Fessehaye, Y.; Komen, J.; Rezk, M.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.
The present study investigated the effects of different levels of inbreeding on survival, growth, body weight and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in O. niloticus. We mated 20 sires and 35 dams in a full-sib/half-sib mating design to produce 35 full-sib families with expected level of inbreeding (F%.) of
Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Bradshaw, Patrick T
Evidence is emerging that obesiy and weight gain may affect the prognosis of several types of cancer. We investigated the impact of body mass index (BMI) as well as pre-and postdiagnosis weight changes on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) prognosis. A cohort of 573 female incident NHL cases diagnosed during 1996-2000 in Connecticut was followed for a median of 7.8 yr. Self-reported height and weight at 3 time points before and after diagnosis were collected. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazard models adjusting for factors believed to be associated with overall survival of NHL. Underweight (BMI weight (18.5 ≤ BMI weight loss (HR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.02-1.97) and posttreatment weight loss (HR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.14-3.45) and weight gain (HR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.04-3.32) were associated with poorer survival. NHL patients who were underweight, lost weight prediagnosis, or change weight after treatment were found to have a poorer survival.
Choi, Yunseon; Ahn, Ki Jung; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heunglae; Lee, Ji Young
This study aimed to assess the effects of body mass index (BMI) on survival in cervical cancer patients who had undergone surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 cervical cancer patients who underwent surgery and RT from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 40 patients (57.1%) had pelvic lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis. Sixty-seven patients (95.7%) had received chemotherapy. All patients had undergone surgery and postoperative RT. Median BMI of patients was 22.8 kg/m(2) (range, 17.7 to 35.9 kg/m(2)). The median duration of follow-up was 52.3 months (range, 16 to 107 months). Twenty-four patients (34.3%) showed recurrence. Local failure, regional lymph nodal failure, and distant failure occurred in 4 (5.7%), 6 (8.6%), and 17 (24.3%) patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 83.4%. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 85.1% and 65.0%, respectively. The presence of pelvic lymph node metastases (n = 30) and being overweight or obese (n = 34, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2)) were poor prognostic factors for CSS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.045, respectively). Of these, pelvic lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.030) for CSS. Overweight or obese cervical cancer patients showed poorer survival outcomes than normal weight or underweight patients. Weight control seems to be important in cervical cancer patients to improve clinical outcomes.
Choi, Yunseon; Ahn, Ki Jung; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Lee, Ji Young [Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
This study aimed to assess the effects of body mass index (BMI) on survival in cervical cancer patients who had undergone surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 cervical cancer patients who underwent surgery and RT from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 40 patients (57.1%) had pelvic lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis. Sixty-seven patients (95.7%) had received chemotherapy. All patients had undergone surgery and postoperative RT. Median BMI of patients was 22.8 kg/m2 (range, 17.7 to 35.9 kg/m2). The median duration of follow-up was 52.3 months (range, 16 to 107 months). Twenty-four patients (34.3%) showed recurrence. Local failure, regional lymph nodal failure, and distant failure occurred in 4 (5.7%), 6 (8.6%), and 17 (24.3%) patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 83.4%. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 85.1% and 65.0%, respectively. The presence of pelvic lymph node metastases (n = 30) and being overweight or obese (n = 34, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) were poor prognostic factors for CSS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.045, respectively). Of these, pelvic lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.030) for CSS. Overweight or obese cervical cancer patients showed poorer survival outcomes than normal weight or underweight patients. Weight control seems to be important in cervical cancer patients to improve clinical outcomes.
Mardas, Marcin; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Madry, Radosław
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether body weight changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) influence progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). An analysis of 190 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer after first-line chemotherapy was conducted. Changes in body weight were assessed by comparing measurements at baseline to those of the third and sixth cycles of chemotherapy. PFS and OS were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox model. Significant reduction in body weight in advanced EOC was observed with no changes in early EOC. Significant differences in PFS were observed in advanced EOC patients that lost more than 5 % of their body weight (6 months), maintained weight (13 months), or gained more than 5 % of their body weight (15 months). Similarly, significant differences in OS were noted in advanced EOC at the following time points: 24.3, 42.4, and 66.2 months. No effect was reported for early EOC patients. The multivariate Cox analysis showed significant body weight changes from the first to the sixth chemotherapy cycle for PFS (HR = 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99) and OS (HR = 0.94; 95 % CI 0.91-0.97) as well as from the first to the third chemotherapy cycle for OS (HR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.98). Body weight changes can be recognized as a prognostic factor for PFS and OS in advanced EOC patients undergoing chemotherapy. Weight loss is associated with poorer survival while weight gain improved outcomes.
Løhmann, Ditte J A; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin
Treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is very toxic and the association between outcome and age and Body Mass Index is unclear. We investigated effect of age and Body Mass Index on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. We studied all patients who completed first...
Full Text Available Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19 or day 22 (E22, placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL, oxygenation (SaO2 at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. S-25(OHD was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001. Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001, lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002, SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002 as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001. At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001. The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.
Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pilecki, Bartosz; Duelund, Lars; Marcussen, Niels; Christesen, Henrik Thybo
Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, plung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002), SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002) as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, plung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.
Olmsted, Marion P; McFarlane, Traci
Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...
Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B; Henriques, Felipe S; Sertié, Rogério A L; Franco, Felipe O; Santos, Kaltinaitis B; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S; Neves, Rodrigo X; Farmer, Stephen R; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B; Batista, Miguel L
Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to
Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re
... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...
Full Text Available Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by the accumulation of aggregated proteins, microglia activation and motor neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression in ALS are unknown, but the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel is implicated in this disease. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine P2X7 in the context of neurodegeneration, and investigate whether the P2X7 antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG, could alter disease progression in a murine model of ALS. Methods Human SOD1G93A transgenic mice, which normally develop ALS, were injected with BBG or saline, three times per week, from pre-onset of clinical disease (62–64 days of age until end-stage. During the course of treatment mice were assessed for weight, clinical score and survival, and motor coordination, which was assessed by rotarod performance. Various parameters from end-stage mice were assessed as follows. Motor neuron loss and microgliosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relative amounts of lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were quantified by immunoblotting. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was measured by ELISA. Splenic leukocyte populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of splenic and hepatic P2X7 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were also quantified by immunoblotting in untreated female SOD1G93A mice during the course of disease. Results BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in SOD1G93A mice of combined sex, but had no effect on clinical score, survival or motor coordination. BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice. BBG treatment also prolonged survival in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice, extending the mean survival time by 4.3% in female mice compared to female mice treated with saline. BBG treatment had no effect on clinical score or motor
Harangi, Sándor; Baranyai, Edina; Fehér, Milán; Tóth, Csilla Noémi; Herman, Petra; Stündl, László; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla; Simon, Edina
Many oxbows are contaminated by Fe and Mn as a consequence of the elemental concentration of sediment and water originating from the Upper Tisza Region of Hungary. The phenomenon is partly caused by anthropogenic activities and mainly due to the geochemical characteristics of the region. The effects of Fe and Mn on the aquatic ecosystem of these wetlands were investigated in a model experiments in this study. Survival, individual body weight and the elemental concentrations of organs were determined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles reared in Fe and Mn contaminated media (treatment 1: Fe 0.57 mg L -1 , Mn 0.29 mg L -1 , treatment 2: Fe 0.57 mg L -1 , Mn 0.625 mg L -1 , treatment 3: Fe 1.50 mg L -1 , Mn 0.29 mg L -1 , treatment 4: Fe 1.50 mg L -1 , Mn 0.625 mg L -1 and control: Fe 0.005 mg L -1 , Mn 0.003 mg L -1 ), for rearing time of 49 days. The treatment with Fe and Mn did not have any effect on the survival data and individual body weight in the levels tested. The highest concentration of Fe and Mn was found in the liver and brain of carp juveniles, while the lowest concentration of these elements occurred in the muscular tissue and gills. The treatment where Fe and Mn were applied in the highest concentrations resulted in a statistically higher level of these elements in the brain, grills and muscle tissues. The treatment where only Mn was present in the highest concentration caused increased level of Mn only in the liver. We found metal accumulation in almost every organ; however, the applied concentrations and exposure time did not affect the survival and average body weight of carp juveniles.
because of its high meat quality and acceptance by ... respectively. Thus, morphometric traits were recommended by Okon et al. (2010a, b) as good predictors of hatchling weights in. Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, .... wt = body weight, w = hatchling body shell width, L = hatchling body shell length.
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
... munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer...
Kim, Karen Hye-cheon; Bursac, Zoran; DiLillo, Vicki; White, Della Brown; West, Delia Smith
Stress has been identified as a significant factor in health and in racial/ethnic health disparities. A potential mediator in these relationships is body weight. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress, race, and body weight were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 217) enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Stress (Perceived Stress Scale) was assessed at baseline only and body weight (body mass index) was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Stress was not related to baseline body weight. With every 1 unit lower scored on the baseline stress measure, women lost 0.10 kg +/- .04 more at 6 months (p women were divided into tertiles based on baseline stress scores, those in the lowest stress group had significantly greater weight loss (5.2 kg +/- 4.9) compared with those in the highest stress group (3.0 kg +/- 4.0) (p weight loss has implications for enhancing weight loss programs for women with Type 2 diabetes. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L
We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bhurtun, Darshini Devi; Jeewon, Rajesh
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anth...
Weight, weight change and physical activity may affect prognosis among women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. Observational studies show associations between overweight/obesity and weight gain with several measures of reduced prognosis in women with breast cancer, and some suggestions of lower survival in women who are underweight or who experience unexplained weight loss after diagnosis. Observational studies have also shown an association between higher levels of physical activity and reduced breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, although a dose-response relationship has not been established. The effects of purposive dietary weight loss and increase in physical activity on survival or recurrence in breast cancer are not yet established, and randomised controlled trials are needed for definitive data. This paper presents the epidemiologic evidence on weight status, weight change, and physical activity and breast cancer survival; suggests potential mediating mechanisms; summarises evidence on weight loss interventions in breast cancer survivors; describes ongoing randomised clinical trials designed to test the effects of weight loss or physical activity on breast cancer survival; and provides information on available guidelines on weight and physical activity for cancer survivors.
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L
BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...
Luyten, Laura; Welkenhuysen, Marleen; van Kuyck, Kris; Fieuws, Steffen; Das, John; Sciot, Raf; Nuttin, Bart
The glucose metabolism in the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) is increased in rats in the activity-based anorexia (ABA) model. In patients, electrical stimulation in hyperactive brain regions reduced symptoms in e.g. major depressive disorder and cluster headache. In two blinded randomised controlled experiments, we therefore examined the effects of high-frequency electrical stimulation and an electrolytic lesion in the MD in a validated rat model for anorexia nervosa. The ABA model was successfully replicated in all our experiments, with a reduction in body weight, food intake, and survival time and an increase in running activity. In a first experiment, we evaluated the effect of electrical stimulation or a curative lesion in the MD on survival, body weight, food intake and locomotor activity in ABA rats. Electrical MD stimulation or an electrolytic MD lesion did not improve the symptoms of rats in the ABA model, compared to control groups. In a second experiment, we investigated the effect of a preventive electrolytic lesion in the MD on rats in the ABA model. Although there was no significant improvement of survival, body weight and food intake, locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the lesion group compared to the control group. Apart from this positive effect on running activity, we found no convincing evidence for the suitability of the MD as a neuromodulation target for anorexia nervosa patients.
Greenberg, E. R.; Vessey, M. P.; McPherson, K.; Doll, R.; Yeates, D.
The survival experience of 582 women with premenopausal breast cancer was examined to determine whether prognosis was related to body size or to demographic and reproductive factors. During the follow-up period 228 patients died and 18 emigrated or were lost to follow-up. Usual body weight, reported at the time of diagnosis, was a strong predictor of survival, with a statistically significant trend towards lower survival with increasing weight. Height and obesity (Quetelet index) were not significantly related to survival, although the tallest women and the most obese women appeared to fare worst. Other characteristics of prognostic importance were disease stage and reproductive history (women who were older when their first child was born fared better). Women aged 46-50 when diagnosed also appeared more likely to survive but no clear trend with age was evident. Other characteristics of the women including social class, cigarette use and oral contraceptive use were not significantly related to survival probability. PMID:3994912
Whigham, L D; Schoeller, D A; Johnson, L K; Atkinson, R L
In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight of adults with weather, season and gender. Fifty adults (35 women) were weighed four times during a 12-month period with and without clothing. Clothing weights were determined and regressed against minimum, maximum and average daily outdoor temperature. The average clothing weight (±s.d.) throughout the year was significantly greater in men than in women (1.2±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 kg, Pclothing weights across the year were 0.9±0.2 and 1.5±0.4 kg for men, and 0.5±0.2 and 1.1±0.4 kg for women, respectively. The within-person s.d. in clothing weight was 0.3 kg for both men and women. Over the 55 °C range in the lowest to the highest outdoor temperatures, the regressions predicted a maximal change in clothing weight of only 0.4 kg in women and 0.6 kg in men. The clothing weight of men is significantly greater than that of women, but there is little variability throughout the year. Therefore, a clothing adjustment of approximately 0.8 kg for women and 1.2 kg for men is appropriate regardless of outdoor temperature.
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256
Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.
Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...
The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...
Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...
Cheung, Irene Y; Kushner, Brian H; Modak, Shakeel; Basu, Ellen M; Roberts, Stephen S; Cheung, Nai-Kong V
Fifty-seven stage 4 patients with refractory/relapsed neuroblastoma were enrolled in a phase I trial (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01757626) using humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu3F8 in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The influence of body weight and human anti-human antibody (HAHA) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hu3F8, and the effect of de novo anti-GD2 response on patient outcome were explored. Serum samples before hu3F8 infusion, and serially up to day 12 during treatment cycle #1, and at 5 min after each hu3F8 infusion for all subsequent cycles were collected. PK was analyzed using non-compartmental modeling. Immunogenicity was assayed by HAHA response, and vaccination effect by induced host anti-GD2 response measured periodically until disease progression or last followup. Progression-free and overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Despite dosing being based on body weight, smaller patients had consistently lower area-under-the-curve and faster clearance over the 15 dose levels (0.9 to 9.6 mg/kg per treatment cycle) in this trial. Positive HAHA, defined by the upper limit of normal, when measured within 10 days from the last hu3F8 dose received, was associated with significantly lower serum hu3F8. Despite prior sensitization to other anti-GD2 antibody, e.g. mouse 3F8 or ch14.18, 75% of the patients never developed HAHA response even after getting more treatment cycles. Hu3F8 induced a de novo anti-GD2 response in patients, which was prognostic of progression-free survival. We conclude that hu3F8 had low immunogenicity. During treatment, positive HAHA and low body weight affected PK adversely, whereas induced anti-GD2 response was an outcome predictor.
Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M
Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.
Verhoef, S.P; Camps, S.G; Gonnissen, H.K; Westerterp, K.R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S
An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss...
The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...
The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.
Barbieri, Paolo Nicola
This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.
Shirley, Shelby; Davis, Leslie L; Carlson, Barbara Waag
The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature on the relationship between obesity and survival in persons with heart failure (HF). In particular, the article examines the ways in which studies define body size/composition (body mass index [BMI], body composition, weight, cachexia, fluid retention, or albumin) and the relationship of BMI and survival after controlling for factors such as HF severity, etiology of the HF, gender, race, age, and/or time since HF diagnosis. The keywords heart failure and body mass index, heart failure and obesity, and heart failure and body composition were indexed in PubMed. Articles published from 1999 to 2006 that used multivariate analyses to examine the relationship between obesity and survival in persons with HF were included in the review. BMI is the standard most often used for measuring body weight in patients with HF. Yet, BMI does not address other major components of body weight (fat, lean body mass, and fluid) that may factor into the mortality of patients with HF. Four of the six studies reviewed reported a positive relationship between obesity and improved survival. However, the studies are limited by design, with the majority being cross-sectional. Furthermore, most of the data were collected through secondary data analysis from patient records in the 1990s, before contemporary HF treatment was used. Until further research solidifies a clear association between higher BMIs and improved survival in patients with HF, nurse practitioners and others should continue to counsel their patients with HF who are overweight to lose weight. Assessing BMI alone as a predictor of survival for patients with HF may be misleading and should be performed in the context of other factors. Moreover, care should be taken in managing patients with HF who are cachexic because these patients have a worrisome prognosis.
www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed with Diets Based on Treated ... nutritional quality. Some processing methods including dry heat and wet heat treatment, soaking, dehulling, fermentation, sprouting etc. have been used in the past.
Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance
Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with body weight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. Methods We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. We examined gender specific associations between the prevalence of poor body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI with generalized additive models and applied multilevel logistic regression methods to estimate associations of body satisfaction with BMI, rural residence, parental education and income, and neighborhood household income. Results We observed a linear increase in poor body satisfaction with increasing BMI in girls. Among boys, however, we found a U-shape association where boys with low BMI and those with high BMI reported higher levels of poor body satisfaction. We also found that poor body satisfaction was more prevalent among girls whose parents had lower educational attainment and among those who reside in rural areas. Conclusion Insight into the unique relationships between body satisfaction and BMI experienced by prepubescent children, males, and populations diverse in parental education and geographic location may help to inform public health initiatives designed to improve weight-related behaviors and reduce overweight in children.
Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K
Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in
Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann
The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...... education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...... variable, we find no effect among men of higher education on the probability of being either overweight or healthy-weighted. However, we find suggestive evidence that the effect differs by income background. Amongst men who grew up in low-income households, enrolling in higher education increases...
Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G
.23 kg/m(2) (0.33; 0.13) lower body mass index, 0.32 cm (0.74; 0.003) lower waist circumference and 0.45 cm (0.66; 0.24) lower hip circumference. No association was found between tobacco consumption and waist-hip ratio in genetic analysis, or among CHRNA3 genotype and any of the outcome variables......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...
The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...
S) kids at weaning were used to compare body weight (BWT), body measurements (BM) and testicular measurements ™ of the two breeds. Efforts were also made to relate BWT with BM and TM in order to identify those that best predict BWT.
Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Samuel, Renata Oliveira; Prieto, Annelise Katrine Carrara; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Dezan-Júnior, Eloi; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo
The effects of apical periodontitis (AP) and periodontal disease (PD) on organ weights in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) were evaluated. Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into eight groups of ten: normoglycemic (N), AP, PD, AP+PD, DM, DM+AP, DM+PD, and DM+AP+PD. DM was induced by streptozotocin; AP, by dental exposure to the oral environment; and PD, by periodontal ligature. Blood glucose concentration was measured at 0, 6, 15, and 35days; body weight, measured daily; and animals were sacrificed after 30days after induction of oral infections. Liver, kidney, pancreas, brain, heart, lungs, and gonads were each weighed. Glycemia, feed intake, organ weight, and body weight were subjected to statistical analyses (pdiabetic groups after day 6, but were consistently similar in normoglycemic groups. Blood glucose was higher in DM+PD and DM+AP+PD groups than in the DM group at days 15 and 35. The feed intake was similar among all groups. Brain, heart, and gonad weights were significantly increased in DM+AP+PD. Kidney and lung weights were increased in DM, regardless of the presence of oral infections. Liver weight was reduced in AP and/or PD. Pancreas weight was reduced in DM, independent of AP or PD. Among the normoglycemic groups, there were no significant differences among organ weights. Apical periodontitis and periodontal disease may potentiate the adverse effects of diabetes. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen
Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...
Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara; Chiriboga, David; Hebert, James R.; Li, Youfu; Li, Wenjun; Campbell, MaryJane; Gendreau, Katherine; Ockene, Ira S.
The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day dietary recalls, and physical activity recalls were collected quarterly f...
Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery
Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ingram, D D; Mussolino, M E
The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Longitudinal cohort study. In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Files (1988-1994 with passive mortality follow-up through 2000), were included. Measured body weight and self-reported maximum body weight obtained at baseline. Weight loss (maximum body weight minus baseline weight) was categorized as or=15%. Maximum BMI (reported maximum weight (kg)/measured baseline height (m)(2)) was categorized as healthy weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (>or=30.0). In all, 1602 deaths were identified. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, health status, and preexisting illness, overweight men with weight loss of 15% or more, overweight women with weight loss of 5-women in all BMI categories with weight loss of 15% or more were at increased risk of death from all causes compared with those in the same BMI category who lost Weight loss of 5-Weight loss of 15% or more from maximum body weight is associated with increased risk of death from all causes among overweight men and among women regardless of maximum BMI.
A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.
MRS FOLA AJAYI
October 11th – 14th, 2004, University of Agriculture. Abeokuta 88 – 91. Campbell, J. R., Kenealy, M. D. and Campbell, K. L., 1994. Animal Science: The biology, care and production of domestic animals. McGraw-Hill Companies. Fourth. Edition New York. 510pp. ESTIMATION OF BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY ...
Full Text Available The existing data about the role of dairy foods in body weight management, as a physiological explanation are shown in this paper. There is accumulating evidence about inverse association between body weight and dairy intake. Research showed that obese individuals consume fewer dairies than normal weight people. Also three servings of dairy foods per day in a reduced calorie diet may help accelerate body fat loss when compared to a calorie-restricted diet low in dairy foods. Calcium plays the main role and is present in great amounts in dairy foods. Its anti-obesity effect is attributed to its impact on lypogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes. Calcium supplements do not have such effect as dairy calcium, possibly due to the effects of other bioactive components in dairy foods such as conjugated linoleic acid, whey peptides, branched aminoacids and lactose which amplify anti-obesity effect. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies confirmed the hypothesis that high dairy food intake can act in a weight management, but prospective studies and randomized controlled intervention trials have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore there is a need of conducting more large population-based clinical trials and meta-analysis.
Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne
Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually...... benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (
Xu, Yong; O'Malley, Bert W; Elmquist, Joel K
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.
Chiriboga, David E; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Wenjun; Olendzki, Barbara C; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Matthews, Charles E; Hebert, James R; Ockene, Ira S
Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults. To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and then quarterly for 1 year in 572 healthy adult volunteers from Central Massachusetts who were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the relationship between body weight and potential predictors, including demographic (e.g., age, educational level), lifestyle (e.g., diet, physical activity, smoking), and psychosocial (e.g., anxiety, depression) factors. Over the 1-year study period, on average, men gained 0.3 kg and women lost 0.2 kg. Predictors of lower body weight at baseline in both men and women included current cigarette smoking, greater leisure-time physical activity, and lower depression and anxiety scores. Lower body weights were associated with a lower percentage of caloric intake from protein and greater occupational physical activity levels only among men; and with higher education level only among women. Longitudinal predictors of 1-year weight gain among women included increased total caloric intake and decreased leisure-time physical activity, and among men, greater anxiety scores. Demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors are independently related to naturally occurring changes in body weight and have marked differential gender effects. These effects should be taken into consideration when designing interventions for weight-loss and maintenance at the individual and population levels.
Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.
Van Ballenberghe, V.; Mech, L.D.
Weights, growth rates, canine tooth lengths, and survival data were obtained from 73 wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups that were 8 to 28 weeks old when live-trapped in three areas of northern Minnesota from 1969 to 1972. Relative weights of wild pups are expressed as percentages of a standard weight curve based on data from captive pups of similar age. These relative weights varied greatly within litters, between litters, and between years; extremes of 31 to 144 percent of the standard were observed. Growth rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.23 kilograms per day were observed, and similar variations in general devel pment and in replacement and growth of canine teeth were noted. Survival data based on radio-tracking and tag returns indicated that pups with relative weights less than 65 percent of standard have a poor chance of survival, whereas pups of at least 80 percent of standard weight have a high survivability. Pups born in 1972 were especially underweight, probably a result of declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities in the interior of the Superior National Forest study area.
The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the body weight was positively and non-significantly (P>0.05) correlated with egg length, egg breadth, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell ...
Schrempf, Andreas; Schossleitner, Gerold; Blaha, Armin; Leipold, Stefan
A bed was equipped with four force transducers so that the location of the Center Of Mass (COM) can be computed, when the bed contains a person. The computation of the COM and its alterations in combination with the sum of all measured forces allows to compute the person's position in bed, an activity level, the resulting body weight and the corresponding weight change rate over time (overnight and long-term) as well as simply to determine whether the person is in the bed or not. The results of several overnight measurement experiments show, that the person's position in the bed (central, left, right) can be correctly detected, the proposed activity level is a promising indicator for the sleep-activity and furthermore the initial body weight as well as the nightly weight change rate can be determined.
Tinbergen, J.M.; Boerlijst, M.C.
(1) The aim of this paper is to estimate the shape of the curve relating first year survival to nestling weight in individual great tits (Parus major) and to study the causality of this relationship. (2) Data were collected in a mainland and an island population. Nestlings were weighed and sexed in
This study was carried out to determine the body weight perception of Igbo people in University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) community. The study evaluated the body weight perception among age groups and sex categories of UNN staff and students. It examined the relationship between perception of body weight among the ...
This article reviews evidence regarding effects of psychotherapy on overall cancer survival time. Special emphasis is given to research on adverse effects of depression on cancer survival, breast cancer, and mediating psychophysiological pathways linking psychosocial support to longer survival. It reviews all published clinical trials addressing effects of psychotherapy on cancer survival, emphasizing depression, breast cancer, and psychophysiological evidence linking stress, depression, and support to cancer survival. Systematic literature review and synthesis. Eight of 15 published trials indicate that psychotherapy enhances cancer survival time. No studies show an adverse effect of psychotherapy on cancer survival. Potential psychophysiological mechanisms linking stress to shorter survival include dysregulation of diurnal cortisol, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced natural killer cell activity, shorter telomeres and lower telomerase activity, glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of p53 and BrCA1 gene expression, and sympathetic nervous system activation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Stress and support affect the course of cancer progression. What is known? Stress and support have been thought to be related to cancer risk and progression, but evidence has been mixed. Depression is a natural co-morbid condition with cancer. It has not been clear how stress and support could physiologically affect the rate of cancer progression. Immune function was not thought to have much relevance to cancer progression. Few other physiological mechanisms linking stress to cancer progression were known. What does this paper add? There is evidence from 15 RCTs indicating that effective psychosocial support improves quantity as well as quality of life with cancer. There is evidence that chronic depression predicts poorer prognosis with cancer. Dysregulated circadian cortisol patterns predict more rapid cancer progression. Inflammatory processes affect cancer
Liu, Shan; Fu, Mei R; Hu, Sophia H; Wang, Vincent Y; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M; Cleland, Chuck; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail
Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual's perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight-related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC], weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and obesity-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) were assessed. A total of 162 Chinese Americans were recruited. 52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly: 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in the three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047), WC (pbody weight significantly predicted WC (pbody weight correctly. Intervention studies for obesity management in Chinese Americans should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007
Tappy, L; Binnert, C; Schneiter, Ph
Regular physical exercise and endurance training are associated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The relationship between exercise and body-weight control is complex and incompletely understood. Regular exercise may decrease energy balance through an increase in energy expenditure or an increase in fat oxidation. It may also contribute to weight loss by modulating nutrient intake. An intriguing question that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body compositi...
Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM
This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing
Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.
Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…
Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa
Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…
Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.
The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight changes with Diets 2(cooked kudzu) and Diet 8(positive control) having the highest values(55.10g and 90.0g).
Rush, D.; Lumey, L. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Myers, B.
We aimed to estimate the relationship of prior breastfeeding to perimenopausal body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). While most long-term studies of women's body weight after reproductive experience have found a negative relationship between lactation and body weight, most short-term studies found either
Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R
Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kumru, Hatice; Santamaria, Joan; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Marti, Maria J; Tolosa, Eduardo
Body weight changes occur during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with surgical treatment, but the effect of dopaminergic treatment on weight is unknown. Body mass index (BMI), Hamilton depression scale score (HDS), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPRS-III) were measured before and 3 months after starting pramipexole in 28 PD patients. Pramipexole produced a significant weight increase, as well as motor and mood improvement (P weight gain in PD.
To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.
Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.
Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)
Peterson, M.E.; Castellano, C.A.; Rishniw, M.
Background The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. Objectives To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Animals Four hundred sixty?two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Methods Prospective cross?sectional and before?after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight...
Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P
By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli
Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited...
Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848
Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity
Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte
The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus...
Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.
Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,
Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine
Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
BROWN, RUTH E; CANNING, KARISSA L; FUNG, MICHAEL; JIANDANI, DISHAY; RIDDELL, MICHAEL C; MACPHERSON, ALISON K; KUK, JENNIFER L
... meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status...
Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.
Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut
Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.
Woods, Stephen C; D'Alessio, David A
.... Evidence Acquisition: A relatively novel insight is that satiation signals that control meal size and adiposity signals that signify the amount of body fat are distinct and interact in the hypothalamus and elsewhere...
Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leibel, R L; Rosenbaum, M; Hirsch, J
No current treatment for obesity reliably sustains weight loss, perhaps because compensatory metabolic processes resist the maintenance of the altered body weight. We examined the effects of experimental perturbations of body weight on energy expenditure to determine whether they lead to metabolic changes and whether obese subjects and those who have never been obese respond similarly. We repeatedly measured 24-hour total energy expenditure, resting and nonresting energy expenditure, and the thermic effect of feeding in 18 obese subjects and 23 subjects who had never been obese. The subjects were studied at their usual body weight and after losing 10 to 20 percent of their body weight by underfeeding or gaining 10 percent by overfeeding. Maintenance of a body weight at a level 10 percent or more below the initial weight was associated with a mean (+/- SD) reduction in total energy expenditure of 6 +/- 3 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P weight at a level 10 percent above the usual weight was associated with an increase in total energy expenditure of 9 +/- 7 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P weight gain. These changes in energy expenditure were not related to the degree of adiposity or the sex of the subjects. Maintenance of a reduced or elevated body weight is associated with compensatory changes in energy expenditure, which oppose the maintenance of a body weight that is different from the usual weight. These compensatory changes may account for the poor long-term efficacy of treatments for obesity.
This paper offers a study of possible favoritism of normal-weight individuals when firms make decisions on hiring, firing and promoting. Most existing studies use a wage equation to document dispersion in wages between normal- and overweight, however little is known about the reason for dispersion...... is used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further...
Full Text Available The majority of laboratory animals were transported from commercial breeders to a research facility by ground transportation. During the transportation, many biological functions and systems can be affected by stress. In this experiment, the change of body weight during the transportation was measured and the recovery periods from the transportation stress established based on the body weight changes. Total 676 laboratory animals which were aged between 3 to 9 wk old were studied. The transportation time taken from container packing to unpacking the container was approximately 24 h. The temperature of animal container was constantly maintained by air-conditioning and heating equipment. Rats were found to be more sensitive than mice. The body weight of rats was significantly decreased 3.71% (p<0.05 compared to the body weight of mice which decreased 0.9% There was no significant difference between the strains in the same species. When the changes of body weights were compared between delivery days, C57BL/6 mice showed the most variable changes compared to other species and strains. Consequently, C57BL/6 was more sensitive to stress than the other strains and the transportation process needs to be standardized to reduce between day variability. To establish the recovery periods from transportation stress, the body weight changes were measured during the acclimation period. Although the body weight of animals decreased during transportation, animals recovered their weight loss after the next day.
Beyer, P L; Palarino, M Y; Michalek, D; Busenbark, K; Koller, W C
To compare reports of weight loss and actual measures of body composition to predict nutritional risk in patients with Parkinson's disease and matched control subjects. Patients and control subjects were asked to record prior changes in weight and activity. Body composition was then compared in both groups using percentage ideal body weight (IBW), body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness, midarm muscle circumference, and percentage body fat (BF) as determined by bioelectrical impedance. Fifty-one free-living patients with Parkinson's disease and 49 matched control subjects were recruited from the neurology clinic and the surrounding area. We anticipated that reported weight loss would be greater and actual measures of body composition would show greater nutritional risk in the patients with Parkinson's disease. chi 2 Analysis was used to determine differences in the ratio of patients and control subjects who lost weight. Paired t tests were used to compare amount of weight change and measures of body composition. Correlations were performed among measures of weight change, body composition, and associated disease factors. Patients with Parkinson's disease were four times more likely to report weight loss greater than 10 lb than the matched control subjects (odds ratio > 4.2). Patients reported a mean (+/- standard deviation) weight loss of 7.2 +/- 2.9 lb and control subjects reported a mean weight gain of 2.1 +/- 1.6 lb (P weight change and percentage IBW, BMI, TSF, percentage BF, and stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS/APPLICATION: Patients with Parkinson's disease appear to be at greater nutritional risk than a matched population. Simple screening and assessment tools can be used to detect nutritional risk.
