Sample records for survival curve slopes

  1. Comparing survival curves using rank tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim


    Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the

  2. Methods for Performing Survival Curve Quality-of-Life Assessments. (United States)

    Sumner, Walton; Ding, Eric; Fischer, Irene D; Hagen, Michael D


    Many medical decisions involve an implied choice between alternative survival curves, typically with differing quality of life. Common preference assessment methods neglect this structure, creating some risk of distortions. Survival curve quality-of-life assessments (SQLA) were developed from Gompertz survival curves fitting the general population's survival. An algorithm was developed to generate relative discount rate-utility (DRU) functions from a standard survival curve and health state and an equally attractive alternative curve and state. A least means squared distance algorithm was developed to describe how nearly 3 or more DRU functions intersect. These techniques were implemented in a program called X-Trade and tested. SQLA scenarios can portray realistic treatment choices. A side effect scenario portrays one prototypical choice, to extend life while experiencing some loss, such as an amputation. A risky treatment scenario portrays procedures with an initial mortality risk. A time trade scenario mimics conventional time tradeoffs. Each SQLA scenario yields DRU functions with distinctive shapes, such as sigmoid curves or vertical lines. One SQLA can imply a discount rate or utility if the other value is known and both values are temporally stable. Two SQLA exercises imply a unique discount rate and utility if the inferred DRU functions intersect. Three or more SQLA results can quantify uncertainty or inconsistency in discount rate and utility estimates. Pilot studies suggested that many subjects could learn to interpret survival curves and do SQLA. SQLA confuse some people. Compared with SQLA, standard gambles quantify very low utilities more easily, and time tradeoffs are simpler for high utilities. When discount rates approach zero, time tradeoffs are as informative and easier to do than SQLA. SQLA may complement conventional utility assessment methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Multivariate permutation test to compare survival curves for matched data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia


    ... for the comparison of survival curves cannot be applied in this setting. We demonstrate the validity of the proposed method with simulations, and we illustrate its application to data from an observational study for the comparison of bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy in the treatment of paediatric leukaemia. The use of the multivariate permutation testing approach is recommended in the highly stratified context of survival matched data, especially when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold.

  4. The role of Soil Water Retention Curve in slope stability analysis in unsaturated and heterogeneous soils. (United States)

    Antinoro, Chiara; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.


    The mechanisms of rainwater infiltration causing slope instability had been analyzed and reviewed in many scientific works. Rainwater infiltration into unsaturated soil increases the degree of saturation, hence affecting the shear strength properties and thus the probability of slope failure. It has been widely proved that the shear strength properties change with the soil water suction in unsaturated soils; therefore, the accuracy to predict the relationship between soil water content and soil water suction, parameterized by the soil-water characteristic curve, has significant effects on the slope stability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate how the characterization of SWRC of differently structured unsaturated soils affects the slope stability on a simple infinite slope. In particular, the unimodal and bimodal distributions of the soil pore size were compared. Samples of 40 soils, highly different in terms of structure and texture, were collected and used to calibrate two bimodal SWRCs, i.e. Ross and Smettem (1993) and Dexter et al., (2008). The traditional unimodal van Genuchten (1980) model was also applied for comparison. Slope stability analysis was conducted in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) by applying the infinite slope model for unsaturated soils. In the used formulation, the contribution of the suction effect is tuned by a parameter 'chi' in a rate proportional to the saturation conditions. Different parameterizations of this term were also compared and analyzed. Results indicated that all three SWRC models showed good overall performance in fitting the sperimental SWRCs. Both the RS and DE models described adequately the water retention data for soils with a bimodal behavior confirmed from the analysis of pore size distribution, but the best performance was obtained by DE model confirmed. In terms of FS, the tree models showed very similar results as soil moisture approached to the saturated condition; however, within the residual zone

  5. Individual survival curves comparing subjective and observed mortality risks. (United States)

    Bissonnette, Luc; Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl


    We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. This allows us to compare objective and subjective estimates of remaining life expectancy for various groups and compare welfare effects of objective and subjective mortality risk using the life cycle model of consumption. We find that subjective and objective hazards are not the same. The median welfare loss from misperceptions of mortality risk when annuities are not available is 7% of current wealth at age 65 whereas more than 25% of respondents have losses larger than 60% of wealth. When annuities are available and exogenously given, the welfare loss is substantially lower. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J


    .... In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient...

  7. Graphing survival curve estimates for time-dependent covariates. (United States)

    Schultz, Lonni R; Peterson, Edward L; Breslau, Naomi


    Graphical representation of statistical results is often used to assist readers in the interpretation of the findings. This is especially true for survival analysis where there is an interest in explaining the patterns of survival over time for specific covariates. For fixed categorical covariates, such as a group membership indicator, Kaplan-Meier estimates (1958) can be used to display the curves. For time-dependent covariates this method may not be adequate. Simon and Makuch (1984) proposed a technique that evaluates the covariate status of the individuals remaining at risk at each event time. The method takes into account the change in an individual's covariate status over time. The survival computations are the same as the Kaplan-Meier method, in that the conditional survival estimates are the function of the ratio of the number of events to the number at risk at each event time. The difference between the two methods is that the individuals at risk within each level defined by the covariate is not fixed at time 0 in the Simon and Makuch method as it is with the Kaplan-Meier method. Examples of how the two methods can differ for time dependent covariates in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis are presented.

  8. A Simplified Method for Estimating Subsonic Lift-Curve Slope at Low Angles of Attack for Irregular Planform Wings (United States)

    Spencer, Bernard, Jr.


    A simplified method is presented for estimating the lift-curve slope of irregular planform wings at subsonic speeds and low angles of attack. The present process is an extension of the method derived in NACA Technical Note 3911 and enables quick estimates of subsonic liftcurve slope, to be made whereas more refined procedures require considerable time and computation. Comparison of experimental and estimated values for a wide range of wing planforms having discontinuous spanwise sweep variation indicates good agreement. A comparison of the present procedure with a 20-step vortex method (NACA Research Memorandum L50L13) indicated good agreement for a variable-sweep configuration.

  9. The slope of the oxygen pulse curve does not depend on the maximal heart rate in elite soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Rodrigues Perim


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether an extremely high heart rate can affect oxygen pulse profile during progressive maximal exercise in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare relative oxygen pulse (adjusted for body weight curves in athletes at their maximal heart rate during treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing. METHODS: A total of 180 elite soccer players were categorized in quartiles according to their maximum heart rate values (n = 45. Oxygen consumption, maximum heart rate and relative oxygen pulse curves in the extreme quartiles, Q1 and Q4, were compared at intervals corresponding to 10% of the total duration of a cardiopulmonary exercise testing. RESULTS: Oxygen consumption was similar among all subjects during cardiopulmonary exercise testing; however subjects in Q1 started to exhibit lower maximum heart rate values when 20% of the test was complete. Conversely, the relative oxygen pulse was higher in this group when cardiopulmonary exercise testing was 40% complete (p<.01. Although the slopes of the lines were similar (p = .25, the regression intercepts differed (p<.01 between Q1 and Q4. During the last two minutes of testing, a flat or decreasing oxygen pulse was identified in 20% of the soccer players, and this trend was similar between subjects in Q1 and Q4. CONCLUSION: Relative oxygen pulse curve slopes, which serve as an indirect and non-invasive surrogate for stroke volume, suggest that the stroke volume is similar in young and aerobically fit subjects regardless of the maximum heart rate reached.

  10. Effect of aerofoil aspect ratio on the slope of the lift curve (United States)

    Diehl, Walter S


    On of the most important characteristics of an airfoil is the rate of change of lift with angle of attack, (sup dC)L/d alpha. This factor determines the effectiveness of a tail plane in securing static longitudinal stability. The application of the Gottingen formulas given here for calculating the variation of (sup Dc)L/d alpha with aspect ratio should be of interest to many aeronautical engineers. For the convenience of the engineer, a set of curves calculated by the method set forth here are given in graphical form. Also, the observed values of (sup dC)L/d alpha for the same airfoil at various aspect ratios follow the calculated curves closely.

  11. Antagonisms in the Phillips Curves with a positive slope: Mexico and Spain’s case

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    Rubén E. Roa Dueñas


    Full Text Available This document presents the indispensable theoretical aspects of the Phillips curve, as well as its evolution. A brief relation of the causes and effects of the Mexican 1994 crisis, as well as the consequent and visible noncompliance of the Phillips input. In same way we present the inclusion of Spain to the European Economic Community through the consummation of the Maastricht Treaty, its environment and some of its consequences, whose economy usually shows a vigorous and prosperous character. We conclude that the so-called inverted relation between unemployment and inflation which grossly shows the Phillips curve and the situations that do not comply with that norm, take us to a debate about the scenery and the required tools used by the different economies to try to defeat this theory, tending to direct the curve to the beginning, such as the Spain case. We can mention that it is not that important to defeat it in theory, but to generate the required conditions to consolidate the economy, as a future platform of sustained social and economical development.

  12. Investigation on the water retention curve of loose pyroclastic ashes of Campania (Italy) and its potential implications on slope stability (United States)

    Comegna, Luca; Damiano, Emilia; Greco, Roberto; Olivares, Lucio; Piccolo, Marco; Picarelli, Luciano


    Loose pyroclastic soils in Campania cover a large amount of steep slopes in the area surrounding the volcanic complex of Somma-Vesuvius. The stability of such slopes is assured by the contribution of suction to soil shear strength, which decreases during rainy periods till the possible attainment of a failure condition. The resulting landslide may evolve in form of a fast flow, if at the onset of instability the soil is nearly saturated and undrained conditions establish, so that soil liquefaction arises. The attainment of instability near saturation is not uncommon, as it requires the slope to have an inclination close to the friction angle of the soil constituting the deposit. The pyroclastic ashes of Campania are typically silty sands with friction angle between 36° and 38°, and small or even null cohesion. Many of the flow-like landslides, occurred during the last decades, were indeed triggered along slopes with inclination around 40°, which are quite common in Campania. As a suction of few kPa may be enough to guarantee the stability of a slope, knowledge of the water retention curve of the soil constituting the deposit is mandatory to correctly predict soil conditions at failure. Several studies report that the pyroclastic ashes of Campania exhibit a quite complex water retention behavior, showing a bimodal porosity distribution and, in some cases, a marked hysteresis domain, possibly enhanced by air entrapment during the infiltration of steep wetting fronts. In this study, a series of vertical infiltration and evaporation cycles have been carried out over two reconstituted specimens, both 20cm high, of pyroclastic ashes collected at the slope of Cervinara. TDR probes and minitensiometers were buried at various depths to provide coupled measurements of soil water content and suction. In order to highlight the possible hysteretic effects due to air entrapment, different hydraulic boundary conditions were established at the base of the two specimens: in one

  13. On differences in radiosensitivity estimation: TCP experiments versus survival curves. A theoretical study. (United States)

    Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Nahum, Alan


    We have compared two methods of estimating the cellular radiosensitivity of a heterogeneous tumour, namely, via cell-survival and via tumour control probability (TCP) pseudo-experiments. It is assumed that there exists intra-tumour variability in radiosensitivity and that the tumour consists predominantly of radiosensitive cells and a small number of radio-resistant cells.Using a multi-component, linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell kill, a pseudo-experimental cell-survival versus dose curve is derived. This curve is then fitted with a mono-component LQ model describing the response of a homogeneous cell population. For the assumed variation in radiosensitivity it is shown that the composite pseudo-experimental survival curve is well approximated by the survival curve of cells with uniform radiosensitivity.For the same initial cell radiosensitivity distribution several pseudo-experimental TCP curves are simulated corresponding to different fractionation regimes. The TCP model used accounts for clonogen proliferation during a fractionated treatment. The set of simulated TCP curves is then fitted with a mono-component TCP model. As in the cell survival experiment the fit with a mono-component model assuming uniform radiosensitivity is shown to be highly acceptable.However, the best-fit values of cellular radiosensitivity produced via the two methods are very different. The cell-survival pseudo-experiment yields a high radiosensitivity value, while the TCP pseudo-experiment shows that the dose-response is dominated by the most resistant sub-population in the tumour, even when this is just a small fraction of the total.

  14. Longevity and survival curves of Rhinella icterica (Anura, Bufonidae) under laboratory conditions. (United States)

    Lima, M S C S; Pederassi, J; Souza, C A S


    Life tables and survival curves of tadpoles from Rhinella icterica species were studied in the laboratory, under abiotic conditions controlled by a purification filter, a timer and a chiller. The survival curve for larval stage confirms a great mortality trend in the initial stages, which decreases when reaching the mature morphological condition (r = -0.94). Stages 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 showed gradual values for their age structures, while stages 42, 43 and 44 presented high variations. Based on the results under laboratory conditions, it can be concluded that the maturity of R. icterica tadpoles development between 37 and 44 stages has a negative correlation and their predicted life expectancy is a logarithmic growth curve (y=-761.96Ln(x)+5298.5).

  15. Toward computer simulation of high-LET in vitro survival curves (United States)

    Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.


    We developed a Monte Carlo based computer program called MCSC (Monte Carlo Survival Curve) able to predict the survival fraction of cells irradiated in vitro with a broad beam of high linear energy transfer particles. Three types of cell responses are studied: the usual high dose response, the bystander effect and the low-dose hypersensitivity (HRS). The program models the broad beam irradiation and double strand break distribution following Poisson statistics. The progression of cells through the cell cycle is taken into account while the repair takes place. Input parameters are experimentally determined for A549 lung carcinoma cells irradiated with 10 and 20 keV µm-1 protons, 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles and for EAhy926 endothelial cells exposed to 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles. Results of simulations are presented and compared with experimental survival curves obtained for A549 and EAhy296 cells. Results are in good agreement with experimental data for both cell lines and all irradiation protocols. The benefits of MCSC are several: the gain of time that would have been spent performing time-consuming clonogenic assays, the capacity to estimate survival fraction of cell lines not forming colonies and possibly the evaluation of radiosensitivity parameters of given individuals.

  16. The Antiviral Activity of Approved and Novel Drugs against HIV-1 Mutations Evaluated under the Consideration of Dose-Response Curve Slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Chang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify common HIV-1 mutation complexes affecting the slope of inhibition curve, and to propose a new parameter incorporating both the IC50 and the slope to evaluate phenotypic resistance.Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis, we constructed 22 HIV-1 common mutation complexes. IC50 and slope of 10 representative approved drugs and a novel agent against these mutations were measured to determine the resistance phenotypes. The values of new parameter incorporating both the IC50 and the slope of the inhibition curve were calculated, and the correlations between parameters were assessed.Depending on the class of drug, there were intrinsic differences in how the resistance mutations affected the drug parameters. All of the mutations resulted in large increases in the IC50s of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The effects of the mutations on the slope were the most apparent when examining their effects on the inhibition of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. For example, some mutations, such as V82A, had no effect on IC50, but reduced the slope. We proposed a new concept, termed IIPatoxic, on the basis of IC50, slope and the maximum limiting concentrations of the drug. The IIPatoxic values of 10 approved drugs and 1 novel agent were calculated, and were closely related to the IIPmax values (r > 0.95, p < 0.001.This study confirms that resistance mutations cannot be accurately assessed by IC50 alone, because it tends to underestimate the degree of resistance. The slope parameter is of very importance in the measurement of drug resistance and the effect can be applied to more complex patterns of resistance. This is the most apparent when testing the effects of the mutations on protease inhibitors activity. We also propose a new index, IIPatoxic, which incorporates both the IC50 and the slope. This new index could complement current IIP indices, thereby enabling predict the

  17. Survival of cardiac arrest patients on ski slopes: A 10-year analysis of the Northern French Alps Emergency Network. (United States)

    Viglino, Damien; Maignan, Maxime; Michalon, Arnaud; Turk, Julien; Buse, Sarah K; Blancher, Marc; Aufderheide, Tom P; Belle, Loïc; Savary, Dominique; Ageron, François-Xavier; Debaty, Guillaume


    Intense physical activity, cold and altitude make mountain sports a cause of increased risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The difficulties of pre-hospital management related to this challenging environment could be mitigated by the presence of ski-patrollers in ski areas and use of helicopters for medical rescue. We assess whether this particular situation positively impacts the chain of survival compared to the general population. Analysis of prospectively collected data from the cardiac arrest registry of the Northern French Alps Emergency Network (RENAU) from 2004 to 2014. 19,341 OHCAs were recorded during the period, including 136 on-slope events. Compared to other OHCAs, on-slope patients were younger (56 [40-65] vs. 66 [52-79] years, pski slopes presented a higher survival rate, possibly explained by a healthier population, the efficiency of resuscitation by ski-patrols and similar time to ALS facilities compared to other cardiac arrests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Survival of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy and the Flatness of the Rotation Curve of the Galaxy (United States)

    Zhao, HongSheng


    How has the ``fluffy'' Sgr dwarf galaxy survived its 10-20 pericentric passages in the halo of the Milky Way for a Hubble time? The scenario that Sgr was deflected to its current orbit by the Magellanic Clouds after a rendezvous on the north Galactic pole 2-3 Gyr ago is examined. It is shown that the conditions of the collision fix both the sense of circulation of Sgr and the Large Magellanic Cloud around the Galaxy and the slope of the Galactic rotation curve. The model argues that the two orthogonal polar circles traced by a dozen or so Galactic halo dwarf galaxies and globular clusters (LMC-SMC-Magellanic Stream-Draco-Ursa Minor along l~270deg and M54-Ter 7-Ter 8-Arp 2-NGC 2419-Pal 15 along l~0deg) are streams of tidal relics from two ancient galaxies that were captured on two intersecting polar rosette orbits by the Galaxy. Our results favor the interpretation of microlensing toward the LMC being due to source or lens stars in tidal features of the Magellanic Clouds. We discuss direct and indirect observations to test the collision scenario.

  19. ANTEROCOD: actuarial survival curves applied to medical coding support for chronic diseases. (United States)

    Lecornu, L; Le Guillou, C; Le Saux, F; Hubert, M; Puentes, J; Cauvin, J M


    For the practitioner, choosing diagnosis codes is a non-intuitive operation. Mistakes are frequent, causing severe consequences on healthcare performance evaluation and funding. French physicians have to assign a code to all their activities and are frequently prone to these errors. Given that most of the time and particularly for chronic diseases indexed information is already available, we propose a tool named AnterOcod, in order to support the medical coding task. It suggests the list of most relevant plausible codes, predicted from the patient's earlier hospital stays, according to a set of previously utilized diagnosis codes. Our method applies the estimation of code reappearance rates, based on an equivalent approach to actuarial survival curves. Around 33% of the expected correct diagnosis codes were retrieved in this manner, after evaluating 998 discharge abstracts, significantly improving the coding task.

  20. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kalderstam

    Full Text Available We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart, which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  1. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms. (United States)

    Kalderstam, Jonas; Edén, Patrik; Ohlsson, Mattias


    We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox) is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart), which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  2. Slope adjustment of runoff curve number (CN) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) for Kuantan River Basin (United States)

    Akbari, Abolghasem


    The Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff from rainfall. It employs the hydrologic soil groups and landuse information along with period soil moisture conditions to derive NRCS-CN. This method has been well documented and available in popular rainfall-runoff models such as HEC-HMS, SWAT, SWMM and many more. The Sharply-Williams and Hank methods was used to adjust CN values provided in standard table of TR-55. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) is used to derive slope map with spatial resolution of 30 m for Kuantan River Basin (KRB). The two investigated method stretches the conventional CN domain to the lower values. The study shows a successful application of remote sensing data and GIS tools in hydrological studies. The result of this work can be used for rainfall-runoff simulation and flood modeling in KRB.

  3. LES of Scalar transport in a turbulent katabatic flow along a curved slope in the context of stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer. (United States)

    Brun, Christophe; Chollet, Jean Pierre


    The behaviour of the Atmospheric Boundary layer (ABL) along alpine valleys is strongly dependent on the day-night thermodynamic cycle and might impact meteorology and air pollution prediction. At night, the ABL is stably stratified and the radiative cooling of the surface yields the development of a katabatic flow. This flow consists of a downslope wall-jet which has the structure of both wall turbulence in the inner-layer zone and shear layer turbulence in the outer-layer zone and enhances a relative mixing eventhough stable stratification is considered. A full 3D description of such flow by mean of Large Eddy Simulation of turbulence (LES) has not yet been achieved, except recently on relatively simple slopes (Skyllingstad 2003, Fedorovith and Shapiro 2009) or including geostrophic wind forcing (Cuxart et al. 2006, Cuxart and Jimenez 2006). This is the purpose of the present study to accurately describe the ABL on a curved slope with stable stratification, including passive scalar transport. The numerical code used, Meso-NH, has been developed in CNRM/Meteo-France and Laboratoire d'Aérologie Toulouse, and consists of an anelastic non-hydrostatic model solving the pseudo-incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. About 5 million grid points are necessary to afford a relatively precise description of the flow in the vicinity of the ground surface, with a special refinement down to 1 m in the vertical direction to capture the wall-jet developing along the slope. The setting of initial and boundary conditions is crucial for the simulation of stable ABL. Initial conditions consist of air at rest following a stable temperature profile with a constant Brunt-Väisälä frequency 0.01

  4. Negative slope of resistivity-temperature curve and positive magnetoresistance in antiperovskite ZnCNi3- x Mn x (1.15≤ x≤1.5) (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Chu, Songnan; Zhao, Jiyin; Wang, Yang; Guo, Yuqiao; Wang, Cailin


    In antiperovskite intermetallics ZnCNi3- x Mn x , the negative slope coefficient (NSC) d ρ/d T of resistivity-temperature curves is observed when x=1.15,1.25,1.4,1.5. The sample with x=1.25 shows a semiconductor-like behavior in the whole temperature range of 15-290 K. By study of the magnetization, magnetoresistance, and low-temperature X-ray diffraction, it is found that Mn dopant significantly affects the physical properties of ZnCNi3- x Mn x by changing both the carrier density and the magnetism. The origin of the NSC d ρ/d T can be ascribed to the change of hole-like carrier density, which is adjusted by Mn content. The existence of hole-like carriers can be understood rationally by the two-band model. The change of sign of magnetoresistance from positive to negative has been observed in ZnCNi3- x Mn x with the change of Mn content, which could be ascribed to the competition between the contribution from field-induced suppression of the thermally excited ferromagnetic spin fluctuations and the Lorentz contribution. When Mn content is low, the Lorentz contribution dominates the sign of magnetoresistance. On the other hand, when Mn content is high, the contribution from field-induced suppression of the thermally excited ferromagnetic spin fluctuations dominates the sign of magnetoresistance.

  5. Why the Kantian ideal survives medical learning curves, and why it matters. (United States)

    Brecher, B


    The "Kantian ideal" is often misunderstood as invoking individual autonomy rather than rational self legislation. Le Morvan and Stock's otherwise insightful discussion of "Medical learning curves and the Kantian ideal"--for example--draws the mistaken inference that that ideal is inconsistent with the realities of medical practice. But it is not. Rationally to be a patient entails accepting its necessary conditions.

  6. Summary curves for patients transplanted for chronic myeloid leukaemia salvaged by a donor lymphocyte infusion: the current leukaemia-free survival curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, John P.; Keiding, Niels; Shu, Youyi


    CML, donor lymphocyte infusion, leukaemia-free survival, current leukaemia-free survival, statistical methods......CML, donor lymphocyte infusion, leukaemia-free survival, current leukaemia-free survival, statistical methods...

  7. Mini-implants in the palatal slope – a retrospective analysis of implant survival and tissue reaction

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    Ziebura Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify insertion procedure and force application related complications in Jet Screw (JS type mini-implants when inserted in the palatal slope. Methods Setting and Sample Population: The Department of Orthodontics, the University Hospital Münster. Forty-one consecutively started patients treated using mini-implants in the palatal slope. In this retrospective study, 66 JS were evaluated. Patient records were used to obtain data on the mode of utilization and complications. Standardized photographs overlayed with a virtual grid served to test the hypothesis that deviations from the recommended insertion site or the type of mechanics applied might be related to complications regarding bleeding, gingival overgrowth or implant failure. Results Two implants (3% were lost, and two implants (3%, both loaded with a laterally directed force, exhibited loosening while still serving for anchorage. Complications that required treatment did not occur, the most severe problem observed being gingival proliferation which was attributable neither to patients’ age nor to applied mechanics or deviations from the ideal implant position. Conclusions The JS mini-implant is reliable for sagittal and vertical movements or anchorage purposes. Laterally directed forces might be unfavorable. The selection of implant length as well as the insertion procedure should account for the possibility of gingival overgrowth.

  8. [Analysis of survival and mortality curves with the model of vital receptors. The maximal life span. Effect of temperature on the life span. The mortality probability density function (mortality curve) and its parameters]. (United States)

    Poltorakov, A P


    We have continued an analysis of survival curves by the model of the vital receptors (MVR). The main types survival function (E-, TW- and GM-distributions) have been considered. It was found that the maximal life span depends on the threshold concentration of vital receptors. Equations are obtained for the dependence of the maximal life span on the kinetic parameters in the reactions of inactivation, destruction and inactivation. Dependence of maximal time life on initial size of the population have been considered. The influence of temperature on the survival curves is analysed by E-distribution. Equations are founded for the description of thermosurvival and thermoinactivation curves. Equation are obtained for the dependence of density function and it characteristics (modal and antimodal age, coefficient of asymmetry) on the MVR parameters. It was shown that E-, TW- and GM-distribution has different types of asymmetry. The coefficient of asymmetry of GM-distribution is associated on the MVR parameters. It is assumed that symmetry of the curves of mortality and birth-rate is coordinated by the mechanisms of MVR.

  9. Development of prognostic model for predicting survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stent in advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and its evaluation by decision curve analysis. (United States)

    Kawano, Shingo; Komai, Yoshinobu; Ishioka, Junichiro; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fuse, Nozomu; Ito, Masaaki; Kihara, Kazunori; Saito, Norio


    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stents and develop a prognostic model for advanced gastrointestinal tract (GIT: esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum) cancer patients. We examined the clinical records of 122 patients who underwent retrograde placement of a ureteral stent against malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction. A prediction model for survival after stenting was developed. We compared its clinical usefulness with our previous model based on the results from nephrostomy cases by decision curve analysis. Median follow-up period was 201 days (8-1490) and 97 deaths occurred. The 1-year survival rate in this cohort was 29%. Based on multivariate analysis, primary site of colon origin, absence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and serum albumin >3g/dL were significantly associated with a prolonged survival time. To develop a prognostic model, we divided the patients into 3 risk groups of favorable: 0-1 factors (N.=53), intermediate: 2 risk factors (N.=54), and poor: 3 risk factors (N.=15). There were significant differences in the survival profiles of these 3 risk groups (P<0.0001). Decision curve analyses revealed that the current model has a superior net benefit than our previous model for most of the examined probabilities. We have developed a novel prognostic model for GIT cancer patients who were treated with retrograde placement of a ureteral stent. The current model should help urologists and medical oncologists to predict survival in cases of malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction.

  10. NTCP modelling of lung toxicity after SBRT comparing the universal survival curve and the linear quadratic model for fractionation correction. (United States)

    Wennberg, Berit M; Baumann, Pia; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Nyman, Jan; Drugge, Ninni; Hoyer, Morten; Traberg, Anders; Nilsson, Kristina; Morhed, Elisabeth; Ekberg, Lars; Wittgren, Lena; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Levin, Nina; Sederholm, Christer; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lax, Ingmar


    In SBRT of lung tumours no established relationship between dose-volume parameters and the incidence of lung toxicity is found. The aim of this study is to compare the LQ model and the universal survival curve (USC) to calculate biologically equivalent doses in SBRT to see if this will improve knowledge on this relationship. Toxicity data on radiation pneumonitis grade 2 or more (RP2+) from 57 patients were used, 10.5% were diagnosed with RP2+. The lung DVHs were corrected for fractionation (LQ and USC) and analysed with the Lyman- Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. In the LQ-correction α/β = 3 Gy was used and the USC parameters used were: α/β = 3 Gy, D(0) = 1.0 Gy, [Formula: see text] = 10, α = 0.206 Gy(-1) and d(T) = 5.8 Gy. In order to understand the relative contribution of different dose levels to the calculated NTCP the concept of fractional NTCP was used. This might give an insight to the questions of whether "high doses to small volumes" or "low doses to large volumes" are most important for lung toxicity. NTCP analysis with the LKB-model using parameters m = 0.4, D(50) = 30 Gy resulted for the volume dependence parameter (n) with LQ correction n = 0.87 and with USC correction n = 0.71. Using parameters m = 0.3, D(50) = 20 Gy n = 0.93 with LQ correction and n = 0.83 with USC correction. In SBRT of lung tumours, NTCP modelling of lung toxicity comparing models (LQ,USC) for fractionation correction, shows that low dose contribute less and high dose more to the NTCP when using the USC-model. Comparing NTCP modelling of SBRT data and data from breast cancer, lung cancer and whole lung irradiation implies that the response of the lung is treatment specific. More data are however needed in order to have a more reliable modelling.

  11. Survival (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  12. VE/VCO2 slope is associated with abnormal resting haemodynamics and is a predictor of long-term survival in chronic heart failure. (United States)

    Nanas, Serafim N; Nanas, John N; Sakellariou, Dimitrios Ch; Dimopoulos, Stavros K; Drakos, Stavros G; Kapsimalakou, Smaragdo G; Mpatziou, Christina A; Papazachou, Ourania G; Dalianis, Anargyros S; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria I; Roussos, Charis


    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) present with exercise-induced hyperpnea, but its pathophysiological mechanism has not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to determine the relationship between exercise-induced hyperpnea, resting haemodynamic measurements and the validity of ventilatory response (V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope) as a mortality predictor in CHF patients. Ninety-eight CHF patients (90M/8F) underwent a symptom-limited treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Right heart catheterization and radionuclide ventriculography were performed within 72 h of CPET. Twenty-seven patients died from cardiac causes during 20+/-6 months follow-up. Non-survivors had a lower peak oxygen consumption (V(O(2)p)), (16.5+/-4.9 vs. 20.2+/-6.1, ml/kg/min, p=0.003), a steeper V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope (34.8+/-8.3 vs. 28.9+/-4.8, pslope as a continuous variable was an independent prognostic factor (chi(2): 8.5, relative risk: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, p=0.004). Overall mortality was 52% in patients with V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope > or =34 and 18% in those with V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope slope was a significant predictor of mortality (relative risk: 6.2, 95% CI: 1.7-22.2, p=0.002). Patients with high V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope had higher resting PCWP (19.9+/-9.1 vs. 11.3+/-5.7 mmHg, pslope correlated significantly with PCWP (r: 0.57, pslope, as an index of ventilatory response to exercise, improves the risk stratification of CHF patients. Interstitial pulmonary oedema may be a pathophysiological mechanism of inefficient ventilation during exercise in these patients.

  13. Moduli of Trigonal Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Stankova-Frenkel, Z E


    We study the moduli of trigonal curves. We establish the exact upper bound of ${36(g+1)}/(5g+1)$ for the slope of trigonal fibrations. Here, the slope of any fibration $X\\to B$ of stable curves with smooth general member is the ratio Hodge class $\\lambda$ on the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ to the base $B$. We associate to a trigonal family $X$ a canonical rank two vector bundle $V$, and show that for Bogomolov-semistable $V$ the slope satisfies the stronger inequality ${\\delta_B}/{\\lambda_B}\\leq 7+{6}/{g}$. We further describe the rational Picard group of the {trigonal} locus $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$ in the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ of genus $g$ curves. In the even genus case, we interpret the above Bogomolov semistability condition in terms of the so-called Maroni divisor in $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$.

  14. Lower Leg Injury Reference Values and Risk Curves from Survival Analysis for Male and Female Dummies: Meta-analysis of Postmortem Human Subject Tests. (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu


    Derive lower leg injury risk functions using survival analysis and determine injury reference values (IRV) applicable to human mid-size male and small-size female anthropometries by conducting a meta-analysis of experimental data from different studies under axial impact loading to the foot-ankle-leg complex. Specimen-specific dynamic peak force, age, total body mass, and injury data were obtained from tests conducted by applying the external load to the dorsal surface of the foot of postmortem human subject (PMHS) foot-ankle-leg preparations. Calcaneus and/or tibia injuries, alone or in combination and with/without involvement of adjacent articular complexes, were included in the injury group. Injury and noninjury tests were included. Maximum axial loads recorded by a load cell attached to the proximal end of the preparation were used. Data were analyzed by treating force as the primary variable. Age was considered as the covariate. Data were censored based on the number of tests conducted on each specimen and whether it remained intact or sustained injury; that is, right, left, and interval censoring. The best fits from different distributions were based on the Akaike information criterion; mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained; and normalized confidence interval sizes (quality indices) were determined at 5, 10, 25, and 50% risk levels. The normalization was based on the mean curve. Using human-equivalent age as 45 years, data were normalized and risk curves were developed for the 50th and 5th percentile human size of the dummies. Out of the available 114 tests (76 fracture and 38 no injury) from 5 groups of experiments, survival analysis was carried out using 3 groups consisting of 62 tests (35 fracture and 27 no injury). Peak forces associated with 4 specific risk levels at 25, 45, and 65 years of age are given along with probability curves (mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals) for PMHS and normalized data applicable to

  15. Space Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo


    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  16. Recurring Slope Lineae Formation on Changing Slopes. (United States)

    Heydenreich, J.; Mickol, R. L.; Dixon, J. C.; Chevrier, V.


    Recurring Slope Lineae (RSLs) and other associated dark streaks appear in the southern mid-latitudes on the martian surface during the spring to summer months. Gullies commonly emerge from bedrock and form from volatile thawing and associated sediment transportation and deposition. All of these forms involve the movement of fluids and associated sediments on variable slopes. The objective of this research is to generate subsurface flows, resembling those of liquid brines, under regolith at slope angle ranges that represent those on which RSLs and gullies occur on Mars. RSLs are generally found on steeper slopes. The higher slopes ranged from 25°-30° and lower slopes 12°-18°. As the slope increased, the total channel and apron length increased. There was a significant increase from the lower to higher slopes. The maximum width of the channel decreased as the slopes increased. Lower slopes produced a more dendritic channel pattern; an alcove, the main channel and an apron with two diverging branches. However, the higher slopes produced channels with more variability in the fluvial features. Lobes diverged from the main channel at varying distances from the water source. Channel walls were more distinct, along with formation of natural levees. Increases in fluid viscosity, produces a more singular channel. From these observations we conclude that lower slopes are more conducive to RSL formations from their basic geomorphology. Higher slopes produce more distinct morphologies associated with fluvial erosion that are more similar to gullies. The effect of viscosity also appears to alter the morphologies of the flow features. Understanding the origin of these fluvial features can lead to greater understanding of fluids on Mars.

  17. Quantum curves


    Schwarz, Albert


    One says that a pair (P,Q) of ordinary differential operators specify a quantum curve if [P,Q]=const. If a pair of difference operators (K,L) obey the relation KL=const LK we say that they specify a discrete quantum curve. This terminology is prompted by well known results about commuting differential and difference operators, relating pairs of such operators with pairs of meromorphic functions on algebraic curves obeying some conditions. ...

  18. Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis (United States)

    White, Laura M.; Lau, Katherine S. L.; Perkins, Anthony; Monahan, Patrick; Grisso, Thomas


    Objectives. We examined the provision of behavioral health services to youths detained in Indiana between 2008 and 2012 and the impact of services on recidivism. Method. We obtained information about behavioral health needs, behavioral health treatment received, and recidivism within 12 months after release for 8363 adolescents (aged 12–18 years; 79.4% male). We conducted survival analyses to determine whether behavioral health services significantly affected time to recidivating. Results. Approximately 19.1% of youths had positive mental health screens, and 25.3% of all youths recidivated within 12 months after release. Of youths with positive screens, 29.2% saw a mental health clinician, 16.1% received behavioral health services during detention, and 30.0% received referrals for postdetention services. Survival analyses showed that being male, Black, and younger, and having higher scores on the substance use or irritability subscales of the screen predicted shorter time to recidivism. Receiving a behavior precaution, behavioral health services in detention, or an assessment in the community also predicted shorter time to recidivating. Conclusions. Findings support previous research showing that behavioral health problems are related to recidivism and that Black males are disproportionately rearrested after detention. PMID:25973804

  19. Meta-analysis of survival curve data using distributed health data networks: application to hip arthroplasty studies of the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries. (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Banerjee, Samprit; Sedrakyan, Art; Paxton, Liz; Furnes, Ove; Graves, Stephen; Marinac-Dabic, Danica


    The motivating example for this paper comes from a distributed health data network, the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries (ICOR), which aims to examine risk factors for orthopedic device failure for registries around the world. Unfortunately, regulatory, privacy, and propriety concerns made sharing of raw data impossible, even if de-identified. Therefore, this article describes an approach to extraction and analysis of aggregate time-to-event data from ICOR. Data extraction is based on obtaining a survival probability and variance estimate for each unique combination of the explanatory variables at each distinct event time for each registry. The extraction procedure allows for a great deal of flexibility; models can be specified after the data have been collected, for example, modeling of interaction effects and selection of subgroups of patients based on their values on the explanatory variables. Our analysis models are adapted from models presented elsewhere--but allowing for censoring in the calculation of the correlation between serial survival probabilities and using the square root of the covariance matrix to transform the data to avoid computational problems in model estimation. Simulations and a real-data example are provided with strengths and limitations of the approach discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Slippery Slope Arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, W.; Chadwick, R.F.


