selected and are included in the control design. A reduced order model is derived from the LNSE that captures the input-output behavior and the dominant perturbation dynamics. This model is used to design an optimal controller for suppressing the instability growth. A 2-D channel flow and a 2-D boundary layer flow over a flat plate are considered as application cases. Disturbances are generated upstream of the control domain and the resulting flow perturbations are estimated/controlled using wall shear measurements and localized unsteady blowing and suction at the wall. It will be shown that the controller is able to cancel the perturbations and is robust to unmodelled disturbances.

  8. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dy