Doaa K. Hussin
Children;. Obesity;. Body image. Abstract Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body ...
Andrea eKistner; Eugénie eLhommée; Paul eKrack
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Compr...
Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopami...
Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... rate and changes in pulse rate may not be an important modifier nor a clinically useful predictor of outcome in an individual elderly cardiovascular obese subject exposed to weight management....... infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death. Time-to-event analyses of the POE were performed using Cox regression models. RESULTS: During the initial 6-week sibutramine treatment period, the induced pulse rate increase was related to weight change (1.9±7.7 beats per...
Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E
Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.
Hence weight gain during the first year of HD treatment that is a strong predictor of survival in our experience (reported in another abstract is influenced by the dry weight quest. In our practice, the systolic BP decrease is related to fluid removal and is associated with better patient survival, opposite to the reverse epidemiology concept. Further studies using bioimpedance are necessary to confirm that an optimal fluid status may improve the nutritional status in HD patients.
Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...
Reinders, Ilse; Visser, Marjolein; Schaap, Laura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. RECENT FINDINGS:
V. V. Ptushkin
Full Text Available There is an evidence of interaction between the hemostasis system and tumor progression factors. It is known that in addition to the fibrin formation and platelets activation, thrombin can influence many cells function interacting with protease-activating receptors including tumor cells. These receptors are involved in the malignant cell phenotype formation (adhesion, proliferation, proteolysis. Thrombin can also affect angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cells penetration through basal membrane and its migration with new vessels formation. Furthermore, it can cause the release of main neoangiogenesis promoter – vascular endothelial growth factor. All of the above and many other linkages of coagulation and tumor create a theoretical background of possible affecting tumor by regulation of the coagulation activity. Thepromise of this approach is controversial, but there is some clinical and experimental evidence of their effectiveness. The most used group ofdrugs for this purpose was heparins. Several retrospective studies have shown a benefit of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH over unfractionated heparin in cancer patient survival. The appearance of a new heparins group – ultra LMWH are of interest from this point ofview and their possible use in cancer patients. To date bemiparin and semuloparin are used in clinic. Both (bemiparin about 3600 kDa,semuloparin 3000 kDa have substancially reduced molecular weight as compared with the smallest of LMWH – enoxaparin (4600 kDa.Use of bemiparin in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy resulted in increased of 2-year survival rate compared to the control group (68.6 % vs. 29.4 %, p = 0.0042.
V. V. Ptushkin
Full Text Available There is an evidence of interaction between the hemostasis system and tumor progression factors. It is known that in addition to the fibrin formation and platelets activation, thrombin can influence many cells function interacting with protease-activating receptors including tumor cells. These receptors are involved in the malignant cell phenotype formation (adhesion, proliferation, proteolysis. Thrombin can also affect angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cells penetration through basal membrane and its migration with new vessels formation. Furthermore, it can cause the release of main neoangiogenesis promoter – vascular endothelial growth factor. All of the above and many other linkages of coagulation and tumor create a theoretical background of possible affecting tumor by regulation of the coagulation activity. Thepromise of this approach is controversial, but there is some clinical and experimental evidence of their effectiveness. The most used group ofdrugs for this purpose was heparins. Several retrospective studies have shown a benefit of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH over unfractionated heparin in cancer patient survival. The appearance of a new heparins group – ultra LMWH are of interest from this point ofview and their possible use in cancer patients. To date bemiparin and semuloparin are used in clinic. Both (bemiparin about 3600 kDa,semuloparin 3000 kDa have substancially reduced molecular weight as compared with the smallest of LMWH – enoxaparin (4600 kDa.Use of bemiparin in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy resulted in increased of 2-year survival rate compared to the control group (68.6 % vs. 29.4 %, p = 0.0042.
Flatt, J P
Energy is a concept of universal importance. In applying it to body weight regulation, the focus has been on energy balance and how this balance is affected by intakes and expenditures. However, energy is an abstract concept without biological equivalent and applying it to explain body weight regulation has led to various misconceptions and created intellectual obstacles in understanding the obesity problem. When nutrient and substrate interactions are considered, instead, a number of important issues pertaining to body weight regulation and to the obesity epidemic can be much more pertinently addressed.
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post-bariatric....... The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....
Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A
Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Body Image Assessment for Obesity silhouette charts were used to assess body dissatisfaction. WLEs were categorised according to personal (ideal, happiness, satisfaction, weight history), lifestyle (fitness) and social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P body weight, whereas the proportion was significantly higher in the obese group (17 subjects; 74%). Subjects derived the greatest WLEs from mass media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Toddler may have poor appetite and picky eater stage. It will influence the children food intake and thereby they loss weight. As a result they may get a growth and developmental disorder. Curcuma honey can increase appetite and influence body weight. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of giving curcuma honey in increasing body weight in toddler. Method: Quasy experimental design was used in this study. Sample was 10 toddlers and divided into two groups. Independent variable was the giving of curcuma honey and dependent variable was the increase of body weight in toddler (1–3 years. Data were collected by appetite and bodyweight observation and analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test with significance level ofα ≤ 0.05. Result: Result showed that the giving of curcuma honey had a significant effect to increase toddler’s body weight (p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that curcuma honey could increase body weight of toddler by increasing the toddler’s appetite. Honey contains high level of glucose and fructose that can help digestion proccess and curcuma contains curcuminoid and asiri oil that help the work of the bile and pancreas, that made the increasing in apetite and fi nally the increasing in body weight.
Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza
The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose body weight and nonoverweight children tend to gain body weight.
Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.
Lowe, Michael R; Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Stice, Eric
Background: Body weight in lower animals and humans is highly stable despite a very large flux in energy intake and expenditure over time. Conversely, the existence of higher-than-average variability in weight may indicate a disruption in the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic weight regulation. Objective: In a sample chosen for weight-gain proneness, we evaluated whether weight variability over a 6-mo period predicted subsequent weight change from 6 to 24 mo. Design: A total of 171 nonobese women were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study in which weight was measured 4 times over 24 mo. The initial 3 weights were used to calculate weight variability with the use of a root mean square error approach to assess fluctuations in weight independent of trajectory. Linear regression analysis was used to examine whether weight variability in the initial 6 mo predicted weight change 18 mo later. Results: Greater weight variability significantly predicted amount of weight gained. This result was unchanged after control for baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change from baseline to 6 mo and for measures of disinhibition, restrained eating, and dieting. Conclusions: Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. Future research is needed to evaluate the reliability of weight variability as a predictor of future weight gain and the sources of its predictive effect. The trial on which this study is based is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00456131. PMID:26354535
Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than
Body weight of does before mating ranged from 13.0 kg to 59.6 kg (average = 34.6 kg) among animals, while body weight at scanning ranged from 18.0 kg to 67.0 kg (average = 38.6 kg). All reproductive parameters recorded had a typical inverted U-shaped relationship with age of dam, where the 2- and 3-year-old does ...
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun
We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Stevens, Serena D; Herbozo, Sylvia; Morrell, Holly Er; Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin
The goal of this study was to examine lifetime weight stigmatization as a mediator of the relationships among current body mass index, childhood overweight, depression, and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 299 female undergraduates (mean age = 20.52, standard deviation = 2.57; mean body mass index = 23.29, standard deviation = 4.51). Weight stigmatization significantly mediated the relationships between body mass index and body dissatisfaction, body mass index and depressive symptoms, and childhood overweight and depressive symptoms. The model accounted for 44.7 percent of the variance in depressive symptoms and 28.2 percent of the variance in body image dissatisfaction. Findings indicated that a decrease in weight stigmatization may predict better mental health.
Mohd. Hafiz, A.W.
Full Text Available In the rural areas facilities for farm animal weighing are often difficult to find and the construction of such facilities is relatively expensive. Therefore a study was conducted with the objective to estimate body weight of Brakmas and Bali cattle using prediction equations of linear body measurements. Data of body weight and body measurements, namely withers height, body length and heart girth from 279 heads of Brakmas (age 1 to 10 y old and 74 heads of Bali (age 1 to 10 y old cows were collected. The animals were in average body condition of 3 (1= emaciated, 3= moderate fat cover, and 5= excess fat cover. The correlation analysis showed that body weight of Brakmas cattle was highly correlated with its body length, heart girth and withers height with the correlation coefficients of 0.967, 0.964 and 0.942, respectively, while body weight in Bali cattle had the highest correlation with heart girth followed by body length and height at withers with the correlation coefficient of 0.985, 0.954 and 0.945, respectively. Regression analysis showed that body length provided a good estimate of live body weight with high precision as it accounted for 91.6% of the variability in body weight in Brakmas cattle, while heart girth accounted 97.1% of body weight variability in Bali cattle. The combination of body length-withers height, body length-heart girth and body length-withers height-heart girth showed an improvement in terms of predictive precision with the changes of 0.21%, 0.21% and 0.44%, respectively, in coeficient of determination (R2 compared to a single measure of body length in Brakmas cattle. The combination of heart girth-body length did not show any change in R2 in Bali cattle compared to a single measure of heart girth. Combining heart girth-height at withers and the combination of all body measurements showed the increment in coefficients of determination at 0.41% and 0.51%, respectively as compared to heart girth. Although the combination
Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D
A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of ...
Dumesnil, C; Dauchet, L; Ruidavets, J B; Bingham, A; Arveiler, D; Ferrières, J; Ducimetière, P; Haas, B; Bongard, V; Wagner, A; Amouyel, P; Dallongeville, J
The impact of alcohol on health depends on both the total amount ingested per week and the drinking pattern. Our goal was to assess the relationship between drinking occasions and anthropometric indicators of adiposity. For this cross-sectional study, 7,855 men aged 50-59 years were recruited between 1991 and 1993 in France. Clinical and anthropometric data were obtained in a standardized clinical examination by trained staff. Alcohol intake was assessed by a questionnaire recording daily consumption of each type of alcohol during a typical week. 75% of the participants drank alcohol daily (264.7 ml per week). For a given total alcohol intake and after adjustment of confounders, the number of drinking episodes was inversely correlated with body mass index (p 280 ml/week), the intake was almost always daily. The results were similar for wine and beer consumption. Our findings suggest that drinking occasion is a risk indicator of obesity independent of total alcohol intake. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Background: Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight ...
Gabel, Kathe A.; Kearney, Kathy
Provides an overview of research about excessive preoccupation with body image, body weight, and dieting in children, adolescents, and young adults. Provides counselor information concerning the continuum from disordered eating to serious eating disorders. Suggests strategies for counselors to utilize when dealing with students experiencing these…
L. P. Shelestova
Full Text Available Deficiency of a woman's body weight is in direct proportion to the mass of adipose tissue in the body and leads to a significant restructuring of the reproductive function endocrine mechanisms regulation. Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of the elaborated complex pregravid preparation of women with body weight deficiency. Materials and Methods. We observed 130 women with body weight deficiency, who have visited the antenatal clinic for the purpose of planning pregnancy, 65 of them were treated with the proposed complex of therapeutic and preventive measures, 65 - traditional measures and 35 women with normal body weight. All women were determined by pituitary and ovarian hormones serum content and bone and mineral metabolism indices. The peculiarities of the proposed pregravid preparation are health food (mainly a protein-carbohydrate, daily calorie diet no less then 35 kcal/kg and metabolic correction (prescription of combined cholecalciferol and calcium carbonate drug, which reduces in bone resorption and increases in bone density. Results. It has been noted that hormonal therapy prescription for women with deficiency of body weight, could improve ovarian hormones and prolactin indices, which influenced on menstrual cycle normalization, ovulation induction, and accordingly contributed the pregnancy. The total content of calcium, parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and vitamin D in women treated with the proposed measures, with the inclusion of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, did not differ from women with normal body weight, and whereas women who received traditional therapy, they were reduced significantly. Using the elaborated system promoted a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of spontaneous abortions from 16.3% to 2.0% (P=0.015. Conclusions. Applying elaborated complex of therapeutic and preventive measures for women with low body weight, which additionally to the hormonal status normalization includes health food
Guardia, D; Metral, M; Pigeyre, M; Bauwens, I; Cottencin, O; Luyat, M
Behavioural therapy and bariatric surgery often produce rapid, massive body weight loss that may impact a patient's ability to gauge his/her new body shape. Although the patient is aware of the weight loss, he/she continues to feel obese, as if there was a conflict between the previous body schema and the new one. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed major body distortions after massive weight loss. Psychometric and behavioural assessments revealed strong disturbances in several tasks involving body representation. In particular, we observed abnormal behaviour in a body-scaled action task. Our findings suggest that the rapidity of our patient's weight loss prevented her central nervous system from correctly updating the body schema.
Clark, B. C.; Baker, A. L.; Cheng, A. F.; Clemett, S. J.; McKay, D.; McSween, H. Y.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, P.; Zolensky, M.
The ability of living organisms to survive on the smaller bodies in our solar system is examined. The three most significant sterilizing effects include ionizing radiation, prolonged extreme vacuum, and relentless thermal inactivation. Each could be effectively lethal, and even more so in combination, if organisms at some time resided in the surfaces of airless small bodies located near or in the inner solar system. Deep within volatile-rich bodies, certain environments theoretically might provide protection of dormant organisms against these sterilizing factors. Sterility of surface materials to tens or hundreds of centimeters of depth appears inevitable, and to greater depths for bodies which have resided for long periods sunward of about 2 A.U.
Clark, B C; Baker, A L; Cheng, A F; Clemett, S J; McKay, D; McSween, H Y; Pieters, C M; Thomas, P; Zolensky, M
The ability of living organisms to survive on the smaller bodies in our solar system is examined. The three most significant sterilizing effects include ionizing radiation, prolonged extreme vacuum, and relentless thermal inactivation. Each could be effectively lethal, and even more so in combination, if organisms at some time resided in the surfaces of airless small bodies located near or in the inner solar system. Deep within volatile-rich bodies, certain environments theoretically might provide protection of dormant organisms against these sterilizing factors. Sterility of surface materials to tens or hundreds of centimeters of depth appears inevitable, and to greater depths for bodies which have resided for long periods sunward of about 2 A.U.
Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.
Bosomworth, N John
To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option.
Tanner-Smith, Emily E.
Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have "spillover effects"; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID
Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.
Gaujoux, Sébastien; Torres, Javiera; Olson, Sara; Winston, Corrine; Gonen, Mithat; Brennan, Murray F; Klimstra, David S; D'Angelica, Michael; DeMatteo, Ronald; Fong, Yuman; House, Michael; Jarnagin, William; Kurtz, Robert C; Allen, Peter J
Epidemiologic studies have reported a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk, but clinical relevance of obesity and/or body fat distribution on tumor characteristics and cancer-related outcome remain controversial. We sought to assess the influence of obesity and body fat distribution on pathologic characteristics and survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Demographic and biometric data were collected on 328 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In a subset of patients, pancreatic fatty infiltration and fibrosis were assessed pathologically, and visceral fat area (VFA) was evaluated. Influence of BMI and body fat distribution on tumor characteristics and survival were evaluated. A significant positive correlation between BMI and VFA was observed, with a wide range of VFA value within each BMI class. According to BMI or VFA distribution, there were no significant differences in patient characteristics, intraoperative or perioperative outcome, or pathologic characteristics, with the exception of significantly higher blood loss in patients with an increased body weight or VFA. Unadjusted overall and disease-free survival between BMI class and VFA quartile were not significantly different. In this study, obesity and body fat distribution were not correlated with specific tumor characteristics or cancer-related outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.
Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of body weight and feeding level on the changeof body composition of indigenous ram. This research was expected to establish the efficient feeding levelto produce high growth rate and meat quality of ram in tropical environment. Sixteen rams with differentbody weight (BW were divided into 2 groups, i.e. light BW (10 + 1.47 kg and heavy BW (18 + 1.18 kg.The experimental design was Split Plot design with two factors. The main plot was body weight (light andheavy and the sub plot was level of feeding (FL, 1x maintenance and 1.5 x maintenance. The parametersmeasured in this experiment were live weight gain and body composition. The results of this study showedthat body water, body protein and body fat were significantly higher (P<0.01 in heavy body weight (HBWthan those in light body weight (LBW, and was higher in 1.5xM than those 1xM. Ram of HW and LW hadsimilar change rate of physical composition. Ram given 1.5xM had higher rate of change of body fat andbody water than those given feed at maintenance level. It can be concluded that there was no interactionbetween BW and FL on the change of body water, body protein and body fat. Ram of HBW and LBW hadsimilar rate of change of physical composition. Level of feeding affected body water content, the higherlevel of feeding resulted in fatter ram, leading to less body water content.