    Slippery slope arguments hold that one should not take some action (which in itself may be innocuous or even laudable) in order to prevent one from being dragged down a slope towards some clearly undesirable situation. Their typical purpose is to prevent changes in the status quo and, therefore,

  1. Unstable slope management program. (United States)


    This Rapid Response Project gathered information on existing unstable slope management programs, with a : focus on asset management practices in the United States and overseas. On the basis of this study, the research : team summarized and recommende...

  2. Rock Slope Design Criteria (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  3. Rock slope design guide. (United States)


    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  4. Impact cratering on slopes (United States)

    Aschauer, Johannes; Kenkmann, Thomas


    The majority of impact craters have circular outlines and axially symmetric morphologies. Deviation from crater circularity is caused by either target heterogeneity, a very oblique impact incidence, post-impact deformation, or by topography. Here, we investigate the effect of topography on crater formation and systematically study impact cratering processes on inclined hillsides up to 25° slope utilizing analogue experiments. A spring-driven air gun mounted in a vertical position shoots into three different types of granular bulk solids (two sorts of glass beads, quartz sand) to emulate impact cratering on slopes. In all, 170 experiments were conducted. The transient crater develops roughly symmetrically perpendicular to the slope plane, resulting in higher ejection angles uphill than downhill when measured with respect to a horizontal plane. Craters become increasingly elliptical with increasing slope angle. At slope angles close to angle of repose of the respective bulk solids, aspect ratios of the craters reach ∼1.7. Uphill-downhill cross sections become increasingly asymmetric, the depth-diameter ratio of the craters decreases, and the deepest point shifts downhill with increasing slope angle. Mass wasting is initiated both in the uphill and downhill sectors of the crater rim. For steep slopes the landslides that emanate from the uphill rim can overshoot the crater cavity and superpose the downhill crater rim in a narrow tongue. Mass wasting initiated at the downhill sector forms broader and shallower tongues and is triggered by the deposition of ejecta on the inclined slope. Our experiments help to explain asymmetric crater morphologies observed on asteroids such as Ceres, Vesta, Lutetia, and also on Mars.

  5. Mycorrhizal aspects in slope stabilisation (United States)

    Graf, Frank


    In order to re-colonise and stabilise slopes affected by superficial soil failure with plants essential requirements have to be met: the plants must grow the plants must survive sustainably plant succession must start and continuously develop These requirements, however, are anything but easy given, particularly under the often hostile environmental conditions dominating on bare and steep slopes. Mycorrhizal fungi, the symbiotic partners of almost all plants used in eco-engineering, are said to improve the plants' ability to overcome periods governed by strongly (growth) limiting factors. Subsequently, results of investigations are presented of mycorrhizal effects on different plant and soil functions related to eco-engineering in general and soil and slope stabilisation in particular. Generally, inoculation yielded higher biomass of the host plants above as well as below ground. Furthermore, the survival rate was higher for mycorrhized compared to non-mycorrhized plants, particularly under extreme environmental conditions. However, the scale of the mycorrhizal impact may be species specific of both the plant host as well as the fungal partner(s) and often becomes evident only after a certain time lag. Depending on the plant-fungus combination the root length per soil volume was found to be between 0 and 2.5 times higher for inoculated compared to non-inoculated specimens. On an alpine graded ski slope the survival of inoculated compared to non-treated Salix herbacea cuttings was significant after one vegetation period only for one of the three added mycorrhizal fungus species. However, after three years all of the inoculated plantlets performed significantly better than the non-inoculated controls. The analysis of the potential for producing and stabilising soil aggregates of five different ectomycorrhizal fungi showed high variation and, for the species Inocybe lacera, no significant difference compared to untreated soil. Furthermore, inoculation of Salix

  6. Probabilistic Rock Slope Engineering. (United States)


    distances or may reflect errors or uncertainties in sample collection and evaluation. 58. Typical variograms for fracture set properties are illustrated... uncertainties in their measurement and estimation imply the probabilistic nature of parameters re- quired for rock slope engineering. Therefore, statistical...strengths of geologic discontinuities and also by the local stress field. Natural variabilities in these rock mass properties and uncertainties in their

  7. Slope constrained Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, J.; Sigmund, Ole


    pointwise bounds on the density slopes. A finite element discretization procedure is described, and a proof of convergence of finite element solutions to exact solutions is given, as well as numerical examples obtained by a continuation/SLP (sequential linear programming) method. The convergence proof...

  8. Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope Predicts Major Cardiac Events in Patients With End-Stage Heart Failure. (United States)

    Lin, Y-S; Huang, H-Y; Lin, W-H; Wei, J; Chen, J-C; Kuo, L-Y; Hsu, C-L; Chen, B-Y; Cheng, F-H


    Oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) has been shown as a predictor of stable heart failure (HF) survival. However, there is a lack of evidence for end-stage HF. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of OUES in end-stage HF patients. The study design was a retrospective cohort. End-staged HF patients who had cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) for evaluation between 2004 and 2009 were included. The primary outcomes were cardiac death and heart transplantation. The independent survival predictors were determined using Cox regression hazard model adjusted for demographics, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, medication, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test were used. Probability values less than .05 were considered significant. Mean age of the 128 patients was 50 ± 12 years and 93 were male. Mean LVEF was 23% ± 9%. Forty-three subjects suffered cardiac events (5 cardiac deaths and 38 urgent heart transplantations) during the 2-year follow-up period. Cox regression indicated that OUES and diuretics were significant predictors of 2-year survival, although peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory equivalent of carbon dioxide were not. Patients with high OUES (≥1.6) had a higher survival rate (P < .001; odds ratio [OR], 13.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.30-58.63). The Kaplan-Meier curves show survival was significantly higher in those with OUES ≥1.6. OUES might be an aid in prognosis of patients with end-stage HF and useful in the assessment of patients unable to perform maximal exercise testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Slope earthquake stability

    CERN Document Server

    Changwei, Yang; Jing, Lian; Wenying, Yu; Jianjing, Zhang


    This book begins with the dynamic characteristics of the covering layerbedrock type slope, containing monitoring data of the seismic array, shaking table tests, numerical analysis and theoretical derivation. Then it focuses on the landslide mechanism and assessment method. It also proposes a model that assessing the hazard area based on the field investigations. Many questions, exercises and solutions are given. Researchers and engineers in the field of Geotechnical Engineering and Anti-seismic Engineering can benefit from it.

  10. The Q-Slope Method for Rock Slope Engineering (United States)

    Bar, Neil; Barton, Nick


    Q-slope is an empirical rock slope engineering method for assessing the stability of excavated rock slopes in the field. Intended for use in reinforcement-free road or railway cuttings or in opencast mines, Q-slope allows geotechnical engineers to make potential adjustments to slope angles as rock mass conditions become apparent during construction. Through case studies across Asia, Australia, Central America, and Europe, a simple correlation between Q-slope and long-term stable slopes was established. Q-slope is designed such that it suggests stable, maintenance-free bench-face slope angles of, for instance, 40°-45°, 60°-65°, and 80°-85° with respective Q-slope values of approximately 0.1, 1.0, and 10. Q-slope was developed by supplementing the Q-system which has been extensively used for characterizing rock exposures, drill-core, and tunnels under construction for the last 40 years. The Q' parameters (RQD, J n, J a, and J r) remain unchanged in Q-slope. However, a new method for applying J r/ J a ratios to both sides of potential wedges is used, with relative orientation weightings for each side. The term J w, which is now termed J wice, takes into account long-term exposure to various climatic and environmental conditions such as intense erosive rainfall and ice-wedging effects. Slope-relevant SRF categories for slope surface conditions, stress-strength ratios, and major discontinuities such as faults, weakness zones, or joint swarms have also been incorporated. This paper discusses the applicability of the Q-slope method to slopes ranging from less than 5 m to more than 250 m in height in both civil and mining engineering projects.

  11. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing]. (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling


    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of different plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sensing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring.

  12. Elucidation of non-parallel EIA curves


    François-Gérard, C.; Gérard, Paul; Rentier, Bernard


    Quantitative determinations by EIA can be only obtained by reverse regression when linear portions of sample and standard curves are parallel. However, analysis of complex biological fluids often yields sigmoid curves displaying lower slopes, thus invalidating any quantitative interpretation. We hypothesized that this phenomenon was due to a competition effect between the target (for example an antigen) and related molecules for the binding sites (for example a capture antibody) immobilized o...

  13. Comments on the slope function


    Kim, Minkyoo


    The exact slope function was first proposed in $SL(2)$ sector and generalized to $SU(2)$ sector later. In this note, we consider the slope function in $SU(1|1)$ sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. We derive the quantity through the method invented by N. Gromov and discuss about its validity. Further, we give comments on the slope function in deformed SYM.

  14. Newton slopes for Artin-Schreier-Witt towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher; Wan, Daqing; Xiao, Liang


    We fix a monic polynomial f(x)∈Fq[x] over a finite field and consider the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower defined by f(x); this is a tower of curves ⋯→Cm→Cm−1→⋯→C0=A1, with total Galois group Zp. We study the Newton slopes of zeta functions of this tower of curves. This reduces to the study of the Newton...... slopes of L-functions associated to characters of the Galois group of this tower. We prove that, when the conductor of the character is large enough, the Newton slopes of the L-function form arithmetic progressions which are independent of the conductor of the character. As a corollary, we obtain...

  15. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement (United States)



    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 μg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 μg/mouse) and grandisol (135 μg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (P<0.01). However, intake of 100 μg/mouse of essential oil or grandisol 135 μg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly

  16. SU-F-T-02: Estimation of Radiobiological Doses (BED and EQD2) of Single Fraction Electronic Brachytherapy That Equivalent to I-125 Eye Plaque: By Using Linear-Quadratic and Universal Survival Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y; Waldron, T; Pennington, E [University Of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    Purpose: To test the radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy, we calculated single fraction equivalent doses (SFED) of the tumor that equivalent to 85 Gy of I125-BT for 20 patients. Corresponding organs-at-risks (OARs) doses were estimated. Methods: Twenty patients treated with I125-BT were retrospectively examined. The tumor SFED values were calculated from tumor BED using a conventional linear-quadratic (L-Q) model and an universal survival curve (USC). The opposite retina (α/β = 2.58), macula (2.58), optic disc (1.75), and lens (1.2) were examined. The % doses of OARs over tumor doses were assumed to be the same as for a single fraction delivery. The OAR SFED values were converted into BED and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) by using both L-Q and USC models, then compared to I125-BT. Results: The USC-based BED and EQD2 doses of the macula, optic disc, and the lens were on average 118 ± 46% (p < 0.0527), 126 ± 43% (p < 0.0354), and 112 ± 32% (p < 0.0265) higher than those of I125-BT, respectively. The BED and EQD2 doses of the opposite retina were 52 ± 9% lower than I125-BT. The tumor SFED values were 25.2 ± 3.3 Gy and 29.1 ± 2.5 Gy when using USC and LQ models which can be delivered within 1 hour. All BED and EQD2 values using L-Q model were significantly larger when compared to the USC model (p < 0.0274) due to its large single fraction size (> 14 Gy). Conclusion: The estimated single fraction doses were feasible to be delivered within 1 hour using a high dose rate source such as electronic brachytherapy (eBT). However, the estimated OAR doses using eBT were 112 ∼ 118% higher than when using the I125-BT technique. Continued exploration of alternative dose rate or fractionation schedules should be followed.



    Masanori, MICHIUE; Masaharu, FUJITA; Tottori University, Professor; Tottori University, Associate Professor


    A method for predicting slope failure that is based on seepage analysis and the stability analysis of a slope is presented. Lateral unsaturated seepage flow is discussed as well as vertical one, and the seepage flow in a saturated zone is calculated in one or two dimensions taking into account the influence of the coefficient of permeability of saturated soil and the lateral unsaturated seepage flow. The threshold condition of slope failure is evaluated by making a stability analysis of a slo...

  18. 16 determination of posterior tibia slope and slope deterioration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries due to increased anterior tibia translation (2, 3). Although some authors have reported increased stability of posterior cruciate ligament deficient knees with deepened posterior tibial slopes (4). Therefore, the slope should be maintained or corrected to maintain normal kinematics. These.

  19. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  20. Slope failure simulations with MPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardon, P.J.; Wang, B.; Hicks, M.A.


    The simulation of slope failures, including both failure initiation and development, has been modelled using the material point method (MPM). Numerical case studies involving various slope angles, heterogeneity and rainfall infiltration are presented. It is demonstrated that, by utilising a

  1. Slope Failure Simulations with MPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardon, P.J.; Wang, B.; Hicks, M.A.


    The simulation of slope failures, including both failure initiation and development, has been modelled using the material point method. By utilising a constitutive model which encompasses, in a simplified manner, both pre- and post-failure behaviour, the majority of types of geotechnical slope

  2. Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration. (United States)

    Shattock, Michael J; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W C; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T; Winter, James


    The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF. Experiments were conducted in isolated hearts and ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Restitution curves were measured under control conditions and following intervention to prolong (clofilium, veratridine, bretylium, low [Ca]e, chronic transverse aortic constriction) or shorten (catecholamines, rapid pacing) ventricular APD. Despite markedly differing mechanisms of action, all interventions that prolonged the action potential led to a steepening of the restitution curve (and vice versa). Normalizing the restitution curve as a % of steady-state APD abolished the difference in restitution curves with all interventions. Effects on restitution were preserved when APD was modulated by current injection in myocytes pre-treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM - to abolish the intracellular calcium transient. The non-linear relation between APD and the rate of repolarization of the action potential is shown to underpin the common influence of APD on the slope of the restitution curve. Susceptibility to VF was found to parallel changes in APD/refractoriness, rather than restitution slope. Steady-state APD is the principal determinant of the slope of the ventricular electrical restitution curve. In the absence of post-repolarization refractoriness, factors that prolong the action potential would be expected to steepen the restitution curve. However, concomitant changes in tissue refractoriness act to reduce susceptibility to sustained VF. Dependence on

  3. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.


    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  4. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja


    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  5. Tuning curves, neuronal variability, and sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Butts


    Full Text Available Tuning curves are widely used to characterize the responses of sensory neurons to external stimuli, but there is an ongoing debate as to their role in sensory processing. Commonly, it is assumed that a neuron's role is to encode the stimulus at the tuning curve peak, because high firing rates are the neuron's most distinct responses. In contrast, many theoretical and empirical studies have noted that nearby stimuli are most easily discriminated in high-slope regions of the tuning curve. Here, we demonstrate that both intuitions are correct, but that their relative importance depends on the experimental context and the level of variability in the neuronal response. Using three different information-based measures of encoding applied to experimentally measured sensory neurons, we show how the best-encoded stimulus can transition from high-slope to high-firing-rate regions of the tuning curve with increasing noise level. We further show that our results are consistent with recent experimental findings that correlate neuronal sensitivities with perception and behavior. This study illustrates the importance of the noise level in determining the encoding properties of sensory neurons and provides a unified framework for interpreting how the tuning curve and neuronal variability relate to the overall role of the neuron in sensory encoding.

  6. Compost for steep slope erosion. (United States)


    This study was initiated to develop guidelines for maintenance erosion control measures for steep slopes. The study focused on evaluating and monitoring KY-31 fescue germination rates using two media treatments 1) 100 percent by weight compost and 2)...

  7. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  8. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik


    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  9. The RBE-LET relationship for rodent intestinal crypt cell survival, testes weight loss, and multicellular spheroid cell survival after heavy-ion irradiation (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Alpen, E. L.; Powers-Risius, P.


    This report presents data for survival of mouse intestinal crypt cells, mouse testes weight loss as an indicator of survival of spermatogonial stem cells, and survival of rat 9L spheroid cells after irradiation in the plateau region of unmodified particle beams ranging in mass from 4He to 139La. The LET values range from 1.6 to 953 keV/microns. These studies examine the RBE-LET relationship for two normal tissues and for an in vitro tissue model, multicellular spheroids. When the RBE values are plotted as a function of LET, the resulting curve is characterized by a region in which RBE increases with LET, a peak RBE at an LET value of 100 keV/microns, and a region of decreasing RBE at LETs greater than 100 keV/microns. Inactivation cross sections (sigma) for these three biological systems have been calculated from the exponential terminal slope of the dose-response relationship for each ion. For this determination the dose is expressed as particle fluence and the parameter sigma indicates effect per particle. A plot of sigma versus LET shows that the curve for testes weight loss is shifted to the left, indicating greater radiosensitivity at lower LETs than for crypt cell and spheroid cell survival. The curves for cross section versus LET for all three model systems show similar characteristics with a relatively linear portion below 100 keV/microns and a region of lessened slope in the LET range above 100 keV/microns for testes and spheroids. The data indicate that the effectiveness per particle increases as a function of LET and, to a limited extent, Z, at LET values greater than 100 keV/microns. Previously published results for spread Bragg peaks are also summarized, and they suggest that RBE is dependent on both the LET and the Z of the particle.

  10. Exploring Slope with Stairs & Steps (United States)

    Smith, Toni M.; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan; Peixoto, Nathalia; Suh, Jennifer M.; Bagshaw, Graham; Collins, Laurena K.


    As much as ever before, mathematics teachers are searching for ways to connect mathematics to real-life scenarios within STEM contexts. As students develop skill in proportional reasoning, they examine graphical representations of linear functions, learn to associate "slope" with "steepness" and rate of change, and develop…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier


    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  12. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri


    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  13. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  14. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  15. Tornado-Shaped Curves (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio


    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  16. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.


    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  17. Near-infrared chemical imaging slope as a new method to study tablet compaction and tablet relaxation. (United States)

    Ropero, Jorge; Colón, Yleana; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Romañach, Rodolfo J


    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) spectra of lactose monohydrate tablets were acquired and the spectral slope from each pixel in the data hypercube was used to assess tablet compaction and relaxation. Tablets were prepared at compaction pressures of 100, 300, and 500 MPa using un-lubricated and magnesium stearate lubricated lactose monohydrate. Results show that NIR slope distribution is a function of applied compaction forces and magnesium stearate lubrication. The distribution of NIR slope values was studied using histograms and statistical parameters. The mean slope value yields a linear calibration curve that predicts tablet compaction pressure as a function of spectral slope. The NIR-CI slope measurements were also used to study tablet relaxation, which occurs as tablets release some of the stored energy from compression. The NIR-CI slope method provides a qualitative description of the relaxation process and provides quantitative information describing relaxation through time. © 2011 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  18. Curva de sobrevida e fatores prognósticos no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico infanto-juvenil Survival curve and prognosis factors in the childhood systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Appenzeller


    the univariate analysis, male sex, infection and the use of cyclophosphamide were associated with death. In the multivariate regression, only male sex was related to death (odds ratio = 5.8. CONCLUSIONS: During a follow-up period of 27 years, death was observed in 21.8%. Although infection was directly responsible for half of the deaths, survival was not influenced by the presence of infection or renal insufficiency. Male sex was the only variable that influenced survival in this cohort. A greater attention should be given to boys with SLE in order to improve survival.

  19. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno


    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  20. The crime kuznets curve


    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando


    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  1. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F


    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  2. VT Lidar Slope (1 meter) - 2009 - Washington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Barre Montpelier 2009 1m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  3. Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes (United States)

    Savage, W.Z.


    An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.

  4. VT Lidar Slope (1 meter) - 2005 - Essex (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Essex County 2005 1m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command...

  5. SRHA calibration curve (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  6. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša


    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  7. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  8. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes


    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  9. Research on fast ecological restoration technology of high and steep rocky slope of highway (United States)

    Qin, Xin


    Along with the development of the western region, the traffic construction in mountainous areas is booming. In the infrastructure, it produced a large number of secondary bare land. Soil erosion is serious. Based on the literature search and analysis of the domestic and international slope ecological restoration technology, this paper proposes a fast and efficient adaptive highway high steep rock slope ecological restoration technology (it has been authorized by the national patent). And it states the systemic structure, working principle and key construction technology. The ecological restoration technique combines the growth characteristics of the vegetation and the characteristics of the rock mass, which not only improves the survival rate of plants, but also stable slope. The results of this study make up for the shortcomings of the existing ecological restoration technology of slope. Compared with the prior art, which have obvious advantages and suitable for the ecological restoration of high steep rock slope.

  10. Ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes - insights from numerical modeling (United States)

    Burjanek, Jan; Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Fäh, Donat


    The recent events in Nepal (2015 M7.8 Gorkha) and New Zealand (2016 M7.8 Kaikoura) highlighted the importance of earthquake-induced landslides, which caused significant damages. Moreover, landslide created dams present a potential developing hazard. In order to reduce the costly consequences of such events it is important to detect and characterize earthquake susceptible rock slope instabilities before an event, and to take mitigation measures. For the characterisation of instable slopes, acquisition of ambient vibrations might be a new alternative to the already existing methods. We present both observations and 3D numerical simulations of the ambient vibrations of unstable slopes. In particular, models of representative real sites have been developed based on detailed terrain mapping and used for the comparison between synthetics and observations. A finite-difference code has been adopted for the seismic wave propagation in a 3D inhomogeneous visco-elastic media with irregular free surface. It utilizes a curvilinear grid for a precise modeling of curved topography and local mesh refinement to make computational mesh finer near the free surface. Topographic site effects, controlled merely by the shape of the topography, do not explain the observed seismic response. In contrast, steeply-dipping compliant fractures have been found to play a key role in fitting observations. Notably, the synthetized response is controlled by inertial mass of the unstable rock, and by stiffness, depth and network density of the fractures. The developed models fit observed extreme amplification levels (factors of 70!) and show directionality as well. This represents a possibility to characterize slope structure and infer depth or volume of the slope instability from the ambient noise recordings in the future.

  11. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  12. Estimating stock parameters from trawl cpue-at-age series using year-class curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, A.J.R.; Mesnil, B.; Piet, G.J.


    A year-class curve is a plot of log cpue (catch per unit effort) over age for a single year class of a species (in contrast to the better known catch curve, fitted to multiple year classes at one time). When linear, the intercept and slope estimate the log cpue at age 0 and the average rate of total

  13. The sales learning curve. (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A


    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  14. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar


    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  15. Using the Hilbert curve (United States)

    Skilling, John


    The aim is to compute random samples from the posterior probability distribution for some object, modelled as a mixture distribution with a variable number of component "atoms", usually having relatively few attributes. We use a space-filling curve (specifically the Hilbert curve) to parameterise an atom's attributes by a single number, This simplifies the geometry, and we describe seven "engines" (LifeStory1&2, GuidedWalk, Leapfrog1&2, Chameleon1&2) for driving a MCMC exploration program. A binary variant of slice sampling underlies the engines.

  16. Effects of Rainfall Characteristics on the Stability of Tropical Residual Soil Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahardjo Harianto


    Full Text Available Global climate change has a significant impact on rainfall characteristics, sea water level and groundwater table. Changes in rainfall characteristics may affect stability of slopes and have severe impacts on sustainable urban living. Information on the intensity, frequency and duration of rainfall is often required by geotechnical engineers for performing slope stability analyses. Many seepage analyses are commonly performed using the most extreme rainfall possible which is uneconomical in designing a slope repair or slope failure preventive measure. In this study, the historical rainfall data were analyzed and investigated to understand the characteristics of rainfall in Singapore. The frequency distribution method was used to estimate future rainfall characteristics in Singapore. New intensity-duration-frequency (IDF curves for rainfall in Singapore were developed for six different durations (10, 20, 30 min and 1, 2 and 24 h and six frequencies (2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. The new IDF curves were used in the seepage and slope stability analyses to determine the variation of factor of safety of residual soil slopes under different rainfall intensities in Singapore.

  17. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  18. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  19. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  20. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  1. The Jordan Curve Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    painting and reading. Unlike most others he dislikes computers. Figure 1. Ritabrata Munshi. Introd uction. In the first part of the article (Resonance, Vol. 4, No.9 ) we proved the Jordan sepa.ration theorem which says that a simple closed curve in E2 separates it into at least two components. In this concluding part after some ...

  2. Graphing Polar Curves (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.


    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  4. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  5. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  6. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  7. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  8. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  9. Dip-slope and Dip-slope Failures in Taiwan - a Review (United States)

    Lee, C.


    Taiwan is famous for dip-slope and dip-slope slides. Dip-slopes exist at many places in the fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan. Under active cutting of stream channels and man-made excavations, a dip-slope may become unstable and susceptible for mass sliding. Daylight of a bedding parallel clay seam is the most dangerous type for dip-slope sliding. Buckling or shear-off features may also happen at toe of a long dip-slope. Besides, a dip-slope is also dangerous for shallow debris slides, if the slope angle is between 25 to 45 degrees and the debris (colluvium or slope wash) is thick (>1m). These unstable slopes may slide during a triggering event, earthquake or typhoon storm; or even slide without a triggering event, like the 2010 Tapu case. Initial buckling feature had been found in the dip-slope of the Feitsui arch dam abutment after detailed explorations. Shear-off feature have also been found in dip-slope located in right bank of the Nahua reservoir after field investigation and drilling. The Chiufengerhshan slide may also be shear-off type. On the other hand, the Tapu, the Tsaoling slides and others are of direct slide type. The Neihoo Bishan slide is a shallow debris slide on dip-slope. All these cases demonstrate the four different types of dip-slope slide. The hazard of a dip-slope should be investigated to cover these possible types of failure. The existence of bedding parallel clay seams is critical for the stability of a dip-slope, either for direct slide or buckling or shear-off type of failure, and is a hot point during investigation. Because, the stability of a dip-slope is changing with time, therefore, detailed explorations to including weathering and erosion rates are also very necessary to ensure the long-term stability of a dip-slope.

  10. A method for the analysis of sigmoid stimulus-response curves. (United States)

    Leppard, P; Faris, I; Jamieson, G G; Ludbrook, J


    This paper describes a method, using an interactive computer programme, for fitting a curve to data which is expected to assume a sigmoid form. The programme is specifically designed to generate best estimates of the limits and maximum slope of stimulus-response curves for the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex, but is applicable to curve-fitting tasks in other fields such as immunology, pharmacology, biochemistry and neurophysiology.

  11. Analysis of Slope Stability Using Limit Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar


    Full Text Available In achievement of slope load sustainability using mixed soil technique, is considered acceptable the method for slope construction technology. This paper deals with evaluation of mixed soil technique for construction of stable slope and proves the soil capability by analysis of computerized modeling, the revealed result of investigation, the possibility of using nearest local material, reducing project cost, solving the construction geotechnical problem and accurate understanding of soil property when it is developed under different types of geometry.

  12. Slope Estimation from ICESat/GLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Mahoney


    Full Text Available We present a novel technique to infer ground slope angle from waveform LiDAR, known as the independent slope method (ISM. The technique is applied to large footprint waveforms (\\(\\sim\\ mean diameter from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS to produce a slope dataset of near-global coverage at \\(0.5^{\\circ} \\times 0.5^{\\circ}\\ resolution. ISM slope estimates are compared against high resolution airborne LiDAR slope measurements for nine sites across three continents. ISM slope estimates compare better with the aircraft data (R\\(^{2}=0.87\\ and RMSE\\(=5.16^{\\circ}\\ than the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM inferred slopes (R\\(^{2}=0.71\\ and RMSE\\(=8.69^{\\circ}\\ ISM slope estimates are concurrent with GLAS waveforms and can be used to correct biophysical parameters, such as tree height and biomass. They can also be fused with other DEMs, such as SRTM, to improve slope estimates.

  13. Fractal rock slope dynamics anticipating a collapse. (United States)

    Palus, Milan; Novotná, Dagmar; Zvelebil, Jirí


    Time series of dilatometric measurements of relative displacements on rock cracks on stable and unstable sandstone slopes were analyzed. The inherent dynamics of rock slopes lack any significant nonlinearity. However, the residuals obtained by removing meteorological influences are fat-tailed non-Gaussian fluctuations, with short-range correlations in the case of stable slopes. The fluctuations of unstable slopes exhibit self-affine dynamics of fractional Brownian motions with power-law long-range correlations and are characterized by asymptotic power-law probability distributions with decay coefficients outside the range of stable Lévy distributions.

  14. Slope of the Slope Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope of slope was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell by applying the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst 'Slope' Tool to a previously created slope...

  15. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari


    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  16. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)


    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  17. Carbon Lorenz curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Loek [Utrecht University School of Economics (USE), Faculty of Law, Economics and Governance, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)


    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram. (author)

  18. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre


    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  19. Multipulse phase resetting curves


    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady


    In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbatio...

  20. Curved geometry and Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Caravelli, Francesco


    Quantum Graphity is an approach to quantum gravity based on a background independent formulation of condensed matter systems on graphs. We summarize recent results obtained on the notion of emergent geometry from the point of view of a particle hopping on the graph. We discuss the role of connectivity in emergent Lorentzian perturbations in a curved background and the Bose--Hubbard (BH) model defined on graphs with particular symmetries.

  1. Closed timelike curves

    CERN Document Server

    Thorne, K S


    This lecture reviews recent research on closed timelike curves (CTCS), including these questions: Do the laws of physics prevent CTCs from ever forming in classical spacetime? If so, by what physical mechanism are C'I‘Cs prevented? Can the laws of physics be adapted in any reasonable way to a. spacetime that contains C'I‘Cs, or do they necessarily give nonsense? What insights into quantum gravity can one gain by asking questions such as these?

  2. LCC: Light Curves Classifier (United States)

    Vo, Martin


    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  3. Wolff: straight not curved. (United States)

    Hammer, A


    It was 140 years ago that George von Meyer presented his anatomical diagrams of human bones to a meeting in Zurich. There he was told by Prof. Karl Culmann that the trabecular lines shown within the diagram of the upper femur closely resembled those lines of force which Culmann had determined with Graphic Statics to be passing through a curved, loaded Fairbairn crane. This drew the attention of Julius Wolff, who used this as the basis for his 'Trajectorial theory' which was widely accepted and, to date, has been the underlying basis for all biomechanical investigations of this region. Following Wolff and Culmann, the upper femur is considered to be a curved structure and is investigated as such. Unfortunately, this concept is wrong. The upper femur is not curved but is angular. It is formed by the junction of two straight bones, the femoral neck and the femoral shaft, as may be simply seen as the neck/shaft angle constructed on the antero-posterior radiograph of any normal femur. The internal trabecular bone forms only part of the load bearing structure of the femoral neck. The configuration of this trabecular substance in this region suggests that it is related specifically to the force present during flexion and extension movements of the hip joint. This being so, combined with the delayed timing of the appearance of the trabecular columns, it must be questioned as to whether the remodelling of the upper femur is in response to one or to two distinct forces.

  4. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  5. System reliability of slopes using multimodal optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reale, C.; Xue, Jianfeng; Gavin, K.


    Many engineered and natural slopes have complex geometries and are multi-layered. For these slopes traditional stability analyses will tend to predict critical failure surfaces in layers with the lowest mean strength. A move toward probabilistic analyses allows a designer to account for

  6. Air pocket removal from downward sloping pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.


    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in water pipelines and hydropower tunnels. Water pipelines and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket accumulation in downward sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pockets cause energy losses and an

  7. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan


    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  8. Internal waves and temperature fronts on slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thorpe

    Full Text Available Time series measurements from an array of temperature miniloggers in a line at constant depth along the sloping boundary of a lake are used to describe the `internal surf zone' where internal waves interact with the sloping boundary. More small positive temperature time derivatives are recorded than negative, but there are more large negative values than positive, giving the overall distribution of temperature time derivatives a small negative skewness. This is consistent with the internal wave dynamics; fronts form during the up-slope phase of the motion, bringing cold water up the slope, and the return flow may become unstable, leading to small advecting billows and weak warm fronts. The data are analysed to detect `events', periods in which the temperature derivatives exceed a set threshold. The speed and distance travelled by `events' are described. The motion along the slope may be a consequence of (a instabilities advected by the flow (b internal waves propagating along-slope or (c internal waves approaching the slope from oblique directions. The propagation of several of the observed 'events' can only be explained by (c, evidence that the internal surf zone has some, but possibly not all, the characteristics of the conventional 'surface wave' surf zone, with waves steepening as they approach the slope at oblique angles.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (benthic boundary layers; limnology, Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  9. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    By overcoming the barriers that limit access to financial liquidity and human resource, the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) can promote rural livelihood diversification. This paper examines this effect using a household survey data set spanning the 1999 implementation of the Sloping land c...

  10. Lattice calculus of the morphological slope transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk); P. Maragos


    textabstractThis paper presents a study of the morphological slope transform in the complete lattice framework. It discusses in detail the interrelationships between the slope transform at one hand and the (Young-Fenchel) conjugate and Legendre transform, two well-known concepts from convex

  11. Automated sliding susceptibility mapping of rock slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther


    Full Text Available We present a suite of extensions for ARCVIEW GIS™ (ESRI that allows to map the spatial distribution of first-order mechanical slope-properties in hard rock terrain, e.g. for large slope areas like water reservoir slopes. Besides digital elevation data, this expert-system includes regional continuous grid-based data on geological structures that might act as potential sliding or cutoff planes for rockslides. The system allows rapid automated mapping of geometrical and kinematical slope properties in hard rock, providing the basis for spatially distributed deterministic sliding-susceptibility evaluations on a pixel base. Changing hydrostatic slope conditions and rock mechanical parameters can be implemented and used for simple predictive static stability calculations. Application is demonstrated for a study area in the Harz Mts., Germany.

  12. Simulation of Permanent Deformation in High-Modulus Asphalt Pavement with Sloped and Horizontally Curved Alignment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulian Zheng; Lili Han; Chongtao Wang; Zhanlei Xu; Hongyin Li; Qinglei Ma


    .... Based on the creep test, the Prony series representation of Burgers model parameters for different asphalt mixtures were obtained and used in the deformation simulation of a high-modulus asphalt...

  13. Finite element method for one-dimensional rill erosion simulation on a curved slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Yan


    Full Text Available Rill erosion models are important to hillslope soil erosion prediction and to land use planning. The development of rill erosion models and their use has become increasingly of great concern. The purpose of this research was to develop mathematic models with computer simulation procedures to simulate and predict rill erosion. The finite element method is known as an efficient tool in many other applications than in rill soil erosion. In this study, the hydrodynamic and sediment continuity model equations for a rill erosion system were solved by the Galerkin finite element method and Visual C++ procedures. The simulated results are compared with the data for spatially and temporally measured processes for rill erosion under different conditions. The results indicate that the one-dimensional linear finite element method produced excellent predictions of rill erosion processes. Therefore, this study supplies a tool for further development of a dynamic soil erosion prediction model.

  14. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Montés-Micó


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods. The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results. A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2≥0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results reveal that the replacement of a word or several words by detailed or nondetailed emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones.

  15. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols (United States)

    Montés-Micó, Robert; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa


    Purpose To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2 ≥ 0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones. PMID:29082040

  16. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J


    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  17. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin


    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  18. The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H


    Treats the arithmetic theory of elliptic curves in its modern formulation, through the use of basic algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. This book discusses the necessary algebro-geometric results, and offers an exposition of the geometry of elliptic curves, and the formal group of an elliptic curve.

  19. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction. (United States)

    Chamberlain, John


    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  20. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt


    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  1. Evolution of dust extinction curves in galaxy simulation (United States)

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh


    To understand the evolution of extinction curve, we calculate the dust evolution in a galaxy using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations incorporating stellar dust production, dust destruction in supernova shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. The dust species are separated into carbonaceous dust and silicate. The evolution of grain size distribution is considered by dividing grain population into large and small grains, which allows us to estimate extinction curves. We examine the dependence of extinction curves on the position, gas density and metallicity in the galaxy, and find that extinction curves are flat at t ≲ 0.3 Gyr because stellar dust production dominates the total dust abundance. The 2175 Å bump and far-ultraviolet (FUV) rise become prominent after dust growth by accretion. At t ≳ 3 Gyr, shattering works efficiently in the outer disc and low-density regions, so extinction curves show a very strong 2175 Å bump and steep FUV rise. The extinction curves at t ≳ 3 Gyr are consistent with the Milky Way extinction curve, which implies that we successfully included the necessary dust processes in the model. The outer disc component caused by stellar feedback has an extinction curve with a weaker 2175 Å bump and flatter FUV slope. The strong contribution of carbonaceous dust tends to underproduce the FUV rise in the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve, which supports selective loss of small carbonaceous dust in the galaxy. The snapshot at young ages also explains the extinction curves in high-redshift quasars.

  2. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  3. Slope activity in Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; McEwen, Alfred S.


    High-resolution repeat imaging of Aeolis Mons, the central mound in Gale crater, reveals active slope processes within tens of kilometers of the Curiosity rover. At one location near the base of northeastern Aeolis Mons, dozens of transient narrow lineae were observed, resembling features (Recurring Slope Lineae) that are potentially due to liquid water. However, the lineae faded and have not recurred in subsequent Mars years. Other small-scale slope activity is common, but has different spatial and temporal characteristics. We have not identified confirmed RSL, which Rummel et al. (Rummel, J.D. et al. [2014]. Astrobiology 14, 887–968) recommended be treated as potential special regions for planetary protection. Repeat images acquired as Curiosity approaches the base of Aeolis Mons could detect changes due to active slope processes, which could enable the rover to examine recently exposed material.