Jayawardena, Ranil; Byrne, Nuala M; Soares, Mario J; Katulanda, Prasad; Hills, Andrew P
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between self-perception of body weight, weight loss approaches and measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample of 600 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was used to assess demographic characteristics, body weight perception, abdominal obesity perception and details of weight losing practices. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured and Asian anthropometric cut-offs for BMI and WC were applied. Body weight mis-perception was common among Sri Lankan adults. Two-thirds of overweight males and 44.7% females considered themselves as ‘about right weight’, moreover, 4.1% and 7.6% overweight men and women reported themselves as being ‘underweight’. Over one third of both male and female obese subjects perceived themselves as ‘about right weight’ or ‘underweight’. Nearly 32% of centrally obese men and women perceived that their WC is about right. People who perceived themselves as overweight or very overweight (n = 154) only 63.6% tried to lose weight (n = 98), and one quarter of adults sought advice from professionals (n = 39). Body weight misperception was common among underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults in Sri Lanka. Over 2/3 of overweight and 1/3 of obese Sri Lankan adults believe they are in right weight category or are under weight. Â© 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . All rights reserved.
Kooy, van der K.
This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for
Fitra Aji Pamungkas
Full Text Available Genetic parameter estimation for production traits are important in designing genetic selection program for Kampung chicken. The aimed of this research is to study heritability, accuracy of selection, and phenotypic and genotypic correlation of hatched weight and body weight at 12 weeks of Kampung chicken. Five hundred and fourteen head of Kampung chicken consist of 13 cocks, 65 hens, and 436 chicks were used in this study. Nested design analysis were used as described by Becker. The heritability estimation of hatched weight was calculated based on paternal half-sib, maternal half-sib, and full-sib corelation and it’s values were 0.35, 0.37, and 0.36 respectively. Heritability of body weight at 12 weeks based on paternal half-sib, maternal half-sib, and full-sib corelation were 0.27, 0.18, and 0.22 respectively. Selection accuracy of hatched weight were 59-61%, and selection accuracy of body weight at 12 weeks were 42 up to 52%. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation of hatched weight and body weight at 12 weeks estimation based on paternal half-sib, maternal half-sib, full-sib corelation were 0.29, 0.78, 0.51, and 0.17 respectively, indicated selection on one trait will affected the response on other traits positively.
Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A
Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB
Auld, M Christopher
I estimate models of endogenous social interactions in body weight at the county and state levels. The results show that dispersion in body weight across time and space in the U.S. is not clearly excessive, and that much of this variation can be attributed to observable individual and regional characteristics. Models exploiting variants of methods proposed by Glaeser et al. (2003), fixed effects, instrumental variable and split-sample instrumental variable methods to address endogeneity suggest that there are not large social multipliers on body weight outcomes. The evidence suggests there may be small multipliers on BMI, obesity, and morbid obesity. There is no evidence that underweight is subject to a social multiplier. The results are sensitive to specification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study
Kocarnik, Jonathan M; Hua, Xinwei; Hardikar, Sheetal; Robinson, Jamaica; Lindor, Noralane M; Win, Aung Ko; Hopper, John L; Figueiredo, Jane C; Potter, John D; Campbell, Peter T; Gallinger, Steven; Cotterchio, Michelle; Adams, Scott V; Cohen, Stacey A; Phipps, Amanda I; Newcomb, Polly A
Body weight is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and survival, but to the authors' knowledge, the impact of long-term postdiagnostic weight change is unclear. Herein, the authors investigated whether weight change over the 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC is associated with survival. CRC cases diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified through 4 population-based cancer registry sites. Participants enrolled within 2 years of diagnosis and reported their height and weight 2 years prior. Follow-up questionnaires were administered approximately 5 years after diagnosis. Associations between change in weight (in kg) or body mass index (BMI) with overall and CRC-specific survival were estimated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage of disease, baseline BMI, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, time between diagnosis and enrollment, and study site. At the 5-year postdiagnostic survey, 2049 participants reported higher (53%; median plus 5 kg), unchanged (12%), or lower (35%; median -4 kg) weight. Over a median of 5.1 years of subsequent follow-up (range, 0.3-9.9 years), 344 participants died (91 of CRC). Long-term weight loss (per 5 kg) was found to be associated with poorer overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.21) and CRC-specific survival (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.39). Significantly lower survival was similarly observed for relative weight loss (>5% vs ≤5% change), BMI reduction (per 1 unit), or BMI category change (overweight to normal vs remaining overweight). Weight loss 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC was found to be significantly associated with decreased long-term survival, suggesting the importance of avoiding weight loss in survivors of CRC. Future research should attempt to further evaluate this association, accounting for whether this weight change was intentional or represents a marker of declining health. Cancer 2017
Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal
Background: Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, finding effective dietary strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance is of great interest. High protein diets are reported to protect against diet-induced obesity, however less is known about how different protein sources affect body...... taurine and glycine. Conclusion: In summary, our results show that consumption of lean seafood is less obesogenic than lean meat. The benefits of lean seafood consumption were associated with increased spontaneous locomotor activity and possible increased satiety....
Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang
Energy balance, the relationship between energy intake and expenditure, is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene for BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383
Mehra, Karishma; Berkowitz, Alyssa; Sanft, Tara
Diet, physical activity, and body weight have been shown to play an important role in cancer survivorship. The impact of each of these lifestyle factors differs slightly among cancer types, and adherence to recommended diet and physical activity guidelines has been associated with positive outcomes, including decrease in the risk of cancer recurrence and improvement of quality of life. Although there are compelling data that appropriate diet, physical activity, and body weight have beneficial effects in cancer survivorship, additional trials are needed to understand the relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang
Energy balance--that is, the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure--is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance in order to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene encoding BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity.
Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C
Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not
Adámková, V; Hubácek, J A; Lánská, V; Vrablík, M; Králová Lesná, I; Suchánek, P; Zimmelová, P; Veleminský, M
Some studies have suggested that there could be an association between the duration of sleep in humans and development of the obesity. We have analyzed the group of the probands (n = 3970, 2038 males and 1932 females, aged 18-65 years), with permanent address in the Central or South Bohemia. We ascertained the relationship between the duration of their sleep (obtained per questionnaire) and body mass index, weight, height, the value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist and hip circumference, the values of total-, high density- and low density- cholesterol, thyroid hormone and body exercise performed. The optimal values of the body mass index (and optimal body weight) were associated with the duration of sleep 7 hours per night (P sleep duration.
Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
B. Bayram; GÜLER, O.; M. Yanar; O. Akbulut
Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE) and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficien...
Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J
We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.
Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M
Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M
The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P loss of muscle mass. Cats showed increases in body weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P muscle wasting persisted in 45% of treated cats. Most hyperthyroid cats lose body weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Delom, F; Danner-Boucher, I; Dromer, C; Thumerel, M; Marthan, R; Nourry-Lecaplain, L; Magnan, A; Jougon, J; Fessart, D
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between donor-to-recipient weight ratio and post-transplantation survival. From February 1988 to November 2006, 255 adult bilateral lung transplantation patients from 2 different centers were retrospectively analyzed. The cohort was divided into 4 groups depending on the quartile ranges of the donor-to-recipient weight ratio. A time-to-event analysis was performed for risk of death after transplantation conditional on 5-year survival using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. The mean weight ratio for the study cohort was 1.23 ± 0.39. For all lung transplant recipients during the study period, survival rate at 5 years was 58%. Median survival was 6.3 years in the cohort subgroup with weight ratio ratio >1.23. Weight ratio >1.23 recipients had a significant survival advantage out to 5 years compared with weight ratio ratio. Weight ratio strata affected overall survival, with quartile 1 (lower weight ratio recipients) experiencing the lowest 5-year survival (39.1%), followed by quartile 2 (57.8%), quartile 4 (68.2%), and quartile 3 (70.3%) recipients. The effect of weight ratio strata on survival was statistically significant for the quartile 1 recipients (lower quartile) as compared with the 3 other quartiles. Our findings show a statistically significant effect of donor-to-recipient weight ratios on bilateral lung transplantation survival. A higher donor-to-recipient weight ratio was associated with improved survival after bilateral lung transplantation and likely reflects a mismatch between a relatively overweight donor vs recipient. In contrast, a lower donor-to-recipient ratio was associated with increased mortality after bilateral lung transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa
We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India...
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on body weight and morphometric traits of crossbred buck kids produced from a mating of Red Sokoto(RS) and West African Dwarf(WAD) goats in a humid tropical environment. Results showed that the main crossbred (RS x WAD) buck kids had significantly ...
Records kept by the Bauchi Meat Company, on 2,264 cattle slaughtered for meat, from 1982 to 1984, were analysed to study the influence of season and year on the weight of the body, carcass, bones, wholesale and retail cuts, and dressing percentage. Both season and year showed significant (P< 0.01) influence on traits ...
Variance components resulting from direct additive genetic effects, maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects, as well as the relationship between direct and maternal genetic effects for several body weight and fleece traits, were estimated by DFREML procedures. Traits analysed included ...
Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...
The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an aqueous ethanol ...
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M
Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources,. University of Tehran, Karaj 31587111674111, Iran. [Gholizadeh M., Rahimi-Mianji G. and Nejati-Javaremi A. 2015 Genomewide association study of body weight traits in Baluchi sheep. J. Genet. 94, 143–146].
Across flock genetic parameter estimation for yearling body weight and fleece. ... Accurate genetic parameter estimates are needed upon which to perform multiple-trait across flock breed analyses. Genetic parameters for ... Keywords: Direct heritability, maternal effects, genotype x environment interaction, correlations
Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong
Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…
DR. TONUKARI NYEROVWO
Nov 2, 2011 ... The purposes of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits and to develop a suitable model for the data set ... Key words: Sheep, body weight, genetic parameters, maternal effects. INTRODUCTION ... lambs were kept indoors and allowed to nurse their mothers twice a day. The suckling ...
Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers was investigated in a feeding experiment using 135 broilers of Abor acre strain in a completely randomised design that lasted for eight weeks at the Teaching and Research farm, Department of Agricultural education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Lagos ...
The estimation of Holstein heifer body weight (BW) from heart girth (HG) measurements is needed as many farms do not have animal scales to make the management decisions that require BW. The correlation between HG and BW is known to vary with differing animal conformation. The previous equation to co...
Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W
Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology.
Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Introduction. Genetic evaluation of animals has been based on several traits depending on the species such as milk characteristics, body weight, feed intake and longevity. A trait that changes with age as a trajectory ...
Two 8-week feeding trials were carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing an inadequate commercial diet available in Eritrea. with fishmeal produced locally by sun-drying and grinding on the body weight gain of White Leghorn chicks. The commercial diet consisted 'of a mixture of sorghum, wheat middlings, ...
The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for this study ...
A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol content of broilers. The EM was added to drinking water at a rate of 1 part EM to 1000 parts of water. The two treatments ...
Feb 21, 2012 ... Body weight and carcass traits were under intensive selection for more .... All previous muscles and organs were also calculated as ..... Sel. Evol. J. 38: 85-97. Liu X, Li H, Wang S, Hu X, Gao Y, Wang Q, Li N, Wang Y, Zhang H.
Jan 26, 2012 ... Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were.
The study assessed fast food consumption pattern (FFCP) and body weight status among the undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, living in different halls of residence on the university campus during the Rain semester of 2011/2012 session. The study employed survey research design to give an ...
South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Prediction of the body weight of Nguni goats. S.C. Slippers, B.A. Letty, ...
Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...
Sep 3, 2008 ... The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an.
Two 7-week trials were carried out to examine the effect of supplementing the existing feed of weaned pigs in Eritrea with locally produced fishmeal on the body weight gain of the pigs. The diet of the weaned pigs consisted of 'bakery waste', wheat middlings and wheat bran to make 62, 22, and I5%, respectively, by air-dry ...
To elucidate the genetic mechanism of growth trait in Takifugu rubripes during ontogeny, developmental genetic analysis of body weight was conducted by mixed genetic model with additive-dominance effects, using complete diallel cross with three different strains of T. rubripes from Laizhou Shandong, Tangshan Hebei ...
Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte
The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L
The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties.
Complex interactions between the brain and peripheral tissues mediate the effective control of energy balance and body weight. Hypothalamic and hindbrain neural circuits integrate peripheral signals informing the nutritional status of the animal and in response regulate nutrient intake and energy utilization. Obesity and its many medical complications emerge from the dysregulation of energy homeostasis. Excessive weight gain might also arise from alterations in reward systems of the brain that drive consumption of calorie dense, palatable foods in the absence of an energy requirement. Several neurotrophins, most notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor, have been implicated in the molecular and cellular processes underlying body weight regulation. Here, we review investigations interrogating their roles in energy balance and reward centers of the brain impacting feeding behavior and energy expenditure.
Thais Costa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Machado, Thais Costa; Nascimento, Viviane G; Silva, Janaína P C da; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio
to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW). probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59) composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI) ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity). The arm muscle area (AMA) and the arm fat area (AFA) were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110) and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44). The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa) (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107). The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047). among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Jucelio Peter Duarte
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p103 Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P. americana couples were formed and subject to: I no water or food; II no food; III no water; and IV control group. Insects were isolated according to the groups, which were weighed at the beginning and end of the stress conditions. They remained under these conditions until all individuals in each test group were dead. Stress conditions caused reduction in survival time when compared to the control group. Adults with higher body mass survived longer when deprived only of food, while among those lacking water, weight had no influence on survival. Total weight loss was greater among individuals deprived of water than those deprived only of food.
Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.
Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B; Pomp, Daniel
To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTLs. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity.
Leger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; de Sanctis, Alice
Sleep participates in the regulation of body weight. The amount of sleep and synchronization of the biological clock are both necessary to achieve the energy balance and the secretion of hormones that contribute to weight regulation. In this review, we first reconsider what normal physiological sleep is and what the normative values of sleep are in the general population. Second, we explain how the biological clock regulates the hormones that may be involved in weight control. Third, we provide some recent data on how sleep may be disturbed by sleep disorders or reduced by sleep debt with consequences on weight. Finally, we explore the relationships between sleep debt and obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic.
Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B
Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.
Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.
The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In
Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.
Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving
Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…
Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.
(Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds
Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo
Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…
Patients with psoriasis, in particular those requiring systemic treatment, tend to be above normal weight. Obesity is associated with psoriasis and contributes significantly to the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Most biologics used to treat psoriasis in the European Union are fixed dosed treatments: etanercept, adalimumab and ustekinumab. Apart from infliximab, dosing regimens do not account for weight, with the exception of ustekinumab, the dose of which should be doubled in patients weighing more than 100 kg. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on the association of obesity and psoriasis, and the effect of body weight or obesity on the efficacy of biologics as well as their practical implications in daily practice. A review was performed of the literature relating to obesity and psoriasis and weight effect, including subgroup analyses, on the efficacy of the biologicals available for treatment of psoriasis in the European Union, namely adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab. Optimal responses with fixed dose biological agents are less frequent in patients with increasing weight, especially above 100 kg, who account for approximately 25% to 30% of patients in clinical trials. Body weight effect on drug clearance might partly account for this fact. The data are limited to subgroup analyses, often with no statistical significance reported. Further studies, including weight-based subanalysis of clinical trials and pharmacoeconomic evaluations, are required to assess the issue of body weight and response to therapy of the biologics. Infliximab response appears to be independent of body mass index. Possible weight-based dose adjustments and the impact of treatment on body weight changes also require additional study. © 2011 The Author. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Hill, J O
We previously developed a model of dietary obesity in adult male rats where duration of feeding a high fat diet (HFD; 60 percent of calories from fat) influences reversibility of the obesity following a reduction in dietary fat. In the model, rats fed the HFD for 4 months show an apparent complete reversal of obesity when switched to a low fat diet (LFD; 14 percent of calories from fat), but rats fed the HFD for 7 months show persistent obesity even when switched to the LFD. This model of dietary obesity is useful for studies of energy balance and energy requirements during obesity development and reversal. In the present study, rats fed the HFD for 4 or 7 months were switched to the LFD and, after weights stabilized, were subjected to food restriction followed by ad libitum refeeding. Food restriction (15 g/day of the LFD, or about 60 percent of usual control food intake) continued until body weights of the groups stabilized at new, reduced levels (about 2-2.5 months). This was followed by ad libitum refeeding of the LFD for 3--4.5 months. Rats fed the HFD for 4 months showed complete obesity reversal after 2 months of eating the LFD. They showed a similar response to food restriction to LFD controls, but surprisingly regained significantly more body weight, body fat and total body energy during refeeding than LFD controls. Rats fed the HFD for 7 months remained heavier and fatter than LFD controls after 2 months of eating the LFD. Despite losing more carcass energy than controls during food restriction, their body weights and body energy content stabilized at higher levels than LFD controls. During refeeding, they regained their obese state relative to controls. These results demonstrate that: (1) the duration of HFD feeding is an important factor in the reversibility of the obese state; (2) sustained HFD feeding produces an obese state that is defended more by a greater restoration of carcass energy during refeeding than by a preservation of carcass energy
pressure (NCPAP) with or without surfactant, and Apgar scores. Results. A total of 382 neonates were included in the study. Overall survival was 26.5%. e main causes of death, as per the Perinatal Problem Identi.cation Programme (PPIP) classi.cation, were extreme multi-organ immaturity and respiratory distress syndrome.
Duda Joan L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in
Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.
Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.
Synopsis Despite its growing pervasiveness, the health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and under-studied. A defined treatment for geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related co-morbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This restrospective article highlights our current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. As the findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions continue to accumulate, we are moving closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092
Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A
To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.
Lurz, P.W.W.; Lloyd, A.J.
Seasonal body weight changes were investigated in red and grey squirrels in spruce-dominated conifer plantations in the north of England. Annual seed food availability, particularly in the spruce plantations, varies markedly and is characterized by years with large cone crops (‘mast crops’) followed
Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie
Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.
Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese , highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622
Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Rodriguez, Antony
Summary A recent study published in Cell may represent a paradigm shift in the way we look at cardiac metabolism: The study identifies the heart as an endocrine organ that regulates body weight. It raises two important questions: What would be the “slimming factor” released by the heart that regulates fuel homeostasis in distant organs? What are the possible mechanisms directing metabolic energy to either storage or dissipation? PMID:22904039
Sabia, Joseph J; Rees, Daniel I
This note uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the relationship between body weight and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and individual fixed effects estimates provide evidence that overweight and obese white women are paid substantially less per hour than their slimmer counterparts. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation confirms this relationship, suggesting that it is not driven by time-variant unobservables. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Toxic effect of carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology, and some biochemical parameters. M.K.C. Duru*1, B. A.Amadi2, C.T.Amadi3, K.C.Lele2, J. C.Anudike4, O.R.Chima-Ezika1, K. Osuocha1. 1Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria; 2Department of Biochemistry, Imo State ...
Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese , highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models.
Kondo, Tomoo; Kishi, Mikiya; Fushimi, Takashi; Ugajin, Shinobu; Kaga, Takayuki
Acetic acid (AcOH), a main component of vinegar, recently was found to suppress body fat accumulation in animal studies. Hence we investigated the effects of vinegar intake on the reduction of body fat mass in obese Japanese in a double-blind trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of similar body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. During the 12-week treatment period, the subjects in each group ingested 500 ml daily of a beverage containing either 15 ml of vinegar (750 mg AcOH), 30 ml of vinegar (1,500 mg AcOH), or 0 ml of vinegar (0 mg AcOH, placebo). Body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both vinegar intake groups than in the placebo group. In conclusion, daily intake of vinegar might be useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome by reducing obesity.
Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A
An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced lean body mass (LBM is one of the main indicators in malnutrition inflammation syndrome among patients on dialysis. However, the influence of LBM on peritoneal dialysis (PD patients' outcomes and the factors related to increasing LBM are seldom reported. METHODS: We enrolled 103 incident PD patients between 2002 and 2003, and followed them until December 2011. Clinical characteristics, PD-associated parameters, residual renal function, and serum chemistry profiles of each patient were collected at 1 month and 1 year after initiating PD. LBM was estimated using creatinine index corrected with body weight. Multiple linear regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were used to define independent variables and compare survival between groups. RESULTS: Using the median LBM value (70% for men and 64% for women, patients were divided into group 1 (n = 52; low LBM and group 2 (n = 51; high LBM. Group 1 patients had higher rates of peritonitis (1.6 vs. 1.1/100 patient months; p<0.05 and hospitalization (14.6 vs. 9.7/100 patient months; p<0.05. Group 1 patients also had shorter overall survival and technique survival (p<0.01. Each percentage point increase in LBM reduced the hazard ratio for mortality by 8% after adjustment for diabetes, age, sex, and body mass index (BMI. Changes in residual renal function and protein catabolic rate were independently associated with changes in LBM in the first year of PD. CONCLUSIONS: LBM serves as a good parameter in addition to BMI to predict the survival of patients on PD. Preserving residual renal function and increasing protein intake can increase LBM.
Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.
Quintero, P; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A
Obesity is nowadays a major public health problem. The World Health Organization reported that globally 400 million adults are obese, and the situation seems to raise in the future. Furthermore, obesity is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, several studies have reported that appetite suppression and body weight loss are frequently observed at high altitude. This observation has opened some possibilities for losing weight under hypoxia or living in altitude. Nevertheless, the triggering mechanisms for the decrease in energy intake in hypoxic conditions still remain unclear as well as the impact on body mass components. On the other hand, obese subjects often present a chronic inflammatory state on the adipose tissue that might have a strong relationship with onset and development of obesity-related diseases. Thus, it has been consistently reported that adipose tissue of obese subjects is poorly oxygenated and that this hypoxia state is a new potential risk factor for the chronic inflammation in obesity. In this sense, oxygen therapy is a common technique used in current medicine for the treatment of several diseases, while animal studies have demonstrated that treatment with hyperoxia produces some beneficial effects in different diseases related with lack of oxygen in several organs. In this article, we review the role of oxygen availability in body weight homeostasis and hypothesize the possible applicability of hypoxia and hyperoxia for the treatment of obesity and related disorders.
Looy, H; Eikelboom, R
The acquisition of wheel running, its effects on food intake and body weight, and the effects of wheel deprivation, were examined in male rats. Running increased during the first 15 days of access, then plateaued. When wheels were unlocked after 10 days of deprivation, running was reduced, but quickly recovered to original levels. Animals first given wheel access 49 days into the study ran little, with no increase over days. Food intake dropped each time with wheel access, but recovered to control levels over 10-14 days. Wheel deprivation resulted in a temporary hyperphagia. With wheel access, weight initially dropped and was then maintained at a reduced percentage of homecage-housed animals. In male rats wheel access appears to have temporary effects on food intake, and long term effects on weight. Marked differences in the activity of same-age rats suggest that wheel running is in part a function of housing history.
Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction, importance of thinness, dieting behaviour, and weight watching were examined through discussions with 34 girls in five focus groups and with a questionnaire survey on the sample of 184 girls. The article emphasis is on sociocultural and interpersonal influences on girl's body images and eating practices. Quantitative and qualitative results point to fashion and media as the strongest pressures to be thin for subjects. Family members and peers are beside magazines, TV programmes and numbers of clothes important source of message about the importance and attainability of thinness. Some respondents reported direct pressures to diet from friends and parents but indirect social influences were more common. These influences included social comparison, teasing, criticizing. A few girls live in a subculture of intense weight and body-shape concern that places them at risk for disordered eating behaviour.
Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho
Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.
. In South Africa, perinatal mortality and low-birth-weight rates have in the past generally been reported only for infants weighing. ≥1 000 g at birth, because smaller infants are often regarded as miscarriages and not recorded. However, with improving maternal and neonatal care, more infants weighing 500 - 1 000 g are.
Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.
Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight
Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick
Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its
Martin V Day
Full Text Available Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.
Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at
Nguyen, Mary M N; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Melhorn, Susan J; Ma, Li Y; Gardner, Stacy R; Sakai, Randall R
The visible burrow system (VBS) is a model used to study chronic social stress in colony-housed rats. A hierarchy develops among the males resulting in dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) animals. Hierarchy-associated changes in body weight, body composition, behavior, and neuroendocrine measures have been observed. After 14 d of VBS housing, SUB animals have decreased body weight, elevated corticosterone, and decreased testosterone (T), compared with DOM animals and controls, placing SUB animals in an ideal endocrine state to regain lost body weight as adipose tissue. It is hypothesized that maintaining constant androgen concentrations in SUB males during stress will prevent body weight loss by maintaining more lean body mass. To test this, animals were gonadectomized and implanted with SILASTIC implants containing T, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or cholesterol. Implants maintained constant physiological levels of T. Standard intact, T, and DHT implant colonies formed hierarchies, whereas cholesterol colonies did not. Androgen manipulations significantly altered offensive and defensive behaviors only on the first day of VBS housing. After VBS stress, intact, T, and DHT SUB animals weighed less and lost more adipose and lean tissue than DOM and control males, whereas DOM animals primarily lost adipose tissue. However, on recovery, DHT SUB animals maintained more lean tissue than intact SUB animals. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that glucose clears faster in stressed T-implanted males that have increased adipose tissue. Overall, these data suggest that constant androgen concentrations in SUB animals do not prevent weight loss and changes in body composition during stress but do so during recovery.
Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie L
This study investigates a relationship between overweight perception and smoking among adolescents. Data were retrieved from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial survey of a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. We analyze five waves of repeated cross-sections (N = 73 376) for the years 2005-2013. We estimate a recursive simultaneous-equations system in which body weight perception, which is a function of actual weight, influences smoking status. Outcome measures are binary indicators for current smoking and frequent current smoking. Perceived weight is categorized into very overweight perception, slightly overweight perception, and about the right weight/underweight perception. In comparison to adolescents who perceive themselves to be the right weight or underweight, adolescents who perceive themselves to be very overweight are 6.1 percentage points (pp) (standard error [SE] = 1.6pp) more likely to currently smoking and 3.3pp (SE = 1.2pp) more likely to frequently smoke. Adolescents with slightly overweight perception are 7.9pp (SE = 1.0pp) and 2.5pp (SE = 0.6pp) more likely to currently smoke and frequently smoke, respectively, as compared to those with the right weight/underweight perception. The relationships are larger for females, and appear to be mediated by weight-loss activity. In an era of tight budgets, it is crucial to address both obesity and smoking in manners that do not work at cross purposes. Strategies to combat youth smoking may be more effective if the perception of being overweight is considered an important risk factor, especially among female adolescents. We find that perception of being overweight is an important causal risk factor for adolescent smoking. Main findings of this study imply that even a slight change in the perception of body weight may lead to a significant change in smoking behavior among adolescents, especially among females and that the perception of being
Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J.; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B.; Pomp, Daniel
To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a te...
Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Gama, Maria Gabriela; Sucupira, Eduardo Rodrigues; Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Felix, Gabriel de Almeida Arruda; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery, and body contouring surgery is most frequently sought by patients with BDD. To estimate the prevalence and severity of BDD symptoms in patients seeking abdominoplasty. Ninety patients of both sexes were preoperatively divided into two groups: patients with BDD symptoms (n = 51) and those without BDD symptoms (n = 39) based both on the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) and clinical assessment. Patients in the BDD group were classified as having mild to moderate or severe symptoms, according to the BDDE. Body weight and shape concerns were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The prevalence of BDD symptoms was 57%. There were significant associations between BDD symptoms and degree of body dissatisfaction, level of preoccupation with physical appearance, and avoidance behaviors. Mild to moderate and severe symptoms of BDD were present in 41% and 59% of patients, respectively, in the BDD group. It was found that the more severe the symptoms of BDD, the higher the level of concern with body weight and shape (P body shape, or distorted comparative perception of body image were respectively 3.67 or 5.93 times more likely to show more severe symptoms of BDD than those with a more accurate perception. Candidates for abdominoplasty had a high prevalence of BDD symptoms, and body weight and shape concerns were associated with increased symptom severity. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Bhuva, Kalpesh; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Lehman, Erik B; Chuang, Cynthia H
Overweight and obese women may avoid contraceptive methods they believe are associated with weight gain. The objective of this study was to examine the role of weight and weight perception on contraceptive use. Using cross-sectional data from the MyNewOptions study, we analyzed contraceptive use among 987 privately insured, sexually active women aged 18-40 years. Contraception was categorized into three groups: (1) long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), (2) non-LARC prescription methods and (3) nonprescription methods/no method. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the effect of body mass index category and weight perception on contraceptive use while controlling for pregnancy intentions, sexual behavior and sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three (8.4%) women were using LARCs, 490 (49.6%) women were using non-LARC prescription methods and 414 (42.0%) were using nonprescription methods or no method. In the adjusted multinomial model, overweight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-7.98) and obese women (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.18-6.72) were significantly more likely to use LARCs compared to normal-weight women. There were greater adjusted odds of overweight and obese women using nonprescription methods/no method compared with non-LARC prescription methods, but this finding did not reach statistical significance. Weight perception was not associated with contraceptive use. In this study sample, overweight and obese women were more likely to use LARCs than normal-weight women. It will be important to further understand how weight influences women and providers' views on contraception in order to better assist women with individualized, patient-centered contraceptive decision making. Overweight and obese women may be reluctant to use contraceptive methods they believe are associated with weight gain (i.e., pills, shot), but how that affects contraceptive use is unclear. Compared with normal-weight women, overweight
Conclusion. Survival among infants weighing less than 1 000 g is poor. In addition to severe prematurity, the poor survival among these infants(< 1 000 g) is most likely related to the fact that they were not offered mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation should be offered to infants weighing < 1 000 g as it may improve ...
Full Text Available Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at recovery in a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of real body weight (RBW can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW. Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2 μg kg−1, propofol 3 mg kg−1, rocuronium 0,6 mg kg−1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%. Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the / value of 0.9 was reached in 151 ± 44 seconds and in 121 ± 55 seconds in RBW group (. Discussion. Recovery times to / of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.
Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen
Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…
Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe
Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4
Howlett Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.
Du, Meng-Kai; Ge, Li-Ya; Zhou, Meng-Lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-Yue; Chen, Dan-Qing
To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (Ppre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (Ppre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese.
Hillebrand, J J G; de Wied, D; Adan, R A H
Energy homeostasis is controlled by a complex neuroendocrine system consisting of peripheral signals like leptin and central signals, in particular, neuropeptides. Several neuropeptides with anorexigenic (POMC, CART, and CRH) as well as orexigenic (NPY, AgRP, and MCH) actions are involved in this complex (partly redundant) controlling system. Starvation as well as overfeeding lead to changes in expression levels of these neuropeptides, which act downstream of leptin, resulting in a physiological response. In this review the role of several anorexigenic and orexigenic (hypothalamic) neuropeptides on food intake and body weight regulation is summarized.
Hurwitz, Dennis J; Ayeni, Omodele
Plastic surgeons subspecializing in body contouring are meeting the challenge of postbariatric surgery massive weight loss patients. With an appreciation of the magnitude of the surface deformity, and altered metabolism, nutrition, and psychological makeup of these patients, innovative plastic surgeons have forged an organized approach to preparation, operative technique, and postoperative care. Patients at greatest risk for complications are identified, appraised, and either their condition improved or they are counselled to reduce expectations. Beyond the removal of excess skin and adipose tissue, advanced gender-specific techniques have improved aesthetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.
Reinders, Ilse; Visser, Marjolein; Schaap, Laura
Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. Based on current literature, observational studies on obesity and high waist circumference show most convincing results for an association with frailty. The independent role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration remains unclear, mainly due to a lack of studies and a lack of accurate measurement of body composition by computed tomography or MRI. Weight loss and exercise training intervention studies can be of benefit to frail older adults. Obesity and high waist circumference may be important determinants of frailty in old age, whereas the role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration is still unclear. More prospective studies that will specifically focus on frailty as an outcome measure are needed to identify specific body composition components as potential targets for the prevention of frailty in old age.