  4. The critical slope angle for orographic rain (United States)

    Breidenthal, R. E.; Zagar, N.


    Krishnamurti has shown that orographic rain depends on the slope of the windward terrain rather than just the total elevation gain. A simple physical model is proposed to account for the effect of slope. Based on the inhibiting effect of vortex (rotational) acceleration on entrainment, a critical slope angle is derived. If the rate of orographic lifting is sufficiently large, the enhanced buoyancy from latent heat release increases the acceleration parameter. As a consequence, the entrainment rate of under-saturated air is reduced. The critical slope corresponds to the situation where the rate of condensation in a rising adiabatic parcel just equals the rate of evaporation due to the entrainment of under-saturated air. The model is also applied to the trigger conditions for towering cumulus in general.

  5. The critical slope for orographic rain (United States)

    Breidenthal, Robert; Zagar, Nedjeljka


    Krishnamurti has shown that orographic rain depends on the slope of the windward terrain rather than just the total elevation gain. A simple physical model is proposed to account for the effect of slope. Based on the inhibiting effect of vortex (rotational) acceleration on entrainment, a critical slope angle is derived. If the rate of orographic lifting is sufficiently large, the enhanced buoyancy from latent heat release increases the acceleration parameter. As a consequence, the entrainment rate of under-saturated air is reduced. The critical slope corresponds to the situation where the rate of condensation in a rising adiabatic parcel just equals the rate of evaporation due to the entrainment of under-saturated air. The model is also applied to the trigger conditions for towering cumulus in general.

  6. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  7. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  8. North Slope, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl, seabirds, gulls and terns for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  9. The sloping land conversion program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Lan, Jing


    Through addressing the motivations behind rural households’ livelihood diversification, this paper examines the effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification using a longitudinal household survey data set spanning the overall implementation of the SLCP. Our re...

  10. Green technologies for reducing slope erosion. (United States)


    As climate change alters precipitation patterns, departments of transportation will increasingly face the problem of : slope failures, which already cost California millions of dollars in repair work annually. Caltrans hopes to prevent : these failur...

  11. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  12. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector lines in this data set...

  13. T1 slope and degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis. (United States)

    Jun, Hyo Sub; Kim, Ji Hee; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Chang, In Bok; Song, Joon Ho; Kim, Tae Hwan; Park, Moon Soo; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Seok Woo; Oh, Jae Keun


    Retrospective analysis. The main objectives of this study were to analyze and compare cervical sagittal parameters, including the T1 slope, in a population of 45 patients with degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis (DCS) and to compare these patients with a control group of asymptomatic population. Sagittal balance in the cervical spine is as important as the pelvic incidence and is related to the concept of T1 slope. Compared with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, there are few studies evaluating DCS, and characteristic changes of the cervical sagittal parameters (including T1 slope) in patients with DCS are not well studied. We identified 45 patients with DCS (5.8%) from a database of 767 patients, using cervical radiograph in a standing position. All had radiograph and computed tomographic scan at the same time. Cervical sagittal parameters were analyzed on computed tomographic scan in a standardized supine position. The following cervical sagittal parameters were measured: T1 slope, neck tilt, thoracic inlet angle, and cervical lordosis (C2-C7 angle). The DCS group was compared with a control group of 45 asymptomatic age- and sex-matched adults to the DCS group, who were studied in a recently published study. Of our initial group of 767 patients, 45 with anterolisthesis (5.8%) were included for this study. The T1 slope was significantly greater for DCS (26.06° ± 7.3°) compared with the control group (22.32° ± 7.0°). No significant difference of the neck tilt, thoracic inlet angle, and C2-C7 angle was seen between the DSC group and the control group. Therefore, the T1 slope of the DSC group was significantly greater than that of the control group (P < 0.005). The DCS group was characterized by a greater T1 slope than the control group; therefore, we suggest that a high T1 slope may be a predisposing factor in developing DCS. 3.

  14. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel


    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  15. Sloping fan travertine, Belen, New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Cook, Megan; Chafetz, Henry S.


    Pliocene to Quaternary age travertines are very well-exposed in quarries near Belen, New Mexico, U.S.A., on the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift system. A series of hillside springs produced travertine tongues tens of meters thick and hundreds of meters long. The accumulations represent deposits from individual springs as well as the amalgamation of deposits. The overall architecture is predominantly composed of sloping fans with a smaller component of terrace mounds. The sloping fan deposits commonly have a dip of rock, sheets and rafts, and finely crystalline crusts that occur throughout the sloping fan and terrace mound accumulations. Sheets and rafts formed as precipitates in pools on the surfaces of the fans and terraces as well as spelean deposits on the water surfaces of pools within cavities in the overall accumulation. Thus, the spelean rafts provide valuable indicators of original horizontality in the sloping fan strata. In addition, intraformational breccias, composed of locally torn-up travertine intraclastic boulders and deposited in with other travertine, and extraformational breccias, composed of torn-up travertine intraclasts mixed with siliciclastic fines and sand and Paleozoic limestone clasts transported downslope from higher on the hillside, are a common constituent in the sloping fan accumulation. The Belen travertines provide a very well-exposed example of sloping fan travertines and may provide relevant data with regard to the subsurface Aptian Pre-Salt deposits, offshore Brazil.

  16. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Xiao


    Full Text Available To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759 were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS.

  17. R-curve behavior in ferrite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Monroe, S.L.


    The unusual dependence of the fracture mode of ferrite ceramics on the stress intensity factor in the subcritical crack growth regime was used to create flaws with different concentrations of crack-interface bridges. Flaws with numerous bridges were produced by indenting under dry silicone oil, while flaws with essentially no bridges were produced by indenting under water. Plots of log failure stress as a function of log indenter load for the two types of flaws reflect the differences in bridging. Those with extensive bridging showed pronounced R-curve behavior. The curve for those initially devoid of bridges showed no plateau but did show deviations from a {minus}1/3 slope that correspond to those predicted by Bennison and Lawn for this type of flaw. The ferrite studies was 62.4 Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 26.6 MnO, 11.2nO, and .04 V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. 10 figs.

  18. The influence of cochlear hearing loss and probe tone level on compound action potential tuning curves in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim


    The effect of cochlear hearing loss and of probe tone level on slopes and sharpness of compound action potential tuning curves was investigated. Thirty-one simultaneously masked isoreduction (50%) tuning curves were determined in 26 adults with cochlear hearing losses up to 60 dB. Probe tone

  19. Description of stress-strain curves by three parameters (United States)

    Ramberg, Walter; Osgood, William R


    A simple formula is suggested for describing the stress-strain curve in terms of three parameters; namely, Young's modulus and two secant yield strengths. Dimensionless charts are derived from this formula for determining the stress-strain curve, the tangent modulus, and the reduced modulus of a material for which these three parameters are given. Comparison with the tensile and compressive data on aluminum-alloy, stainless-steel, and carbon-steel sheet in NACA Technical Note No. 840 indicates that the formula is adequate for most of these materials. The formula does not describe the behavior of alclad sheet, which shows a marked change in slope at low stress. It seems probable that more than three parameters will be necessary to represent such stress-strain curves adequately.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the dual-energy CT virtual spectral curve for focal liver lesions characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi, E-mail:; Shi, Gaofeng, E-mail:; Qi, Xiaohui, E-mail:; Fan, Xueli, E-mail:; Wang, Lijia, E-mail:


    Highlights: • We establish a feasible method using the virtual spectral curves (VSC) to differentiate focal liver lesions using DECT. • Our study shows the slope of the VSC can be used to differentiate between hemangioma, HCC, metastasis and cyst. • Importantly, the diagnostic specificities associated with using the slope to diagnose both hemangioma and cysts were 100%. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the usefulness of the spectral curve slope of dual-energy CT (DECT) for differentiating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic metastasis, hemangioma (HH) and cysts. Methods: In total, 121 patients were imaged in the portal venous phase using dual-energy mode. Of these patients, 23 patients had HH, 28 patients had HCC, 40 patients had metastases and 30 patients had simple cysts. The spectral curves of the hepatic lesions were derived from the 40–190 keV levels of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging. The spectral curve slopes were calculated from 40 to 110 keV. The slopes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the slope of the spectral curve to differentiate between the lesions. Results: The spectral curves of the four lesion types had different baseline levels. The HH baseline level was the highest followed by HCC, metastases and cysts. The slopes of the spectral curves of HH, HCC, metastases and cysts were 3.81 ± 1.19, 1.49 ± 0.57, 1.06 ± 0.76 and 0.13 ± 0.17, respectively. These values were significantly different (P < 0.008). Based on ROC analysis, the respective diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for hemangioma (cut-off value ≥ 2.988), 82.1% and 65.9% for HCC (cut-off value 1.167–2.998), 65.9% and 59% for metastasis (cut-off value 0.133–1.167) and 44.4% and 100% for cysts (cut-off value ≤ 0.133). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the DECT spectral curve in the portal venous phase can be used to

  1. Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph


    The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

  2. Rim slope failure mechanism in the Greek deep lignite mines - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardos, M.; Terezopoulos, N. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)


    This paper presents the studies and the findings of various cases encountered during the development of slope failure detection methods at the lignite mines of Ptolemais and Megalopolis, Greece. The type of failure is a compound one consisting of a nearly horizontal surface and a curved one at the back. The most important factor for the stability is the shear strength available in the planar part of the failure surface, which shows that a progressive failure is taking place. The investigations revealed that the development of a failure surface was from the toe to the crest and, therefore, impending slope failures can be detected and analysed long before any crack formation at the slope crest becomes visible. In addition, there are simple tools for failure monitoring that can be easily incorporated in the mining activities.

  3. Finite Element analyses of soil bioengineered slopes (United States)

    Tamagnini, Roberto; Switala, Barbara Maria; Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Wu, Wei; Graf, Frank; Auer, Michael; te Kamp, Lothar


    Soil Bioengineering methods are not only effective from an economical point of view, but they are also interesting as fully ecological solutions. The presented project is aimed to define a numerical model which includes the impact of vegetation on slope stability, considering both mechanical and hydrological effects. In this project, a constitutive model has been developed that accounts for the multi-phase nature of the soil, namely the partly saturated condition and it also includes the effects of a biological component. The constitutive equation is implemented in the Finite Element (FE) software Comes-Geo with an implicit integration scheme that accounts for the collapse of the soils structure due to wetting. The mathematical formulation of the constitutive equations is introduced by means of thermodynamics and it simulates the growth of the biological system during the time. The numerical code is then applied in the analysis of an ideal rainfall induced landslide. The slope is analyzed for vegetated and non-vegetated conditions. The final results allow to quantitatively assessing the impact of vegetation on slope stability. This allows drawing conclusions and choosing whenever it is worthful to use soil bioengineering methods in slope stabilization instead of traditional approaches. The application of the FE methods show some advantages with respect to the commonly used limit equilibrium analyses, because it can account for the real coupled strain-diffusion nature of the problem. The mechanical strength of roots is in fact influenced by the stress evolution into the slope. Moreover, FE method does not need a pre-definition of any failure surface. FE method can also be used in monitoring the progressive failure of the soil bio-engineered system as it calculates the amount of displacements and strains of the model slope. The preliminary study results show that the formulated equations can be useful for analysis and evaluation of different soil bio

  4. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards. (United States)

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph


    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card. Fixation disparity curves were measured on 50 subjects with the Wesson fixation disparity card and the Saladin fixation disparity card. The x intercepts were on average more in the base-in direction with the Wesson card than with the Saladin card. The y intercepts were shifted in the exo direction with the Wesson card compared with the Saladin card. The slope with the Wesson card was steeper than the slope obtained with the Saladin card. The distribution of curve types was also different with the two different instruments. Fixation disparity curves measured with these two instruments are different, and separate norms should be used for each fixation disparity measurement method.

  5. Infrared microscopy imaging applied to obtain the index finger pad's thermoregulation curves (United States)

    Viafora, Laura A.; Torres, Sergio N.; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Machuca, Guillermo; Jara, Anselmo


    In this work, mid wavelength infrared microscopy imaging videos of several index finger pads, from voluntary people, are recorded to obtain their thermoregulation curves. The proposed non-invasive technique is able to capture spatial and temporal thermal information emitted from blood vessels under-skin, and the irrigation finger pad system, making possible to capture features that a visual-spectrum microscopy cannot detect. Using an infrared laboratory prepared method several voluntary patients exposed theirs fingers to thermal stress while the infrared data is recorded. Using standard infrared imaging and signal processing techniques the thermoregulation curves are estimated. The Cold/Hot Stress experiments have shown infrared data with exponential trend curves, with different recovering slopes for each voluntary person, and sometimes with two steps increasing slope in one person thermoregulation curve response.

  6. A critical appraisal of the prognostic value of the VE/VCO2 slope in chronic heart failure. (United States)

    Tabet, Jean-Yves; Beauvais, Florence; Thabut, Gabriel; Tartière, Jean-Michel; Logeart, Damien; Cohen-Solal, Alain


    Increased ventilatory drive, reflected by the slope of increase of ventilation relative to carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope), has been shown to have a high prognostic value in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, there is no consensus on how to calculate it, as the relation between VE and VCO2 becomes nonlinear near the end of exercise, when ventilation is driven both by CO2 output and by decrease in plasma pH. This may influence the results. Ninety-seven CHF patients with ejection fraction slope was assessed by linear regression using all the data points (Sl), using only points before (Sli), or after (Slf) the non-linear part of the curve, and using only the first 3-min data (Sl3 min). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2), and circulatory power (VO2 x systolic arterial pressure) were also assessed. Death and transplantation were the end-points considered (mean follow-up 22 months). Mean value of VE/VCO2 overall slope was 39.3 +/- 11.6 (22-78). In 64% of the patients, two distinct slopes could be found: an initial, linear slope (31.8 +/- 7.5, 18-62) and a final, steeper slope (48.6 +/- 15.7, 24-101). Patients in whom no rupture of slope was observed were sicker. There was a relation between initial and overall VE/VCO2 slopes (r=0.915, Pslopes (r=0.808, Pslope correlated with peak VO2 (r=-0.55, Pslope (chi2 25.4, Pslopes (chi2 6.7, P=0.09). By multivariate analysis, the prognostic value of the peak circulatory power was similar to that of the VE/VCO2 overall slope. The VE/VCO2 slope should be computed from all the data points to have its highest prognostic value. Peak circulatory power also has similar prognostic value.

  7. Timing in a fluctuating environment: environmental variability and asymmetric fitness curves can lead to adaptively mismatched avian reproduction (United States)

    Lof, Marjolein E.; Reed, Thomas E.; McNamara, John M.; Visser, Marcel E.


    Adaptation in dynamic environments depends on the grain, magnitude and predictability of ecological fluctuations experienced within and across generations. Phenotypic plasticity is a well-studied mechanism in this regard, yet the potentially complex effects of stochastic environmental variation on optimal mean trait values are often overlooked. Using an optimality model inspired by timing of reproduction in great tits, we show that temporal variation affects not only optimal reaction norm slope, but also elevation. With increased environmental variation and an asymmetric relationship between fitness and breeding date, optimal timing shifts away from the side of the fitness curve with the steepest decline. In a relatively constant environment, the timing of the birds is matched with the seasonal food peak, but they become adaptively mismatched in environments with temporal variation in temperature whenever the fitness curve is asymmetric. Various processes affecting the survival of offspring and parents influence this asymmetry, which collectively determine the ‘safest’ strategy, i.e. whether females should breed before, on, or after the food peak in a variable environment. As climate change might affect the (co)variance of environmental variables as well as their averages, risk aversion may influence how species should shift their seasonal timing in a warming world. PMID:22628472

  8. Controlling chaotic transients: Yorke's game of survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Jacobo; D'ovidio, Francesco; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.


    . This problem is focused as a two-person, mathematical game between two players called "the protagonist" and "the adversary." The protagonist's goal is to survive. He can lose but cannot win; the best he can do is survive to play another round, struggling ad infinitum. In the absence of actions by either player...... knows the action of the adversary in choosing his response and is permitted to choose the initial point x(0) of the game. We use the "slope 3" tent map in an example of this problem. We show that it is possible for the protagonist to survive....

  9. Role of slope on infiltration: A review (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.


    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  10. Reflection of curved shock waves (United States)

    Mölder, S.


    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  11. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G


    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  12. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight


    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  13. The Impact of Learning Curve Model Selection and Criteria for Cost Estimation Accuracy in the DoD (United States)


    log /log 2 ( learning index) = incompressibility factor (a constant) A machine based production process would result in no learning , and thus...part of this manuscript examines the impact of configuration changes to the learning curve when implemented during production . This research is on the impact to the learning curve slope when production is continuous but a configuration change occurs. Analysis discovered the learning curve

  14. On Front Slope Stability of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.


    The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison...... test results including tests presented in Sigurdarson and Van der Meer (2011) are discussed. A proposal is presented for performance of new model tests with the purpose of developing more accurate formulae for the prediction of front slope erosion as a function of front slope, relative berm height......, relative berm width, method of armour stone placement, and hydraulic parameters. The formulae should cover the structure range from statically stable berm breakwaters to conventional double layer armoured breakwaters....

  15. Pretreatment Evaluation of Microcirculation by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Survival in Primary Rectal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, Alexander Friedrich [Department of Radio-Oncology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch (Austria); Piringer, Gudrun, E-mail: [Department of Oncology, Wels-Grieskirchen Medical Hospital, Wels (Austria); Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Saely, Christoph Hubert [Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch (Austria); Lukas, Peter [Department of Radio-Oncology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Öfner, Dietmar [Department of Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)


    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of the perfusion index (PI), a microcirculatory parameter estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability, to predict overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with primary rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients with stage cT3 rectal cancer requiring neoadjuvant chemoradiation were investigated with DCE-MRI before start of therapy. Contrast-enhanced dynamic T{sub 1} mapping was obtained, and a simple data analysis strategy based on the calculation of the maximum slope of the tissue concentration–time curve divided by the maximum of the arterial input function was used as a measure of tumor microcirculation (PI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability. Results: In 39 patients (47.0%), T downstaging (ypT0-2) was observed. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 71 ± 29 months, 58 patients (69.9%) survived, and disease-free survival was achieved in 45 patients (54.2%). The mean PI (PImean) averaged over the group of nonresponders was significantly higher than for responders. Additionally, higher PImean in age- and gender-adjusted analyses was strongly predictive of therapy nonresponse. Most importantly, PImean strongly and significantly predicted disease-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85 [ 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.54; P<.001)]; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.81 [1.30-2.51]; P<.001) as well as overall survival (unadjusted HR 1.42 [1.02-1.99], P=.040; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.43 [1.03-1.98]; P=.034). Conclusions: This analysis identifies PImean as a novel biomarker that is predictive for therapy response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer.

  16. Logarithmic Spiral - A Splendid Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I. In this article some properties of logarithmic spiral have been described along with the ap- pearance as well as applications of the curve in art and nature. After the discovery of anq,lytical geometry by Rene Des- cartes (1596-1650) in 1637, the custom of represent- ing various curves with the help of equations came into.

  17. Space curves, anholonomy and nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vector at each point on the chain can be regarded as defining the local tangent to some space curve [6,7]. Clearly, it is possible to have moving space curves as well. This happens when a vortex filament, a polymer or an elastic rod is in motion. Again, as one changes some parameters in a dynamical system, a given phase.

  18. Pulse Characteristic Curves of Vidicons, (United States)

    microamps, and in vidicons with heterotransition screens, up to 10 microamps. The use of static modulation characteristic curves of vidicons for the...determination of the pulse beam current can lead to an error > 100%. With the help of pulse-modulation characteristic curves, it is possible to obtain the

  19. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij


    the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...

  20. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    This thesis is concerned with computational and theoretical aspects of Riemannian metrics on spaces of regular curves, and their applications. It was recently proved that second order constant coefficient Sobolev metrics on curves are geodesically complete. We extend this result to the case...... of Sobolev metrics with coefficient functions depending on the length of the curve. We show how to apply this result to analyse a wide range of metrics on the submanifold of unit and constant speed curves. We present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves...... on parametrization of immersions by B-splines, which ties in naturally with Isogeometric Analysis to solve the PDE. We give numerical examples of solutions, and compare the Riemannian optimization algorithms with different choices of metrics to a naive unregularized discretize-first approach....

  1. The curve of Spee revisited. (United States)

    Braun, S; Hnat, W P; Johnson, B E


    Through the use of a sophisticated measuring device and support computer technology, accurate arch circumferences were determined for 27 casts that exhibited moderate to severe curves of Spee. Arch circumference differences were subsequently obtained by comparing the measured arch length to a planar projection formed by the center of the incisal tips anteriorly and the distobuccal cusp tips of the second molars distally. A general relationship has been derived for the arch circumference differential, resulting from the elimination of the curve of Spee, versus the severity of the curve. The arch circumference reduction is considerably less than that found by earlier investigators, implying that the incisor protrusion often associated with leveling the curve of Spee is not primarily due to the aforementioned differential, but rather more directly due to the mechanics used in leveling the curve of Spee.

  2. Application of remote sensing and geographical information system for generation of runoff curve number (United States)

    Meshram, S. Gajbhiye; Sharma, S. K.; Tignath, S.


    Watershed is an ideal unit for planning and management of land and water resources (Gajbhiye et al., IEEE international conference on advances in technology and engineering (ICATE), Bombay, vol 1, issue 9, pp 23-25, 2013a; Gajbhiye et al., Appl Water Sci 4(1):51-61, 2014a; Gajbhiye et al., J Geol Soc India (SCI-IF 0.596) 84(2):192-196, 2014b). This study aims to generate the curve number, using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) and the effect of slope on curve number values. The study was carried out in Kanhaiya Nala watershed located in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. Soil map, Land Use/Land cover and slope map were generated in GIS Environment. The CN parameter values corresponding to various soil, land cover, and land management conditions were selected from Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) standard table. Curve number (CN) is an index developed by the NRCS, to represent the potential for storm water runoff within a drainage area. The CN for a drainage basin is estimated using a combination of land use, soil, and antecedent soil moisture condition (AMC). In present study effect of slope on CN values were determined. The result showed that the CN unadjusted value are higher in comparison to CN adjusted with slope. Remote sensing and GIS is very reliable technique for the preparation of most of the input data required by the SCS curve number model.

  3. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Van Brussel, Marco; Bongers, Bart C.; Hulzebos, Erik; Helders, Paul J.M.; Takken, Tim


    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the submaximal Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) in a healthy pediatric population. Bicycle ergometry exercise tests with gas-analyses were performed in 46 healthy children aged 7–17 years. Maximal OUES, submaximal OUES,

  4. Measuring acoustic emissions in an avalanche slope (United States)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg


    Measurements of acoustic emissions are a common technique for monitoring damage and predicting imminent failure of a material. Within natural hazards it has already been used to successfully predict the break-off of a hanging glacier. To explore the applicability of the acoustic emission (AE) technique for avalanche prediction, we installed two acoustic sensors (with 30 kHz and 60 kHz resonance frequency) in an avalanche prone slope at the Mittelgrat in the Parsenn ski area above Davos, Switzerland. The slope is north-east facing, frequently wind loaded, and approximately 35° steep. The AE signals - in particular the event energy and waiting time distributions - were compared with slope stability. The latter was determined by observing avalanche activity. The results of two winter's measurements yielded that the exponent β of the inverse cumulative distribution of event energy showed a significant drop (from a value of 3.5 to roughly 2.5) at very unstable conditions, i.e. on the three days during our measurement periods when spontaneous avalanches released on our study slope.

  5. Roots and the stability of forested slopes (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer


    Abstract - Root decay after timber cutting can lead to slope failure. In situ measurements of soil with tree roots showed that soil strength increased linearly as root biomass increased. Forests clear-felled 3 years earlier contained about one-third of the root biomass of old-growth forests. Nearly all of the roots

  6. Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes (United States)

    To date interrill erosion processes and regimes are not fully understood. The objectives are to 1) identify the erosion regimes and limiting processes between detachment and transport on steep slopes, 2) characterize the interactive effects between rainfall intensity and flow depth on sediment trans...

  7. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope (United States)

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary


    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant–vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change. PMID:24535890

  8. A Novel Way To Practice Slope. (United States)

    Kennedy, Jane B.


    Presents examples of using a tic-tac-toe format to practice finding the slope and identifying parallel and perpendicular lines from various equation formats. Reports the successful use of this format as a review in both precalculus and calculus classes before students work with applications of analytic geometry. (JRH)

  9. VT USGS NED Slope (10 meter) - statewide (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Used ElevationDEM_DEM10M and the Arc/Info SLOPE command with the "PERCENT_RISE" and ".3048" Z_unit options to create this data layer. Input source...

  10. Slope stability and erosion control: Ecotechnological solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.


    This book is designed to assist the civil and geotechnical engineer, geomorphologist, forester, landscape architect or ecologist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. Within this book, the 'engineer' is used

  11. The Uluguru slopes planning project: Promoting community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the Uluguru Slopes Planning Project was to research the resource utilisation practices of villagers and their attitudes to forest conservation in the Ulugurus, through a socio-economic survey using participatory techniques. The findings demonstrated both that local communities are aware of the ...

  12. The implementing of some plant species in erosion control on slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vjačeslava


    Full Text Available With the need to conserve and improve the environment, it is recommended to employ plant materials in the erosion control of torrents and slopes alongside roads. Considering the well-known properties of some willow species regarding their power of vegetative reproduction, survival in poor soils and often flooded alluvium, we researched into the potentials of the following species: Salix triandra L., Salix purpurea L. and Salix incana Schrk. in the catchment of the warehouse 'Gvozdac', Experimental Estate Goč, Serbia. The research started in 2004 and has continued till the present day. The above-mentioned willow species showed significant efficiency in the bank protection of torrential watercourses and on the moist slopes of embankments and cuts of roads. Some of them can even stand a certain degree of aridity, while other species, on poor, eroded soil exposed to long and extreme drought, could not survive and did not show the expected effect, which is also the consequence of the absence of maintenance and adequate attention to such erosion-control works. In spite of the above, one of the willow species survived even in the most severe conditions, checking the erosion of the road cut slope and the road construction itself, and prevented the impacts of aggressive atmospheric waters, thus halting the erosion ridges and the removal of the asphalt road surface. The above facts prove that, with adequate measures of maintenance, plant materials can be very successfully applied for both longitudinal structures and to check dams in torrent control, as well as in erosion control on the slopes in catchments, both in civil engineering works and in forest exploitation. The research requires closer attention, extending the interests to some grass and shrub species, with the aim of ecological erosion control and reclamation of endangered watercourses, slopes and, in general, environmental protection and nature conservation. .

  13. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope in patients with heart failure: a prognostic comparison. (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Aslam, Syed Salman; Varughese, Elsa B; Peberdy, Mary Ann


    Exercise testing with ventilatory expired gas analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for assessing patients with heart failure (HF). Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) continues to be considered the gold standard for assessing prognosis in HF. The minute ventilation--carbon dioxide production relationship (VE/VCO2 slope) has recently demonstrated prognostic significance in patients with HF, and in some studies, it has outperformed peak VO2. Two hundred thirteen subjects, in whom HF was diagnosed, underwent exercise testing between April 1, 1993, and October 19, 2001. The ability of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope to predict cardiac-related mortality and hospitalization was examined. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were demonstrated with univariate Cox regression analysis both to be significant predictors of cardiac-related mortality and hospitalization (P slope in predicting cardiac-related hospitalization, but not cardiac mortality. The VE/VCO2 slope was demonstrated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to be significantly better than peak VO2 in predicting cardiac-related mortality (P slope was greater than peak VO2 in predicting cardiac-related hospitalization (0.77 vs 0.73), the difference was not statistically significant (P =.14). These results add to the present body of knowledge supporting the use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in HF. Consideration should be given to revising clinical guidelines to reflect the prognostic importance of the VE/VCO2 slope in addition to peak VO2.

  14. [Trunk sap flow dynamic changes in response to the slopes of plantation of Toona ciliata var. pubescens]. (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Wen-Rong; Xu, Jin-Liang; Zou, Jun; Jiang, Jing-Min; Li, Yan-Jie; Diao, Song-Feng


    The sap flow and environmental factors, including temperature, water content and water potential of soil, were continuously measured by using an auto-data collection system at the upper and lower slopes of Toona ciliata var. pubescens plantation in July to October, 2012 to investigate the relationships between the sap flow and environmental factors. The results showed that, the trunk sap flow velocity of the two positions both presented a typical single-peak curve, with high values in the daytime and low values in the nighttime. The average sap flow of the lower slope was significantly higher than that of the upper slope. Soil temperature of the upper slope was significantly higher than that of the lower slope, and soil water content and water potential were vice versa. Soil water content and water potential were the leading environmental factors affecting the trunk sap flow velocity at the lower slope, while soil temperature and water potential were the main environmental factors at the upper slope.

  15. Effects of grapevine root density and reinforcement on slopes prone to shallow slope instability (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Bordoni, Massimiliano; Bischetti, Gianbattista; Vercesi, Alberto; Chiaradia, Enrico; Cislaghi, Alessio; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Vergani, Chiara; Chersich, Silvia; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Comolli, Roberto


    Slope erosion and shallow slope instabilities are the major factors of soil losses in cultivated steep terrains. These phenomena also cause loss of organic matter and plants nutrients, together with the partial or total destruction of the structures, such as the row tillage pattern of the vineyards, which allow for the plants cultivation. Vegetation has long been used as an effective tool to decrease the susceptibility of a slope to erosion and to shallow landslides. In particular, the scientific research focused on the role played by the plant roots, because the belowground biomass has the major control on the potential development of soil erosion and of shallow failures. Instead, a comprehensive study that analyzes the effects of the roots of agricultural plants on both soil erosion and slope instability has not been carried out yet. This aspect should be fundamental where sloped terrains are cultivated with plants of great economical relevance, as grapevine. To contribute to fill this gap, in this study the features of root density in the soil profile have been analyzed in slopes cultivated with vineyards, located on a sample hilly area of Oltrepò Pavese (northern Italy). In this area, the viticulture is the most important branch of the local economy. Moreover, several events of rainfall-induced slope erosion and shallow landslides have occurred in this area in the last 6 years, causing several economical damages linked to the destruction of the vineyards and the loss of high productivity soils. Grapevine root distribution have been measured in different test-site slopes, representative of the main geological, geomorphological, pedological, landslides distribution, agricultural features, in order to identify particular patterns on root density that can influence the development of slope instabilities. Roots have been sampled in each test-site for characterizing their strength, in terms of the relation between root diameter and root force at rupture. Root


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAICU Lucian


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the cyclic curves that can be considered as some of the most important regarding their applications in science, technique, design, architecture and art. These curves include the following: cycloid, epicycloid, hypocycloid, spherical cycloid and special cases thereof. In the first part of the paper the main curves of cycloids family are presented with their methods of generating and setting parametric equations. In the last part some of cycloid applications are highlighted in different areas of science, technology and art.

  17. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush


    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  18. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope in betablockers era in patients with heart failure: a Brazilian experience. (United States)

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Silva, Mário Sérgio Vaz da; d'Avila, Veridiana Moraes; Ferreira, Silvia Moreira Ayub; Silva, Christiano Pereira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides


    Studies have demonstrated that peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and the VE/VCO2 slope are predictors of survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, with the advent of betablockers in the treatment of HF, the prognostic values of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope have not been fully established. To evaluate the effect of betablocker use on the prognostic value of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope in patients with HF. We studied 391 patients with heart failure, aged 49 +/- 14 years and presenting a left ventricular ejection fraction of 38 +/- 10%. The total number of patients that used (Group I - GI) or did not use (Group II - GII) betablockers was 229 and 162, respectively. All patients were submitted to a cardiopulmonary stress test on a treadmill, using the Naughton protocol. A peak VO2 16 ml x kg(-1) min(-1) categorizes patients with a better mid-term prognosis. Peak VO2 values between > 10 and slope in patients with HF. The prognostic value of the VE/VCO2 slope slope are strong and independent predictors of cardiac events in HF. Thus, both variables remain important survival predictors in patients with HF, especially at the age of betablockers.

  19. S-shaped learning curves. (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M J


    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish words and one with Italian words. In both, S-shaped learning curves were observed, which were most obvious if the subjects were not very familiar with the materials and if they were slow learners. With prolonged learning, the S shapes disappeared. Three different mathematical functions are proposed to explain these S-shaped curves. A further analysis clarifies why S-shaped learning curves may go unnoticed in many experiments.

  20. Type-2 Fuzzy Curve Model (United States)

    Adesah, R. S.; Zakaria, R.; Wahab, A. F.; Talibe, A.


    The paper discusses about the formulation of type-2 fuzzy curve model. The generalization is carried out due to the existence of complex uncertainty which cannot be represented with classical type-1 fuzzy set. Hence, type-2 fuzzy set is proposed to define this type of complex uncertainty. Based on the complex uncertainty of data, fuzzy set theory type-2 with fuzzy number type-2 concept is used to represent the data with complex uncertainty. This process re-defines the data as type-2 fuzzy data which is also the result obtained by generalizing type-1 fuzzy data. Therefore, B-spline function is chosen to show the development of type-2 B-spline curve model via generalization. It is then followed by a number of processes, i.e. fuzzification, reduction and defuzzification are defined to model type-2 fuzzy B-spline curve to obtain a crisp type-2 fuzzy curve.

  1. The effects of slope length and slope gradient on the size distributions of loess slides: Field observations and simulations (United States)

    Qiu, Haijun; Cui, Peng; Regmi, Amar Deep; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuzhu


    In this study, we characterize and consider the effects of slope length and slope gradient on the size distributions of loess slides. To carry out this study, we employ data on 275 loess slides within Zhidan County, Central Loess Plateau, China. These data were collected in the field and supplemented by the interpretation of remote sensing images. Both the field observations and slope stability analysis show that loess slide size increases with the slope length. Slide sizes is significantly correlated with slope length, showing a power law relationship in both cases. However, the simulation results show that slope gradient is not associated with loess slide size. The main part of the link between slope gradient and slide size seen in the observations is only apparent, as indicated by the strong connection between slope gradient and length. Statistical analysis of the field observations reveals that slope gradient decreases with increasing slope length, and this correlation interferes with the potential relationship between landslide sizes and slope gradient seen in the field observations. In addition, the probability densities of the areas of loess slides occurring on slopes of different slope lengths are determined using kernel density estimation. This analysis shows that slope length controls the rollover of the frequency-size distribution of loess slides. The scaling exponent increases with slope length.

  2. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas


    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  3. Geological hazards investigation - relative slope stability map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Suk; Kim, Won Young; Yu, Il Hyon; Kim, Kyeong Su; Lee, Sa Ro; Choi, Young Sup [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Republic of Korea is a mountainous country; the mountains occupy about three quarters of her land area, an increasing urban development being taken place along the mountainside. For the reason, planners as well as developers and others must realize that some of the urban areas may be threaten by geologic hazards such as landslides and accelerated soil and rock creeps. For the purpose of environmental land-use planning, a mapping project on relative slope-stability was established in 1996. The selected area encompasses about 5,900 km{sup 2} including the topographic maps of Ulsan, Yongchon, Kyongju, Pulguksa, and Kampo, all at a scale of 1:50,000. Many disturbed and undisturbed soil samples, which were collected from the ares of the landslides and unstable slopes, were tested for their physical properties and shear strength. They were classified as GC, SP, SC, SM, SP-SM, SC-SM, CL, ML, and MH according to the Unified Soil Classification System, their liquid limit and plasticity index ranging from 25.3% to as high as 81.3% and from 4.1% to 41.5%, respectively. X-ray analysis revealed that many of the soils contained a certain amount of montmorillonite. Based on the available information as well as both field and laboratory investigation, it was found out that the most common types of slope failures in the study area were both debris and mud flows induced by the heavy rainfalls during the period of rainy season; the flows mostly occurred in the colluvial deposits at the middle and foot of mountains. Thus the deposits generally appear to be the most unstable slope forming materials in the study area. Produced for the study area were six different maps consisting of slope classification map, soil classification map, lineament density map, landslide distribution map, zonal map of rainfall, and geology map, most of them being stored as data base. Using the first four maps and GIS, two sheets of relative slope-stability maps were constructed, each at a scale of 1

  4. Automatic delineation of geomorphological slope units (United States)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Guzzetti, Fausto


    Slope units are portions of land surface, defined by the general requirement of maximizing homogeneity within a single unit and heterogeneity between different units, but whose formal characterization and practical delineation has been done in different ways. This is often justified by the statement that the slope unit partitioning of a territory can be used to describe a variety of landforms and processes, and for the assessment of natural hazards. As a result, they need to be tailored according to the specific model in use. This may result in an ambiguous definition of such objects, while an objective definition is highly desirable, which would also allow their reproducibility. We have developed a publicly accessible Web Processing Service (WPS) with the aim of incrementally achieve a satisfactory definition of slope unit. The service allows any user to connect to a CNR-IRPI (Perugia) server, upload his own Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and optional additional data, specify parameters constraining the size and aspect of slope units, and quickly obtain the result in a layer in vector format. The calculation is performed using a parallel algorithm, resulting in a processing time short enough to allow the user to tune the input parameters, repeating the process for a sufficient number of times in order to obtain a satisfactory result. We use quantitative criteria to define and draw the slope units, depending on the input parameters. The algorithm starts from a hydrologically consistent partition of the study area into half-basins with a large number of contributing DEM cells. Each of the half-basins is then checked against a few requirements: maximum area required by the user and maximum standard deviation of the aspect on two orthogonal directions. Those specific half-basin that do not meet the requirements are partitioned further, requiring a lower number of contributing cells. The process is iterated until no half-basin exceeds the user-specified thresholds. Our

  5. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  6. Active motion on curved surfaces


    Castro-Villarreal, Pavel; Sevilla, Francisco J.


    A theoretical analysis of active motion on curved surfaces is presented in terms of a generalization of the Telegrapher's equation. Such generalized equation is explicitly derived as the polar approximation of the hierarchy of equations obtained from the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation of active particles diffusing on curved surfaces. The general solution to the generalized telegrapher's equation is given for a pulse with vanishing current as initial data. Expressions for the probability...

  7. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves. (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M


    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  8. Investigating slopes of overconvergent modular forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Destefano, Dino

    We study the slopes of the Atkin’s U operator acting on overconvergent p-adic modular forms. In the case of tame level 1 and for p =5,7,13; we compute a quadratic lower bound for the Newton polygon of U. The methods of proof are explicit and rely on a certain deformation of the U operator and its...... characteristic power series. This gives us the possibility to compute the smallest possible slope for p=5,7 and to prove necessary and sufficient conditions on the weight such that the dimension of the cuspidal space is one. This result allows us to exhibit some p-adic analytic families of modular forms...

  9. Rocks Exposed on Slope in Aram Chaos (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-550, 20 November 2003This spectacular vista of sedimentary rocks outcropping on a slope in Aram Chaos was acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on 14 November 2003. Dark piles of coarse talus have come down the slopes as these materials continue to erode over time. Note that there are no small meteor impact craters in this image, indicating that erosion of these outcrops has been recent, if not on-going. This area is located near 2.8oS, 20.5oW. The 200 meter scale bar is about 656 feet across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower right.

  10. Slope reinforcement design using geotextiles and geogrids (United States)

    Setser, Darrell M.


    A geotextile is defined by ASTM as: any permeable textile material used with foundation, soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering related material, as a integral part of a man-made project, structure, or system. A geogrid is defined as: any geotextile-related material used in a similar manner to geotextiles. They are usually made of plastic, but can be metal or wood. Geotextiles and geogrids are collectively referred to as geosynthetics in this paper. Geosynthetic reinforcement of slopes is a relatively new option available to the civil engineer. Slope angles can be increased and 'poor' soil can be used to construct economical soil-geosynthetic facilities. Uncertainties exist in the complex interaction between the soil and the geosynthetic but there are numerous procedures which ignore this in the design. The design procedures available may be conservative yet still may be an economical alternative when compared to more conventional options.

  11. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Manton, David J. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Lowry, Martin [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  12. Ocean processes at the Antarctic continental slope. (United States)

    Heywood, Karen J; Schmidtko, Sunke; Heuzé, Céline; Kaiser, Jan; Jickells, Timothy D; Queste, Bastien Y; Stevens, David P; Wadley, Martin; Thompson, Andrew F; Fielding, Sophie; Guihen, Damien; Creed, Elizabeth; Ridley, Jeff K; Smith, Walker


    The Antarctic continental shelves and slopes occupy relatively small areas, but, nevertheless, are important for global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. Processes of water mass transformation through sea ice formation/melting and ocean-atmosphere interaction are key to the formation of deep and bottom waters as well as determining the heat flux beneath ice shelves. Climate models, however, struggle to capture these physical processes and are unable to reproduce water mass properties of the region. Dynamics at the continental slope are key for correctly modelling climate, yet their small spatial scale presents challenges both for ocean modelling and for observational studies. Cross-slope exchange processes are also vital for the flux of nutrients such as iron from the continental shelf into the mixed layer of the Southern Ocean. An iron-cycling model embedded in an eddy-permitting ocean model reveals the importance of sedimentary iron in fertilizing parts of the Southern Ocean. Ocean gliders play a key role in improving our ability to observe and understand these small-scale processes at the continental shelf break. The Gliders: Excellent New Tools for Observing the Ocean (GENTOO) project deployed three Seagliders for up to two months in early 2012 to sample the water to the east of the Antarctic Peninsula in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. The glider data resolve small-scale exchange processes across the shelf-break front (the Antarctic Slope Front) and the front's biogeochemical signature. GENTOO demonstrated the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in a future multi-disciplinary Southern Ocean observing system.

  13. Transhumanism, medical technology and slippery slopes


    McNamee, M J; Edwards, S D


    In this article, transhumanism is considered to be a quasi‐medical ideology that seeks to promote a variety of therapeutic and human‐enhancing aims. Moderate conceptions are distinguished from strong conceptions of transhumanism and the strong conceptions were found to be more problematic than the moderate ones. A particular critique of Boström's defence of transhumanism is presented. Various forms of slippery slope arguments that may be used for and against transhumanism are discussed and on...

  14. High slope waste dumps – a proven possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Svrkota


    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of dumping operations on High Slope Waste Dump at Veliki Krivelj open pit copper mine, RTB Bor, Serbia. The High Slope Waste Dump in Bor is the highest single slope waste dump in the world with the slope height of 405 m. The paper gives the basics and limitations of the designed dumping technology, the redesigned technology, gives an overview of the 13 year long operation and gathered experiences and addresses the main issues of dumping operations in high slope conditions as well as the present condition of the High Slope Waste Dump.

  15. Progress in Predicting Rock-Slope Failures (United States)

    Korup, O.


    Recent research on predicting landslides has seen a massive increase in statistical and computational methods that are largely adapted from the fields of machine learning and data mining. Judging from a sample of some 150 recent scientific papers, the gross majority of the reported success rates of these statistical methods are overwhelmingly high and promising at between 71% and 98%. Perhaps surprisingly, though, the death toll and damage from landslides has remained elevated in the early 21st century, so that reliably predicting the occurrence of rock-slope failures without overfitting our models remains challenging. Here I review some of the recent advances in this field, and show how novel results from landslide seismology and landslide sedimentology have promoted our ability of detecting large rock-slope failures in mountainous terrain. Several new detailed investigations of the internal nature of large rockslide deposits, for example, help to reduce the confusion potential with macroscopically similar moraine debris, or microscopically similar fault breccia. I further outline some of the limitations of empirical models that use rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for landslide early warning, and of multivariate methods concerned with mapping landslide susceptibility at the regional scale. I conclude by discussing the occurrence of 'black swans' such as long-runout rock-ice avalanches in size distributions of rock-slope failures, and their implications for quantitative hazard appraisals.

  16. Modelling Progressive Failure in Rock-slopes (United States)

    Pons, M. Güell I.; Jaboyedoff, M.


    Rock failures are common in Alpine mountain chains and pose a threat to life and infrastructures. In general, rock slope stability is an interplay between existing discontinuities and development of new ones in intact material. In this work, we study progressive failure by means of numerical methods at multiple scales and using distinct element methods (DEM). Distinct element methods are of advantage because they account for discontinuities and are able to simulate the development of failure in time. The use of micro-parameters instead of constitutive laws allows studying the influence of heterogeneities present in the rock mass. In the first case, the code PFC-2D is used at the slope scale to test the influence of the slope geometry, the joint sets distribution and the joint set persistence in the case of toppling failures under various triggering mechanisms. Heterogeneity properties (cohesion and friction angle) are distributed randomly to simulate natural rock variability. In the second case, a cellular automata model, which is based on concepts of progressive failure in disordered systems, is used to explain the role of heterogeneities in the fracture process at a small scale. The results provide a link to time-to-failure predictions observed in some field cases. This study aims to be a base for the development of a model which permits to understand why some rock masses accelerate until global failure while other are capable to stabilize under the same conditions.

  17. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Koerner, R.M. [Geosynthetic Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bonaparte, R. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project.

  18. Transiting planets - light-curve analysis for eccentric orbits (United States)

    Kipping, David M.


    Transiting planet light curves have historically been used predominantly for measuring the depth and hence ratio of the planet-star radii, p. Equations have previously been presented by Seager & Mallén-Ornelas for the analysis of the total and trough transit light-curve time to derive the ratio of semimajor axis to stellar radius, a/R*, in the case of circular orbits. Here, a new analytic model is proposed which operates for the more general case of an eccentric orbit. We aim to investigate three major effects our model predicts: (i) the degeneracy in transit light-curve solutions for eccentricity, e > 0; (ii) the asymmetry of the light curve and the resulting shift in the mid-transit time, TMID; (iii) the effect of eccentricity on the ingress and egress slopes. It is also shown that a system with changing eccentricity and inclination may produce a long-term transit time variation (LTTV). Furthermore, we use our model in a re-analysis of HD209458b archived data by Richardson et al., where we include the confirmed non-zero eccentricity and derive a 24-μm planetary radius of RP = 1.275RJ +/- 0.082RJ (where RJ = 1 Jovian radius), which is ~1 per cent larger than if we assume a circular orbit.

  19. Application of Learning Curves for Didactic Model Evaluation: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Mödritscher


    Full Text Available The success of (online courses depends, among other factors, on the underlying didactical models which have always been evaluated with qualitative and quantitative research methods. Several new evaluation techniques have been developed and established in the last years. One of them is ‘learning curves’, which aim at measuring error rates of users when they interact with adaptive educational systems, thereby enabling the underlying models to be evaluated and improved. In this paper, we report how we have applied this new method to two case studies to show that learning curves are useful to evaluate didactical models and their implementation in educational platforms. Results show that the error rates follow a power law distribution with each additional attempt if the didactical model of an instructional unit is valid. Furthermore, the initial error rate, the slope of the curve and the goodness of fit of the curve are valid indicators for the difficulty level of a course and the quality of its didactical model. As a conclusion, the idea of applying learning curves for evaluating didactical model on the basis of usage data is considered to be valuable for supporting teachers and learning content providers in improving their online courses.

  20. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yao


    Full Text Available Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simulated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  1. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2012 - Addison County (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  2. Slope stabilization guide for Minnesota local government engineers. (United States)


    This user guide provides simple, costeffective methods for stabilizing locally maintained slopes along roadways in Minnesota. Eight slope stabilization techniques are presented that local government engineers can undertake using locally available ...

  3. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2010 - Missisquoi Upper (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  4. VT Lidar Slope (2 meter) - 2012 - Bennington County (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Bennington County 2012 2.0m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  5. VT Lidar Slope (3.2 meter) - 2004 - Chittenden (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): ( and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce change in...

  6. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2008 - West Franklin (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  7. The effects of soil suction on shallow slope stability. (United States)


    This study investigates the slope failures associated with clayey soils so engineers can better : understand the problem and better predict shallow slope stability, and implement preventive : measures if necessary. This research also examines the mec...

  8. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri


    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  9. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H


    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  10. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.


    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  11. Elliptic curves a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Susanne; Pethö, Attila


    The basics of the theory of elliptic curves should be known to everybody, be he (or she) a mathematician or a computer scientist. Especially everybody concerned with cryptography should know the elements of this theory. The purpose of the present textbook is to give an elementary introduction to elliptic curves. Since this branch of number theory is particularly accessible to computer-assisted calculations, the authors make use of it by approaching the theory under a computational point of view. Specifically, the computer-algebra package SIMATH can be applied on several occasions. However, the book can be read also by those not interested in any computations. Of course, the theory of elliptic curves is very comprehensive and becomes correspondingly sophisticated. That is why the authors made a choice of the topics treated. Topics covered include the determination of torsion groups, computations regarding the Mordell-Weil group, height calculations, S-integral points. The contents is kept as elementary as poss...

  12. Space filling curves in steganalysis (United States)

    Westfeld, Andreas


    We introduce a new method to increase the reliability of current steganalytic techniques by optimising the sample order. Space filling curves (e.g., Hilbert curve) take advantage of the correlation of adjacent pixels and thus make the detection of steganographic messages with low change densities more reliable. The findings are applicable, but not limited to LSB steganalysis. An experimental comparison of five different sampling paths reveals that recursive principles achieve by far the best performance. All measures, such as mean distance, median autocorrelation, and the ability to detect even tiny modifications show substantial improvements compared to conventional methods. We elaborate the relationship between those parameters and quantify the effectiveness with a large test database of small images, which are usually hard to detect. Apart from quantitative advances, visualisation of steganalytic measures can also gain from the application of reverse space filling curves.

  13. Shock detachment from curved wedges (United States)

    Mölder, S.


    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  14. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  15. Holomorphic curves in loop groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, M.A.; Pressley, A.N.


    It was observed by Atiyah that there is a correspondence between based gauge equivalence classes of SU/sub n/-instantons over S/sup 4/ of charge d on the one hand, and based holomorphic curves of genus zero in ..cap omega..SU/sub n/ of degree d on the other hand. In this paper we study the parameter space of such holomorphic curves which have the additional property that they lie entirely in the subgroup ..cap omega../sub alg/SU/sub n/ of algebraic loops. We describe a cell decomposition of this parameter space, and compute its complex dimension to be (2n-1)d.

  16. Parenchymal mechanics, gas mixing, and the slope of phase III. (United States)

    Wilson, Theodore A


    A model of parenchymal mechanics is revisited with the objective of investigating the differences in parenchymal microstructure that underlie the differences in regional compliance that are inferred from gas-mixing studies. The stiffness of the elastic line elements that lie along the free edges of alveoli and form the boundary of the lumen of the alveolar duct is the dominant determinant of parenchymal compliance. Differences in alveolar size cause parallel shifts of the pressure-volume curve, but have little effect on compliance. However, alveolar size also affects the relation between surface tension and pressure during the breathing cycle. Thus regional differences in alveolar size generate regional differences in surface tension, and these drive Marangoni surface flows that equilibrate surface tension between neighboring acini. Surface tension relaxation introduces phase differences in regional volume oscillations and a dependence of expired gas concentration on expired volume. A particular example of different parenchymal properties in two neighboring acini is described, and gas exchange in this model is calculated. The efficiency of mixing and slope of phase III for the model agree well with published data. This model constitutes a new hypothesis concerning the origin of phase III.

  17. Understanding slope behavior through microseismic monitoring (United States)

    Arosio, Diego; Boccolari, Mauro; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi


    It is well known that microseismic activity originates as an elastic stress wave at locations where the material is mechanically unstable. Monitoring techniques focusing on this phenomenon have been studied for over seventy years and are now employed in a wide range of applications. As far as the study of unstable slope is concerned, microseismic monitoring can provide real-time information about fracture formation, propagation and coalescence and may be an appropriate solution to reduce the risk for human settlements when structural mitigation interventions (e.g., rock fall nets and ditches) cannot cope with large rock volumes and high kinetic energies. In this work we present the datasets collected in a 4-year period with a microseismic monitoring network deployed on an unstable rock face in Northern Italy. We mainly focus on the classification and the interpretation of collected signals with the final aim of identifying microseismic events related to the kinematic and dynamic behavior of the slope. We have analyzed signal parameters both in time and frequency domains, spectrograms, polarization of 3-component recordings supported by principal component analysis. Clustering methodologies have been tested in order to develop an automatic classification routine capable to isolate a cluster with most of the events related to slope behavior and to discard all disturbances. The network features both geophones and meteorological sensors so that we could also explore the correlation between microseismic events and meteorological datasets, although no significant relationships emerged. On the contrary, it was found that the majority of the events collected by the network are short-time high-frequency signals generated by electromagnetic activity caused by near and far thunderstorms. Finally, we attempted a preliminary localization of the most promising events according to an oversimplified homogeneous velocity model to get a rough indication about the regions of the

  18. Hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Argentine Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, M.P.R.; Keeley M.L.; Maslanyj, M.P.; Urien, C.M.; Hoggs, S.L.


    A rift basin containing stratigraphic and structural closures is developed along the Argentine slope over a distance of some 1000 km and area of 50,000 km[sup 2] in potentially exploitable water depths of 200 to 1500 m. No wells exist on this part of the continental margin. Rifting began during the Late Triassic/Jurassic and ended in Early Cretaceous. The first marine seaways flooded the Rift alluvial plains and lake. In Hauterian-Barrenian time, low circulation marine conditions with oxygen deficiency prevailed up to Rio Grande/Walvis Ridge flooding in part the coastal pull-apart basins. A major marine transgression in the Maastrichtian formed a widespread seal over the entire shelf and slope area. Four play types were identified: (1) a major north-east trending elongate delta system sourced inland from the San Julien (N. Malvinas) Basin and deposited on the southern Patagonian shelf and rise, (2) reworked deltaic barrier sands accumulated along the crest of the Outer Basement Ridge, (3) The Outer Basement Ridge, a major structural closure 400 km long, and (4) a series of margin-parallel rift systems in the offshore region between the 200 m and 1500 m isobaths. Regional seismic data and geological correlations suggest that oil prone source rocks are likely in the Middle and Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous formations. Source rocks are probably mature east and west of the Outer Basement Ridge and in the easterndepocenter of the Colorado Basin. Eastward migration from Jurassic age lacustrine source rocks in the Colorado Basin may have charged traps along the crest of the Outer Basement Ridge. Westward directed migration from deeply buried Aptian age marine source rocks in the Atlantic basins has probably charged prospective stratigraphic and structural traps in a suite of coast-parallel grabens developed on the Argentine continental shelf and slope. The Argentine offshore region, therefore, offers significant encouragement as a productive hydrocarbon province.

  19. Slope evolution of GRB correlations and cosmology (United States)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Cardone, V. F.; Piedipalumbo, E.; Capozziello, S.


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed up to redshifts z > 9.4 can be used as possible probes to test cosmological models. Here we show how changes of the slope of the luminosity L^*_X-break time T^*_a correlation in GRB afterglows, hereafter the LT correlation, affect the determination of the cosmological parameters. With a simulated data set of 101 GRBs with a central value of the correlation slope that differs on the intrinsic one by a 5σ factor, we find an overestimated value of the matter density parameter, ΩM, compared to the value obtained with Type Ia supernovae, while the Hubble constant, H0, best-fitting value is still compatible in 1σ compared to other probes. We show that this compatibility of H0 is due to the large intrinsic scatter associated with the simulated sample. Instead, if we consider a subsample of high-luminosity GRBs (High L), we find that the evaluation of both H0 and ΩM is not more compatible in 1σ and ΩM is underestimated by 13 per cent. However, the High L sample choice reduces dramatically the intrinsic scatter of the correlation, thus possibly identifying this sample as the standard canonical `GRBs' confirming previous results presented by Dainotti et al. Here, we consider the LT correlation as an example, but this reasoning can also be extended for all other GRB correlations. In the literature so far, GRB correlations are not corrected for redshift evolution and selection biases; therefore, we are not aware of their intrinsic slopes and consequently how far the use of the observed correlations can influence the derived `best' cosmological settings. Therefore, we conclude that any approach that involves cosmology should take into consideration only intrinsic correlations and not the observed ones.

  20. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Slope of Slope for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Slope of Slope GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  1. Beach slopes of Florida: Miami to Jupiter (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.


    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Southeast Atlantic Ocean from Miami to Jupiter, Florida for data collected at various times between 1999 and 2009. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (

  2. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin


    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  3. Transhumanism, medical technology and slippery slopes. (United States)

    McNamee, M J; Edwards, S D


    In this article, transhumanism is considered to be a quasi-medical ideology that seeks to promote a variety of therapeutic and human-enhancing aims. Moderate conceptions are distinguished from strong conceptions of transhumanism and the strong conceptions were found to be more problematic than the moderate ones. A particular critique of Boström's defence of transhumanism is presented. Various forms of slippery slope arguments that may be used for and against transhumanism are discussed and one particular criticism, moral arbitrariness, that undermines both weak and strong transhumanism is highlighted.

  4. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo


    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  5. Quality control of slope-intercept measurements of glomerular filtration rate using single-sample estimates. (United States)

    Fleming, John S; Persaud, Linda; Zivanovic, Maureen A


    Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the slope-intercept technique determines the plasma clearance curve by fitting a straight line to the logarithm of sample count rate. When two samples are used there is no check on the validity of curve fitting. GFR may also be estimated from single-sample concentrations. This study describes a method of quality control for the two-sample technique using the agreement between the one-sample and two-sample estimates. GFR measurements using Tc-DTPA were performed on 225 adults and 100 children using two samples taken between 2 h and 4 h post-injection. The two-sample values obtained using the British Nuclear Medicine Guidelines slope-intercept technique were compared to one-sample estimates obtained using a new general equation. Equations describing the variation of GFR error with GFR value were defined. These were used to determine action levels giving the limits of expected agreement between slope-intercept and single-sample values. The use of these action levels for quality control was demonstrated in a further 120 GFR measurements. The variation of single-sample error estimate with GFR depended both on the time of sample and body surface area. For specific sample groups, the error variation with GFR could be approximated using a truncated quadratic equation. Four studies were identified as failing quality control in the dataset used to define the error equations. Two studies failed in the test dataset. One-sample equations give reliable estimates of GFR, which may be used for quality control of slope-intercept GFR assessment.

  6. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren


    from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...

  7. S-shaped learning curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.


    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish

  8. Managing bias in ROC curves (United States)

    Clark, Robert D.; Webster-Clark, Daniel J.


    Two modifications to the standard use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for evaluating virtual screening methods are proposed. The first is to replace the linear plots usually used with semi-logarithmic ones (pROC plots), including when doing "area under the curve" (AUC) calculations. Doing so is a simple way to bias the statistic to favor identification of "hits" early in the recovery curve rather than late. A second suggested modification entails weighting each active based on the size of the lead series to which it belongs. Two weighting schemes are described: arithmetic, in which the weight for each active is inversely proportional to the size of the cluster from which it comes; and harmonic, in which weights are inversely proportional to the rank of each active within its class. Either scheme is able to distinguish biased from unbiased screening statistics, but the harmonically weighted AUC in particular emphasizes the ability to place representatives of each class of active early in the recovery curve.

  9. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.


    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  10. Response mechanism of post-earthquake slopes under heavy rainfall (United States)

    Qiu, Hong-zhi; Kong, Ji-ming; Wang, Ren-chao; Cui, Yun; Huang, Sen-wang


    This paper uses the catastrophic landslide that occurred in Zhongxing Town, Dujiangyan City, as an example to study the formation mechanism of landslides induced by heavy rainfall in the post-Wenchuan earthquake area. The deformation characteristics of a slope under seismic loading were investigated via a shaking table test. The results show that a large number of cracks formed in the slope due to the tensile and shear forces of the vibrations, and most of the cracks had angles of approximately 45° with respect to the horizontal. A series of flume tests were performed to show how the duration and intensity of rainfall influence the responses of the shaken and non-shaken slopes. Wetting fronts were recorded under different rainfall intensities, and the depth of rainfall infiltration was greater in the shaken slope than in the non-shaken slope because the former experienced a greater extreme rainfall intensity under the same early rainfall and rainfall duration conditions. At the beginning of the rainfall infiltration experiment, the pore water pressure in the slope was negative, and settling occurred at the top of the slope. With increasing rainfall, the pore water pressure changed from negative to positive, and cracks were observed on the back surface of the slope and the shear outlet of the landslide on the front of the slope. The shaken slope was more susceptible to crack formation than the non-shaken slope under the same rainfall conditions. A comparison of the responses of the shaken and non-shaken slopes under heavy rainfall revealed that cracks formed by earthquakes provided channels for infiltration. Soil particles in the cracks of slopes were washed away, and the pore water pressure increased rapidly, especially the transient pore water pressure in the slope caused by short-term concentrated rainfall which decreased rock strength and slope stability.

  11. Parallel retreat of rock slopes underlain by alternation of strata (United States)

    Imaizumi, Fumitoshi; Nishii, Ryoko; Murakami, Wataru; Daimaru, Hiromu


    Characteristic landscapes (e.g., cuesta, cliff and overhang of caprock, or stepped terrain) formed by differential erosion can be found in areas composed of variable geology exhibiting different resistances to weathering. Parallel retreat of slopes, defined as recession of slopes without changes in their topography, is sometimes observed on slopes composed of multiple strata. However, the conditions needed for such parallel retreat have not yet been sufficiently clarified. In this study, we elucidated the conditions for parallel retreat of rock slopes composed of alternating layers using a geometric method. In addition, to evaluate whether various rock slopes fulfilled the conditions for parallel retreat, we analyzed topographic data obtained from periodic measurement of rock slopes in the Aka-kuzure landslide, central Japan. Our geometric analysis of the two-dimensional slopes indicates that dip angle, slope gradient, and erosion rate are the factors that determine parallel retreat conditions. However, dip angle does not significantly affect parallel retreat conditions in the case of steep back slopes (slope gradient > 40°). In contrast, dip angle is an important factor when we consider the parallel retreat conditions in dip slopes and gentler back slopes (slope gradient toppling, but spatial distribution of the erosion rate measured by airborne LiDAR scanning and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) roughly fulfills parallel retreat conditions. The Aka-kuzure landslide is characterized by repetition of steep sandstone cliffs and gentle shale slopes that form a stepped topography. The inherent resistance of sandstone to weathering is greater than that of shale. However, the vertical erosion rate within the sandstone was higher than that within the shale, due to direct relationship between slope gradient and vertical erosion rate in the Aka-kuzure landslide.

  12. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance. (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M


    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  13. Effects of Rainfall Intensity and Slope Gradient on Runoff and Soil Moisture Content on Different Growing Stages of Spring Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Mu


    Full Text Available The rainfall-runoff process (RRP is an important part of hydrologic process. There is an effective measure to study RRP through artificial rainfall simulation. This paper describes a study on three growing stages (jointing stage, tasseling stage, and mature stage of spring maize in which simulated rainfall events were used to study the effects of various factors (rainfall intensity and slope gradient on the RRP. The RRP was tested with three different rainfall intensities (0.67, 1.00, and 1.67 mm/min and subjected to three different slopes (5°, 15°, and 20° so as to study RRP characteristics in semiarid regions. Regression analysis was used to study the results of this test. The following key results were obtained: (1 With the increase in rainfall intensity and slope, the increasing relationship with rainfall duration, overland flow, and cumulative runoff, respectively, complied with logarithmic and quadratic functions before reaching stable runoff in each growing stage of spring maize; (2 The runoff coefficient increased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope in each growing stages of spring maize. The relationship between runoff coefficient, slope, rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage was multivariate and nonlinear; (3 The runoff lag time decreased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope within the same growing stage. In addition, the relationship between runoff lag time, slope, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage could also be expressed by a multivariate nonlinear equation; (4 The descent rate of soil infiltration rate curve increased with the increased rainfall intensity and slope in the same growing stage. Furthermore, by comparing the Kostiakov, Horton, and Philip models, it was found that the Horton infiltration model was the best for estimating soil infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration under the condition of test.

  14. Improvement of cam performance curve using B-Spline curve (United States)

    Shahriman, A. B.; Syafiq, A. K. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Z. M.; Wan, K.; Daud, R.; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.; Azizan, Azizi


    The mathematical modeling approach has been applied in order to increase the cam profile curve of Modenas CT115s performance by using MATLAB software as a programmed to calculate the mechanism of the cam profile. Cam is used inside the engine to push the rocker and consequently open and close the engine valve that allows the fuel-air mixture to be entered during the combustion process. The B-Spline curve was implemented in order to enhance the current performance of the cam profile. The calculation had been done by using manual and MATLAB software. The results obtained has been analyzed and interpreted in plotting the graphs. From the analysis, the profile that had the highest displacement factor, sk produced higher cam curve performance of the engine. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of the displacement factor, sk can increase the engine performance as the valve displace further in which allow higher fuel-air mixture entrance during the combustion process.

  15. Slope Stability Analysis of Mountain Pine Beetle Impacted Areas (United States)

    Bogenschuetz, N. M.; Bearup, L. A.; Maxwell, R. M.; Santi, P. M.


    The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae, has caused significant tree mortality within North America. Specifically, the MPB affects ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine forests within the Rocky Mountains with approximately 3.4 million acres of forest impacted over the past 20 years. The full impacts of such unprecedented tree mortality on hydrology and slope stability is not well understood. This work studies the affects of MPB infestation on slope instability. A large-scale statistical analysis of MPB and slope stability is combined with a more in-depth analysis of the factors that contribute to slope stability. These factors include: slope aspect, slope angle, root decay, regrowth and hydrologic properties, such as water table depth and soil moisture. Preliminary results show that MPB may affect a greater number of north- and east-facing slopes. This is in accordance with more water availability and a higher MPB impacted tree density on north-facing slopes which, in turn, could potentially increase the probability of slope failure. Root strength is predicted to decrease as the roots stop transpiring 3-4 years proceeding infestation. However, this effect on the hillslope is likely being counterbalanced by the regrowth of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees. In addition, the increase in water table height from the lack of transpiring trees is adding a driving force to the slopes. The combination of all these factors will be used in order to assess the effects of MPB tree mortality on slope stability.

  16. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , based on which the steepest profiles of the slope units were constructed. Combining analysis of the water content of loess, .... 2010), logistic regression models (Bai et al. 2010; Akgun 2012; Sarkar et al. 2012; Paulın et al. 2014), etc. However ...

  17. Engineering and Design: Characterization and Measurement of Discontinuities in Rock Slopes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This ETL provides guidance for characterizing and measuring rock discontinuities on natural slopes or slopes constructed in rock above reservoirs, darn abutments, or other types of constructed slopes...

  18. Effects of slope gradient on hydro-erosional processes on an aeolian sand-covered loess slope under simulated rainfall (United States)

    Zhang, F. B.; Yang, M. Y.; Li, B. B.; Li, Z. B.; Shi, W. Y.


    The aeolian sand-covered loess slope of the Wind-Water Erosion Crisscross Region of the Loess Plateau in China may play a key role in contributing excessive sediment to the Yellow River. Understanding its hydro-erosional processes is crucial to assessing, controlling and predicting soil and water losses in this region and maintaining the ecological sustainability of the Yellow River. Simulated rainfall (intensity 90 mm h-1) was used to investigate the runoff and soil loss from loess slopes with different slope gradients (18%, 27%, 36%, 47%, and 58%) and overlying sand layer thicknesses (0, 5 and 10 cm). As compared with uncovered loess slopes, an overlying sand layer delayed runoff production, reduced cumulative runoff and increased cumulative soil loss, as well as enhancing variations among slope gradients. Cumulative runoff and soil loss from the sand-covered loess slopes increased with increasing slope gradients and then slightly decreased, with a peak at about 47% gradient; they both were greater from the 10-cm sand-covered loess slope than from the 5-cm except for with 18% slope gradient. In general, differences in cumulative runoff between sand layer thicknesses became smaller, while those in cumulative soil loss became larger, with increasing slope gradient. Runoff and soil loss rates on the sand-covered loess slopes exhibited unimodal distributions during the rainstorms. Maximum values tended to occur at the same rain duration, and increased considerably with increasing slope gradient and sand layer thickness on slopes that were less than 47%. Liquefaction process might occur on the lower loess slopes covered with thinner sand layers but failures similar to shallow landslides might occur when the sand layer was thicker on steeper slopes. The presence of an overlying sand layer changed the relationship between runoff and soil loss rates during intense rainstorms and this change varied with different slope gradients. Our results demonstrated that the effects

  19. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis


    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  20. Infinite swapping in curved spaces. (United States)

    Curotto, E; Mella, Massimo


    We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.

  1. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de


    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Measuring and Modeling Root Distribution and Root Reinforcement in Forested Slopes for Slope Stability Calculations (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Giadrossich, F.; Schwarz, M.; Vergani, C.


    Roots provide mechanical anchorage and reinforcement of soils on slopes. Roots also modify soil hydrological properties (soil moisture content, pore-water pressure, preferential flow paths) via subsurface flow path associated with root architecture, root density, and root-size distribution. Interactions of root-soil mechanical and hydrological processes are an important control of shallow landslide initiation during rainfall events and slope stability. Knowledge of root-distribution and root strength are key components to estimate slope stability in vegetated slopes and for the management of protection forest in steep mountainous area. We present data that show the importance of measuring root strength directly in the field and present methods for these measurements. These data indicate that the tensile force mobilized in roots depends on root elongation (a function of soil displacement), root size, and on whether roots break in tension of slip out of the soil. Measurements indicate that large lateral roots that cross tension cracks at the scarp are important for slope stability calculations owing to their large tensional resistance. These roots are often overlooked and when included, their strength is overestimated because extrapolated from measurements on small roots. We present planned field experiments that will measure directly the force held by roots of different sizes during the triggering of a shallow landslide by rainfall. These field data are then used in a model of root reinforcement based on fiber-bundle concepts that span different spacial scales, from a single root to the stand scale, and different time scales, from timber harvest to root decay. This model computes the strength of root bundles in tension and in compression and their effect on soil strength. Up-scaled to the stand the model yields the distribution of root reinforcement as a function of tree density, distance from tree, tree species and age with the objective of providing quantitative

  3. Triangular Numbers and Elliptic Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahal, Jasbir S.; Top, Jaap


    Some arithmetic of elliptic curves and theory of elliptic surfaces is used to find all rational solutions (r, s, t) in the function field Q(m, n) of the pair of equations r(r + 1)/2 = ms(s + 1)/2 r(r + 1)/2 = nt(t + 1)/2. It turns out that infinitely many solutions exist. Several examples will be

  4. Archaeomagnetic SV curve for Belgium (United States)

    Ech-chakrouni, Souad; Hus, Jozef


    Archaeomagnetic secular variation curves have been established for different countries in Europe, especially when different archeological sites are more or less uniformly distributed in time are available. The disadvantage in that case is that data had to be relocated to a single reference site. The proximity of the reference locality Paris to Belgium makes that we used the French archaeomagnetic SV curve for the last three millennia up to the present for archaeomagnetic dating undated baked structures. In total, 85 baked structures have been examined, unearthed in 24 archaeological sites of the territory of Belgium. The ChRM of each sample was obtained by principal component analysis for at least three demagnetisation steps (Kirschvink 1980). Except for some outliers, the ChRM directions are very coherent with a high confidence factor (α95Belgium with Uccle as reference locality, where the first measurement of the geomagnetic field was done in 1895. This curve would include all the available reference data in a radius of about 500 km around Uccle. Keywords: secular variation, archaeomagnetic dating, Belgium.

  5. Growth curves for Laron syndrome. (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B


    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I.

  6. Efficiency and limits of Stability Charts in the analysis of limit equilibrium state of slopes of geological interest (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Tinti, Stefano


    The stability charts are one of the most common tools used in engineering and applied geology to derive the value of the Safety Factor, say F, of slopes of engineering and geological interest. Its importance is due to the easiness of finding the solution for F without falling into complex numerical calculations. These charts propose a graphical method to derive F=F(Ns), where Ns is the Stability Number, obtained by a combination of geotechnical (cohesion, friction angle, weight) and geometrical parameters (angle of incline and slope height): for each value of Ns it is possible to find one single value of F. Taylor (1948) was the first to introduce the stability charts method and later until recently many others proposed different improved versions of them (Michalowski, 1997; 2002; Baker, 1999; 2003; Baker et al. 2006; Easa and Vatankhah, 2011). The aim of this work is to show that there is no univocal relationship between F and Ns like it is erroneously assumed by the stability charts method. Indeed, the comparison of the stability charts with new charts obtained with the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method (Tinti and Manucci, 2006; 2008) reveals that F depends separately on all the parameters that concur to form the stability number, though the dependence on some of them, especially the soil weight, is more relevant. The work has been conducted not only on soil parameter configurations typical of embankments and dykes, but also on configurations typical of homogeneous slopes of geophysical interest. It is found that the values of F usually fall below the ones predicted by the stability charts though the general trend of the stability curves is confirmed. This discrepancy is particularly crucial when the value of F is close to the critical value of 1, since in this case classical methods could indicate that a slope is stable, even though it is not. One can therefore state that the classical stability single-valued curves F(Ns) can provide an acceptable first

  7. Positive Surge Propagation in Sloping Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pietro Viero


    Full Text Available A simplified model for the upstream propagation of a positive surge in a sloping, rectangular channel is presented. The model is based on the assumptions of a flat water surface and negligible energy dissipation downstream of the surge, which is generated by the instantaneous closure of a downstream gate. Under these hypotheses, a set of equations that depends only on time accurately describes the surge wave propagation. When the Froude number of the incoming flow is relatively small, an approximate analytical solution is also proposed. The predictive ability of the model is validated by comparing the model results with the results of an experimental investigation and with the results of a numerical model that solves the full shallow water equations.