Kang, K-T; Lee, P-L; Weng, W-C; Hsu, W-C
The relationship between weight status, adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children has not yet been well studied. As the sleep parameters may show a disparity in different weight statuses, this study examined the relationship between the data of over-night polysomnography and different weight statuses, as well as the impact of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on children with OSA. Children with sleep disturbances were recruited from our clinics. Standard physical examinations, history taking, lateral neck roentgenography, and full-night polysomnography were obtained. Children were divided into four groups based on the age- and gender-corrected body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. An adenoidal/nasopharyngeal ratio of more than 0.67 was considered adenoidal hypertrophy. Tonsillar hypertrophy was defined as having Grade III tonsils or above. From July 2006 to January 2009, 197 children were included in this study. Obese children had a significantly higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive apnea index and lower minimum oxygen saturation (MinSaO(2)) than those of the other groups. Underweight children had the second highest AHI. A negative correlation was also found between BMI z scores and MinSaO(2) (r = -0.194; P = 0.007). Children with tonsillar hypertrophy (P = 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of having OSA. The risk of having OSA was significantly higher in obese children (P = 0.001) and underweight children (P = 0.043) than in those with a normal weight. Obesity, underweight status and tonsillar hypertrophy are associated with children having OSA, and obese children have a significantly higher risk than children with underweight status.
Appleton, Katherine M
Body weight, shape and body image were assessed in 16 males and 18 females before and after both 6 x 40 mins exercise and 6 x 40 mins reading. Over both conditions, body weight and shape did not change. Various aspects of body image, however, improved after exercise compared to before, while no changes were found over reading. These findings have implications for exercise promotion where a possible role for body image in exercise adherence is suggested, and confirm current theories of body image, where changes in body image are mediated by body perceptions as opposed to actual body indices.
Angela S. Anderson
Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.
Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.
Body weight is determined by a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Multiple neural circuits in the brain have evolved to process information about food, food-related cues and food consumption to control feeding behavior. Numerous gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce and secrete satiety hormones in response to food consumption and digestion. These hormones suppress hunger and promote satiation and satiety mainly through hindbrain circuits, thus governing meal-by-meal eating behavior. In contrast, the hypothalamus integrates adiposity signals to regulate long-term energy balance and body weight. Distinct hypothalamic areas and various orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons have been identified to homeostatically regulate food intake. The hypothalamic circuits regulate food intake in part by modulating the sensitivity of the hindbrain to short-term satiety hormones. The hedonic and incentive properties of foods and food-related cues are processed by the corticolimbic reward circuits. The mesolimbic dopamine system encodes subjective "liking" and "wanting" of palatable foods, which is subjected to modulation by the hindbrain and the hypothalamic homeostatic circuits and by satiety and adiposity hormones. Satiety and adiposity hormones also promote energy expenditure by stimulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. They stimulate BAT thermogenesis mainly by increasing the sympathetic outflow to BAT. Many defects in satiety and/or adiposity hormone signaling and in the hindbrain and the hypothalamic circuits have been described and are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of energy imbalance and obesity.
Pan, Haibo; Gao, Ying; Tu, Youying
Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.
Zhang, Yun Bo; Yan, Jing Dong; Yang, Su Qing; Guo, Ji Peng; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xiao Xi; Na, Xiao Lin; Dai, Shao Chun
The study objectives were to investigate the relationship between early exposure to genistein and obesity in young adulthood and to evaluate changes in reproductive health during puberty and adulthood following in utero exposure to genistein. Thirty-two female rats were randomized into four groups; low dose 400 mg genistein/kg diet group (LG), mid-dose 1200 mg genistein/kg diet group (MG), high dose 3600 mg genistein/kg diet group (HG), and control group without genistein diet (CON). Rats were fed genistein at the beginning of pregnancy along with a high-fat diet. Pups were sacrificed at week 4 and week 8 after birth. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed a correlation between maternal genistein intake and genistein concentration in pups' plasma. Compared to CON, body weight reduced significantly in male HG group at week 8. No statistical differences were found in plasma estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with early genistein exposure. Furthermore, uterine histopathology showed notable changes in groups HG and MG compared with CON at week 4 and week 8. In conclusion, maternal genistein supplement could reduce body weight in male pups and alter uterine histopathology in female pups. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Bellisle, F; Drewnowski, A
Replacing sugar with low-calorie sweeteners is a common strategy for facilitating weight control. By providing sweet taste without calories, intense sweeteners help lower energy density of beverages and some foods. Reduced dietary energy density should result in lower energy intakes--but are the energy reduction goals, in fact, achieved? The uncoupling of sweetness and energy, afforded by intense sweeteners, has been the focus of numerous studies over the past two decades. There are recurring arguments that intense sweeteners increase appetite for sweet foods, promote overeating, and may even lead to weight gain. Does reducing energy density of sweet beverages and foods have a measurable impact on appetite and energy intakes, as examined both in short-term studies and over a longer period? Can reductions in dietary energy density achieved with intense sweeteners really affect body weight control? This paper reviews evidence from laboratory, clinical and epidemiological studies in the context of current research on energy density, satiety and the control of food intake.
Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.
Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.
Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; do Carmo, Isabel
There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion of macronutrients, meal frequency, among others. The same applies to the area of physical activity recommendation for weight control. As a correlate of this scenario of incertitude, there is a proliferation of interventions and there is a clear need to integrate the scientific and clinical evidence. This paper presents a narrative literature review of key issues of clinical practice in obesity, regarding a set of actions that, in the overall, have as main purpose the promotion of reduction and/or control of body weight. The role of the health professional is highlighted as a facilitator of acquisition of habits that favor weight control, by integrating the professional's scientific knowledge with the patient's readiness for and capacity to change.
Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya
Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette
The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =
Baldinotti, Ivan; Timmann, Dagmar; Kolb, Florian P; Kutz, Dieter F
Recent studies have shown that whole-body vibration improves posture and gait control in stroke patients. Patients with degenerative cerebellar disease suffer from ataxic gait also which is characterised by the variation of gait pattern. Our interest is to test whole-body vibration as a method for rehabilitation treatment in cerebellar patients and to assess the success of the treatment using dynamic tests. The aim of this study was to introduce a method for quantifying movement dynamics during an active voluntary sidestep that results in a body-weight-transfer. Subjects had to perform a step from a feet-apart-position to a feet-together-position and back again. The algorithms presented in this study allow automatic identification of the timing of the dynamic phases by analysing the centre of pressure trajectory. For this study the time flow of averaged speed, acceleration, and jerk was calculated for the active movement only. This study demonstrates that jerk provides a sensitive measure for the improvement in gait in rehabilitation and during training. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L
This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon
With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean...
... reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Label Statements § 105.66 Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight... because of usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition labeling in...
... usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 381.480 Section 381.480 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements. Any product that purports to be or is represented for special dietary use because of usefulness in reducing body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition labeling in...
... usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 317.380 Section 317.380 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... or maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements. Any product that purports to be or is represented for special dietary use because of usefulness in reducing body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition...
Keijer, J.; Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.G.; Schothorst, van E.M.
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not
Rutten, M.J.M.; Komen, J.; Bovenhuis, H.
Genetic parameters for body weight at ages over approximately 120 days are scarce in Nile tilapia. In this study, genetic parameters for body weight in Nile tilapia were estimated for ages ranging from 100 to 326 days. To this end, five repeated observations of body weight were collected on 2483
Grossberg, Aaron J; Chamchod, Sasikarn; Fuller, Clifton D; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Heukelom, Jolien; Eichelberger, Hillary; Kantor, Michael E; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Gunn, G Brandon; Garden, Adam S; Frank, Steven; Phan, Jack; Beadle, Beth; Skinner, Heath D; Morrison, William H; Rosenthal, David I
Major weight loss is common in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who undergo radiotherapy (RT). How baseline and posttreatment body composition affects outcome is unknown. To determine whether lean body mass before and after RT for HNSCC predicts survival and locoregional control. Retrospective study of 2840 patients with pathologically proven HNSCC undergoing curative RT at a single academic cancer referral center from October 1, 2003, to August 31, 2013. One hundred ninety patients had computed tomographic (CT) scans available for analysis of skeletal muscle (SM). The effect of pre-RT and post-RT SM depletion (defined as a CT-measured L3 SM index of less than 52.4 cm2/m2 for men and less than 38.5 cm2/m2 for women) on survival and disease control was evaluated. Final follow-up was completed on September 27, 2014, and data were analyzed from October 1, 2014, to November 29, 2015. Primary outcomes were overall and disease-specific survival and locoregional control. Secondary analyses included the influence of pre-RT body mass index (BMI) and interscan weight loss on survival and recurrence. Among the 2840 consecutive patients who underwent screening, 190 had whole-body positron emission tomography-CT or abdominal CT scans before and after RT and were included for analysis. Of these, 160 (84.2%) were men and 30 (15.8%) were women; their mean (SD) age was 57.7 (9.4) years. Median follow up was 68.6 months. Skeletal muscle depletion was detected in 67 patients (35.3%) before RT and an additional 58 patients (30.5%) after RT. Decreased overall survival was predicted by SM depletion before RT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.19-3.11; P = .007) and after RT (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.02-4.24; P = .04). Increased BMI was associated with significantly improved survival (HR per 1-U increase in BMI, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96; P < .001). Weight loss without SM depletion did not affect outcomes. Post-RT SM depletion was more substantive in
Kruhlikava, Iryna; Kirkegård, Jakob; Mortensen, Frank Viborg
Background and Aims: The impact of body mass index on complications and survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy has been extensively studied with conflicting results. In this study, we assess the impact of body mass index on complications and survival following surgery for esophageal...... patients included in the study. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. We grouped patients according to their body mass index, using the World Health Organization definition, as underweight (body mass index body mass index......: 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (body mass index: 25–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (body mass index ⩽ 30 kg/m2). Results: Median age at surgery was 65 years (range: 27–84 years), of which 207 (72.6%) were males. Patients with the lowest body mass index and the obese patients seemed to have a higher frequency...
Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi
The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features. Here we review mechanisms of defense in Aspergillus against elimination from the human body.
Littlejohn, M; Grala, T; Sanders, K; Walker, C; Waghorn, G; Macdonald, K; Coppieters, W; Georges, M; Spelman, R; Hillerton, E; Davis, S; Snell, R
Variation at the pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) locus has recently been implicated in the regulation of stature and weight in Bos taurus. Using a population of 942 outbred Holstein-Friesian dairy calves, we report confirmation of this effect, demonstrating strong association of early life body weight with PLAG1 genotype. Peripubertal body weight and growth rate were also significantly associated with PLAG1 genotype. Growth rate per kilogram of body weight, daily feed intake, gross feed efficiency and residual feed intake were not significantly associated with PLAG1 genotype. This study supports the status of PLAG1 as a key regulator of mammalian growth. Further, the data indicate the utility of PLAG1 polymorphisms for the selection of animals to achieve enhanced weight gain or conversely to aid the selection of animals with lower mature body weight and thus lower maintenance energy requirements. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim
We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.
Brozek, Jeremy M; Schneider, Jill E; Rhinehart, Erin
Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring. Few previous studies have used a lower level of food restriction, and no experiments, to the best of our knowledge, were designed to determine whether the effects of gestational restriction have postgestational effects independent of the effects that occurred during gestation. In the present experiment, Syrian hamsters were either restricted to 90% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum during pregnancy. All litters were cross-fostered at birth and all were fed ad libitum during lactation. Half of the litters from ad libitum-fed pregnant dams were fostered to dams that had been food restricted during pregnancy and half of the litters from food-restricted pregnant dams were fostered to ad libitum-fed dams. The latter group allowed us to test the hypothesis that the effects of having a gestationally food-restricted mother affects offspring characteristics independent of the prenatal programming. First, we found significant increases in the postnatal body weight of the offspring of ad libitum-fed mothers fostered to food-restricted dams, supporting the hypothesis that the effects of gestational restriction carry over to postnatal maternal ability (e.g., milk yield, milk content, or parental behavior). Second, the carry-over effects of gestational food restriction on offspring postnatal body weight were
Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh
A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher
Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual's genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.
Full Text Available Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.
Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273
Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.
Gong, Zhejun; Gong, Zhefeng
Body weight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in body weight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in body weight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and body weight. This model was applied to food intake and body weight data recorded in humans; the model showed a good fit to the experimental data. This model was also effective in predicting future body weight. In conclusion, this model based on molecular diffusion provides a new insight into the body weight mechanisms. This article was reviewed by Dr. Cabral Balreira (nominated by Dr. Peter Olofsson), Prof. Yang Kuang and Dr. Chao Chen.
Russell, Ashley L; Grimes, Jamie Moran; Cruthirds, Danette F; Westerfield, Joanna; Wooten, Lawren; Keil, Margaret; Weiser, Michael J; Landauer, Michael R; Handa, Robert J; Wu, T John; Larco, Darwin O
17β-Estradiol is known to regulate energy metabolism and body weight. Ovariectomy results in body weight gain while estradiol administration results in a reversal of weight gain. Isoflavones, found in rodent chow, can mimic estrogenic effects making it crucial to understand the role of these compounds on metabolic regulation. The goal of this study is to examine the effect of dietary isoflavones on body weight regulation in the ovariectomized rat. This study will examine how dietary isoflavones can interact with estradiol treatment to affect body weight. Consistent with previous findings, animals fed an isoflavone-rich diet had decreased body weight (pbody weight (pbody weight gain. We screened a host of cytokines and chemokines that may be altered by dietary isoflavones or estradiol replacement. Serum cytokine analysis revealed significant (pbody weight regulation depending on the presence of isoflavones in rodent chow. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Silva, Wanderson Roberto da; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
Background Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. Aims To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Fa...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%. BMI ≥ 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%. Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI ≥ 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53–8.08, 18.04 (7.19–45.30, 4.12 (1.64–10.37, respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P Conclusion Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.
Title: Physical profile of judo athletes and its changes due to body weight reduction Aim of work: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intensive pre-competitive body weight reduction on body composition, anthropometric parameters, postural stability, reaction time, maximal isometric muscle strength and biochemical parameters in the blood of elite judo athletes. Methods: The work compares the results of laboratory testing at the beginning and at the end of body weight reductio...
Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q
The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Pweight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (Ptrend=0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (Ptrend=0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all Pweight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4
Di Masso Ricardo J.
Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.
Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive
Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack
Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.
Schvartsman, Gustavo; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Song, Juhee; Ueno, Naoto T; Peterson, Susan K; Arun, Banu
Obese and overweight women have an increased risk of breast cancer and worse outcomes at the time of diagnosis. Women tend to gain weight after breast cancer diagnosis and during chemotherapy for early-stage disease, which may in turn increase risk for worse outcomes. We examined if weight gained during adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with worse survival outcomes. We queried our database for data on patients who received adjuvant third-generation chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses by Cox regression were performed for survival outcomes across three categories according to BMI variation from start to end of chemotherapy: >0.5 kg/m(2) loss or gain and stable BMI (±0.5 kg/m(2) ). We included 1998 patients in this study. Women over 50 years old and postmenopausal were more likely to lose weight during adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas women under 30 years old gained more weight (P original weight (ρ = -0.3, P 0.5 kg/m(2) compared to maintaining BMI was marginally associated with increased locoregional recurrence risk (HR: 2.53; 95% CI, 1.18-5.45; P = 0.017), adjusting for grade, stage, and radiation delivery. Weight variation during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer may occur as both weight gain and weight loss in a balanced manner. Furthermore, this variation seems to be transient in nature and does not appear to significantly influence recurrence rates and overall survival. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli
Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 85th percentile) was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI > or = 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%). BMI > or = 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%). Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI > or = 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53-8.08), 18.04 (7.19-45.30), 4.12 (1.64-10.37), respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.
Anderson, Angela S; Good, Deborah J
For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan-May 2013 and Jan-May 2014) were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male) consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs) and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = - 0.190) and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.