  8. Alaskan North Slope Oil & Gas Transportation Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Michael Russell [Geo-Watersheds Scientific LLC, Fairbanks, AK (United States)


    North Slope oil and gas resources are a critical part of US energy supplies and their development is facing a period of new growth to meet increasing national energy needs. While this growth is taking place in areas active in development for more than 20 years, there are many increasing environmental challenges facing industry and management agencies. A majority of all exploration and development activities, pipeline maintenance and other field support activities take place in the middle of winter, when the fragile tundra surface is more stable. The window for the critical oil and gas winter operational season has been steadily decreasing over the last 25 years. The number of companies working on the North Slope is increasing. Many of these companies are smaller and working with fewer resources than the current major companies. The winter operations season starts with the tundra-travel opening, which requires 15 cm of snow on the land surface in the coastal management areas and 23 cm in the foothills management areas. All state managed areas require -5°C soil temperatures at a soil depth of 30 cm. Currently there are no methods to forecast this opening date, so field mobilization efforts are dependent on agency personnel visiting field sites to measure snow and soil temperature conditions. Weeks can be easily lost in the winter operating season due to delays in field verification of tundra conditions and the resulting mobilization. After the season is open, a significant percentage of exploration, construction, and maintenance do not proceed until ice roads and pads can be built. This effort is dependent on access to lake ice and under-ice water. Ice chipping is a common ice-road construction technique used to build faster and stronger ice roads. Seasonal variability in water availability and permitting approaches are a constant constraint to industry. At the end of the winter season, projects reliant on ice-road networks are often faced with ending operations

  9. Development of kenaf mat for slope stabilization (United States)

    Ahmad, M. M.; Manaf, M. B. H. Ab; Zainol, N. Z.


    This study focusing on the ability of kenaf mat to act as reinforcement to laterite compared to the conventional geosynthetic in term of stabilizing the slope. Kenaf mat specimens studied in this paper are made up from natural kenaf fiber with 3mm thickness, 150mm length and 20mm width. With the same size of specimens, geosynthetic that obtain from the industry are being tested for both direct shear and tensile tests. Plasticity index of the soil sample used is equal to 13 which indicate that the soil is slightly plastic. Result shows that the friction angle of kenaf mat is higher compared to friction between soil particles itself. In term of resistance to tensile load, the tensile strength of kenaf mat is 0.033N/mm2 which is lower than the tensile strength of geosynthetic.

  10. The Kepler Light Curves of AGN: Insights from a New Regime of Optical Variability (United States)

    Smith, Krista Lynne; Mushotzky, Richard; Boyd, Patricia


    The optical light curves of AGN provide a unique window into the conditions and behavior within the accretion disk. The development of a specialized pipeline for AGN science with the exquisite photometry of exoplanet-hunting satellites allows us to explore new optical variability phenomena, exemplified by our work on the Kepler light curves of a sample of 21 X-ray and IR-selected AGN. Among the insights from these new light curves are bimodal flux distributions, steep power spectral slopes, characteristic variability timescales, a candidate quasi-periodic oscillation, and correlations of variability properties with mass and accretion rate. Such data provide an opportunity for direct comparison with X-ray light curves for the first time, and promise to inform models of both accretion physics and the relationship between X-ray and optical emitting regions in the central engine.

  11. Consequentialism, complacency, and slippery slope arguments. (United States)

    Oakley, Justin; Cocking, Dean


    The standard problem with many slippery slope arguments is that they fail to provide us with the necessary evidence to warrant our believing that the significantly morally worse circumstances they predict will in fact come about. As such these arguments have widely been criticised as 'scare-mongering'. Consequentialists have traditionally been at the forefront of such criticisms, demanding that we get serious about guiding our prescriptions for right action by a comprehensive appreciation of the empirical facts. This is not surprising, since consequentialism has traditionally been committed to the idea that right action be driven by empirical realities, and this hard-headed approach has been an especially notable feature of Australian consequentialism. But this apparent empirical hard-headedness is very selective. While consequentialists have understood their moral outlook and commitments as guided by a partnership with empirical science - most explicitly in their replies to the arguments of their detractors - some consequentialists have been remarkably complacent about providing empirical support for their own prescriptions. Our key example here is the consequentialist claim that our current practises of partiality in fact maximise the good, impartially conceived. This claim has invariably been made without compelling support for the large empirical claims upon which it rests, and so, like the speculative empirical hand-waving of weak slippery slope arguments, it seems similarly to be undermined. While these arguments have presented us with 'wishful thinking' rather than 'scare-mongering', we argue in this paper that their complacency in meeting the relevant empirical justificatory burden remains much the same.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu


    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  13. An alternative soil nailing system for slope stabilization: Akarpiles (United States)

    Lim, Chun-Lan; Chan, Chee-Ming


    This research proposes an innovative solution for slope stabilization with less environmental footprint: AKARPILES. In Malaysia, landslide has become common civil and environmental problems that cause impacts to the economy, safety and environment. Therefore, effective slope stabilization method helps to improve the safety of public and protect the environment. This study focused on stabilizing surfacial slope failure. The idea of AKARPILES was generated from the tree roots system in slope stabilization. After the piles are installed in the slope and intercepting the slip plane, grout was pumped in and discharged through holes on the piles. The grout then filled the pores in the soil with random flow within the slip zone. SKW mixture was used to simulate the soil slope. There were two designs being proposed in this study and the prototypes were produced by a 3D printer. Trial mix of the grout was carried out to obtain the optimum mixing ratio of bentonite: cement: water. A series of tests were conducted on the single-pile-reinforced slope under vertical slope crest loading condition considering different slope gradients and nail designs. Parameters such as ultimate load, failure time and failure strain were recorded and compared. As comparison with the unreinforced slope, both designs of AKARPILES showed better but different performances in the model tests.

  14. Side-sloped surfaces substantially affect lower limb running kinematics. (United States)

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Eslami, Mansour; Pearsall, David J


    Running on side-sloped surfaces is a common obstacle in the environment; however, how and to what extent the lower extremity kinematics adapt is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of side-sloped surfaces on three-dimensional kinematics of hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase of running. Ten healthy adult males ran barefoot along an inclinable runway in level (0°) and side-sloped (10° up-slope and down-slope inclinations, respectively) configurations. Right hip, knee, and ankle angles along with their time of occurrence were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA. Up-slope hip was more adducted (p = 0.015) and internally rotated (p = 0.030). Knee had greater external rotations during side-sloped running at heel-strike (p = 0.005), while at toe-off, it rotated externally and internally during up-slope and down-slope running, respectively (p = 0.001). Down-slope ankle had greatest plantar flexion (p = 0.001). Up-slope ankle had greatest eversion compared with down-slope (p = 0.043), while it was more externally rotated (p = 0.030). These motion patterns are necessary to adjust the lower extremity length during side-sloped running. Timing differences in the kinematic events of hip adduction and external rotation, and ankle eversion were observed (p = 0.006). Knowledge on these alterations is a valuable tool in adopting strategies to enhance performance while preventing injury.

  15. Estimation of tissue perfusion by dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging: simulation-based evaluation of the steepest slope method. (United States)

    Brix, Gunnar; Zwick, Stefan; Griebel, Jürgen; Fink, Christian; Kiessling, Fabian


    Tissue perfusion is frequently determined from dynamic contrast-enhanced CT or MRI image series by means of the steepest slope method. It was thus the aim of this study to systematically evaluate the reliability of this analysis method on the basis of simulated tissue curves. 9600 tissue curves were simulated for four noise levels, three sampling intervals and a wide range of physiological parameters using an axially distributed reference model and subsequently analysed by the steepest slope method. Perfusion is systematically underestimated with errors becoming larger with increasing perfusion and decreasing intravascular volume. For curves sampled after rapid contrast injection with a temporal resolution of 0.72 s, the bias was less than 23% when the mean residence time of tracer molecules in the intravascular distribution space was greater than 6 s. Increasing the sampling interval and the noise level substantially reduces the accuracy and precision of estimates, respectively. The steepest slope method allows absolute quantification of tissue perfusion in a computationally simple and numerically robust manner. The achievable degree of accuracy and precision is considered to be adequate for most clinical applications.

  16. Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame for Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve (United States)

    Şenyurt, Süleyman; Altun, Yasin; Cevahir, Ceyda


    In this paper, we investigated special Smarandache curves belonging to Sabban frame drawn on the surface of the sphere by Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve. We created Sabban frame belonging to this curve. It was explained Smarandache curves position vector is consisted by Sabban vectors belonging to this curve. Then, we calculated geodesic curvatures of this Smarandache curves. Found results were expressed depending on the Mannheim curve.

  17. Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures. (United States)

    Duda, R. O.; Hart, P. E.


    Hough (1962) has proposed an interesting and computationally efficient procedure for detecting lines in pictures. It is pointed out that the use of angle-radius rather than slope-intercept parameters simplifies the computation further. Two alternative interpretations of Hough's method are presented. The transform approach considered can be extended to arbitrary curves. A convenient parameterization for the family of curves of interest has to be selected. It is important to have a small number of parameters since the accumulator implementation requires quantization of the entire parameter space.

  18. The Carnegie Supernova Project I: analysis of stripped-envelope supernova light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Bersten, M.


    Stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) include H-poor (Type IIb), H-free (Type Ib) and He-free (Type Ic) events thought to be associated with the deaths of massive stars. The exact nature of their progenitors is a matter of debate. Here we present the analysis of the light curves of 34 SE SNe...... between the peak absolute $B$-band magnitude and $\\Delta m_{15}(B)$, as well as a correlation between the late-time linear slope and $\\Delta m_{15}$. Making use of the full set of optical and near-IR photometry, combined with robust host-galaxy extinction corrections, bolometric light curves...

  19. Assessment of cortical bone fracture resistance curves by fusing artificial neural networks and linear regression. (United States)

    Vukicevic, Arso M; Jovicic, Gordana R; Jovicic, Milos N; Milicevic, Vladimir L; Filipovic, Nenad D


    Bone injures (BI) represents one of the major health problems, together with cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Assessment of the risks associated with BI is nontrivial since fragility of human cortical bone is varying with age. Due to restrictions for performing experiments on humans, only a limited number of fracture resistance curves (R-curves) for particular ages have been reported in the literature. This study proposes a novel decision support system for the assessment of bone fracture resistance by fusing various artificial intelligence algorithms. The aim was to estimate the R-curve slope, toughness threshold and stress intensity factor using the two input parameters commonly available during a routine clinical examination: patients age and crack length. Using the data from the literature, the evolutionary assembled Artificial Neural Network was developed and used for the derivation of Linear regression (LR) models of R-curves for arbitrary age. Finally, by using the patient (age)-specific LR models and diagnosed crack size one could estimate the risk of bone fracture under given physiological conditions. Compared to the literature, we demonstrated improved performances for estimating nonlinear changes of R-curve slope (R 2 = 0.82 vs. R 2 = 0.76) and Toughness threshold with ageing (R 2 = 0.73 vs. R 2 = 0.66).

  20. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves. (United States)

    Ribet, K A; Takahashi, S


    Fix an isogeny class of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements A of have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes--i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X(0)D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A [symbol; see text] A in for which one has a nonconstant map piD : X(0)D(N/D) --> A whose pullback A --> Pic0(X(0)D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of piD is an integer deltaD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class A). We investigate the behavior of deltaD as D varies.

  1. Children's Reasoning about Rolling down Curves: Arguing the Case for a Two-Component Commonsense Theory of Motion (United States)

    Hast, Michael


    Within the discussion of the development of commonsense theories of motion, recent research has established that throughout middle childhood, reasoning about motion down inclines changes with increasing age. To investigate this shift in more detail, this study investigated 5- to 11-year-old children's understanding of motion down curved slopes,…

  2. Can hydraulic-modelled rating curves reduce uncertainty in high flow data? (United States)

    Westerberg, Ida; Lam, Norris; Lyon, Steve W.


    Flood risk assessments rely on accurate discharge data records. Establishing a reliable rating curve for calculating discharge from stage at a gauging station normally takes years of data collection efforts. Estimation of high flows is particularly difficult as high flows occur rarely and are often practically difficult to gauge. Hydraulically-modelled rating curves can be derived based on as few as two concurrent stage-discharge and water-surface slope measurements at different flow conditions. This means that a reliable rating curve can, potentially, be derived much faster than a traditional rating curve based on numerous stage-discharge gaugings. In this study we compared the uncertainty in discharge data that resulted from these two rating curve modelling approaches. We applied both methods to a Swedish catchment, accounting for uncertainties in the stage-discharge gauging and water-surface slope data for the hydraulic model and in the stage-discharge gauging data and rating-curve parameters for the traditional method. We focused our analyses on high-flow uncertainty and the factors that could reduce this uncertainty. In particular, we investigated which data uncertainties were most important, and at what flow conditions the gaugings should preferably be taken. First results show that the hydraulically-modelled rating curves were more sensitive to uncertainties in the calibration measurements of discharge than water surface slope. The uncertainty of the hydraulically-modelled rating curves were lowest within the range of the three calibration stage-discharge gaugings (i.e. between median and two-times median flow) whereas uncertainties were higher outside of this range. For instance, at the highest observed stage of the 24-year stage record, the 90% uncertainty band was -15% to +40% of the official rating curve. Additional gaugings at high flows (i.e. four to five times median flow) would likely substantially reduce those uncertainties. These first results show

  3. A Novel Slope Method for Measurement of Fluid Density with a Micro-cantilever under Flexural and Torsional Vibrations. (United States)

    Zhao, Libo; Hu, Yingjie; Hebibul, Rahman; Ding, Jianjun; Wang, Tongdong; Xu, Tingzhong; Liu, Xixiang; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde


    A novel method, which was called a slope method, has been proposed to measure fluid density by the micro-cantilever sensing chip. The theoretical formulas of the slope method were discussed and established when the micro-cantilever sensing chip was under flexural and torsional vibrations. The slope was calculated based on the fitted curve between the excitation and output voltages of sensing chip under the nonresonant status. This measuring method need not sweep frequency to find the accurate resonant frequency. Therefore, the fluid density was measured easily based on the calculated slope. In addition, the micro-cantilver was drived by double sided excitation and free end excitation to oscillate under flexural and torsional vibrations, respectively. The corresponding experiments were carried out to measure the fluid density by the slope method. The measurement results were also analyzed when the sensing chip was under flexural and torsional nonresonant vibrations separately. The measurement accuracies under these vibrations were all better than 1.5%, and the density measuring sensitivity under torsional nonresonant vibration was about two times higher than that under flexural nonresonant vibration.

  4. Curvas de nível obtidas de aerofotos verticais Isoline curves obtained from vertical aerophotos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacarias Xavier de Barros


    Full Text Available Objetiva-se, com este trabalho, obter curvas de nível a partir de fotografias aéreas verticais, utilizando-se de gráfico linear de correção, em áreas com diferentes classes de declividade. A análise estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de regressões múltiplas das variáveis, erro horizontal e erro vertical, em função das variáveis independentes: altitude; altitude e declividade. Os erros médios horizontais e verticais pouco dependem da altitude, bem como da altitude e declividade, induzindo à conclusão de que não há necessidade de se levar em conta compartimentos de relevo com declividades uniformes e constantes para o traçado das curvas de nível em aerofotos.This study was conducted to obtain level curves from vertical aerial photographs, using linear graphics correction in areas with different slope classes. Statistical analysis of data was made by multiple regressions of horizontal and vertical deviation as a function of the following independent variables: altitude, altitude and slope. Vertical and horizontal deviations showed no significant dependence either on altitude or the altitude and slope, leading to the conclusion that there is no need to involve topography with uniform and constant slopes to obtain iso-level curves from aerophotos.

  5. Talus slope evolution under the influence of glaciers with the example of slopes near the Hans Glacier, SW Spitsbergen, Norway (United States)

    Senderak, Krzysztof; Kondracka, Marta; Gądek, Bogdan


    On Spitsbergen, which is 60% glaciated, talus slopes have frequently developed in interaction with glaciers, which had an influence on the evolution of the internal structure of slopes. This paper presents the results of geophysical surveys (electrical resistivity tomography - ERT and ground-penetrating radar - GPR) of the talus slopes near the Hans Glacier (SW Spitsbergen). The aim of investigations was to compare the talus slopes under the influence of glaciers in two different parts of the area in order to reveal differences in their internal structure. We assumed that different locations of talus slopes can have an influence on the slope structure, showing different stages of evolution of the talus slopes. The maximum thickness of studied slopes ranges from 20 m in a marginal zone of the glacier, to up to 35 m without contact with the glacier. Permafrost begins at a depth of 2-3 m and can develop until bedrock is reached. The internal structure of these talus slopes contains glacial ice, which is covered by a layer of slope material with a thickness from a few to up to 10 m. The buried glacial ice is slowly melting simultaneously with the deglaciation of the area but can remain in the structure of the talus slopes for much longer. Morphogenetic processes, such as avalanches, rockfalls, and debris flows are most visible until the glacial ice is completely melted within the internal structure of the slope. Based on the geophysical and geomorphological data, general models were proposed for the early stages of evolution of talus slopes in valleys under deglaciation.

  6. Curved microchannels and bacterial streamers (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard


    Bacterial biofilms are commonly identified as microbial communities attached to a surface and encased in a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms have an enormous impact on health and medicine (e.g., wound healing, implant-associated infections, disease transmission). On the other hand, they constitute a major component of the stream ecosystem by increasing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. In this talk, we present an experimental study of bacterial biofilm development in a microfluidic device. In particular, we show the formation of filamentous structures, or streamers, in curved channels and how these suspended biofilms are linked to the underlying hydrodynamics.

  7. Reconfigurable Double-Curved Mould

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Christian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    , double curved surfaces like facades or walls, where the curvature of each element is relatively small in comparison to the overall shape. In the proposed dynamic mould system, where only a set of points is defined, a stiff membrane interpolates the surface between points. To function as a surface...... suitable for casting concrete or other substances against without the need for further manual treatment, the membrane should be durable and maintain a perfectly smooth and non-porous surface as well. A membrane with these properties has been developed for this project, and it is the core of the dynamic...

  8. General investigations of curved surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gauss, Karl Friedrich; Morehead, James


    Gauss's theory of surfaces is among the purely mathematical achievements inspired by ideas that arose in connection with surveys of the surface of the earth. Long regarded as a masterpiece in content and form, this work features one of the author's most original contributions to mathematics--the discovery that Gauss termed the ""Theorema Egregium."" It consists of his penetrating definition of the concept of surface curvature and the theorem that the ""Gauss curvature"" is invariant under arbitrary isometric deformation of a curved surface. The profound effects of these concepts were soon gene

  9. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu


    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  10. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Wolfgang


    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. The second part studies the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. This new edition provides many advancements, including more figures and exercises, and-as a new feature-a good number of so

  11. From incipient slope instability through slope deformation to catastrophic failure - Different stages of failure development on the Ivasnasen and Vollan rock slopes (western Norway) (United States)

    Oppikofer, T.; Saintot, A.; Hermanns, R. L.; Böhme, M.; Scheiber, T.; Gosse, J.; Dreiås, G. M.


    The long-term evolution of rock slope failures involves different stages, from incipience of slope instability to catastrophic failure, through a more or less long-lasting slope deformation phase that also involves creeping or sliding. Topography, lithology, and structural inheritance are the main intrinsic factors that influence this evolution. Here, we investigate the role of these intrinsic factors on the rock slope failure development of the Ivasnasen and Vollan rock slopes (Sunndal Valley, western Norway) using a multitechnique approach that includes geomorphologic and structural field mapping, kinematic analysis, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, topographic reconstruction, and deformation quantification. Ivasnasen is a rock slope failure complex with several past rock slope failures and a present unstable rock slope, located on a cataclinal NW-facing slope and developed in augen gneiss. Vollan on the opposite valley side is a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) affecting the whole mountainside, developed in quartzite in the upper part and micaschist in the lower part. These different lithologies belong to different nappe complexes that were emplaced and folded into a series of syn- and anticlines during the Caledonian orogeny. These folds lead to different lithologies being exposed in different structural orientations on the opposite valley flanks, which in turn leads to different types and evolution of rock slope failures. At Ivasnasen the 45°-55° NW-dipping ductile foliation allowed for a fairly simple planar sliding mechanism for the 1.2 million m3 post-glacial rock slope failure. Failure occurred ca. 3.3 ka ago after a short period of prefailure deformation. For the present 2.2 million m3 unstable rock slope at Ivasnasen, a steepening of the foliation at the toe impedes such a mechanism and up to 10 m of displacement has not lead to a catastrophic failure yet. The Vollan DSGSD is characterized by a steep major back scarp

  12. Hydrologically complemented deterministic slope stability analysis in part of Indian Lesser Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mathew


    Full Text Available This study uses a deterministic approach to evaluate the factor of safety (FS of the terrain for different hydrological conditions, in part of Indian Lesser Himalaya. The results indicate sudden increase in the percentage unstable area from 7.5% to 13.8% for rainfall intensity variation from 50 to 100 mm/day. For the rainfall intensity of 15 August 2007 which caused many landslides in the study area, 18.5% of the total area was unstable and it increases to 21.7%, 23.5% and 24.7%, respectively, for rainfall intensities corresponding to 10, 25 and 50 year return periods. This increment stagnates at about 260 mm/day, making about 25% of the area unstable. Higher rainfall intensities make progressively gentler slopes unstable, but limited to 25 degrees of slope in this area. The area underlain by granitic gneiss showed 23.1% of area as unstable for 135 mm/day of rainfall intensity, and was followed by those areas underlain by amphibolite (16%, limestone (13.7% and quartzite (10.4%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis has given 84.2% accuracy for the model. Conversion of FS to failure probability through Z scores enables identification unstable or marginally unstable areas, for planning selective slope stabilization measures.

  13. Upper slope jets inshore of the Charleston Bump - barriers to shelf-slope exchange? (United States)

    Seim, H.; Edwards, C. R.; Nelson, J.


    A field program conducted in winter 2012 just inshore of the seaward deflection of the Gulf Stream at the Charleston Bump observed several week-long periods of strong equatorward along-shelf flow and elevated bottom temperatures over the upper slope and outer shelf. In sea surface temperature imagery these features resemble and appear linked to warm filaments, a known feature associated with meanders of the Gulf Stream as it traverses the southeast coast of North America. However, the character of these upper slope features is not consistent with previous observations of filaments. We here document the characteristics of the jets and suggest that these may be a form of coastal trapped wave, excited on the deep water side of the slope by meanders when the Gulf Stream position is sufficiently far offshore of the shelfbreak. When present, the jets spread onto the outer shelf, creating cross-shelf convergence between the mid- and outer shelf, possibly explaining the presence of persistent mid-shelf maxima in satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration imagery during the winter season.

  14. Overpressure, Flow Focusing, Compaction and Slope Stability on the continental slope: Insights from IODP Expedition 308 (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expepedition 308 used direct measurements of pore pressure, analysis of hydromechanical properties, and geological analysis to illuminate how sedimentation, flow focusing, overpressure, and slope stability couple beneath the seafloor on the deepwater continental slope in the Gulf of Mexico. We used pore pressure penetrometers to measure severe overpressures (60% of the difference between lithostatic stress and hydrostatic pressure) that extend from the seafloor for 100’s of meters. We ran uniaxial consolidation experiments on whole core and found that although permeability is relatively high near the seafloor, the sediments are highly compressible. As a result, the coefficient of consolidation (the hydraulic diffusivity) is remarkably constant over a large range of effective stresses. This behavior accounts for the high overpressure that begins near the seafloor and extends to depth. Forward modeling suggests that flow is driven laterally along a permeable unit called the Blue Unit. Calculations suggest that soon after deposition, lateral flow lowered the effective stress and triggered the submarine landslides that we observe. Later in the evolution of this system, overpressure may have pre-conditioned the slope to failure by earthquakes. Results from IODP Expedition 308 illustrate how pore pressure and sedimentation control the large-scale form of continental margins, how submarine landslides form, and provide strategies for designing stable drilling programs.

  15. Slope Stability Analysis Considering Sliding Effect of Upper Body


    Zou, Zhengsheng; Li, Lifeng; Zhang, Qing; Du, Jiaqing


    Owing to the human engineering activities, the phenomenon that new landslide happen on the upper part of the old sliding body can be found everywhere. This kind of slope consisting of two sliding bodies, which are upper body and lower body, is named as double-sliding-body slope. Its stability is usually analyzed according to two slopes. However, the effect of new landslide movement on the stability of entire slope system is not taken into account. In this paper, sliding effect of upper body i...

  16. Influential Factors on the Stability of Building Slope (United States)

    Yan, Jianlong; Cheng, Yong; Sun, Yanjie; Zhao, Yungang


    Based on the loess structure and topography of northern Shaanxi area, the construction slope model is built. The numerical simulation method is used to analyze the slope stability coefficient under conditions that the self-weight load, slope ratio and the distance from building to slope. The results are analyzed using soil mechanics. The results show that the construction load, slope ratio and d value have influences on the slope stability. The development trend of the slope stability coefficient with the change of the load depends mainly on the value of d. When the d value is less than 15m, the trend is rapid and continues to decrease; when the d value is 20m, the trend of the stability coefficient is gentle, and the stability coefficient increases with the increase of the load. The influential factors of the slope stability coefficient are different in different stages. The larger influential factors in the stage A is the building load, and the larger influential factor in the stage B is the slope ratio.

  17. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten


    An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations...... in converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter...

  18. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu


    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  19. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.


    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  20. A three-dimensional slope stability model based on GRASS GIS and its application to the Collazzone area, Central Italy (United States)

    Mergili, M.; Marchesini, I.; Fellin, W.; Rossi, M.; Raia, S.; Guzzetti, F.


    Landslide risk depends on landslide hazard, i.e. the probability of occurrence of a slope failure of a given magnitude within a specified period and in a given area. The occurrence probability of slope failures in an area characterized by a set of geo-environmental parameters gives the landslide susceptibility. Statistical and deterministic methods are used to assess landslide susceptibility. Deterministic models based on limit equilibrium techniques are applied for the analysis of particular types of landslides (e.g., shallow soil slips, debris flows, rock falls), or to investigate the effects of specific triggers, i.e., an intense rainfall event or an earthquake. In particular, infinite slope stability models are used to calculate the spatial probability of shallow slope failures. In these models, the factor of safety is computed on a pixel basis, assuming a slope-parallel, infinite slip surface. Since shallow slope failures coexist locally with deep-seated landslides, infinite slope stability models fail to describe the complexity of the landslide phenomena. Limit equilibrium models with curved sliding surfaces are geometrically more complex, and their implementation with raster-based GIS is a challenging task. Only few attempts were made to develop GIS-based three-dimensional applications of such methods. We present a preliminary implementation of a GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability model capable of dealing with deep-seated and shallow rotational slope failures. The model is implemented as a raster module (r.rotstab) in the Open Source GIS package GRASS GIS, and makes use of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland (1977). Given a DEM and a set of thematic layers of geotechnical and hydraulic parameters, the model tests a large number of randomly determined potential ellipsoidal slip surfaces. In addition to ellipsoidal slip surfaces, truncated ellipsoids are tested, which can occur in the presence of weak layers or hard

  1. The hydrological response to precipitations of a layered shallow sloping deposit: physical experiments and mathematical modeling (United States)

    Damiano, Emilia; Greco, Roberto; Guida, Andrea; Olivares, Lucio; Picarelli, Luciano


    Although rainfall-induced landslides are frequent, so that they can be probably considered the most widespread natural hazards, fortunately the occurrence of an extreme rainfall event only rarely corresponds to the triggering of landslides. This is due to the fact that slopes, although often considered as separated systems in the stability analyses, are actually part of a larger, more complex hydrological system, with which continuously exchange water. Indeed, most of the slopes do not fail, and when they are subjected to heavy precipitation, effective draining mechanisms spontaneously develop, such as overland and subsurface runoff, and sometimes even new preferential flow paths originated by mechanical processes, such as piping erosion or deformation cracks. Hence, the triggering of a rainfall-induced landslide requires these dynamically evolving (non-linear) drainage processes to be incapable of releasing the excess of water (and pressure) accumulating within the slope. For the case of shallow sloping covers, the capability of the slope to effectively drain the infiltrating water depends on the hydraulic properties of the involved soils (hydraulic conductivity and water retention curves) and on the hydraulic boundary conditions (at the base of the cover, where it lays upon the bedrock, and at the foot of the slope), which are in turn strongly influenced by the initial moisture state (often indicated as a predisposing cause), owing to the non-linearity of the hydraulic processes. Such an already complex picture is furthermore complicated by heterogeneity. In this study, we focus our attention onto the effects of a layered soil cover with contrasting hydraulic properties on the infiltration and drainage processes in a shallow pyroclastic deposit. This is a typical situation along many pyroclastic-covered slopes of Campania (southern Italy), which present alternations of ashes (silty sands) and pumices (sands with gravel) deposited by volcanic eruptions, and where

  2. The dChip survival analysis module for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minvielle Stéphane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide expression signatures are emerging as potential marker for overall survival and disease recurrence risk as evidenced by recent commercialization of gene expression based biomarkers in breast cancer. Similar predictions have recently been carried out using genome-wide copy number alterations and microRNAs. Existing software packages for microarray data analysis provide functions to define expression-based survival gene signatures. However, there is no software that can perform survival analysis using SNP array data or draw survival curves interactively for expression-based sample clusters. Results We have developed the survival analysis module in the dChip software that performs survival analysis across the genome for gene expression and copy number microarray data. Built on the current dChip software's microarray analysis functions such as chromosome display and clustering, the new survival functions include interactive exploring of Kaplan-Meier (K-M plots using expression or copy number data, computing survival p-values from the log-rank test and Cox models, and using permutation to identify significant chromosome regions associated with survival. Conclusions The dChip survival module provides user-friendly way to perform survival analysis and visualize the results in the context of genes and cytobands. It requires no coding expertise and only minimal learning curve for thousands of existing dChip users. The implementation in Visual C++ also enables fast computation. The software and demonstration data are freely available at

  3. Smarandache Curves In Terms of Sabban Frame of Fixed Pole Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Şenyurt


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve interms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

  4. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure: Prognostic Comparison from Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 Slope. (United States)

    Sarullo, Filippo Maria; Fazio, Giovanni; Brusca, Ignazio; Fasullo, Sergio; Paterna, Salvatore; Licata, Pamela; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore; Di Pasquale, Pietro


    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing with ventilatory expired gas analysis (CPET) has proven to be a valuable tool for assessing patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The maximal oxygen uptake (peak V02) is used in risk stratification of patients with CHF. The minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production relationship (VE/VCO2 slope) has recently demonstrated prognostic significance in patients with CHF. Between January 2006 and December 2007 we performed CPET in 184 pts (146 M, 38 F, mean age 59.8 +/- 12.9 years), with stable CHF (96 coronary artery disease, 88 dilated cardiomyopathy), in NYHA functional class II (n.107) - III (n.77), with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) slope to predict cardiac related mortality and cardiac related hospitalization within 12 months after evaluation was examined. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were demonstrated with univariate Cox regression analysis both to be significant predictor of cardiac-related mortality and hospitalization (p slope (41.80 +/- 8.07 vs. 29.84 +/- 6.47, p slope added additional value to VO2 peak as an independent prognostic factor (chi2: 56.48, relative risk: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.13, p = 0.001). The results from Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a 1-year cardiac-related mortality of 75% in patients with VE/VCO2 slope >/= 35.6 and 25% in those with VE/VCO2 slope 12.2 ml/kg/min (log rank chi2: 50.98, p slope >/= 32.5 and 23% in those with VE/VCO2 slope 12.3 ml/kg/min (log rank chi2: 72.86, p slope was demonstrated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to be equivalent to peak VO2 in predicting cardiac-related mortality (0.89 vs. 0.89). Although area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the VE/VCO2 slope was greater than peak VO2 in predicting cardiac-related hospitalization (0.88 vs 0.82), the difference was no statistically significant (p = 0.13). These results add to the present body of knowledge supporting the use of CPET in CHF patients. The VE/VCO2 slope, as an index of

  5. Nitrogen isotopic composition of plants and soil in an arid mountainous terrain: south slope versus north slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen


    Full Text Available Nitrogen cycling is tightly associated with environment. The south slope of a given mountain could significantly differ from north slope in environment. Thus, N cycling should also be different between the two slopes. Since leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and Δδ15Nleaf-soil (Δδ15Nleaf-soil =  leaf δ15N − soil δ15N could reflect the N cycling characteristics, we put forward a hypothesis that leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and Δδ15Nleaf-soil should differ between the two slopes. However, such a comparative study between two slopes has never been conducted. In addition, environmental effects on leaf and soil δ15N derived from studies at global scale were often found to be different from those on a regional scale. This led to our argument that environmental effects on leaf and soil δ15N could depend on local environment. To confirm our hypothesis and argument, we measured leaf and soil δ15N on the south and north slopes of Tian Shan. Remarkable environmental differences between the two slopes provided an ideal opportunity for our test. The study showed that leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and δ15Nleaf-soil on the south slope were greater than those on the north slope, although the difference in soil δ15N was not significant. The result confirmed our hypothesis and suggested that the south slope has higher soil N transformation rates and soil N availability than the north slope. In addition, in this study it was observed that the significant influential factors of leaf δ15N were temperature, precipitation, leaf N, leaf C ∕ N, soil moisture and silt ∕ clay ratio on the north slope, whereas on the south slope only leaf C ∕ N was related to leaf δ15N. The significant influential factors of soil δ15N were temperature, precipitation, soil moisture and silt ∕ clay ratio on the north slope, whereas on the south slope, mean annual precipitation and soil moisture exerted significant effects. Precipitation exerted contrary effects on soil

  6. Design of Rock Slope Reinforcement: An Himalayan Case Study (United States)

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Latha, Gali Madhavi


    The stability analysis of the two abutment slopes of a railway bridge proposed at about 359 m above the ground level, crossing a river and connecting two hill faces in the Himalayas, India, is presented. The bridge is located in a zone of high seismic activity. The rock slopes are composed of a heavily jointed rock mass and the spacing, dip and dip direction of joint sets are varying at different locations. Geological mapping was carried out to characterize all discontinuities present along the slopes. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to assess the geotechnical properties of the intact rock, rock mass and joint infill. Stability analyses of these rock slopes were carried out using numerical programmes. Loads from the foundations resting on the slopes and seismic accelerations estimated from site-specific ground response analysis were considered. The proposed slope profile with several berms between successive foundations was simulated in the numerical model. An equivalent continuum approach with Hoek and Brown failure criterion was initially used in a finite element model to assess the global stability of the slope abutments. In the second stage, finite element analysis of rock slopes with all joint sets with their orientations, spacing and properties explicitly incorporated into the numerical model was taken up using continuum with joints approach. It was observed that the continuum with joints approach was able to capture the local failures in some of the slope sections, which were verified using wedge failure analysis and stereographic projections. Based on the slope deformations and failure patterns observed from the numerical analyses, rock anchors were designed to achieve the target factors of safety against failure while keeping the deformations within the permissible limits. Detailed design of rock anchors and comparison of the stability of slopes with and without reinforcement are presented.

  7. Hydrologic behavior of model slopes with synthetic water repellent soils (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Lourenço, Sérgio D. N.; Cleall, Peter J.; Chui, Ting Fong May; Ng, Angel K. Y.; Millis, Stuart W.


    In the natural environment, soil water repellency decreases infiltration, increases runoff, and increases erosion in slopes. In the built environment, soil water repellency offers the opportunity to develop granular materials with controllable wettability for slope stabilization. In this paper, the influence of soil water repellency on the hydrological response of slopes is investigated. Twenty-four flume tests were carried out in model slopes under artificial rainfall; soils with various wettability levels were tested, including wettable (Contact Angle, CA 90°). Various rainfall intensities (30 mm/h and 70 mm/h), slope angles (20° and 40°) and relative compactions (70% and 90%) were applied to model the response of natural and man-made slopes to rainfall. To quantitatively assess the hydrological response, a number of measurements were made: runoff rate, effective rainfall rate, time to ponding, time to steady state, runoff acceleration, total water storage and wetting front rate. Overall, an increase in soil water repellency reduces infiltration and shortens the time for runoff generation, with the effects amplified for high rainfall intensity. Comparatively, the slope angle and relative compaction had only a minor contribution to the slope hydrology. The subcritical water repellent soils sustained infiltration for longer than both the wettable and water repellent soils, which presents an added advantage if they are to be used in the built environment as barriers. This study revealed substantial impacts of man-made or synthetically induced soil water repellency on the hydrological behavior of model slopes in controlled conditions. The results shed light on our understanding of hydrological processes in environments where the occurrence of natural soil water repellency is likely, such as slopes subjected to wildfires and in agricultural and forested slopes.

  8. Specific airway conductance and airway conductance-lung volume curves in normal and asthmatic subjects. (United States)

    Bylin, G; Hedenstierna, G; Rehn, T; Sundin, B


    Airway conductance (Gaw) depends on lung volume (TGV). An approximate correction for this volume dependence can be obtained by calculating specific airway conductance (sGaw = Gaw-TGV). In this study, Gaw-TGV curves were compared with sGaw in 30 healthy and 20 asthmatic subjects who were studied by body plethysmography. Gaw, TGV and sGaw were measured five times at three to five different lung volumes. sGaw was dependent on TGV, the regression having a negative slope (-0.24 and -0.27 kPa-1.s-1.l-1, in the group without and with asthma, respectively). A change in TGV by 1 l caused a 9 and 11% decrease in sGaw, respectively. Bronchial obstruction induced by histamine inhalation in the asthmatic subjects increased the dependence on TGV by sGaw, now with a positive slope. Thus, a change in TGV by 1 l caused a 20-100% increase in sGaw, depending on the degree of airway obstruction. The Gaw-TGV curve was approximately linear around the resting lung volume. The coefficient of variation in determining the slope of the Gaw-TGV curve was as high as 110 and 153% in health and asthmatic subjects, respectively. It is concluded that sGaw, although rapidly determined, has a systematic error in its correction of lung volume dependence, which the Gaw-TGV curve does not. The Gaw-TGV curve therefore has advantages in research work, but since its construction is time consuming it is hardly suitable in clinical practice.