Tan, Andrew K G; Yen, Steven T; Feisul, Mustapha I
To investigate the roles of sociodemographic and health lifestyle factors in affecting body mass index (BMI) across ethnic groups in Malaysia. Data are obtained from 2,436 observations from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. The multi-ethnic sample is segmented into Malay, Chinese, and Indian/other ethnicities. Ordered probit analysis is conducted and marginal effects of sociodemographic and health lifestyle variables on BMI calculated. Malays between 41 and 58 years are more likely to be overweight or obese than their 31-40 years counterparts, while the opposite is true among Chinese. Retirees of Chinese and Indian/other ethnicities are less likely to be obese and more likely to have normal BMI than those between 31 and 40 years. Primary educated Chinese are more likely to be overweight or obese, while tertiary-educated Malays are less likely to suffer from similar weight issues as compared to those with only junior high school education. Affluent Malays and Chinese are more likely to be overweight than their low-middle income cohorts. Family illness history is likely to cause overweightness or obesity, irrespective of ethnicity. Malay cigarette smokers have lower overweight and obesity probabilities than non-cigarette smokers. There exists a need for flexible policies to address cross-ethnic differences in the sociodemographic and health-lifestyle covariates of BMI.
Ali, Mir M; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A
The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has increased three-fold over the last thirty years. During the same period, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in children also rose significantly. Previous literature suggests an association between actual body weight and mental health, but there is little evidence on self-perception of weight and mental health status. To examine the relationship between actual body weight, self-perception of body weight and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Using data for a nationally-representative sample of adolescents in the United States, we ascertain the effect of body weight status on depressive symptoms by estimating endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects to account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders. Actual body weight status was calculated using interviewer-measured height and weight. We also used a measure of self-perceived weight status to compare how actual versus self-perceived weight status affects mental health. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and a dichotomous version of self-reported indicator for depression were utilized as mental health indicators. Potential mediators between mental health and weight status such as levels of physical activity, participation in risky health behaviors and parental characteristics were also controlled for in the analysis. The analytical sample consisted of 13,454 adolescents aged 11 to 18. After accounting for a wide array of relevant characteristics, we did not find a direct and significant association between actual weight status and mental health outcomes. Instead, our analysis revealed a strongly negative and significant relationship between self-perceived weight status and mental health. The negative relationship between self-perceived weight and depressive symptoms was more pronounced among females. The RSE scale was particularly correlated with body
Correll, Jennifer A; Dalton, William T; Bailey, Beth
To examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight and body image concerns and smoking status in late pregnancy. Participants included 172 pregnant smokers. Pre-pregnancy weight and body image concerns were assessed during first trimester via the Weight Concern Scale and Body Image Concern Inventory. Smoking status was evaluated at third trimester via self-report. Logistic regression analyses revealed that weight concerns played a significant role in smoking continuation in late pregnancy. Beliefs about weight control properties of cigarettes may play an important role in smoking continuation among pregnant women. These findings suggest assessing weight concerns with pregnant women who smoke in an effort to facilitate successful cessation.
Effects of castration on growth rate, body and visceral organ weights of pigs were investigated using data from intact males, intact females of Large White pigs full or half castrated at 2, 4, or 6 weeks of age. Body weights and feed intake were recorded to the nearest 0.1 kg at weekly intervals from birth, while weights of ...
Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Bos, A.E.R.; Mayer, B.
Introduction: This study examined what methods people use to determine and interpret their body weight, and what factors are associated with either an underestimation of overweight or an overestimation of a healthy body weight. Method: The study used self-reported data on weight and height. Data
Monteagudo, C.; Dijkstra, S.C.; Visser, M.
Introduction: Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current
Mchiza, Zandile J.; Parker, Whadi-ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre
Background South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of...
Grzybek, Agnieszka; Pachocka, Lucyna; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina
Implementation of a lowenergy diet is recommended for overweight and obesity treatment. However, some patients gain weight after successful body weight reduction achieved at the beginning. This study was aimed to evaluate body weight and body composition changes in subjects with BMI > or = 25 after 1 year of a low-energy diet. The study group consisted of 70 women, aged 47.3, BMI 37.5 kg/m2 and 25 men, aged 42.4, BMI 37.1 kg/m2. 1000 kcal diet was recommended for women and 1500 kcal diet for men. Body weight measurement and body composition assessment by BIA were performed at entry and every 2 months of the study. Subjects were divided in 2 groups: I--patients with body weight reduction achieved after 6 and 12 months of treatment (38 women, 16 men), II--subjects who lost weight in first 6 months and gained weight in the next 6 months (32 women, 9 men). After 1 year treatment averaged body weight reduction in women was 11.9% +/- 8.6, in men 13.9% +/- 8.3. In women from group I body weight decrement was 16.4 +/- 11.2 kg (15 +/- 9%), and in women from group II 7.5 +/- 7.7 kg, (8.1 +/- 6.7%), respectively. Men in group I lost 22 +/- 14.3 kg (16.7 +/- 8.7%), men in group II 8.8 +/- 5.3 kg (9 +/- 5.3%). 10% body weight reduction after 1 year was achieved in 29 women (41.4%) and in 16 men (64%). In group I changes of body weight in 6-12 months were related to body weight decrement in the first 6 months, in group II this correlation was not stated. Effect of treatment achieved in 6-12 months was not related to age. Implementation of a low energy diet resulted in body weight reduction, the goal of treatment--10% body weight decrement, was achieved in 41.4% women and in 64% men.
Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…
Juliann G. Kiang
Full Text Available Ionizing radiation combined with trauma tissue injury (combined injury, CI results in greater mortality and H-ARS than radiation alone (radiation injury, RI, which includes thrombocytopenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether increases in numbers of thrombocytes would improve survival and mitigate H-ARS after CI. We observed in mice that WBC and platelets remained very low in surviving RI animals that were given 9.5 Gy 60Co-γ-photon radiation, whereas only lymphocytes and basophils remained low in surviving CI mice that were irradiated and then given skin wounds. Numbers of RBC and platelets, hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit values remained low in surviving RI and CI mice. CI induced 30-day mortality higher than RI. Radiation delayed wound healing by approximately 14 days. Treatment with a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, Alxn4100TPO, after CI improved survival, mitigated body-weight loss, and reduced water consumption. Though this therapy delayed wound-healing rate more than in vehicle groups, it greatly increased numbers of platelets in sham, wounded, RI, and CI mice; it significantly mitigated decreases in WBC, spleen weights, and splenocytes in CI mice and decreases in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit values, and splenocytes and splenomegaly in RI mice. The results suggest that Alxn4100TPO is effective in mitigating CI.
Crovesy, L; Ostrowski, M; Ferreira, D M T P; Rosado, E L; Soares-Mota, M
Gut microbiota is important for maintaining body weight. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics may result in weight loss and thus help in obesity treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus on weight loss and/or fat mass in overweight adults. A search was performed on the Medline (PubMed) and Scopus electronic databases using the search terms: 'probiotics', 'Lactobacillus, 'obesity', 'body weight changes', 'weight loss', 'overweight', 'abdominal obesity', 'body composition', 'body weight', 'body fat' and 'fat mass'. In the total were found 1567 articles, but only 14 were included in this systematic review. Of these nine showed decreased body weight and/or body fat, three did not find effect and two showed weight gain. Results suggest that the beneficial effects are strain dependent. It can highlight that Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus when combined with a hypocaloric diet, L. plantarum with Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei with phenolic compounds, and multiple species of Lactobacillus.
Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne
Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.
Jensen, Rasmus B; Danielsen, Signe H; Tauson, Anne-Helene
Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark. A total of 254 Icelandic horses (≥4 years; 140 geldings, 105 mares, 9 stallions) from 46 different farms were included. All horses were assigned a BCS on a scale from 1 to 9 (1 is poor, 5 is moderate and 9 is extremely fat) by their owner and by an experienced person. Two weight tapes were used to assess BW. Girth circumference (GC), neck circumference (NC) and height at withers (HW) were measured, and the GC:HW and NC:HW ratios were calculated. Categorising the horses into four groups, 5.9 % were underweight (BCS 3-4), 70.1 % were optimal (BCS 5-6), 13.8 % were overweight (BCS 7) and 10.2 % were obese (BCS 8-9). The GC:HW and NC:HW ratios increased with increasing BCS, as did the BW estimated with the weight tapes. A GC:HW ratio >1.21 might indicate overweight or obesity in Icelandic horses. Horse owners underestimated the BCS of their horses compared to an experienced person. The results from this study show that 24.0 % of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark are overweight or obese, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds.
Full Text Available The time course of heart rate and body weight alterations during the natural period of dormancy were determined in active feeding and dormant juvenile specimens of Megalobulimus sanctipauli. In both groups, heart rate markedly decreased during the first 40 days of dormancy, tending to stabilize thereafter. This time period coincided with the decrease in environmental temperature during autumn-winter. At the end of the dormancy period, surviving active feeding and dormant snails showed a significant decrease in heart rate which, however, was significantly greater in the latter group. Total body weight decreased concomitantly with heart rate in dormant snails but remained constant in active feeding snails. Body hydration induced significant increases in weight and heart rate in surviving dormant snails. Feeding following hydration promoted a new significant increase in heart rate but not in weight. These results indicate that the decrease in heart rate observed in juvenile specimens of M. sanctipauli during dormancy may be due to at least three factors: 1 decrease in environmental temperature during autumn-winter, 2 starvation which leads to the depletion of endogenous fuel reserves and to a probable decrease in hemolymph nutrient levels, and 3 dehydration which leads to a probable decrease in hemolymph volume and venous return and/or to an increase in hemolymph osmolarity.
Carly R. Pacanowski
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.
Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S
We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.
Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki
.... Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h...
Tanadini-Lang, S; Rieber, J; Filippi, A R
BACKGROUND: Radical local treatment of pulmonary metastases is practiced with increasing frequency due to acknowledgment and better understanding of oligo-metastatic disease. This study aimed to develop a nomogram predicting overall survival (OS) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT...... be helpful for interdisciplinary discussion and evaluation of local and systemic treatment options in the oligo-metastatic setting. KEY MESSAGE: A nomogram for prediction of overall survival after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for pulmonary metastases was developed and externally validated. This tool...
Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Thomas Meinert
Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective ...
Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C
To examine how weight information labels on variously sized media models affect (pre)adolescent girls' body perceptions and how they compare themselves with media models. We used a three (body shape: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight) × three (information label: 6-kg underweight vs. 3-kg underweight vs. normal weight) experimental design in three age-groups (9-10 years, 12-13 years, and 15-16 years; n = 184). The girls completed questionnaires after exposure to media models. Weight information labels affected girls' body dissatisfaction, social comparison with media figures, and objectified body consciousness. Respondents exposed to an extremely thin body shape labeled to be of "normal weight" were most dissatisfied with their own bodies and showed highest levels of objectified body consciousness and comparison with media figures. An extremely thin body shape combined with a corresponding label (i.e., 6-kg underweight), however, induced less body dissatisfaction and less comparison with the media model. Age differences were also found to affect body perceptions: adolescent girls showed more negative body perceptions than preadolescents. Weight information labels may counteract the generally media-induced thin-body ideal. That is, when the weight labels appropriately informed the respondents about the actual thinness of the media model's body shape, girls were less affected. Weight information labels also instigated a normalization effect when a "normal-weight" label was attached to underweight-sized media models. Presenting underweight as a normal body shape, clearly increased body dissatisfaction in girls. Results also suggest age between preadolescence and adolescence as a critical criterion in responding to media models' body shape. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monica H T Wong
Full Text Available Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain.The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain.Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman's ρ = 0.22, p = 0.0002 were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.0043 and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.0023 were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight.LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss.
Nasiri, Ebrahim; Nasiri, Reza
Context: Accurate patient weight is an important factor in the emergency and operating room departments. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of estimation of total body weight by legs and head weight measuring and comparison method in the anesthetized patients. Settings and Design: Education of hospitals, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, prospective, observational study. Subjects and Methods: This is prospective observational study. Nursing staff were asked to estimated weight that knows about a similar person weight on the operating room and matched together, then told his/her guests. They were measured total body weight before anesthesia and then patient head and legs weight after anesthesia. The main outcome was mean weight of these methods and percent accuracy in weight estimation for each group recorded. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistically used. Results: Overall, 57.3% (243/425) of operating personnel estimations were equal with actual weight. 35.4% (150/425) of the estimations were less 10 kg than the actual weight and only 7.3 (31/425) of the estimations were above 5 kg of actual weight. The accuracy of overall estimations by operating personnel and its comparison to the accuracy of legs weight, head, and sum weight by a similar method is demonstrated. Conclusions: Despite having no formula in the critical intensive care and anesthesia region for estimation anesthetized, for comatose patient weight. We can use this formula, but where possible, should be based on measured weight for drug dose calculation and this is not possible, combination of these formulas is suitable. PMID:25885980
Smith Jean L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would
Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.
Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Meth...
Only overweight and obese children were assigned to participant with BMI percentile values for age and sex of >85 to 95, respectively. Students selected a figure to represent their current images. Body image was measured using a body image tool with a sequence of seven body silhouettes progressing from ...
Zhao, L C; Zhou, L; Li, Y; Guo, M; Wu, Y F
To explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status and body weight changes from early adulthood to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Data were obtained from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology Study, which was conducted in 1998, 15 participants population samples aged from 35-59 years old from 12 provinces were selected by random cluster sampling. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample population were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, body weight at age 25 from all participants were also obtained. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 25 years was calculated with the weight at 25 years and the height measured during the survey, participants were divided into underweight (BMIage of 25 and at the survey and was grouped into12.5 kg (n=3 064). The association of body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change from early adulthood to middle age with HDL-C level was examined by logistic regression model. The prevalence of low HDL-C in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups at age of 25 years were 10.7%(143/1 331), 15.5%(1 612/10 400), 16.3%(330/2 019) and 24.8%(33/133), respectively(P for trend 12.5 kg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity at age of 25 years and subsequent weight gain till middle age were positively correlated with low HDL-C after adjusted other risk factors(all P for trend early adulthood and significant adult weight gain from early adulthood to middle age were both independently associated with marked increases in the risk of low HDL-C in middle-aged Chinese men and women. Thus, body weight control at early adulthood could be a key strategy to reduce the incidence of low HDL-C at middle-aged population.
Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae
.... The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression...
Tomchesson, Joshua L
.... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...
Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C
...)adolescent girls' body perceptions and how they compare themselves with media models. METHODS: We used a three (body shape: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight) × three (information label: 6-kg underweight vs...
Imai, Hisao; Kuwako, Tomohito; Kaira, Kyoichi; Masuda, Tomomi; Miura, Yosuke; Seki, Kaori; Sakurai, Reiko; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Sunaga, Noriaki; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Ishihara, Shinichi; Ishizuka, Takao; Mogi, Akira; Hisada, Takeshi; Minato, Koichi; Takise, Atsushi; Saito, Ryusei; Yamada, Masanobu
In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated, advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), common gefitinib-sensitive EGFR mutations that predict a greater response to therapy include the exon 19 deletion and L858R point mutation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether body surface area (BSA), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) affect gefitinib efficacy in such patients. The medical charts of 138 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations, who underwent gefitinib treatment, were reviewed. The median BSA and BW were used as cutoff values to evaluate their impact on gefitinib efficacy. BMI was categorized as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-25 kg/m2), and overweight (≥25 kg/m2). The median BSA and BW were 1.48 m2 and 53 kg, respectively. The overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 65.2%, 12.2, and 24.2 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes according to BSA, BW, or BMI alone. Subgroup analysis based on the mutation type and BSA revealed no significant differences in PFS between the groups; however, the median OS in those with exon 19 deletion combined with low BSA was significantly favorable compared with the other groups. Gefitinib efficacy in patients with NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations did not differ according to BSA, BW, and BMI. However, OS was superior in patients with both the exon 19 deletion and low BSA.
Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin
Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.