  9. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server


    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  10. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej


    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  11. Slope, Scarp and Sea Cliff Instability Susceptibility Mapping for Planning Regulations in Almada County, Portugal (United States)

    Marques, Fernando; Queiroz, Sónia; Gouveia, Luís; Vasconcelos, Manuel


    In Portugal, the modifications introduced in 2008 and 2012 in the National Ecological Reserve law (REN) included the mandatory study of slope instability, including slopes, natural scarps, and sea cliffs, at municipal or regional scale, with the purpose of avoiding the use of hazardous zones with buildings and other structures. The law also indicates specific methods to perform these studies, with different approaches for slope instability, natural scarps and sea cliffs. The methods used to produce the maps required by REN law, with modifications and improvements to the law specified methods, were applied to the 71 km2 territory of Almada County, and included: 1) Slope instability mapping using the statistically based Information Value method validated with the landslide inventory using ROC curves, which provided an AAC=0.964, with the higher susceptibility zones which cover at least 80% of the landslides of the inventory to be included in REN map. The map was object of a generalization process to overcome the inconveniences of the use of a pixel based approach. 2) Natural scarp mapping including setback areas near the top, defined according to the law and setback areas near the toe defined by the application of the shadow angle calibrated with the major rockfalls which occurred in the study area; 3) Sea cliffs mapping including two levels of setback zones near the top, and one setback zone at the cliffs toe, which were based on systematic inventories of cliff failures occurred between 1947 and 2010 in a large scale regional littoral monitoring project. In the paper are described the methods used and the results obtained in this study, which correspond to the final maps of areas to include in REN. The results obtained in this study may be considered as an example of good practice of the municipal authorities in terms of solid, technical and scientifically supported regulation definitions, hazard prevention and safe and sustainable land use management.

  12. Spatially distributed three-dimensional slope stability modelling in a raster GIS (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Fellin, Wolfgang


    We present a GRASS GIS implementation of a three-dimensional slope stability model capable of dealing with shallow and deep-seated slope failures, r.rotstab. It exploits a modified version of the revised Hovland method and evaluates the slope stability over a large number of randomly selected slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. For each raster cell in the modelling domain, the factor of safety is taken from the most critical slip surface. This results in an overview of potentially unstable regions without showing the individual sliding areas. Furthermore, the model produces a susceptibility index for each cell, based on the proportion of slip surfaces with a low factor of safety. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy where detailed information on shallow and deep-seated landslides, morphology and lithology is available. The rate of true predictions (landslide plus non-landslide) ranges from 54.7 to 81.2% for shallow landslides and from 58.5 to 87.4% for deep-seated landslides, depending on the adjustment of the uncertain geotechnical parameters. In the same order, the rate of true landslide predictions decreases from 80.2 to 19.9% (shallow) and from 64.3 to 3.6% (deep-seated) so that an increase of the true landslide prediction rate can only be achieved at the cost of a significant increase of the false alarm rate. The results for shallow landslides are very similar to those yielded with the infinite slope stability model in terms of the minimum factor of safety, but differ substantially in terms of the spatial patterns. The evaluation of the landslide susceptibility index yields areas under the ROC curves of 0.68-0.70 (shallow landslides, r.rotstab), 0.61-0.65 (shallow landslides, infinite slope stability model) and 0.59-0.63 (deep-seated landslides). We conclude that the r.rotstab model outperforms the infinite slope stability model.

  13. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.


    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  14. Intrinsic kinetic equation for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic media: the double Tafel slope and fuel cell applications. (United States)

    Wang, Jia X; Uribe, Francisco A; Springer, Thomas E; Zhang, Junliang; Adzic, Radoslav R


    According to Sergio Trasatti, "A true theory of electrocatalysis will not be available until activity can be calculated a priori from some known properties of the materials." Toward this goal, we developed intrinsic kinetic equations for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) using as the kinetic parameters the free energies of adsorption and activation for elementary reactions. Rigorous derivation retained the intrinsic connection between the intermediates' adsorption isotherms and the kinetic equations, affording us an integrated approach for establishing the reaction mechanisms based upon various experimental and theoretical results. Using experimentally deduced free energy diagrams and activity-and-barriers plot for the ORR on Pt(111), we explained why the Tafel slope in the large overpotential region is double that in the small overpotential region. For carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C), the polarization curves measured with thin-film rotating disk electrodes also exhibit the double Tafel slope, albeit Pt(111) is several times more active than the Pt nanoparticles when the current is normalized by real surface area. An analytic method was presented for the polarization curves measured with H2 in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The fit to a typical iR-free polarization curve at 80 degrees C revealed that the change of the Tafel slope occurs at about 0.77 V that is the reversible potential for the transition between adsorbed O and OH on Pt/C. This is significant because it predicts that the Butler-Volmer equation can only fit the data above this potential, regardless the current density. We also predicted a decrease of the Tafel slope from 70 to 65 mV dec(-1) at 80 degrees C with increasing oxygen partial pressure, which is consistent with the observation reported in literature.

  15. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves (United States)

    Ribet, Kenneth A.; Takahashi, Shuzo


    Fix an isogeny class 𝒜 of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements of 𝒜 have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes—i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X0D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A ∈ 𝒜 for which one has a nonconstant map πD : X0D(N/D) → A whose pullback A → Pic0(X0D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of πD is an integer δD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class 𝒜). We investigate the behavior of δD as D varies. PMID:11607751

  16. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid


    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  17. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard


    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  18. Modeling fertility curves in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Gayawan


    Full Text Available The modeling of fertility patterns is an essential method researchers use to understand world-wide population patterns. Various types of fertility models have been reported in the literature to capture the patterns specific to developed countries. While much effort has been put into reducing fertility rates in Africa, models which describe the fertility patterns have not been adequately described. This article presents a flexible parametric model that can adequately capture the varying patterns of the age-specific fertility curves of African countries. The model has parameters that are interpretable in terms of demographic indices. The performance of this model was compared with other commonly used models and Akaike's Information Criterion was used for selecting the model with best fit. The presented model was able to reproduce the empirical fertility data of 11 out of 15 countries better than the other models considered.

  19. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  20. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  1. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas


    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  2. Legendre Elliptic Curves over Finite Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, Roland; Top, Jakob


    We show that every elliptic curve over a finite field of odd characteristic whose number of rational points is divisible by 4 is isogenous to an elliptic curve in Legendre form, with the sole exception of a minimal respectively maximal elliptic curve. We also collect some results concerning the

  3. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.


    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a

  4. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Devices by the Slope-Efficiency Method (United States)


    ARL-TR-7837 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of Thermoelectric Devices by the Slope -Efficiency Method by...Evaluation of Thermoelectric Devices by the Slope -Efficiency Method by Patrick J Taylor Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Jay R...

  5. Assessment of rock mass decay in artificial slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.


    This research investigates the decay of rock masses underlying slopes, and seeks to quantify the relations of such decay with time and geotechnical parameters of the slope and rock mass. Decay can greatly affect the geotechnical properties of rocks within engineering timescales, and may induce a

  6. Alternative method for direct measurement of tibial slope. (United States)

    Stijak, Lazar; Santrac-Stijak, Gordana; Spasojević, Goran; Radonjić, Vidosava; Malis, Milos; Milovanović, Darko; Filipović, Branislav


    The tibial slope is one of the most frequently cited anatomical causes of anterior cruciate ligament trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of direct measuring of the tibial slope of the knee without prior soft tissue dissection in cadavers. Measurement was performed on the two groups of samples: osteological and cadaveric. The osteological group consisted of 102 matured tibiae and measurement was performed: indirectly by sagittal photographing of the tibia, and directly by a set of parallel bars. The cadaveric group consisted of 50 cadaveric knees and measurement was performed directly by a set of parallel bars. The difference and correlation between indirect and the direct measurements were observed, which included also measuring of the difference and correlation of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral condyles. A statistically significant difference between the direct and indirect method of measuring (p slope on the medial condyle, which is of no practical importance. Direct measurement of the osteological and cadaveric groups of samples did not show a statistically significant difference regarding the values of the tibial slope on the lateral condyle (p > 0.05). However, the slope on the medial condyle, as well as indirect measurement showed a statistically significant difference (p slope directly without removal of the soft tissue. The results of indirect, photographic measurement did not statistically differ from the results of direct measurement of the tibial slope.

  7. Determination of Digital Straight Segments Using the Slope


    Cartas, Alejandro; Algorri, María Elena


    We present a new method for the recognition of digital straight lines based on the slope. This method combines the Freeman's chain coding scheme and new discovered properties of the digital slope introduced in this paper. We also present the efficiency of our method from a testbed.

  8. 30 CFR 716.2 - Steep-slope mining. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep-slope mining. 716.2 Section 716.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.2 Steep-slope mining. The permittee conducting surface coal...

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra


    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  10. Composite filter steepens rejection slopes in microwave application (United States)


    Composite filter is used to obtain sharp rejection slopes in microwave transmission by filtering techniques. It consists of a bandpass filter to shape the passband and a bandreject filter on each edge of the bandpass filter to steepen the rejection slopes.

  11. Integrating concepts and skills: Slope and kinematics graphs (United States)

    Tonelli, Edward P., Jr.

    The concept of force is a foundational idea in physics. To predict the results of applying forces to objects, a student must be able to interpret data representing changes in distance, time, speed, and acceleration. Comprehension of kinematics concepts requires students to interpret motion graphs, where rates of change are represented as slopes of line segments. Studies have shown that majorities of students who show proficiency with mathematical concepts fail accurately to interpret motion graphs. The primary aim of this study was to examine how students apply their knowledge of slope when interpreting kinematics graphs. To answer the research questions a mixed methods research design, which included a survey and interviews, was adopted. Ninety eight (N=98) high school students completed surveys which were quantitatively analyzed along with qualitative information collected from interviews of students (N=15) and teachers ( N=2). The study showed that students who recalled methods for calculating slopes and speeds calculated slopes accurately, but calculated speeds inaccurately. When comparing the slopes and speeds, most students resorted to calculating instead of visual inspection. Most students recalled and applied memorized rules. Students who calculated slopes and speeds inaccurately failed to recall methods of calculating slopes and speeds, but when comparing speeds, these students connected the concepts of distance and time to the line segments and the rates of change they represented. This study's findings will likely help mathematics and science educators to better assist their students to apply their knowledge of the definition of slope and skills in kinematics concepts.

  12. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang


    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  13. Assessment of slope stability and remedial measures around Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1995) technique, whereas the slope having wedge mode of failure was analyzed by 'SASW' computer program. The stability analysis was carried out for the existing and anticipated worst conditions. The results indicate that all critical slopes in the study area are stable for the existing conditions, represented by dry static ...

  14. Analysis of Covariance and Randomized Block Design with Heterogeneous Slopes. (United States)

    Klockars, Alan J.; Beretvas, S. Natasha


    Compared the Type I error rate and the power to detect differences in slopes and additive treatment effects of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and randomized block designs through a Monte Carlo simulation. Results show that the more powerful option in almost all simulations for tests of both slope and means was ANCOVA. (SLD)

  15. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.


    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by

  16. Analysis of one gravitational slope cycle (United States)

    Palis, Edouard; Lebourg, Thomas; Vidal, Maurin; Tric, Emmanuel


    Since about twenty years of studies on landslides, we realized the role and subtle interactions that existed between the structural complexity, masses dynamics and complex internal circulation of fluids. The La Clapière DSL (Deep-Seated Landslide) is now very well known by the scientific community (volume, impact, challenges, observations...), but this mass of knowledge, has not yet been compiled nor looked through a coupled analysis of its spatial and temporal variability. Since 2007, a will to share and access to uniform data was set up by the Versant Instabilities Multidisciplinary Observatory (OMIV, National Service of French Observation (SNO)). This observatory (with associated laboratories) allowed the installation of permanent and autonomous measuring stations: GPS, meteorology, seismology, water chemistry sources. For two years now, a permanent electrical tomography device is installed at the bottom of the slope to complement the current monitoring system, and allowed a deeper understanding of the physical changes in the massif. The analysis of these data allows to observe different dynamic regimes, as well as different responses to external factors: instantaneous, delayed, long-term variability. The purpose of this synthesis study is to analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the electrical resistivity, displacement and hydrometeors for one year cycle (November 2012 to November 2013). Thus, a qualitative and statistical approach by clusters, principal component analysis (PCA), and temporal pseudo-3D of these variables was established. This new statistical study also explains the major role of the fault and the base of the landslide, as well as the chronology of the water flow in the massif, allowing a better understanding of the complex and uneven in time dynamic in this area.

  17. Determination Of Slope Instability Using Spatially Integrated Mapping Framework (United States)

    Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Omar, R. C.; Roslan, R.; Khalid, N. H. N.; Hanifah, M. I. M.


    The determination and identification of slope instability are often rely on data obtained from in-situ soil investigation work where it involves the logistic of machineries and manpower, thus these aspects may increase the cost especially for remote locations. Therefore a method, which is able to identify possible slope instability without frequent ground walkabout survey, is needed. This paper presents the method used in prediction of slope instability using spatial integrated mapping framework which applicable for remote areas such as tropical forest and natural hilly terrain. Spatial data such as geology, topography, land use map, slope angle and elevation were used in regional analysis during desktop study. Through this framework, the occurrence of slope instability was able to be identified and was validate using a confirmatory site- specific analysis.

  18. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.


    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  19. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  20. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope, aerobic fitness, and V(E)-VCO2 slope in heart failure. (United States)

    Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Pichon, Aurélien; Vazir, Ali; Polkey, Michael I; Dayer, Mark J


    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a promising submaximal index of exercise capacity, but its relationships to other indices characterizing physical fitness and ventilatory efficiency have not been widely investigated in heart failure. Sixty-three male patients with stable chronic heart failure performed a symptom-limited maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Nineteen of them performed two exercise tests, 6 months apart. The peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), OUES using all data (OUES(100)) or only the data up to the point where the RER was 1 (OUE(SRER1)), and V(E)-VCO2 slope were determined. OUES(100), OUE(SRER1), and VAT were significantly correlated with measured VO2peak (r = 0.883, r = 0.814, and r = 0.877, respectively). The Bland-Altman limits of agreement between measured VO2peak and the values predicted by calculation from OUES(100), OUE(SRER1), and VAT were ±0.46, ±0.57, and ±0.48 L·min(-1), respectively. The variation in OUE(SRER1) between the first and second tests in the 19 patients was significantly related to the variation in VO2peak but not to the variation in the V(E)-VCO2 slope. To predict VO2peak in patients with chronic heart failure, the index OUE(SRER1) is not better than the VAT. This, however, does not question the theoretical interest of its calculation because it may provide additional information on the oxygen uptake limitation steps.

  1. [A New Method of Analyzing the Closing Volume (CV) Curve: "N2 First Derivative Wave Method"]. (United States)

    Wada, Shinichi; Imai, Tadashi; Min, Kyongyob; Ogo, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Takuya; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Fujioka, Shigekazu


    Evaluation of the lung function involves the measurement of many factors. The closing volume (CV) curve is clinically important as an index of uneven alveolar ventilation and airway closure. Although conventional methods for CV measurement are usually based on the pattern of the exhaled nitrogen (N2) concentration curve with respect to the lung volume, it is often difficult to measure the steep pattern of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this paper, we proposed a new method called the "N2 first derivative (fdN) wave method" for measuring CV. The N2 concentration of the CV curve was transformed to a derivative with respect to the lung volume, which revealed the existence of cardiogenic oscillations. Discrimination between phases III and IV was straightforward based on the difference in the slope or in the amplitude of oscillations of the fdN wave. Our new method was able to distinguish phase IV from phase III using the difference in amplitude of the oscillation of the fdN wave even in the presence of COPD with steep patterns of the CV curve. Close relationships were seen among normal subjects including COPD patients in both the slope of the alveolar plateau (ΔN2) and the CV values measured with the conventional and new methods. In conclusion, the new method we propose in this paper was able to provide measurements of CV for all subjects including those with COPD. [Original

  2. Slope mass rating and kinematic analysis of slopes along the national highway-58 near Jonk, Rishikesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Siddique


    Full Text Available The road network in the Himalayan terrain, connecting remote areas either in the valleys or on the hill slopes, plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development of India. The planning, development and even maintenance of road and rail networks in such precarious terrains are always a challenging task because of complexities posed by topography, geological structures, varied lithology and neotectonics. Increasing population and construction of roads have led to destabilisation of slopes, thus leading to mass wasting and movement, further aggravation due to recent events of cloud bursts and unprecedented flash floods. Vulnerability analysis of slopes is an important component for the “Landslide Hazard Assessment” and “Slope Mass Characterisation” guide planners to predict and choose suitable ways for construction of roads and other engineering structures. The problem of landslides along the national highway-58 (NH-58 from Rishikesh to Devprayag is a common scene. The slopes along the NH-58 between Jonk and Rishikesh were investigated, which experienced very heavy traffic especially from March to August due to pilgrimage to Kedarnath shrine. On the basis of slope mass rating (SMR investigation, the area falls in stable class, and landslide susceptibility score (LSS values also indicate that the slopes under investigation fall in low to moderate vulnerability to landslide. More attentions should be paid to the slopes to achieve greater safe and economic benefits along the highway.

  3. Effect of slope height and horizontal forces on the bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes in cohesionless soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian


    The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, ...

  4. A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape. (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy; Harb, Elise N; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Qinghua; Anderson, Heather A; Norton, Thomas T; Weise, Katherine K; Gwiazda, Jane E; Hyman, Leslie


    High-quality optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular scans make it possible to distinguish a range of normal and diseased states by characterising foveal pit shape. Existing mathematical models lack the flexibility to capture all known pit variations and thus characterise the pit with limited accuracy. This study aimed to develop a new model that provides a more robust characterisation of individual foveal pit variations. A Sloped Piecemeal Gaussian (SPG) model, consisting of a linear combination of a tilted line and a piecemeal Gaussian function (two halves of a Gaussian connected by a separate straight line), was developed to fit retinal thickness data with the flexibility to characterise different degrees of pit asymmetry and pit bottom flatness. It fitted the raw pit data between the two rims of the fovea to improve accuracy. The model was tested on 3488 macular scans from both eyes of 581 young adults (376 myopes and 206 non-myopes, mean (S.D.) age 21.9 (1.4) years). Estimates for retinal thickness, wall height and slope, pit depth and width were derived from the best-fitting model curve. Ten variations of Gaussian and Difference of Gaussian models were fitted to the same scans and compared with the SPG model for goodness of fit (by Root mean square error, RMSE), model complexity (by the Bayesian Information Criteria) and model fidelity. The SPG model produced excellent goodness of fit (mean RMSE = 4.25 and 3.89 μm; 95% CI: 4.20, 4.30 and 3.86, 3.93 for fitting horizontal and vertical profiles respectively). The SPG model showed pit asymmetry, with average nasal walls 17.6 (11.6) μm higher and 0.96 (0.61)(°) steeper than temporal walls and average superior walls 7.0 (12.2) μm higher and 0.41 (0.65)(°) steeper than the inferior walls. The SPG model also revealed a continuum of human foveal shapes, from round bottoms to extended flat bottoms (up to 563 μm). 49.1% of foveal profiles were best fitted with a flat bottom >30 μm wide. Compared with

  5. Effect of slope height and horizontal forces on the bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes in cohesionless soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian


    , and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing......The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal...... capacity, both without and with using superposition as presupposed in the traditional bearing capacity equation. The results for friction angles 30, 35 and 40 degrees, slope inclinations 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, for selfweight and surcharge are given as charts showing the slope inclination factors suitable...

  6. Root reinforcement and slope bioengineering stabilization by Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giadrossich


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the root system's characteristics of Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L., a species whose capacity for adaptating and resisting to drought is worth investigating. In particular, the aims of the study were 1 to investigate the plant's bio-mechanical aspects and 2 to verify whether root reinforcement and the field rooting ability of stem cuttings enhance its potential for use in slope stabilization and soil bio-engineering techniques, particularly in the Mediterranean areas. Single root specimens were sampled and tested for tensile strength, obtaining classic tensile strength-diameter relationships. Analysis were performed on the root systems in order to assess root density distribution. The Root Area Ratio (RAR was analyzed by taking both direct and indirect measurements, the latter relying on image processing. The data obtained were used to analyze the stability of an artificial slope (landfill and the root reinforcement. The measurement and calculation of mean root number, mean root diameter, RAR, root cohesion and Factor of safety are presented in order to distinguish the effect of plant origin and propagation. Furthermore, tests were performed to assess the possibility of agamic propagation (survival rate of root-ball endowed plants, rooting from stem cuttings. These tests confirmed that agamic propagation is difficult, even though roots were produced from some buried stems, and for practical purposes it has been ruled out. Our results show that Spanish Broom has good bio-mechanical characteristics with regard to slope stabilization, even in critical pedoclimatic conditions and where inclinations are quite steep, and it is effective on soil depths up to about 50 cm, in agreement with other studies on Mediterranean species. It is effective in slope stabilization, but less suitable for soil bio-engineering or for triggering natural plant succession.

  7. A primer on the statistical modelling of learning curves in health professions education. (United States)

    Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Pecaric, Martin R; Savenkov, Oleksander; Beckstead, Jason W; Jaber, Mohamad Y


    Learning curves are a useful way of representing the rate of learning over time. Features include an index of baseline performance (y-intercept), the efficiency of learning over time (slope parameter) and the maximal theoretical performance achievable (upper asymptote). Each of these parameters can be statistically modelled on an individual and group basis with the resulting estimates being useful to both learners and educators for feedback and educational quality improvement. In this primer, we review various descriptive and modelling techniques appropriate to learning curves including smoothing, regression modelling and application of the Thurstone model. Using an example dataset we demonstrate each technique as it specifically applies to learning curves and point out limitations.

  8. Quantification of rock slope terrain properties (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner


    Rockfall trajectory simulation codes need information on the terrain properties to formulate appropriate rebound models. Usually, the manuals of rockfall simulation codes give sketches or photographs of terrain samples [1,2]. Based on these the user can select suitable terrains for the simulation area. We now would like to start a discussion whether it is possible to numerically quantify the terrain properties which would make the ground assignment more objective. Different ground properties play a role for the interaction between a falling rock and the ground: • Elastic deformation • plastic deformation • Energy absorption • friction • hardness • roughness • surface vs. underground • etc. The question is now whether it is possible to quantify above parameters and to finally provide tables that contain appropriate simulation parameters. In a first attempt we suggest different methods or parameters that might be evaluated in situ: • Small scale drop tests • Light weight deflectometer (LWD) • Particle sizes • Sliding angle • Particle distribution • Soil cover • Water content Of course, above measurements will never perfectly fit to different mountain slopes. However, if a number of measurements has been made their spreading will give an idea on the natural variability of the ground properties. As an example, the following table gives an idea on how the ME and Evd values vary for different soils. Table 1: LWD measurements on different soil types [3] Ground type Soil layer Soil humidityEvd (median)σ (median)Evd (average) Humus-carb. < 10cm dry 17.4 6.8 15.6 Regosol 10 - 30cm dry 8.6 3.9 9.4 Brownish 30 - 50cm dry 12.1 3.2 11.7 Calcaric 30 - 50cm dry 7.5 3.3 7.0 Acid brownish70 - 100cmdry 7.8 2.1 7.7 Fahlgley 10 - 30cm dry 9.2 4.0 7.7 References [1] Bartelt P et al (2016) RAMMS::rockfall user manual v1.6. SLF, Davos. [2] Dorren L.K.A., 2015. Rockyfor3D (v5.2) revealed - Transparent description of the complete 3D rockfall model. ecoris

  9. Study on the response of unsaturated soil slope based on the effects of rainfall intensity and slope angle (United States)

    Ismail, Mohd Ashraf Mohamad; Hamzah, Nur Hasliza


    Rainfall has been considered as the major cause of the slope failure. The mechanism leading to slope failures included the infiltration process, surface runoff, volumetric water content and pore-water pressure of the soil. This paper describes a study in which simulated rainfall events were used with 2-dimensional soil column to study the response of unsaturated soil behavior based on different slope angle. The 2-dimensional soil column is used in order to demonstrate the mechanism of the slope failure. These unsaturated soil were tested with four different slope (15°, 25°, 35° and 45°) and subjected to three different rainfall intensities (maximum, mean and minimum). The following key results were obtained: (1) the stability of unsaturated soil decrease as the rainwater infiltrates into the soil. Soil that initially in unsaturated state will start to reach saturated state when rainwater seeps into the soil. Infiltration of rainwater will reduce the matric suction in the soil. Matric suction acts in controlling soil shear strength. Reduction in matric suction affects the decrease in effective normal stress, which in turn diminishes the available shear strength to a point where equilibrium can no longer be sustained in the slope. (2) The infiltration rate of rainwater decreases while surface runoff increase when the soil nearly achieve saturated state. These situations cause the soil erosion and lead to slope failure. (3) The steepness of the soil is not a major factor but also contribute to slope failures. For steep slopes, rainwater that fall on the soil surface will become surface runoff within a short time compare to the water that infiltrate into the soil. While for gentle slopes, water that becomes surface runoff will move slowly and these increase the water that infiltrate into the soil.

  10. Page curves for tripartite systems (United States)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Yeom, Dong-han; Zoe, Heeseung


    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A, B, and C) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem.

  11. Simulations of Closed Timelike Curves (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.


    Proposed models of closed timelike curves (CTCs) have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs (T-CTCs) are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs (P-CTCs), in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to simulate Deutschian CTCs (but with a reasonable overhead only in some cases). In cases for which the overhead is reasonable, it might be possible to perform the simulation in a table-top experiment. This approach has the benefit of resolving some ambiguities associated with the equivalent circuit model of Ralph et al. Furthermore, we provide an explicit form for the state of the CTC system such that it is a maximum-entropy state, as prescribed by Deutsch.

  12. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    CERN Document Server

    Terra, Pedro; Farina, C


    The answer to this question is no. In fact, in addition to the solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658, given by the cycloid, we show that there is an infinite number of tautochrone curves. With this goal, we start by briefly reviewing an the problem of finding out the possible potential energies that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many solutions, called sheared potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a P\\"oschl-Teller and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same periods of oscillations for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of an uniform gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the period of oscillations, there is an infinity of tracks w...

  13. Simulating the seismic behaviour of soil slopes and embankments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos


    In the current study the clarification of the main assumptions, related to the two most commonly used methods of seismic slope stability analysis (pseudostatic and permanent deformation) is attempted. The seismic permanent displacements and the corresponding seismic coefficients were determined via...... parametric dynamic numerical analyses taking into account not only the main parameters dominating the seismic slope stability, but also the inherent assumptions of the applied approaches that affect the obtained results. The investigation conclude to a realistic procedure for seismic slope stability...... assessment based on the application of two simple methods taking into account the impact of the most important factors involved....

  14. Impact of weathering on slope stability in soft rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević


    Full Text Available Weathering of soft rocks is usually considered as an important factor in various fields such as geology, engineering geology, mineralogy, soil and rock mechanics, and geomorphology. The problem of stability over time should be considered for slopes excavated in soft rocks, in case they are not protected against weathering processes. In addition to disintegration of material on slope surface, the weathering also results in shear strength reduction in the interior of the slope. Principal processes in association with weathering are discussed with the examples of marl hosted on flysch formations near Split, Croatia.

  15. Slope Deformation Prediction Based on Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIA


    Full Text Available This paper principally studies the prediction of slope deformation based on Support Vector Machine (SVM. In the prediction process,explore how to reconstruct the phase space. The geological body’s displacement data obtained from chaotic time series are used as SVM’s training samples. Slope displacement caused by multivariable coupling is predicted by means of single variable. Results show that this model is of high fitting accuracy and generalization, and provides reference for deformation prediction in slope engineering.

  16. In-silico prediction of concentration-dependent viscosity curves for monoclonal antibody solutions. (United States)

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Li, Li; Broulidakis, Matthew P; Luksha, Nicholas G; Burns, Christopher T; Singh, Satish K; Kumar, Sandeep


    Early stage developability assessments of monoclonal antibody (mAb) candidates can help reduce risks and costs associated with their product development. Forecasting viscosity of highly concentrated mAb solutions is an important aspect of such developability assessments. Reliable predictions of concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors for mAb solutions in platform formulations can help screen or optimize drug candidates for flexible manufacturing and drug delivery options. Here, we present a computational method to predict concentration-dependent viscosity curves for mAbs solely from their sequence-structural attributes. This method was developed using experimental data on 16 different mAbs whose concentration-dependent viscosity curves were experimentally obtained under standardized conditions. Each concentration-dependent viscosity curve was fitted with a straight line, via logarithmic manipulations, and the values for intercept and slope were obtained. Intercept, which relates to antibody diffusivity, was found to be nearly constant. In contrast, slope, the rate of increase in solution viscosity with solute concentration, varied significantly across different mAbs, demonstrating the importance of intermolecular interactions toward viscosity. Next, several molecular descriptors for electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the 16 mAbs derived using their full-length homology models were examined for potential correlations with the slope. An equation consisting of hydrophobic surface area of full-length antibody and charges on VH, VL, and hinge regions was found to be capable of predicting the concentration-dependent viscosity curves of the antibody solutions. Availability of this computational tool may facilitate material-free high-throughput screening of antibody candidates during early stages of drug discovery and development.

  17. Forces in the complex octonion curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zi-Hua


    The paper aims to extend major equations in the electromagnetic and gravitational theories from the flat space into the complex octonion curved space. Maxwell applied simultaneously the quaternion analysis and vector terminology to describe the electromagnetic theory. It inspires subsequent scholars to study the electromagnetic and gravitational theories with the complex quaternions/octonions. Furthermore Einstein was the first to depict the gravitational theory by means of tensor analysis and curved four-space-time. Nowadays some scholars investigate the electromagnetic and gravitational properties making use of the complex quaternion/octonion curved space. From the orthogonality of two complex quaternions, it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex quaternion curved space, describing the gravitational properties in the complex quaternion curved space. Further it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex octonion curved space by means of the orthogonality of two comp...

  18. Probabilistic Lane Estimation using Basis Curves


    Huang, Albert S.; Teller, Seth


    Lane estimation for autonomous driving can be formulated as a curve estimation problem, where local sensor data provides partial and noisy observations of spatial curves. The number of curves to estimate may be initially unknown and many of the observations may be outliers or false detections (due e.g. to to tree shadows or lens flare). The challenges lie in detecting lanes when and where they exist, and updating lane estimates as new observations are made. This paper ...

  19. Efficient detection of symmetries polynomially parametrized curves


    Alcázar Arribas, Juan Gerardo


    We present efficient algorithms for detecting central and mirror symmetry for the case of algebraic curves defined by means of polynomial parametrizations. The algorithms are based on an algebraic relationship between proper parametrizations of a same curve, which leads to a triangular polynomial system that can be solved in a very fast way; in particular, curves parametrized by polynomials of serious degrees/coefficients can be analyzed in a few seconds. In our analysis we provide a good num...

  20. Survival analysis of orthodontic mini-implants. (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Jae; Ahn, Sug-Joon; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Tae-Woo


    Survival analysis is useful in clinical research because it focuses on comparing the survival distributions and the identification of risk factors. Our aim in this study was to investigate the survival characteristics and risk factors of orthodontic mini-implants with survival analyses. One hundred forty-one orthodontic patients (treated from October 1, 2000, to November 29, 2007) were included in this survival study. A total of 260 orthodontic mini-implants that had sandblasted (large grit) and acid-etched screw parts were placed between the maxillary second premolar and the first molar. Failures of the implants were recorded as event data, whereas implants that were removed because treatment ended and those that were not removed during the study period were recorded as censored data. A nonparametric life table method was used to visualize the hazard function, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated to identify the variables associated with implant failure. Prognostic variables associated with implant failure were identified with the Cox proportional hazard model. Of the 260 implants, 22 failed. The hazard function for implant failure showed that the risk is highest immediately after placement. The survival function showed that the median survival time of orthodontic mini-implants is sufficient for relatively long orthodontic treatments. The Cox proportional hazard model identified that increasing age is a decisive factor for implant survival. The decreasing pattern of the hazard function suggested gradual osseointegration of orthodontic mini-implants. When implants are placed in a young patient, special caution is needed to lessen the increased probability of failure, especially immediately after placement.

  1. Carbonate slope morphology revealing bank-to-slope sediment transfer in Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas (United States)

    Mulder, Thierry; Gillet, Hervé; Hanquiez, Vincent; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Fauquembergue, Kelly; Conesa, Gilles; Principaud, Mélanie; Le Goff, Johan; Ragusa, Jérémy; Bujan, Stephane; Bashah, Sara


    New high-quality multibeam data depict the area located between Little Bahama Bank (LBB, Bahamas) and Blake Plateau. The survey details the morphology of a giant 135-km-long canyon, the Great Abaco Canyon (GAC) and its main characteristics. The canyon main axis runs parallel to the margin. The pathway shows several knickpoints and plunge pools. The most important knickpoint is underlined by an abrupt change in slope of the canyon thalweg. The last one leads to the opening towards the Blake Basin. Its morphologic head forms a vast receptacle but does not represent the main source of material at present. The material supplied through the LBB canyon systems does not reach this area which only shows lineaments related to the pathway of the Antilles current and restricted failure scars. Most of the supply comes from the canyon flanks. In the north, tributary canyons drain the contourite deposits forming large flat plateaus above the drowned carbonate platform of the Blake Plateau. In addition, these contourite plateaus are subjected to translational slides moving towards the northern edge of the canyon forming a dissymmetric debris accumulation along the toe of the north canyon edge. Another source of sediment are two large tributaries connecting the GAC directly to the LBB upper slope. Sub bottom profiles suggest the presence of a turbiditic levee on the tributary canyon sides and inferred turbiditic activity. Little Abaco Canyon (LAC) shows morphologic similarities with GAC but at a smaller size. However, the canyon seems more active in terms of sediment transport. Canyons draining the eastern part of LBB show fresh sedimentary structures (sediment waves) suggesting active sedimentary processes. These structures are made of clean sand with shallow water organisms suggesting a direct supply from the carbonate platform edge. In term of size and morphology, the GAC compares to the largest canyons in siliciclastic environments. Its originality comes from the fact it is

  2. Exercise oscillatory breathing and increased ventilation to carbon dioxide production slope in heart failure: an unfavorable combination with high prognostic value. (United States)

    Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross; Ascione, Aniello; Piepoli, Massimo; Guazzi, Maurizio D


    Increased slope of exercise ventilation to carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) is an established prognosticator in patients with heart failure. Recently, the occurrence of exercise oscillatory breathing (EOB) has emerged as an additional strong indicator of survival. The aim of this study is to define the respective prognostic significance of these variables and whether excess risk may be identified when either respiratory disorder is present. In 288 stable chronic HF patients (average left ventricular ejection fraction, 33 +/- 13%) who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, the prognostic relevance of VE/VCO2 slope, EOB, and peak VO2 was evaluated by multivariate Cox regression. During a mean interval of 28 +/- 13 months, 62 patients died of cardiac reasons. Thirty-five percent presented with EOB. Among patients exhibiting EOB, 54% had an elevated VE/VCO2 slope. The optimal threshold value for the VE/VCO2 slope identified by receiver operating characteristic analysis was or = 36.2 (sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 64%; P slope, and EOB presence. Multivariate analysis selected EOB as the strongest predictor (chi2, 46.5; P slope (threshold, or = 36.2) was the only other exercise test variable retained in the regression (residual chi2, 5.9; P = .02). The hazard ratio for subjects with EOB and a VE/VCO2 slope > or = 36.2 was 11.4 (95% confidence interval, 4.9-26.5; P slope. Exercise oscillatory breathing presence does not necessarily imply an elevated VE/VCO2 slope, but combination of either both yields to a burden of risk remarkably high.

  3. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  4. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  5. Systems of pillarless working of adjacent, sloped and inclined seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.


    An analysis is made (advantages and disadvantages) of existing and recommended (pillarless) systems of working adjacent, sloped, and inclined seams. The economic benefits, area and extent of those systems are indicated. 8 references, 4 figures.

  6. (PSI) in monitoring slope movements in Nainital, Uttarakhand Lesser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akano Yhokha


    creeping zone of the Sher-Ka-Danda ridge are at higher risk of slope movement .... No. CIP. 9519). The Global Innovation and Tech- nology Alliance (GITA), Confederation of Indian. Industries (CII), New Delhi, India is thankfully.

  7. Steep cut slope composting : field trials and evaluation. (United States)


    Three different depths of compost and five compost retention techniques were tested to determine : their efficacy and cost effectiveness for increasing the establishment of native grass seedings and decreasing : erosion on steep roadside cut slopes i...

  8. The swans and geese of Alaska's arctic slope (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A mid-summer aerial search was made on the 23,000 square miles of waterfowl habitat on Alaska's Arctic slope. Observations included 159 whistling swan (Olor...

  9. North Slope, Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears, caribou, and muskoxen for the North Slope, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  10. Slope Stabilization Using Recycled Plastic Pins, Phase III. (United States)


    A new technique for stabilizing surficial slope failures using recycled plastic reinforcing members has been developed. The : objective of the project described in this report has been to develop, evaluate, and document a technique for stabilization ...

  11. Probabilistic analysis algorithm for UA slope software program. (United States)


    A reliability-based computational algorithm for using a single row and equally spaced drilled shafts to : stabilize an unstable slope has been developed in this research. The Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) : technique was used in the previously develop...

  12. The influence of thermocline slope on equatorial thermocline displacement (United States)

    Hughes, Roger L.


    The influence of a zonal slope in the thermocline on both wave- and wind-induced equatorial upwelling is studied. It is shown that the vertical displacement of the thermocline induced by a long Kelvin or planetary wave varies as the thermocline depth to the power -3/8, as the wave propagates into a region of changed thermocline depth The zonal and meridional velocities induced by a wave vary as the thermocline depth to the power -7/8. The wind-induced upwelling associated with a zonal slope of the thermocline is shown to be strongly confined to the equator. The importance of thermocline slope on the Ekman divergence is found to increase with time from the initial application of the wind stress perturbation. In the Pacific Ocean the meridional velocity may be altered by up to 60% by the thermocline slope before the influence of the boundaries becomes important.

  13. Sieving for rational points on hyperelliptic curves


    Siksek, Samir


    We give a new and efficient method of sieving for rational points\\ud on hyperelliptic curves. This method is often successful in proving that a\\ud given hyperelliptic curve, suspected to have no rational points, does in fact\\ud have no rational points; we have often found this to be the case even when our\\ud curve has points over all localizations Qp. We illustrate the practicality of the\\ud method with some examples of hyperelliptic curves of genus 1.

  14. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  15. Algebraic curves and one-dimensional fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Fedor


    Algebraic curves have many special properties that make their study particularly rewarding. As a result, curves provide a natural introduction to algebraic geometry. In this book, the authors also bring out aspects of curves that are unique to them and emphasize connections with algebra. This text covers the essential topics in the geometry of algebraic curves, such as line and vector bundles, the Riemann-Roch Theorem, divisors, coherent sheaves, and zeroth and first cohomology groups. The authors make a point of using concrete examples and explicit methods to ensure that the style is clear an

  16. A Probabilistic Framework for Curve Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen


    In this work, we propose a nonparametric probabilistic framework for image segmentation using deformable models. We estimate an underlying probability distributions of image features from regions defined by a deformable curve. We then evolve the curve such that the distance between the distributi......In this work, we propose a nonparametric probabilistic framework for image segmentation using deformable models. We estimate an underlying probability distributions of image features from regions defined by a deformable curve. We then evolve the curve such that the distance between...

  17. On enumeration of Hilbert-like curves (United States)

    Smrek, Jan; Y Grosberg, Alexander


    We present an analytical method to explicitly enumerate all self-similar space-filling curves similar to Hilbert curve, and find their number grows with length L as {{Z}L}∼ {{1.35699}L}. This presents a first step in the exact characterization of the crumpled globule ensemble relevant for dense topologically constrained polymer matter and DNA folding. Moreover, this result gives a stringent lower bound on the number of Hamiltonian walks on a simple cubic lattice. Additionally, we compute the exact number of crumpled curves with arbitrary endpoints, and the closed crumpled curves on a 4× 4× 4 cube.

  18. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species (United States)

    Raup, D. M.


    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Miller


    Full Text Available Road and rail networks are essential components of national infrastructures, underpinning the economy, and facilitating the mobility of goods and the human workforce. Earthwork slopes such as cuttings and embankments are primary components, and their reliability is of fundamental importance. However, instability and failure can occur, through processes such as landslides. Monitoring the condition of earthworks is a costly and continuous process for network operators, and currently, geospatial data is largely underutilised. The research presented here addresses this by combining airborne laser scanning and multispectral aerial imagery to develop a methodology for assessing landslide hazard. This is based on the extraction of key slope stability variables from the remotely sensed data. The methodology is implemented through numerical modelling, which is parameterised with the slope stability information, simulated climate conditions, and geotechnical properties. This allows determination of slope stability (expressed through the factor of safety for a range of simulated scenarios. Regression analysis is then performed in order to develop a functional model relating slope stability to the input variables. The remotely sensed raster datasets are robustly re-sampled to two-dimensional cross-sections to facilitate meaningful interpretation of slope behaviour and mapping of landslide hazard. Results are stored in a geodatabase for spatial analysis within a GIS environment. For a test site located in England, UK, results have shown the utility of the approach in deriving practical hazard assessment information. Outcomes were compared to the network operator’s hazard grading data, and show general agreement. The utility of the slope information was also assessed with respect to auto-population of slope geometry, and found to deliver significant improvements over the network operator’s existing field-based approaches.

  20. Diurnal tides on the Barents Sea continental slope (United States)

    Skarðhamar, Jofrid; Skagseth, Øystein; Albretsen, Jon


    Measurements of diurnal tides over the continental slope between the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea shelf are presented. Numerical 3D simulations, in agreement with field data, show strong cross-slope velocities and large vertical displacements of the interface between Atlantic Water and intermediate water over the slope. The striking correspondence between the prominent observed and modeled diurnal oscillations gives confidence that this is well represented by the model. This variability, interpreted as tidally induced diurnal period topographic waves, is confined to the diverging topography of the continental slope west of Tromsøflaket. The model results reveal highly variable magnitudes of the oscillations and the cross shelf currents in time, related to variable strength of the background flow, the Norwegian Atlantic Current. We suggest that the diurnal topographic wave can be an effective mechanism for cross slope exchange between the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea shelf, and important for benthic and pelagic biological processes on the shelf and slope.

  1. Slope-induced tidal straining: Analysis of rotational effects (United States)

    Schulz, Kirstin; Endoh, Takahiro; Umlauf, Lars


    Tidal straining is known to be an important factor for the generation of residual currents and transports of suspended matter in the coastal ocean. Recent modeling studies and field experiments have revealed a new type of "slope-induced" tidal straining, in which the horizontal density gradient required for this process is induced by the presence of a slope rather than by river runoff (as in classical tidal straining). Slope-induced tidal straining is investigated here with the help of an idealized numerical model, and results are compared to a recent data set from the East China Sea providing first direct observational evidence. The focus of this study is on the effect of rotation that was ignored in previous investigations. The model is shown to reproduce the key features of the observations, in particular the strain-induced generation of unstable stratification in the bottom boundary layer during periods of upslope flow. Rotation effects are found to significantly reduce the upslope tidal pumping of suspended material and also give rise to a newly identified pumping mechanism that results in a vigorous transport of suspended material along the slope. It is shown that slope-induced tidal straining is likely to be relevant for a wide range of oceanic slopes exposed to tidal motions.

  2. Patterns of precursory rockfall prior to slope failure (United States)

    Rosser, Nick; Lim, Michael; Petley, David; Dunning, Stuart; Allison, Robert


    In this paper we examine data generated using high-resolution three-dimensional laser scanning monitoring of coastal rock cliffs. These data are used to identify spatial and temporal patterns in rockfall activity behavior prior to slope failure. Analysis of the data suggests that given sufficient measurement precision precursory behavior, here manifest as the rate of rockfall activity prior to failure, can be detected, measured, and monitored. Environmental conditions appear to have a diminishing influence on the occurrence of increasingly large slope failures. The monitoring data implies a time-dependent sequence in the occurrence of smaller rockfalls in the period leading to the largest failures recorded. This behavior is attributed to the mechanisms of strain accumulation in the rock mass resulting from brittle failure of the slope. The implication is that combining these data with models of failure mechanisms may allow failure time to be forecast from wide-area monitoring of precursory behavior. These findings have implications for the management of potentially unstable slopes, the understanding of slope failure mechanisms, and the generation of a new type of slope failure warning systems.

  3. Alternative method for direct measurement of tibial slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijak Lazar


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The tibial slope is one of the most frequently cited anatomical causes of anterior cruciate ligament trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of direct measuring of the tibial slope of the knee without prior soft tissue dissection in cadavers. Methods. Measurement was performed on the two groups of samples: osteological and cadaveric. The osteological group consisted of 102 matured tibiae and measurement was performed: indirectly by sagittal photographing of the tibia, and directly by a set of parallel bars. The cadaveric group consisted of 50 cadaveric knees and measurement was performed directly by a set of parallel bars. The difference and correlation between indirect and the direct measurements were observed, which included also measuring of the difference and correlation of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral condyles. Results. A statistically significant difference between the direct and indirect method of measuring (p 0.05. However, the slope on the medial condyle, as well as indirect measurement showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion. By the use of a set of parallel bars it is possible to measure the tibial slope directly without removal of the soft tissue. The results of indirect, photographic measurement did not statistically differ from the results of direct measurement of the tibial slope.

  4. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Distortion in Transparent Parts Using Grid Line Slope

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 When an observer looks through an aerospace transparency, relative optical distortion results, specifically in thick, highly angled, multilayered plastic parts. Distortion occurs in all transparencies but is especially critical to aerospace applications such as combat and commercial aircraft windscreens, canopies, or cabin windows. This is especially true during operations such as takeoff, landing, and aerial refueling. It is critical to be able to quantify optical distortion for procurement activities. 1.2 This test method covers the apparatus and procedures that are suitable for measuring the grid line slope (GLS) of transparent parts, including those that are small or large, thin or thick, flat or curved, or already installed. This test method is not recommended for raw material. 1.3 The values stated in SI units shall be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with it...

  5. Slope Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using ArcGIS's Spatial Analyst 'Slope' Tool. Slope describes the maximum steepness of a terrain...

  6. Establish Effective Lower Bounds of Watershed Slope for Traditional Hydrologic Methods (United States)


    Equations to estimate timing parameters for a watershed contain watershed slope as a principal parameter and : estimates are usually inversely proportional to topographic slope. Hence as slope vanishes, the estimates approach : infinity. The research...

  7. Computer-Aided Cobb Measurement Based on Automatic Detection of Vertebral Slopes Using Deep Neural Network. (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Li, Hongjian; Lv, Liang; Zhang, Yufeng


    To develop a computer-aided method that reduces the variability of Cobb angle measurement for scoliosis assessment. A deep neural network (DNN) was trained with vertebral patches extracted from spinal model radiographs. The Cobb angle of the spinal curve was calculated automatically from the vertebral slopes predicted by the DNN. Sixty-five in vivo radiographs and 40 model radiographs were analyzed. An experienced surgeon performed manual measurements on the aforementioned radiographs. Two examiners used both the proposed and the manual measurement methods to analyze the aforementioned radiographs. For model radiographs, the intraclass correlation coefficients were greater than 0.98, and the mean absolute differences were less than 3°. This indicates that the proposed system showed high repeatability for measurements of model radiographs. For the in vivo radiographs, the reliabilities were lower than those from the model radiographs, and the differences between the computer-aided measurement and the manual measurement by the surgeon were higher than 5°. The variability of Cobb angle measurements can be reduced if the DNN system is trained with enough vertebral patches. Training data of in vivo radiographs must be included to improve the performance of DNN. Vertebral slopes can be predicted by DNN. The computer-aided system can be used to perform automatic measurements of Cobb angle, which is used to make reliable and objective assessments of scoliosis.

  8. A new method to identify the foot of continental slope based on an integrated profile analysis (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Jiabiao; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Jin, Xiaobin


    A new method is proposed to identify automatically the foot of the continental slope (FOS) based on the integrated analysis of topographic profiles. Based on the extremum points of the second derivative and the Douglas-Peucker algorithm, it simplifies the topographic profiles, then calculates the second derivative of the original profiles and the D-P profiles. Seven steps are proposed to simplify the original profiles. Meanwhile, multiple identification methods are proposed to determine the FOS points, including gradient, water depth and second derivative values of data points, as well as the concave and convex, continuity and segmentation of the topographic profiles. This method can comprehensively and intelligently analyze the topographic profiles and their derived slopes, second derivatives and D-P profiles, based on which, it is capable to analyze the essential properties of every single data point in the profile. Furthermore, it is proposed to remove the concave points of the curve and in addition, to implement six FOS judgment criteria.

  9. Numerical analysis of the stability of inhomogeneous slopes considering partially saturated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichler Patrick P.


    Full Text Available It is well accepted that rainfall could play a significant role in instability of slopes. The main objective of the presented study is to quantify the influence of varying characteristics of water flow, its associated changes of pore-water pressures and shear strength on the stability of simplified, but inhomogeneous, slope geometries. The commonly used van Genuchten model was used to describe the Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC mathematically. In the context of this study, the influence of different hydraulic behaviour of soil layers, i.e. different SWCC, on the factor of safety (FoS is evaluated by means of fully coupled flow-deformation analyses employing the finite element method. To quantify the slopes’ factor of safety during rainfall events after specified times of infiltration or evaporation, the strength reduction method was applied. In addition to various combinations of soil layers, the influence of a water bearing high permeable soil layer between two less permeable soil layers, a situation which is often encountered in practice, on the factor of safety has been investigated.

  10. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes (United States)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno


    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are

  11. Single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity (United States)

    Xiaoying Rong; Dewei Qi; Guowei He; Jun Yong Zhu; Tim Scott


    Dynamics of single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity are simulated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The results of migration and rotation of the curved fiber at different Reynolds numbers are reported. The results show that the rotation and migration processes are sensitive to the curvature of the fiber.

  12. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve functions of Iranian primiparous Holsteins. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The suitability of seven mathematical models (with three, four and five parameters) for describing the 305-day milk yield lactation curve of Holstein cows, were examined in this ...

  13. Spectral Curves of Operators with Elliptic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chris Eilbeck


    Full Text Available A computer-algebra aided method is carried out, for determining geometric objects associated to differential operators that satisfy the elliptic ansatz. This results in examples of Lamé curves with double reduction and in the explicit reduction of the theta function of a Halphen curve.

  14. Sibling curves of polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in papers [2, 3] as a novel way to visualize the zeros of complex valued functions. In this paper, we continue the work done in those papers by focusing solely on polynomials. We proceed to prove that the number of sibling curves of a polynomial is the degree of the polynomial. Keywords: ...

  15. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.


    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  16. Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves (United States)

    Streeter, Matthew


    We show that student learning can be accurately modeled using a mixture of learning curves, each of which specifies error probability as a function of time. This approach generalizes Knowledge Tracing [7], which can be viewed as a mixture model in which the learning curves are step functions. We show that this generality yields order-of-magnitude…

  17. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard


    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...

  18. Modular curves, Arakelov theory, algorithmic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Pieter Jan


    This thesis is about arithmetic, analytic and algorithmic aspects of modular curves and modular forms. The arithmetic and analytic aspects are linked by the viewpoint that modular curves are examples of arithmetic surfaces. Therefore, Arakelov theory (intersection theory on arithmetic surfaces)

  19. Inverse Problem for a Curved Quantum Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cardoulis


    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian operator −Δ on a curved quantum guide in ℝ  n(n=2,3 with an asymptotically straight reference curve. We give uniqueness results for the inverse problem associated to the reconstruction of the curvature by using either observations of spectral data or a boot-strapping method.

  20. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp


    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  1. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  2. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this section, various types of families of algebraic curves are considered. Equations of these curves are written either in Cartesian coordinates (x, y) or in terms of plane polar coordinates (r, θ). In some cases, para- metric equations are also considered. 3.1 Astroid. In Cartesian coordinates, the equation of an astroid (Fig-.

  3. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse


    The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  4. Meta-analysis of survival prediction with Palliative Performance Scale. (United States)

    Downing, Michael; Lau, Francis; Lesperance, Mary; Karlson, Nicholas; Shaw, Jack; Kuziemsky, Craig; Bernard, Steve; Hanson, Laura; Olajide, Lola; Head, Barbara; Ritchie, Christine; Harrold, Joan; Casarett, David


    This paper aims to reconcile the use of Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2) for survival prediction in palliative care through an international collaborative study by five research groups. The study involves an individual patient data meta-analysis on 1,808 patients from four original datasets to reanalyze their survival patterns by age, gender, cancer status, and initial PPS score. Our findings reveal a strong association between PPS and survival across the four datasets. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves show each PPS level as distinct, with a strong ordering effect in which higher PPS levels are associated with increased length of survival. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model to adjust for study differences, we found females lived significantly longer than males, with a further decrease in hazard for females not diagnosed with cancer. Further work is needed to refine the reporting of survival times/probabilities and to improve prediction accuracy with the inclusion of other variables in the models.

  5. Lactation Curve Pattern and Prediction of Milk Production Performance in Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jingar


    Full Text Available Data pertaining to 11728 test-day daily milk yields of normal and mastitis Karan Fries cows were collected from the institute herd and divided as mastitis and nonmastitis and parity-wise. The data of lactation curves of the normal and mastitis crossbred cows was analyzed using gamma type function. FTDMY in normal and mastitis cows showed an increasing trend from TD-1 to TD-4 and a gradual decrease (P<0.01 thereafter until the end of lactation (TD-21 in different parities. The FTDMY was maximum (peak yield in the fourth parity. Parity-wise lactation curve revealed a decrease in persistency, steeper decline in descending slope (c, and steeper increase in ascending slope (b from 1st to 5th and above parity. The higher coefficient of determination (R2 and lower root mean square error (RMSE indicated goodness and accuracy of the model for the prediction of milk prediction performance under field conditions. Clinical mastitis resulted in a significantly higher loss of milk yield (P<0.05. The FTDMY was maximum (P<0.05 in the fourth parity in comparison to the rest of parity. It is demonstrated that gamma type function can give the best fit lactation curve in normal and mastitis infected crossbred cows.

  6. Prognostic value of the VE/VCO2 slope calculated from different time intervals in patients with suspected heart failure. (United States)

    Ingle, Lee; Goode, Kevin; Carroll, Sean; Sloan, Rebecca; Boyes, Carrie; Cleland, John G F; Clark, Andrew L


    Maximal exercises testing, whether involving cycling- or walking-based protocols, are often not well tolerated in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The peak oxygen consumption and the slope of the relation between ventilation (V(E)) and carbon dioxide production (V(CO(2))) are independent predictors of outcome and help risk stratification. The prognostic usefulness of submaximal exercise testing is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of the V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope when derived from data acquired from submaximal exercise. 394 patients referred with breathlessness and suspected heart failure (74% male) (mean+/-S.D.) age 60+/-12 years; BMI 27+/-5 performed a CPET to determine peak V(O(2)) and the V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope. The V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope was calculated using least squares regression from data acquired from the first 25% of exercise (mean V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope+/-SD; 30.6+/-5.7), 50% (29.6+/-6.9), below the ventilatory compensation point (sub-VCP) (29.9+/-6.8), and all data points (full slope) (32.1+/-7.8). For each measure, patients were divided into quartiles and Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to determine probability of death after 24 months. The prognostic value of the different classifications was assessed using the chi(2) statistic from the Mantel-Cox log-rank test. During a mean follow-up period of 41+/-19 months, 48 patients died. For the V(E)/V(CO(2)) slope, the log-rank statistic was greatest for the full slope (chi(2)=53.7; P=0.0001), followed by the sub-VCP (chi(2)=45.5; P=0.0001), 50% (chi(2)=41.9; P=0.0001), and 25% (chi(2)= 26.0; P=0.01). The pair-wise log-rank statistic between the fourth and third quartiles was also greatest using the full slope (chi(2)=25.4; P=0.001) followed in order by the sub-VCP (chi(2)=20.1; P=0.001), 50% (chi(2)=19.7; P=0.001), and 25% (chi(2)=14.2; P=0.05). Using the stratified slope measurements entered into a Cox regression analysis using a forward LR stepwise elimination

  7. A digital algorithm for characteristic film curves (United States)

    Buckner, J.; Cash, T.; Craven, P.; Edwards, T.


    The task of establishing a film calibration scheme for magnitude studies of Skylab photographic images of Comet Kohoutek is examined. Since the data are recorded in terms of film density and have to be used in terms of exposure, the conversion from density to exposure is critical. In this film calibration scheme, the hardware deals with the data sources, recording medium, and data conversion to a computer compatible program, whereas the software deals with signal to noise enhancement, stepwedge calibration curve and leads to modeling of the film characteristic curves. A mathematical model of the characteristic curve is obtained using a modified version of Efroymson's (1960) stepwise multiple linear regression algorithm, which gives log exposure as a function of density. The difference in the calibration curves from pre- and postflight exposures is well accounted for in the model as a result of sensitive statistical tests. The characteristic curve modeling program requires about 4K of core and is executed in about 3 min.

  8. N-Covers of hyperelliptic curves (United States)

    Bruin, N.; Flynn, E. V.


    For a hyperelliptic curve {ax C} of genus g with a divisor class of order n = g + 1, we shall consider an associated covering collection of curves {ax D}_delta, each of genus g(2) . We describe, up to isogeny, the Jacobian of each {ax D}_delta via a map from {ax D}_delta to {ax C}, and two independent maps from {ax D}_delta to a curve of genus g(g-1)/2. For some curves, this allows covering techniques that depend on arithmetic data of number fields of smaller degree than standard 2-coverings; we illustrate this by using 3-coverings to find all {Bbb Q}-rational points on a curve of genus 2 for which 2-covering techniques would be impractical.

  9. Diurnal Cortisol and Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer


    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H.; Goodheart, Michael J.; Bender, David; Slavich, George M.; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M.; Cole, Steven W.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.


    Introduction Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Materials and Methods Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, a...

  10. "Universal" Recession Curves and their Geomorphological Roots (United States)

    Marani, M.; Biswal, B.


    The basic structural organization of channel networks, and of the connected hillslopes, have been shown to be intimately linked to basin responses to rainfall events, leading to geomorphological theories of the hydrologic response. Here, We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties. We show that the power-law exponent of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. We then generalize the power-law expressions of recession curves, to identify "universal" curves, independent of the initial moisture conditions and of basin area, by making the -dQ/dt vs. Q curve non-dimensional using an index discharge representative of initial moisture conditions. We subsequently rescale the geomorphic recession curve, N(l) vs. G(l), producing a collapse of the geomorphic recession curves constructed from the DTM's of 67 US study basins. Finally, by use of the specific discharge u = Q/A, we link the two previous results and define the specific recession curves, whose collapse across basins within homogeneous geographical areas lends further, decisive, support to the notion that the statistical properties of observational recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

  11. The K2 Optical Light Curves of OJ287 and Other Fermi Blazars in 2014-2015 (United States)

    Wehrle, Ann; Carini, Michael; Wiita, Paul J.


    We observed nine Fermi gamma-ray blazars with the K2 mission in 2014-2015. We present the optical light curves corrected using the EVEREST (R. Luger et al. 2016, AJ, 152, 100) and K2SFF (A. Vandenburg and J. A. Johnson 2014, PASP 126, 948) software, from which we have constructed power spectral densities. The slopes we fitted to the power spectral densities are in most cases consistent with slopes predicted from models of turbulent relativistic jets. The slopes of three Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and three BL Lac objects spanned the same range of values. We infer that the relativistic jets were the source of the optical emission during the K2 observations, with minimal contributions (if any) from accretion disks. K2 observations of more Fermi LAT blazars are being analyzed as part of our multi-cycle K2 program.

  12. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger


    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  13. Effects of slope smoothing in river channel modeling (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Liu, Frank; Hodges, Ben R.


    In extending dynamic river modeling with the 1D Saint-Venant equations from a single reach to a large watershed there are critical questions as to how much bathymetric knowledge is necessary and how it should be represented parsimoniously. The ideal model will include the detail necessary to provide realism, but not include extraneous detail that should not exert a control on a 1D (cross-section averaged) solution. In a Saint-Venant model, the overall complexity of the river channel morphometry is typically abstracted into metrics for the channel slope, cross-sectional area, hydraulic radius, and roughness. In stream segments where cross-section surveys are closely spaced, it is not uncommon to have sharp changes in slope or even negative values (where a positive slope is the downstream direction). However, solving river flow with the Saint-Venant equations requires a degree of smoothness in the equation parameters or the equation set with the directly measured channel slopes may not be Lipschitz continuous. The results of non-smoothness are typically extended computational time to converge solutions (or complete failure to converge) and/or numerical instabilities under transient conditions. We have investigated using cubic splines to smooth the bottom slope and ensure always positive reference slopes within a 1D model. This method has been implemented in the Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) and is compared to the standard HEC-RAS river solver. It is shown that the reformulation of the reference slope is both in keeping with the underlying derivation of the Saint-Venant equations and provides practical numerical stability without altering the realism of the simulation. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  14. Geotechnical and numerical studies of slope instability in loess deposits (United States)

    Mamyrova, R.; Stahlmann, J.; Bourdeau, C.; Havenith, Hb.


    The mass movements occurred in loess accumulations often cause catastrophic damages to infrastructure and lose to the human lives. The failure in loess deposits can occur in gently terrains as happened in Tajik Republic in 1989. The earthquake with magnitude 5.5 hit the suburb of town. During this event the liquefaction effects developed consequently to lead to the catastrophic landslides. The loess failure related case is Kainama landslide (Fergana Valley, Kyrgyzstan) that killed 33 people. Potential relation between site effects and pore pressure build up causing liquefaction is the main thrust of this research. Methodology of the seismic slope stability investigation included determination of the mechanical strength properties and numerical modelling of a slope failure. In order to simulate the slope it is essential to gather the strength parameters of soil that present the conditions of the material in the nature. The main emphasis has been put to the geotechnical studies. To better understand the slope failure in loess body the two landslide sites in Fergana Valley (Kyrgyzstan) were selected to collect the loess specimens. Mechanism of deformation of loess material determined in terms of standard geotechnical tests. The natural water content in specimens is low, ranging from 12,8 % to 21% . The first investigation site occurred in Tertiary sediments has a low mean of the plasticity index (12% - 16 %). The climate data were analysed in order to correlate with slope failure cases. The development of landslides in investigating areas is truly connected with variation of physical and mechanical properties of loess material that is respectively related to geological and tectonic conditions of an area. To arrange the connection between site effects and pore pressure build up we used the numerical modelling with a finite difference code (FLAC 2D and 3D). These simulations give an opportunity to better clarify site effect impact to the slope and its role to cause

  15. Changes of time-attenuation curve blood flow parameters in patients with and without carotid stenosis. (United States)

    Lin, C-J; Chang, F-C; Guo, W-Y; Hung, S-C; Luo, C-B; Beilner, J; Kowarschik, M; Chu, W-F


    From the time-attenuation curves of DSA flow parameters, maximal intensity, maximal slope, and full width at half maximum of selected vascular points are defined. The study explores the reliability of defining the flow parameters by the time-attenuation curves of DSA. Seventy patients with unilateral carotid artery stenosis (group A) and 56 healthy controls (group B) were retrospectively enrolled. Fixed contrast injection protocols and DSA acquisition parameters were used with all patients. The M1, sigmoid sinus, and internal jugular vein on anteroposterior view DSA and the M2, parietal vein, and superior sagittal sinus on lateral view DSA were chosen as ROI targets for measuring flow parameters. The difference of time of maximal intensity between 2 target points was defined as the circulation time between the target points. The maximal intensity difference of 2 selected points from the ICA to the M1, sigmoid sinus, internal jugular vein, M2, parietal vein, and superior sagittal sinus was significantly longer in group A than in group B. The maximum slope of M1, M2, and the superior sagittal sinus was significantly lower in group A than in group B. The full width at half maximum of M1 and M2 was significantly larger in group A than in group B. The maximal slope of M1 demonstrated the best diagnostic performance. The maximal intensity difference of 2 selected points derived from DSA can be used as a definitive alternative flow parameter for intracranial circulation time measurement. Maximal slope and full width at half maximum complement the maximal intensity difference of 2 selected points in defining flow characteristics of healthy subjects and patients with carotid stenosis. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Review and evaluation of performance measures for survival prediction models in external validation settings. (United States)

    Rahman, M Shafiqur; Ambler, Gareth; Choodari-Oskooei, Babak; Omar, Rumana Z


    When developing a prediction model for survival data it is essential to validate its performance in external validation settings using appropriate performance measures. Although a number of such measures have been proposed, there is only limited guidance regarding their use in the context of model validation. This paper reviewed and evaluated a wide range of performance measures to provide some guidelines for their use in practice. An extensive simulation study based on two clinical datasets was conducted to investigate the performance of the measures in external validation settings. Measures were selected from categories that assess the overall performance, discrimination and calibration of a survival prediction model. Some of these have been modified to allow their use with validation data, and a case study is provided to describe how these measures can be estimated in practice. The measures were evaluated with respect to their robustness to censoring and ease of interpretation. All measures are implemented, or are straightforward to implement, in statistical software. Most of the performance measures were reasonably robust to moderate levels of censoring. One exception was Harrell's concordance measure which tended to increase as censoring increased. We recommend that Uno's concordance measure is used to quantify concordance when there are moderate levels of censoring. Alternatively, Gönen and Heller's measure could be considered, especially if censoring is very high, but we suggest that the prediction model is re-calibrated first. We also recommend that Royston's D is routinely reported to assess discrimination since it has an appealing interpretation. The calibration slope is useful for both internal and external validation settings and recommended to report routinely. Our recommendation would be to use any of the predictive accuracy measures and provide the corresponding predictive accuracy curves. In addition, we recommend to investigate the characteristics

  17. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle (United States)


    Background This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM. Methods Data from 23,049 cows, represented by one lactation each, with 219,538 monthly test days were extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System, which represents 97% of all Norwegian dairy cows. Besides veterinary treatments, these records also included information on daily milk yield at monthly test days. The data were stratified by parity groups (1, 2, and 3 and higher) and time to conception periods (43-93 DIM and >93 DIM). The sample was selected using the following selection criteria: conception later than 42 DIM, calving season July to September, no records of veterinary treatment and the level of energy fed as concentrates between 8.69 and 12.83 MJ. The shape of the lactation curves were parameterized using a modified Wilmink-model in a mixed model analysis. Differences in the parameters of the lactation curves with different conception times were evaluated using confidence intervals. Results Lactation curves characterized by a low intercept and a steep ascending slope and a steep descending slope were associated with early conception across all parities. The peak milk yield was not associated with time of conception. Conclusions A practical application of the study results is the use of the shape of the lactation curve in future herd management. Groups of cows with impaired reproductive performance may be identified due to an unfavorable shape of the lactation curve. Monitoring lactation curves and adjusting the feeding strategy to adjust yield therefore may be useful for the improvement of reproductive performance at herd level. PMID:21299912

  18. Slope walking causes short-term changes in soleus H-reflex excitability (United States)

    Sabatier, Manning J; Wedewer, Wesley; Barton, Ben; Henderson, Eric; Murphy, John T; Ou, Kar


    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that downslope treadmill walking decreases spinal excitability. Soleus H-reflexes were measured in sixteen adults on 3 days. Measurements were taken before and twice after 20 min of treadmill walking at 2.5 mph (starting at 10 and 45 min post). Participants walked on a different slope each day [level (Lv), upslope (Us) or downslope (Ds)]. The tibial nerve was electrically stimulated with a range of intensities to construct the M-response and H-reflex curves. Maximum evoked responses (Hmax and Mmax) and slopes of the ascending limbs (Hslp and Mslp) of the curves were evaluated. Rate-dependent depression (RDD) was measured as the % depression of the H-reflex when measured at a rate of 1.0 Hz versus 0.1 Hz. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during walking. Ds and Lv walking reduced the Hmax/Mmax ratio (P = 0.001 & P = 0.02), although the reduction was larger for Ds walking (29.3 ± 6.2% vs. 6.8 ± 5.2%, P = 0.02). The reduction associated with Ds walking was correlated with physical activity level as measured via questionnaire (r = −0.52, P = 0.04). Us walking caused an increase in the Hslp/Mslp ratio (P = 0.03) and a decrease in RDD (P = 0.04). These changes recovered by 45 min. Exercise HR and BP were highest during Us walking. RPE was greater during Ds and Us walking compared to Lv walking, but did not exceed “Fairly light” for Ds walking. In conclusion, in healthy adults treadmill walking has a short-term effect on soleus H-reflex excitability that is determined by the slope of the treadmill surface. PMID:25742955

  19. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements (United States)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.


    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  20. Slope stability analysis using limit equilibrium method in nonlinear criterion. (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Zhong, Wenwen; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Wenyu


    In slope stability analysis, the limit equilibrium method is usually used to calculate the safety factor of slope based on Mohr-Coulomb criterion. However, Mohr-Coulomb criterion is restricted to the description of rock mass. To overcome its shortcomings, this paper combined Hoek-Brown criterion and limit equilibrium method and proposed an equation for calculating the safety factor of slope with limit equilibrium method in Hoek-Brown criterion through equivalent cohesive strength and the friction angle. Moreover, this paper investigates the impact of Hoek-Brown parameters on the safety factor of slope, which reveals that there is linear relation between equivalent cohesive strength and weakening factor D. However, there are nonlinear relations between equivalent cohesive strength and Geological Strength Index (GSI), the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock σ ci , and the parameter of intact rock m i . There is nonlinear relation between the friction angle and all Hoek-Brown parameters. With the increase of D, the safety factor of slope F decreases linearly; with the increase of GSI, F increases nonlinearly; when σ ci is relatively small, the relation between F and σ ci is nonlinear, but when σ ci is relatively large, the relation is linear; with the increase of m i , F decreases first and then increases.

  1. Do ethnicity and gender influence posterior tibial slope? (United States)

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Scordo, Gavinca M; Prins, Johan; Tudisco, Cosimo


    Ethnicity and gender can affect posterior tibial slope; however, studies on this topic have limitations and are in disagreement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate posterior tibial slope in a large group of consecutive patients, determining whether ethnicity and gender can influence its value. Secondly, to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability of the two radiographic methods adopted. Posterior tibial slope was calculated (rater 1) in lateral view X-rays of the knee according to the posterior tibial cortex (PTC) and tibial proximal anatomical axis (TPAA) methods. Data were matched with ethnicity and gender. For determination of intra- and inter-rater reliability, 50 random X-rays were selected, and blindly measured by two other raters (2 and 3). A total of 581 radiographs were included (413 white and 168 black knees). Comparing white and black subjects, a statistically significant difference was found for both PTC (4.9 ± 1.2 vs 7.1 ± 2.9, p methods for rater 1, and very good for rater 2. Inter-rater reliability among the 3 raters was very good for both methods. Differences in posterior tibial slope between different ethnic groups exist. Differences observed between genders are conflicting and might be too small to have implications in clinical practice. The TPAA method is recommended for the evaluation of posterior tibial slope because of higher intra- and inter-rater reliability. Level of evidence 3 Case-control study.

  2. Measurement and Modeling of Steep Ocean Wave Slopes (United States)

    Chapron, B.; Vandemark, D.; Elfouhaily, T.


    Our study emphasizes the importance of identifying and quantifying the distribution variance, skewness and kurtosis from optical and microwave scattering observations. Recent field measurements of the sea slope distribution for intermediate-to-long scale gravity waves will be presented. These data were collected using an airborne laser range system designed to estimate the surface slope vector at horizontal scales of 1-2 m. The observed slope distribution tail indicates that the occurrence of steep waves substantially exceeds a Gaussian prediction. This measured peakedness is present over the wide range of sea state and wind speed conditions encountered. Data are further evaluated within the context of Cox and Munk's well-known sea slope investigations. Based on a re-evaluation of the Cox and Munk's reported parameters, we find a consistent picture develops wherein data are shown to consistently indicate non-Gaussian statistics. One fundamental application of such a non-Gaussian slope observation is its place in modifying predicted wave breaking probability to help to better quantify gas transfer processes at the sea surface.

  3. Spectral slope and Kolmogorov constant of MHD turbulence. (United States)

    Beresnyak, A


    The spectral slope of strong MHD turbulence has recently been a matter of controversy. While the Goldreich-Sridhar model predicts a -5/3 slope, shallower slopes have been observed in numerics. We argue that earlier numerics were affected by driving due to a diffuse locality of energy transfer. Our highest-resolution simulation (3072(2)×1024) exhibited the asymptotic -5/3 scaling. We also discover that the dynamic alignment, proposed in models with -3/2 slope, saturates and cannot modify the asymptotic, high Reynolds number slope. From the observed -5/3 scaling we measure the Kolmogorov constant C(KA)=3.27±0.07 for Alfvénic turbulence and C(K)=4.2±0.2 for full MHD turbulence, which is higher than the hydrodynamic value of 1.64. This larger C(K) indicates inefficient energy transfer in MHD turbulence, which is in agreement with diffuse locality.

  4. Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions (United States)

    Lu, N.; Godt, J.


    [1] We present a generalized framework for the stability of infinite slopes under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. The analytical framework allows the water table to be located at any depth below the ground surface and variation of soil suction and moisture content above the water table under steady infiltration conditions. The framework also explicitly considers the effect of weathering and porosity increase near the ground surface on changes in the friction angle of the soil. The factor of safety is conceptualized as a function of the depth within the vadose zone and can be reduced to the classical analytical solution for subaerial infinite slopes in the saturated zone. Slope stability analyses with hypothetical sandy and silty soils are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. These analyses indicate that for hillslopes of both sandy and silty soils, failure can occur above the water table under steady infiltration conditions, which is consistent with some field observations that cannot be predicted by the classical infinite slope theory. A case study of shallow slope failures of sandy colluvium on steep coastal hillslopes near Seattle, Washington, is presented to examine the predictive utility of the proposed framework. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Kinetics of crimp and slope grip in rock climbing. (United States)

    Schweizer, Andreas; Hudek, Robert


    The aim was to investigate differences of the kinetics of the crimp and the slope grip used in rock climbing. Nine cadaver fingers were prepared and fixated with the proximal phalanx in a frame. The superficial (FDS) and deep (FDP) flexor tendons were loaded selectively and together with 40 N in the crimp grip (PIP joint flexed 90°/DIP joint hyperextended) and the slope grip position (<25° flexed/50° flexed respectively). Five different grip sizes were tested and the flexion force which was generated to the grip was measured. In the crimp grip the FDP generated more flexion force in small sized holds whereas the FDS generated more force in the larger holds. During the slope grip the FDP was more effective than the FDS. While both tendons were loaded, the flexion force was always greater during crimp grip compared with the slope grip. The FDP seems to be most important for very small holds using the crimp grip but also during slope grip holds whereas the FDS is more important for larger flat holds.

  6. Water Erosion in Different Slope Lengths on Bare Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bagio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion degrades the soil and contaminates the environment, and one influential factor on erosion is slope length. The aim of this study was to quantify losses of soil (SL and water (WL in a Humic Cambisol in a field experiment under natural rainfall conditions from July 4, 2014 to June 18, 2015 in individual events of 41 erosive rains in the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina and to estimate soil losses through the USLE and RUSLE models. The treatments consisted of slope lengths of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m, with an average degree of slope of 8 %, on bare and uncropped soil that had been cultivated with corn prior to the study. At the end of the corn cycle, the stalk residue was removed from the surface, leaving the roots of the crop in the soil. Soil loss by water erosion is related linearly and positively to the increase in slope length in the span between 11 and 44 m. Soil losses were related to water losses and the Erosivity Index (EI30, while water losses were related to rain depth. Soil losses estimated by the USLE and RUSLE model showed lower values than the values observed experimentally in the field, especially the values estimated by the USLE. The values of factor L calculated for slope length of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m for the two versions (USLE and RUSLE of the soil loss prediction model showed satisfactory results in relation to the values of soil losses observed.

  7. Landform Degradation and Slope Processes on Io: The Galileo View (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Head, James W., III; McEwen, Alfred S.; Milazzo, Moses P.; Nixon, Brian E.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Schenk, Paul M.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; hide


    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on Io. We recognize four major slope types observed on a number of intermediate resolution (250 m/pixel) images and several additional textures on very high resolution (10 m/pixel) images. Slopes and scarps on Io often show evidence of erosion, seen in the simplest form as alcove-carving slumps and slides at all scales. Many of the mass movement deposits on Io are probably mostly the consequence of block release and brittle slope failure. Sputtering plays no significant role. Sapping as envisioned by McCauley et al. remains viable. We speculate that alcove-lined canyons seen in one observation and lobed deposits seen along the bases of scarps in several locations may reflect the plastic deformation and 'glacial' flow of interstitial volatiles (e.g., SO2) heated by locally high geothermal energy to mobilize the volatile. The appearance of some slopes and near-slope surface textures seen in very high resolution images is consistent with erosion from sublimation-degradation. However, a suitable volatile (e.g., H2S) that can sublimate fast enough to alter Io's youthful surface has not been identified. Disaggregation from chemical decomposition of solid S2O and other polysulfur oxides may conceivably operate on Io. This mechanism could degrade landforms in a manner that resembles degradation from sublimation, and at a rate that can compete with resurfacing.

  8. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: slope perception (United States)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Flanagan, Patrick; Gibbs, Peter


    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the sides of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. This produces a situation of hyperstereopsis in which binocular disparities are magnified. This has the potential to distort the perception of slope in depth (an important cue to landing), because the slope cue provided by binocular disparity conflicts with veridical cues to slope, such as texture gradients and motion parallax. In the experiments, eight observers viewed sparse and dense textured surfaces tilted in depth under three viewing conditions: normal stereo hyper-stereo (4 times magnification), and hypostereo (1/4 magnification). The surfaces were either stationary, or rotated slowly around a central vertical axis. Stimuli were projected at 6 metres to minimise conflict between accommodation and convergence, and stereo viewing was provided by a Z-screen and passive polarised glasses. Observers matched perceived visual slope using a small tilt table set by hand. We found that slope estimates were distorted by hyperstereopsis, but to a much lesser degree than predicted by disparity magnification. The distortion was almost completely eliminated when motion parallax was present.

  9. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  10. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.


    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  11. Hyperorthogonal well-folded Hilbert curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Bos


    Full Text Available R-trees can be used to store and query sets of point data in two or more dimensions. An easy way to construct and maintain R-trees for two-dimensional points, due to Kamel and Faloutsos, is to keep the points in the order in which they appear along the Hilbert curve. The R-tree will then store bounding boxes of points along contiguous sections of the curve, and the efficiency of the R-tree depends on the size of the bounding boxes---smaller is better. Since there are many different ways to generalize the Hilbert curve to higher dimensions, this raises the question which generalization results in the smallest bounding boxes. Familiar methods, such as the one by Butz, can result in curve sections whose bounding boxes are a factor $\\Omega(2^{d/2}$ larger than the volume traversed by that section of the curve. Most of the volume bounded by such bounding boxes would not contain any data points. In this paper we present a new way of generalizing Hilbert's curve to higher dimensions, which results in much tighter bounding boxes: they have at most 4 times the volume of the part of the curve covered, independent of the number of dimensions. Moreover, we prove that a factor 4 is asymptotically optimal.

  12. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...... administrative micro data we find that the elasticity of the wage-setting curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with an university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase...

  13. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia. (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša


    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  14. Magnetization curve modelling of soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, I, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Bertalan L. street 7., Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)


    In this paper we present an application of the so called hyperbolic model of magnetization. The model was modified and it was applied for nine different soft magnetic alloys. The tested samples were electro-technical steels (FeSi alloys) and a permalloy (FeNi alloy) with strongly different magnetic properties. Among them there are top, medium and definitely poor quality soft magnetic materials as well. Their minor hysteresis loops and normal magnetization curves were measured by alternating current measurement. The hyperbolic model of magnetization was applied for the experimental normal magnetization curves. It was proved that the applied model is excellent for describing mathematically the experimental magnetization curves.

  15. The length-tension curve in muscle depends on lattice spacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. D.; Salcedo, M. K.; Irving, T. C.; Regnier, M.; Daniel, T. L.


    Classic interpretations of the striated muscle length–tension curve focus on how force varies with overlap of thin (actin) and thick (myosin) filaments. New models of sarcomere geometry and experiments with skinned synchronous insect flight muscle suggest that changes in the radial distance between the actin and myosin filaments, the filament lattice spacing, are responsible for between 20% and 50% of the change in force seen between sarcomere lengths of 1.4 and 3.4 µm. Thus, lattice spacing is a significant force regulator, increasing the slope of muscle's force–length dependence.

  16. Use of Subaqueous Slope Failures to Study the Paleoseismicity of Eastern North America (United States)

    Baxter, C. D.; Soltau, B.; King, J. W.; Lewis, C.; Coakley, J. P.


    The identification, dating, and back analysis of subaqueous slope failures can provide useful information about the history and reoccurrence intervals of large, intraplate earthquakes. Such a failure was discovered in the Rochester Basin of Lake Ontario using HUNTEC seismic reflection data and an analysis of piston cores. Historic variations in the earth's magnetic field were measured in the cores within the failures' debris flow and in adjacent unfailed areas, and these variations were compared to a paleomagnetic reference curve developed for the region from three lakes in New York and Pennsylvania. The age of the failure was estimated to be 7,900 yrbp based on the paleomagnetic dating techniques. Using infinite slope stability analyses, measured values of the undrained shear strength, and slope geometry from a GIS elevation model and the HUNTEC records, the minimum ground acceleration needed to fail the slope ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 g. Based on published attenuation relationships for intraplate earthquakes, an earthquake of Magnitude 5 or greater located 150-200 km from the site could have generated such a ground acceleration, and caused the failure. The Niagara-Attica, 1000 Islands, and western Lake Ontario seismic zones are all within this distance. There is currently no known earthquake of this magnitude in the seismic record that occurred 7,900 years ago. This analysis does not prove conclusively that a seismic trigger is responsible for the failure, but rather identifies a starting point for further research. Other possible failure mechanisms that need to be investigated include rapid changes in lake levels that affect the gas phase in the sediments and bedrock "pop-ups" caused by large horizontal stresses beneath Lake Ontario. However, the results of this study do show the promise of this approach for studying paleoseismic events and earthquake hazards in Eastern North America. The next step in this research is to search for similar features in other lakes

  17. Bone platform switching: a retrospective study on the slope of reverse conical neck. (United States)

    Danza, Matteo; Riccardo, Guidi; Carinci, Francesco


    Bone platform switching results in an inward bone ring in the coronal part of an implant that is in continuity with the alveolar bone crest. Bone platform switching is achieved by using a dental implant with a reverse conical neck (RCN). A retrospective study was performed to determine the impact of RCN on crestal bone remodeling (CBR). A series of 191 implants with the same morphology, but three slopes of RCN, were evaluated. Lost implants and CBR around implants still in place at the end of the follow-up were considered to investigate those variables potentially associated with the clinical outcome. Radiographic examinations were performed for each implant before surgery and at the end of the follow-up to detect the degree of CBR. Time-dependent cutoff values were used to select implants with higher CBR. These implants were considered unsuccessful. The Kaplan-Meier algorithm was applied to detect those variables potentially associated with the clinical outcome (ie, lost implants or implants with higher CBR). Only 5 of 191 implants were lost (survival rate 97.4%). No statistical differences were detected among the studied variables by using lost implants. Although no statistical differences were detected among the three types of implants, the data seem to indicate a correlation between CBR and the slope of the RCN, with a better outcome for implants with a more angulated RCN.

  18. Location of noise sources using a phase-slope method (United States)

    Deloach, R.; Preisser, J. S.


    Two three-element microphone arrays have been used to predict the position of both pure-tone and broadband noise sources in an anechoic chamber under different ground impedance conditions. Source positions are predicted using the slope of phase-frequency plots between array elements. A phase-slope method for quantitatively assessing both the accuracy and precision of estimates of noise source location is introduced and illustrated. When the phase-slope method is used, there is higher accuracy and more precision in estimates of source location with a small ground impedance than with a large ground impedance. As would be expected, ground impedance effects are larger for low elevation angles than for high elevation angles.

  19. Frequency-compression outcomes in listeners with steeply sloping audiograms. (United States)

    Simpson, Andrea; Hersbach, Adam A; McDermott, Hugh J


    Previous investigation of an experimental, wearable frequency-compression hearing aid revealed improvements in speech perception for a group of listeners with moderately sloping audiograms (Simpson et al, 2005). In the frequency-compression hearing aid, high frequencies (above 1600 Hz) were amplified in addition to being lowered in frequency. Lower frequencies were amplified without frequency shifting. In the present study, an identical frequency-compression scheme was evaluated in a group of seven subjects, all of whom had steeply sloping hearing losses. No significant differences in group mean scores were found between the frequency-compression device and a conventional hearing instrument for understanding speech in quiet. Testing in noise showed improvements for the frequency-compression scheme for only one of the five subjects tested. Subjectively, all but one of the subjects preferred the sound quality of the conventional hearing instruments. In conclusion, the experimental frequency-compression scheme provided only limited benefit to these listeners with steeply sloping hearing losses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wiśniewski


    Full Text Available The basic method of reducing soil and land erosion is a change of land use, for example, from arable to forest. Particularly effective as a protective role – according to the Polish law – soil-protecting forests. The thesis presents differences in the deformation of the basic soil properties on moraine slopes, depending on land use. There has been presented the function and the efficiency of the soil-protecting forests in erosion control. The soil cross section transects and soil analysis displayed that soil-protecting forests are making an essential soil cover protection from degradation, inter alia, limiting the decrease of humus content, reduction of upper soil horizons and soil pedons layer. On the afforested slopes it was stated some clear changes of grain size and chemical properties of soils in relation to adjacent slopes agriculturally used.

  1. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing


    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  2. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    , reduction of compensation payment rate lowers the treatment effect of the SLCP on participating households from both River basins. Lastly, the third paper, ― The effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program on farm household productivity in rural China, investigates the treatment effect (the causal effect......Abstract This thesis mainly focuses on the socioeconomic impact of the largest Ecological Recovery Program ― the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), also called Grain for Green Program (GFG) in China. The central government initiated this program in 1999 and it was launched nationwide in 2002...... of household survey data, this study aims to improve our understanding of the treatment effect of the SLCP on farm households, which is split into three parts. The first paper ― The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China: Effects on Rural Households’ Livelihood Diversification, evaluates the effects...

  3. Development of a new generation of optical slope measuring profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Takacs, Peter Z.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas


    A collaboration, including all DOE synchrotron labs, industrial vendors of x-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler -- the optical slope measuring system (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be<50 nrad for the current and future metrology of x-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable; and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  4. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    of household survey data, this study aims to improve our understanding of the treatment effect of the SLCP on farm households, which is split into three parts. The first paper ― The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China: Effects on Rural Households’ Livelihood Diversification, evaluates the effects...... of the implementation of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification, which is thought to be the solution to poverty and environmental dilemmas. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings suggest...... that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification. The Second paper ― The Effects of Sloping Land Conversion Program on Agricultural Households...

  5. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson


    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  6. Nestling Weight and Survival in Individual Great Tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Boerlijst, M.C.


    (1) The aim of this paper is to estimate the shape of the curve relating first year survival to nestling weight in individual great tits (Parus major) and to study the causality of this relationship. (2) Data were collected in a mainland and an island population. Nestlings were weighed and sexed in

  7. Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.


    The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.

  8. Aluminized fiberglass insulation conforms to curved surfaces (United States)


    Layers of fiber glass with outer reflective films of vacuum-deposited aluminum or other reflective metal, provide thermal insulation which conforms to curved surfaces. This insulation has good potential for cryogenic systems.

  9. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  10. Modeling Type IIn Supernova Light Curves (United States)

    De La Rosa, Janie; Roming, Peter; Fryer, Chris


    We present near-by Type IIn supernovae observed with Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Based on the diversity of optical light curve properties, this Type II subclass is commonly referred to as heterogeneous. At the time of discovery, our IIn sample is ~ 2 magnitudes brighter at ultraviolet wavelengths than at optical wavelengths, and ultraviolet brightness decays faster than the optical brightness. We use a semi-analytical supernova (SN) model to better understand our IIn observations, and focus on matching specific observed light curves features, i.e peak luminosity and decay rate. The SN models are used to study the effects of initial SN conditions on early light curves, and to show the extent of the "uniqueness" problem in SN light curves. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from members of the Swift UVOT team, the NASA astrophysics archival data analysis program, and the NASA Swift guest investigator program.

  11. Projective curves, hyperplane sections and associated webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Ballico


    Full Text Available An integral and non-degenerate curve $C\\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ is said to be ordinary (Gruson, Hantout and Lehmann if if the general hyperplane section $H\\cap C$ of $H$ is of maximal rank in $H$. Let $g'(r,d$ be the maximal integer such that for every $g\\in \\{0,\\dots ,g'(r,d\\}$ there is a smooth ordinary curve $C\\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ with degree $d$ and genus $g$. Here we discuss the relevance of old papers to get a lower bound for $g'(r,d$. We prove that arithmetically Gorenstein curves $C \\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ are ordinary only if either $r=2$ or $d =r+1$ and $\\omega _C \\cong \\mathcal {O}_C$. We prove that general low genus curves are ordinary.

  12. Quaternion orders, quadratic forms, and Shimura curves

    CERN Document Server

    Alsina, Montserrat


    Shimura curves are a far-reaching generalization of the classical modular curves. They lie at the crossroads of many areas, including complex analysis, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic geometry, algebra, and arithmetic. The text provides an introduction to the subject from a theoretic and algorithmic perspective. The main topics covered in it are Shimura curves defined over the rational number field, the construction of their fundamental domains, and the determination of their complex multiplication points. The study of complex multiplication points in Shimura curves leads to the study of families of binary quadratic forms with algebraic coefficients and to their classification by arithmetic Fuchsian groups. In this regard, the authors develop a theory full of new possibilities which parallels Gauss' theory on the classification of binary quadratic forms with integral coefficients by the action of the modular group. Each topic covered in the book begins with a theoretical discussion followed by carefully worked...

  13. KAIT Fermi AGN Light-Curve Reservoir (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This web page shows the light curves of a total of 163 AGNs that are monitored by KAIT with average cadence of 3 days. These are unfiltered observations; in...

  14. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.


    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  15. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.


    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  16. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia


    Boer, Th.A.


    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by definition limited by its reference to future developments which cannot empirically be sustained. Experience in the Netherlands—where a law regulating active euthanasia was accepted in April 2001—may shed...

  17. Research on the seasonal snow of the Arctic Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.S.


    This project deals with the seasonal snow on Alaska's Arctic Slope. Although it is concentrated on snow of the R{sub 4}D project area, it is important to relate the snow cover of this area with the rest of the Arctic Slope. The goals include determination of the amount of precipitation which comes as snow, the wind transport of this snow and its depositional pattern as influenced by drifting, the physical properties of the snow, the physical processes which operate in it, the proportions of it which go into evaporation, infiltration and runoff, and the biological role of the snow cover.

  18. Research on the seasonal snow of the Arctic Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.S.


    This project deals with the seasonal snow on Alaska's Arctic Slope. Although it is concentrated on snow of the R40 project area, it is important to relate the snow cover of this area with the rest of the Arctic Slope. The goals include determination Of the amount of precipitation which comes as snow, the wind transport of this snow and its depositional pattern as influenced by drifting, the physical properties of the snow, the physical processes which operate in it, the proportions of it which go into evaporation, infiltration and runoff, and the biological role of the snow cover.

  19. Research on the seasonal snow of the Arctic Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.S.


    This project deals with the seasonal snow on Alaska's Arctic Slope. It is concentrated on snow of the R{sub 4}D project area. However, an important aspect of this study is to relate the snow cover of this area with the rest of the Arctic Slope. The goals include determination of the amount of precipitation which comes as snow, the wind transport of this snow and its depositional pattern as influenced by drifting, the physical properties of the snow, the physical processes which operate in it, the proportions of it which go into evaporation, infiltration and runoff, and the biological role of the snow cover.

  20. Research on the seasonal snow of the Arctic Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.S.


    This project deals with the seasonal snow on Alaska's Arctic Slope. Although it is concentrated on snow of the R{sub 4}D project area, it is important to relate the snow cover of this area with the rest of the Arctic Slope. The goals include determination of the amount of precipitation which comes as snow, the wind transport of this snow and its depositional pattern as influenced by drifting, the physical properties of the snow, the physical processes which operate in it, the proportions of it which go into evaporation, infiltration and runoff, and the biological role of the snow cover.

  1. Slope measurement by two-wavelength electronic shearography (United States)

    Huang, J.-R.; Ford, H. D.; Tatam, R. P.


    A technique is presented for the slope measurement of objects using an electronic shearography system. To detect the gradients of an object shape, a laser diode is modulated to produce two wavelengths on successive image frames. These two frames are then subtracted to generate correlation fringes which depict slope variations of the object surface. The theory of this technique is described and measurements of conical, cylindrical, and spherical test objects are presented. Com parisons of experimental results with theoretical data are demonstrated to be in good agreement. The implementation of fringe analysis using phase stepping techniques is also discussed.

  2. Liquefaction Probability Curves for Surficial Geologic Units (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.


    Liquefaction probability curves that predict the probability of surface manifestations of earthquake-induced liquefaction are developed for 14 different surficial geologic deposits. The geologic units include alluvial fan, beach ridge, river delta, eolian dune, point bar, floodbasin, natural river levee, abandoned river channel, deep-water lake, lagoonal, sandy artificial fill, and valley train deposits. Probability is conditioned on earthquake magnitude and peak ground acceleration. Curves are developed for water table depths of 1.5 and 5.0 m. Probabilities were derived from complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) that were computed from 935 cone penetration tests. Most of the curves can be fit with a 3-parameter logistic function, which facilitates computations of probability. For natural deposits with a water table at 1.5 m depth and subjected to an M7.5 earthquake with a PGA = 0.25 g, probabilities range from 0.5 for fluvial point bar, barrier island beach ridge, and deltaic deposits. Retrospective predictions of liquefaction during historical earthquakes based on the curves compare favorably to post-earthquake observations. We also have used the curves to assign ranges of liquefaction probabilities to the susceptibility categories proposed by Youd and Perkins (1978) for different geologic deposits. For the earthquake loading and conditions described above, probabilities range from 0-0.08 for low, 0.09-0.30 for moderate, 0.31-0.62 for high, to 0.63-1.00 for very high susceptibility. Liquefaction probability curves have two primary practical applications. First, the curves can be combined with seismic source characterizations to transform surficial geologic maps into probabilistic liquefaction hazard maps. Geographic specific curves are clearly desirable, but in the absence of such information, generic liquefaction probability curves provide a first approximation of liquefaction hazard. Such maps are useful both

  3. Evolution of the extinction curves in galaxies


    Asano, Ryosuke S.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nozawa, Takaya


    We investigate the evolution of extinction curves in galaxies based on our evolution model of grain size distribution. In this model, we considered various processes: dust formation by SNe II and AGB stars, dust destruction by SN shocks in the ISM, metal accretion onto the surface of grains (referred to as grain growth), shattering and coagulation. We find that the extinction curve is flat in the earliest stage of galaxy evolution. As the galaxy is enriched with dust, shattering becomes effec...

  4. Harmonic algebraic curves and noncrossing partitions


    Martin, Jeremy; Savitt, David; Singer, Ted


    Motivated by Gauss's first proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, we study the topology of harmonic algebraic curves. By the maximum principle, a harmonic curve has no bounded components; its topology is determined by the combinatorial data of a noncrossing matching. Similarly, every complex polynomial gives rise to a related combinatorial object that we call a basketball, consisting of a pair of noncrossing matchings satisfying one additional constraint. We prove that every noncrossing...

  5. Gain Estimation of Doubly Curved Reflector Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Schejbal


    Full Text Available A simple formula of approximate gain estimation is verified for the doubly curved reflector antenna. Numerical simulations using physical optics and experimental results of the shaped-beam doubly curved reflector antenna are compared with the simple approximation of gain. That approximation could be very valuable for system engineers to accurately estimate antenna gain and coverage pattern and perform EMC calculations (estimations of interferences and susceptibilities even for the operation and out of operation frequency bands of shapedbeam antenna.

  6. Mental Effort and Safety in Curved Approaches


    Entzinger, Jorg Onno; Uemura, Tsuneharu; Suzuki, Shinji


    Curved approach procedures are implemented around the world. Although typically flown by the autopilot, human pilots need the situational awareness and skills to take over control in rare-event cases to ensure flight safety. We try to understand the pilot’s cognitive models and differences in required (mental) effort between conventional straight-in approaches and curved approaches. We developed various methods to visualize pilots’ control efforts during manual flight, show their capabilities...

  7. Capability curve analysis of photovoltaic generation systems


    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol


    The present article assesses the study of the PV generator capability curves for use in large scale photovoltaic power plants (LS-PVPPs). For this purpose, the article focuses on three main aspects: (i) the modelling of the main components of the PV generator, (ii) the operational limits analysis of the PV array together with the inverter, and (iii) the capability curve analysis considering variable solar irradiance and temperature. To validate this study a PVPP of 1 MW is designed, modelled ...

  8. Is the caloric curve a robust signal of the phase transition in hot nuclei? (United States)

    Vient, E.


    The richness of the data set, collected by the INDRA Collaboration during the last twenty years, enabled us to build a set of caloric curves for nuclei of various sizes, by using, for the first time, a single experimental set-up and a single experimental protocol. We will therefore present the different caloric curves ( E^{\\ast}-T obtained by a new calorimetry, for Quasi-Projectiles produced by symmetric or quasi symmetric reactions at different incident energies (Au + Au, Xe + Sn, Ni + Ni). For all these systems, a clear change of the de-excitation process of hot nuclei is observed but this one is neither a plateau nor a back-bending, but a sudden change of slope.

  9. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves. (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G


    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5.

  10. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo


    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5curves. If 2curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  11. A comparative study of slope failure prediction using logistic regression, support vector machine and least square support vector machine models (United States)

    Zhou, Lim Yi; Shan, Fam Pei; Shimizu, Kunio; Imoto, Tomoaki; Lateh, Habibah; Peng, Koay Swee


    A comparative study of logistic regression, support vector machine (SVM) and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) models has been done to predict the slope failure (landslide) along East-West Highway (Gerik-Jeli). The effects of two monsoon seasons (southwest and northeast) that occur in Malaysia are considered in this study. Two related factors of occurrence of slope failure are included in this study: rainfall and underground water. For each method, two predictive models are constructed, namely SOUTHWEST and NORTHEAST models. Based on the results obtained from logistic regression models, two factors (rainfall and underground water level) contribute to the occurrence of slope failure. The accuracies of the three statistical models for two monsoon seasons are verified by using Relative Operating Characteristics curves. The validation results showed that all models produced prediction of high accuracy. For the results of SVM and LSSVM, the models using RBF kernel showed better prediction compared to the models using linear kernel. The comparative results showed that, for SOUTHWEST models, three statistical models have relatively similar performance. For NORTHEAST models, logistic regression has the best predictive efficiency whereas the SVM model has the second best predictive efficiency.

  12. Stenting for curved lesions using a novel curved balloon: Preliminary experimental study. (United States)

    Tomita, Hideshi; Higaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Fujii, Takanari; Fujimoto, Kazuto


    Stenting may be a compelling approach to dilating curved lesions in congenital heart diseases. However, balloon-expandable stents, which are commonly used for congenital heart diseases, are usually deployed in a straight orientation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of stenting with a novel curved balloon considered to provide better conformability to the curved-angled lesion. In vitro experiments: A Palmaz Genesis(®) stent (Johnson & Johnson, Cordis Co, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) mounted on the Goku(®) curve (Tokai Medical Co. Nagoya, Japan) was dilated in vitro to observe directly the behavior of the stent and balloon assembly during expansion. Animal experiment: A short Express(®) Vascular SD (Boston Scientific Co, Marlborough, MA, USA) stent and a long Express(®) Vascular LD stent (Boston Scientific) mounted on the curved balloon were deployed in the curved vessel of a pig to observe the effect of stenting in vivo. In vitro experiments: Although the stent was dilated in a curved fashion, stent and balloon assembly also rotated conjointly during expansion of its curved portion. In the primary stenting of the short stent, the stent was dilated with rotation of the curved portion. The excised stent conformed to the curved vessel. As the long stent could not be negotiated across the mid-portion with the balloon in expansion when it started curving, the mid-portion of the stent failed to expand fully. Furthermore, the balloon, which became entangled with the stent strut, could not be retrieved even after complete deflation. This novel curved balloon catheter might be used for implantation of the short stent in a curved lesion; however, it should not be used for primary stenting of the long stent. Post-dilation to conform the stent to the angled vessel would be safer than primary stenting irrespective of stent length. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil conservation options for olive orchards on sloping land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Graaff, de J.


    Olive production is an important and growing agricultural activity throughout the Meditteranean zone. At the same time, soil erosion is one of the environmental key problems in this zone. Actual erosion in olive production areas is high, in particular on sloping land. Several erosion risk factors

  14. Internal wave-turbulence pressure above sloping sea bottoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.


    An accurate bottom pressure sensor has been moored at different sites varying from a shallow sea strait via open ocean guyots to a 1900 m deep Gulf of Mexico. All sites show more or less sloping bottom topography. Focusing on frequencies (sigma) higher than tidal, the pressure records are remarkably

  15. Oscillating Nocturnal Slope Flow in a Coastal Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mahrt, Larry


    over the sloping valley floor was studied during a special observing campaign. A downslope gravity flow interacts with even colder surface air at the valley floor. The latter originates as cold marine air or previous drainage of cold air. Regular oscillations which appear to be trapped, terrain...

  16. A method of measuring rainfall on windy slopes (United States)

    G. L. Hayes


    The object of precipitation measurement, as stated by Brooks (1), is to obtain "a fair sample of the fall reaching the earth's surface over the area represented by the measurement." The area referred to is horizontal, or map area. Even when measured on a slope, precipitation is always expressed as depth of water on a horizontal area.

  17. Zero-slope points and electronic energy bandmapping (United States)

    Wöhlecke, M.; Baalmann, A.; Neumann, M.


    Angle resolved photoemission spectra of Au (111) have been measured as a function of polar angle. The wavevector components of the electrons have been determined by symmetry arguments only. The method applied is based on zero-slope points and extrema in the bindung energy caused by symmetry. Results obtained from a predominantly nonreconstructed Au surface are presented for the ∑ direction.

  18. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining. (United States)



  19. Postural Stability Margins as a Function of Support Surface Slopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe Up and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy as slope angle increased. Surface slope induces a restricted stability region with lower dimension VTC dynamics that is more constrained when postural orientation is facing down the slope. These findings provide further evidence that VTC acts as a control variable in standing posture that is influenced by the emergent dynamics of the individual-environment-task interaction.

  20. Breaking of Waves over a Steep Bottom Slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.

    in the hydraulic laboratory are performed. Based on the experimental tests several formulae developed. Formulae  are capable of predicting the transmitted wave height and wave energy flux, respectively. Futhermore, a numerical wave model based on the extended Mild-Slope equation has been developed. The model...

  1. Clay mineral distribution on the Kerala continental shelf and slope

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of @iRV gaveshani@@ were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral cntent. The distribution of total clay (< 4~k fraction...

  2. End depth in steeply sloping rough rectangular channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper presents a theoretical model to compute the end depth of a free overfall in steeply sloping rough rectangular channels. A momentum equation based on the Boussinesq approximation is applied to obtain the equation of the end depth. The effect ofstreamline curvature at the free surface is utilized to develop the ...

  3. Run-up distributions of waves breaking on sloping walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.


    Distributions of run-up are calculated by assigning to each individual wave in an irregular wave train a run-up value according to Hunt's formula. The use of this formula permits a normalization of the run-up in such a way that the run-up distributions are independent of slope angle, mean wave

  4. Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B


    Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

  5. the Modeling of Hydraulic Jump Generated Partially on Sloping Apron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Abdulatif Jalil


    Full Text Available Modeling aims to characterize system behavior and achieve simulation close as possible of the reality. The rapid energy exchange in supercritical flow to generate quiet or subcritical flow in hydraulic jump phenomenon is important in design of hydraulic structures. Experimental and numerical modeling is done on type B hydraulic jump which starts first on sloping bed and its end on horizontal bed.  Four different apron slopes are used, for each one of these slopes the jump is generated on different locations by controlling the tail water depth.  Modelling validation is based on 120 experimental runs which they show that there is reliability. The air volume fraction which creates in through hydraulic jump varied between 0.18 and 0.28. While the energy exchanges process take place within 6.6, 6.1, 5.8, 5.5 of the average relative jump height for apron slopes of 0.18, 0.14, 0.10, 0.07 respectively. Within the limitations of this study, mathematical prediction model for relative hydraulic jump height is suggested.The model having an acceptable coefficient of determination.

  6. Stability analysis of sandy slope considering anisotropy effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of anisotropy of shear strength parameter on the stability of a sandy slope by performing the limit equilibrium analysis. Because of scarcity of mathematical equation for anisotropic friction angle of sand, at first, all results of principal stress rotation tests are processed by artificial neural ...

  7. Effects of slope position and fertilization on the performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of slope position and fertilization on the performance of upland rice planted on inland valley soils at Minna and Bida, Nigeria. ... Parameters measured were plant height, number of days to 50% flowering, number of seeds per panicle, dry weight of straw, panicle weight, tiller count, dry weight of 100 seeds and grain ...

  8. Slope and curvature of Isgur–Wise function using variationally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 75; Issue 3. Slope and curvature of Isgur–Wise function using variationally improved perturbation theory in a quantum chromodynamics inspired potential model. Bhaskar Jyoti Hazarika D K Choudhury. Research Articles Volume 75 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 423- ...

  9. Slope failure susceptibility zonation using integrated remote sensing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    circular and toppling failure) could be envisaged by virtue of processing and analysis of pertinent satellite data. ... sensing image processing techniques, in order to finally produce slope failure hazard zonation maps in .... shaded relief and digital elevation models and v) lineament extraction and generation of density maps ...

  10. Soil erosion and management activities on forested slopes (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer


    Some of the most productive forests in the Western United States grow on marginally stable mountainous slopes, where disturbance increases the likelihood of erosion. Much of the public's concern about, and, consequently, most of the research on, erosion from these forested areas is related more to the degradation of stream resources by eroded material than to the...

  11. Erosion protection for soil slopes along Virginia's highways. (United States)


    A survey of the state of practice for designing slope erosion control measures within VDOT's nine districts has been conducted. On the basis of the survey, it is clear that there are no specific design procedures currently in use within VDOT for deal...

  12. assessment of slope stability around gilgel gibe-ii hydroelectric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    set of structures which influenced the architecture of the western margin of the MER and the Omo valley in the study area. ..... earthquake occurs. v) Dynamic moderately saturated condition – when the slope is subjected to moderate saturation; this condition may occur during moderate rains and earthquake occurs.

  13. Stability analysis of sandy slope considering anisotropy effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strength anisotropy. Finally, considering the variability of soil shear strength parameters with loading orientation, the stability of a sandy slope with various geometries is analyzed by the limit equilibrium .... The participant of training, testing and validation subsets from the whole of records are 70, 15 and 15%, respectively.

  14. Ambient Light Calibration of a Scanning Slope Sensor, (United States)


    This paper outlines a procedure developed to calibrate a laser-based water surface slope sensor against ambient light variations. An analysis of the...optical position sensor used in the system indicates how variations in the ambient light intensity cause shifts in the illumination pattern centroid

  15. Felling and bunching small timber on steep slopes. (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin S. Miyata; John A. Sturos; Helmuth M. Steinhilb


    Discusses the results of a field test of the unique Menzi Muck machine for felling and bunching small trees on steep slopes. Includes the analysis of a detailed time study to determine the productivity, costs, and economic feasibility of this unusual machine.

  16. Effect of Angle of Attack on Slope Climbing Performance (United States)

    Creager, Colin M.; Jones, Lucas; Smith, Lauren M.


    Ascending steep slopes is often a very difficult challenge for off-road vehicles, whether on Earth or on extraterrestrial bodies. This challenge is even greater if the surface consists of loose granular soil that does not provide much shear strength. This study investigated how the path at which a vehicle traverses a slope, specifically the angle that it is commanded to drive relative to the base of the hill (the angle of attack), can affect its performance. A vehicle was driven in loose sand at slope angles up to 15 degrees and angles of attack ranging from 10 to 90 degrees. A novel photogrammetry technique was implemented to both track vehicle motion and create a three-dimensional profile of the terrain. This allowed for true wheel sinkage measurements. The study showed that though low angles of attack result in lower wheel slip and sinkage, the efficiency of the vehicles uphill motion increased at higher angles of attack. For slopes up to 15 degrees, a 90 degree angle of attack provided the greatest likelihood of successful ascent.

  17. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas


    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  18. Nonlinear run-ups of regular waves on sloping structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Hsu


    Full Text Available For coastal risk mapping, it is extremely important to accurately predict wave run-ups since they influence overtopping calculations; however, nonlinear run-ups of regular waves on sloping structures are still not accurately modeled. We report the development of a high-order numerical model for regular waves based on the second-order nonlinear Boussinesq equations (BEs derived by Wei et al. (1995. We calculated 160 cases of wave run-ups of nonlinear regular waves over various slope structures. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a wave flume for regular waves propagating over three plane slopes: tan α =1/5, 1/4, and 1/3. The numerical results, laboratory observations, as well as previous datasets were in good agreement. We have also proposed an empirical formula of the relative run-up in terms of two parameters: the Iribarren number ξ and sloping structures tan α. The prediction capability of the proposed formula was tested using previous data covering the range ξ ≤ 3 and 1/5 ≤ tan α ≤ 1/2 and found to be acceptable. Our study serves as a stepping stone to investigate run-up predictions for irregular waves and more complex geometries of coastal structures.

  19. A global safety deficiency : False glide slope capture affecting aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, M.J.


    A serious incident occurred at Eindhoven Airport (Netherlands) in May 2013. A Boeing 737-800 performed a go-around while using the Instrument Landing System (ILS). The flight crew reported a False Glide Slope capture as the reason for the go-around.
    At first the occurrence report did not really

  20. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems with Slope Restricted Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Liu


    Full Text Available The problem of absolute stability of Lur’e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.