Clark, Leslie H; Jackson, Amanda L; Soo, Adrianne E; Orrey, Danielle C; Gehrig, Paola A; Kim, Kenneth H
To examine the effect of BMI on pathologic findings, cancer recurrence and survival in cervical cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study of cervical cancer patients treated from July 2000 to March 2013 was performed. BMI was calculated, and patients were classified by BMI. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included stage, histopathology, disease-specific survival (DSS) and recurrence free survival (RFS). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and compared using Cox proportional hazard ratios. Of 632 eligible patients, 24 (4%) were underweight, 191 (30%) were normal weight, 417 (66%) were overweight/obese. There was no difference in age (p=0.91), stage at presentation (p=0.91), grade (p=0.46), or histology (p=0.76) between weight categories. There were fewer White patients in the underweight (54%) and overweight/obese (58%) groups compared to the normal weight (71%) group (p=0.04). After controlling for prognostic factors, underweight and overweight/obese patients had worse median RFS than normal weight patients (7.6 v 25.0months, p=0.01 and 20.3 v 25.0months, p=0.03). Underweight patients also had worse OS (10.4 v 28.4months, p=0.031) and DSS (13.8 v 28.4months, p=0.04) compared to normal weight patients. Overweight/obese patients had worse OS than normal weight patients (22.2 v 28.4months, p=0.03) and a trend toward worse DSS (21.9 v 28.4months, p=0.09). Both extremes of weight (underweight and overweight/obesity) were associated with worse survival in patients with cervical cancer. Optimizing weight in cervical cancer patients may improve outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie
The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status
For instance, the Sahel Goat (SG) doe has the largest birth weight followed by Red Sokoto (RS) and least the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. However, litter size was significantly (p<0.001) highest in WAD followed by RS and lowest in SG does. Body condition score of does significantly (p<0.001) influenced both birth ...
Davenport, Andrew; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; Canaud, Bernard; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Asci, Gulay; Locatelli, Francesco; Maduell, Francisco; Morena, Marion; Nubé, Menso J; Ok, Ercan; Torres, Ferran; Woodward, Mark; Blankestijn, Peter J
Mortality remains high for hemodialysis patients. Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) removes more middle-sized uremic toxins but outcomes of individual trials comparing OL-HDF with hemodialysis have been discrepant. Secondary analyses reported higher convective volumes, easier to achieve in larger patients, and improved survival. Here we tested different methods to standardize OL-HDF convection volume on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with hemodialysis. Pooled individual patient analysis of four prospective trials compared thirds of delivered convection volume with hemodialysis. Convection volumes were either not standardized or standardized to weight, body mass index, body surface area, and total body water. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling from 2793 patients. All-cause mortality was reduced when the convective dose was unstandardized or standardized to body surface area and total body water; hazard ratio (95% confidence intervals) of 0.65 (0.51-0.82), 0.74 (0.58-0.93), and 0.71 (0.56-0.93) for those receiving higher convective doses. Standardization by body weight or body mass index gave no significant survival advantage. Higher convection volumes were generally associated with greater survival benefit with OL-HDF, but results varied across different ways of standardization for body size. Thus, further studies should take body size into account when evaluating the impact of delivered convection volume on mortality end points. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The results of regression models revealed that live weight of A. achatina was best predicted with multiple linear regression models, while with live weight of A. marginata was best predicted with simple linear regression model and multiple linear regression models. A test of accuracy of the linear regression models showed ...
Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.
Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term
Frølich, Jacob; Hansen, Stinus; Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture and estimated failure load in weight-bearing vs. non-weight-bearing bones...
Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Scott A; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel
The regulation of body weight and composition is complex, simultaneously affected by genetic architecture, the environment, and their interactions. We sought to analyze the complex phenotypic relationships between voluntary exercise, food consumption, and changes in body weight and composition and simultaneously localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits. A large (n = 815) murine advanced intercross line (G(4)) was created from a reciprocal cross between a high-running line and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. Body weight and composition (% fat, % lean) were measured at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. After measurements at 8 wk of age, mice were given access to running wheels, during which food consumption was quantified and after which body weight and composition were assessed to evaluate exercise-induced changes. Phenotypic correlations indicated that the relationship between exercise and overall change in weight and adiposity depended on body composition before the initiation of exercise. Interval mapping revealed QTL for body weight, % fat, and % lean at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. Furthermore, QTL were observed for food consumption and changes in weight, % fat, and % lean in response to short-term exercise. Here we provide some clarity for the relationship between weight loss, reduction in adiposity, food consumption, and exercise. Simultaneously, we reinforce the genetic basis for body weight and composition with some independent loci controlling growth at different ages. Finally, we present unique QTL providing insight regarding variation in weight loss and reduction in adiposity in response to exercise.
Befort, Christie A; Thomas, Janet L; Daley, Christine M; Rhode, Paula C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3 +/- 9.2 kg/m(2). Findings suggest that participants (a) believe that people can be attractive and healthy at larger sizes; (b) still feel dissatisfied with their weight and self-conscious about their bodies; (c) emphasize eating behavior as the primary cause for weight gain; (d) view pregnancy, motherhood, and caregiving as major precursors to weight gain; (e) view health as the most important reason to lose weight; (f) have mixed experiences and expectations for social support for weight loss; and (g) prefer treatments that incorporate long-term lifestyle modification rather than fad diets or medication.
Vajsar, J; Balslev, T; Ray, P N
bodies. However, molecular analysis revealed a homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene, suggesting that the patient had Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. We recommend that every patient with congenital cytoplasmic body myopathy be tested for SMN gene deletion....
Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Chen, Wendy Y; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Sweeney, Carol; Bernard, Philip S; Caan, Bette J
Studies of obesity and survival among patients with breast cancer produce conflicting results, possibly because of heterogeneity by molecular subtype. This study examined whether the association of body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis with breast cancer recurrence and survival varied across subtypes defined by PAM50 (Prediction Analysis of Microarray 50) gene expression. Included were 1559 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members ages 18 to 79 years who had PAM50 assays and were diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I through III breast cancer from 1996 to 2013. Patients reported weight and height. Cox regression models were adjusted for age, menopause, race/ethnicity, stage, and chemotherapy. Over a median of 9 years (maximum, 19 years), 378 women developed recurrent disease, and 312 died from breast cancer. Overall, BMI was not associated with breast cancer recurrence or survival when controlling for subtype (eg, the hazard ratio per 5 kg/m(2) of BMI was 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.15] for breast cancer-specific death). However, associations varied by subtype. Among women with luminal A cancers, those who had class II/III obesity, but not class I obesity or overweight, had worse outcomes. When women who had a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) were compared with those who had a BMI from 18.5 to <25 kg/m(2) , the hazard ratio was 2.24 (95% confidence interval,1.22-4.11) for breast cancer-specific death and 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.54) for recurrence. There was no association within luminal B, basal-like or human epidermal growth factor over-expressing subtypes. Among patients who had accurately classified breast cancer subtypes based on gene expression, a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) was adversely associated with outcomes only among those who had luminal A cancers. Research is needed into whether tailoring recommendations for weight management to tumor characteristics will improve outcomes. Cancer 2017;123:2535-42. © 2017 American Cancer
Kizer, Nora T; Thaker, Premal H; Gao, Feng; Zighelboim, Israel; Powell, Matthew A; Rader, Janet S; Mutch, David G; Grigsby, Perry W
The effect of body mass index (BMI) on treatment outcomes for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who receive definitive chemoradiation is unclear. The cohort in this study included all patients with cervical carcinoma (n = 404) who had stage IB(1) disease and positive lymph nodes or stage ≥IB(2) disease and received treatment at the authors' facility between January 1998 and January 2008. The mean follow-up was 47.2 months. BMI was calculated using the National Institute of Health online calculator. BMI categories were created according to the World Health Organization classification system. Primary outcomes were overall survival, disease-free survival, and complication rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and compared using Cox proportional hazard models. On multivariate analysis, compared with normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) ), a BMI 24.9 kg/m(2) , respectively. A BMI 24.9 kg/m(2) (radiation enteritis: 16.7% vs 13.6%, respectively; P = .03; fistula: 11.1% vs 8.8%, respectively; P = .05; bowel obstruction: 33.3% vs 4.4%, respectively; P cervical cancer had diminished overall survival and more complications than normal weight and obese patients. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.
Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B
There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body's 'set point' (i.e., a constant 'body-inherent' weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various 'settling points' that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition.
Agarwal, Shailesh; Shenaq, Deana; Teven, Chad M; Prachand, Vivek; Roughton, Michelle; Zachary, Lawrence
Patients who undergo obesity surgery often require body contouring procedures to eliminate excess skin. Recent studies suggest that body contouring surgery may provide psychological benefits to patients after obesity surgery. However, it remains unclear how body contouring may affect weight loss maintenance after obesity surgery. This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent obesity surgery with or without body contouring at a single institution from 2000 to 2005. Charts were reviewed for demographic, medical, and surgical information. The primary outcome of interest was the difference in weight loss maintenance among patients who underwent body contouring versus those who did not. A total of 318 patients were included for analysis in this study, of which 70 underwent obesity surgery with body contouring and 248 underwent obesity surgery without body contouring. The mean change in BMI among patients who did not undergo body contouring was 19.7 kg/m2. The mean change in BMI among patients who underwent body contouring was 22.1 kg/m2. Among patients who underwent body contouring surgery, 2.9% (2/70) of patients did not maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight during the entire follow-up period (mean follow-up time 92.2 months). Among patients who did not undergo body contouring surgery, 10% (25/248) of patients did not maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight during the entire follow-up period (mean follow-up time 39.0 months) (χ2 = 3.67, p = 0.055). Body contouring surgery may have a positive effect on weight loss maintenance after body contouring determined from the mean weight change and on percentage of patients who maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Visual-matching could be considered a more precise measure of body size perception than verbal, which could explain the greater sensitivity to sex differences. Parents in general and of girls specific underestimate the size of their children than boy's parents. The perception of friends of body size was underestimated.
Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.
Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…
Blond, Anna; Whitaker, Agnes H; Lorenz, John M; Feldman, Judith F; Nieto, Marlon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Paneth, Nigel
To compare weight concerns and self-reported body mass index (BMI) of low birth weight (LBW) adolescent boys to those of a normative sample and examine relationships among BMI, weight concerns, self-esteem, and depression in the LBW cohort. LBW boys (n = 260; mean age, 16.0) belong to the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study birth cohort. Normative boys (n = 305; mean age, 16.5) belong to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Both samples were assessed in 2001-2004 with self-report questionnaires. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Symptoms Inventory. In LBW boys, self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. Based on self-reported height and weight, LBW boys were more likely to be healthy weight or underweight and less likely to be overweight than normative boys. Despite having healthier self-reported BMIs, LBW boys reported more weight concerns than the normative sample. A total of 46.9% of LBW boys perceived their weight as abnormal, and 76.5% desired weight change. Weight concerns in LBW boys mostly reflected a perception of being underweight (31.2% of the cohort) and a desire to gain weight (47.5% of the cohort), although only 6.5% were clinically underweight. Weight concerns, but not BMI, were related to clinical depression and lower self-esteem. LBW adolescent boys are at high risk of experiencing weight concerns. Weight concerns rather than BMI are associated with emotional problems in LBW boys.
You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja
Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.
Maruf, F A; Akinpelu, A O; Nwankwo, M J
Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight perception is a strong determinant of nutritional habits and weight management among adolescents. One of the barriers to reducing rise in obesity prevalence could be its cultural acceptability in some developing countries. To explore the gender influences on perception of self- and opposite-sex body images (BI), perceived body weight and the actual body weight categories at which discrepancies occur among the perceived BIs in undergraduates. This was a survey of perceptual dimension of BI, perceived body weight and actual body weight carried out in 121 undergraduates aged 21-29 years. Discrepancies occurred between self-perceived BI and each of actual body weight (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 confidence interval (CI)), perceived body weight (p= 0.01 at 0.000-0.02 CI) and self-ideal BI (p= 0.03 at 0.000-0.05 CI) of normal-weight males. Self-perceived BI and perceived body weight also differed in normal-weight females (p= 0.02 at 0.000-0.04 CI). Discrepancies (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) occurred between self-perceived BI and self-ideal BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) in overweight females. Gender differences occurred for self-ideal BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI), ideal image for the opposite sex (IBIOS) (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) and desired BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI). Normal-weight males perceived their BI differently from their actual body weight, perceived body weight and self-ideal BI whereas normal-weight females perceived their BI differently from only their perceived body weight. Discrepancies occur between self-ideal BI and self-perceived BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI in overweight females. There are differential
Mchiza, Zandile J; Parker, Whadi-Ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre
South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap. Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity. Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa. South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.
Sayer, R D; Speaker, K J; Pan, Z; Peters, J C; Wyatt, H R; Hill, J O
The objective of this randomized equivalence trial was to determine the impact of consuming lean beef as part of a high protein (HP) weight-reducing diet on changes in body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic health. A total of 120 adults (99 female) with overweight or obesity (BMI: 35.7 ± 7.0 kg m-2) were randomly assigned to consume either a HP diet with ≥4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) or a HP diet restricted in all red meats (NB; n = 60) during a 16-week weight loss intervention. Body weight was reduced by 7.8 ± 5.9% in B and 7.7 ± 5.5% in NB (p equivalent between B and NB (mean difference: 0.06%, 90% confidence interval: (-1.7, 1.8)). Fat mass was reduced in both groups (p mass was not reduced in either group. Improvements in markers of cardiometabolic health (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure) were not different between B and NB. Results of this study demonstrate that HP diets - either rich or restricted in red meat intakes - are effective for decreasing body weight and improving body composition and cardiometabolic health.
Blonde, Lawrence; Stenlöf, Kaj; Fung, Albert; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary
Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period. In Study 2, patients aged 55-80 years (N = 714) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to stable background antihyperglycemic agents for a 26-week core treatment period, followed by a 78-week extension period. Percent change from baseline in body weight; proportion of patients with any weight loss, ≥5% weight loss, and ≥10% weight loss; change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; change in body weight across weight-loss quartiles; and changes in body composition were evaluated in both studies. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained weight loss versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. More patients experienced any weight loss and ≥5% weight loss with canagliflozin versus comparator. Across the 3 highest weight-loss quartiles, canagliflozin provided greater weight loss versus glimepiride or placebo. BMI and waist circumference reductions were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks; more patients had BMI or waist circumference reductions with canagliflozin versus comparator. Body composition analysis indicated that the majority of weight loss was due to loss of fat mass. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with increased incidence of adverse events related to the SGLT2 inhibition mechanism. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus
Dorn, Melissa J; Bockstahler, Barbara A; Dupré, Gilles P
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pressure-volume relationship during capnoperitoneum in dogs and effects of body weight and body conformation. ANIMALS 86 dogs scheduled for routine laparoscopy. PROCEDURES Dogs were allocated into 3 groups on the basis of body weight. Body measurements, body condition score, and body conformation indices were calculated. Carbon dioxide was insufflated into the abdomen with a syringe, and pressure was measured at the laparoscopic cannula. Volume and pressure data were processed, and the yield point, defined by use of a cutoff volume (COV) and cutoff pressure (COP), was calculated. RESULTS 20 dogs were excluded because of recording errors, air leakage attributable to surgical flaws, or trocar defects. For the remaining 66 dogs, the pressure-volume curve was linear-like until the yield point was reached, and then it became visibly exponential. Mean ± SD COP was 5.99 ± 0.805 mm Hg. No correlation was detected between yield point, body variables, or body weight. Mean COV was 1,196.2 ± 697.9 mL (65.15 ± 20.83 mL of CO2/kg), and COV was correlated significantly with body weight and one of the body condition indices but not with other variables. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, there was a similar COP for all dogs of all sizes. In addition, results suggested that increasing the abdominal pressure after the yield point was reached did not contribute to a substantial increase in working space in the abdomen. No correlation was found between yield point, body variables, and body weight.
Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich
Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.
Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.
Hansen, Barbara C; Newcomb, Jennifer D; Chen, Ren; Linden, Ellen H
The aim of this study was to test the obesity-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) link in the context of longitudinal changes in body weight during the progression to diabetes in mature adult nonhuman primates (NHP). A colony of 245 adult rhesus monkeys aged 8-41 years with 179 males were used to define overweight in males as a body weight: ≥13.5 kg or body fat (BF) ≥18% and obesity as ≥16.5 kg or BF ≥27%, and overweight in nonpregnant females was identified as a body weight >8.5 kg or BF >21% and obesity as ≥10.5 kg or BF ≥30%. A subgroup of 48 males (24 T2DM and 24 age-matched non-T2DM) males were studied before and following the onset of overt T2DM for the effects of changes in body weight and obesity in inducing this conversion to overt T2DM. Three years before overt T2DM, mean body weight was 18.4 ± 3.3 kg. The DM-destined group body weight was 3.2 ± 1.1 kg greater and had a longer duration and greater severity of obesity, with peak body weight reached at 3.2 ± 1.8 years before overt T2DM. At DM onset the two groups did not differ significantly in body weight or adiposity. The natural progression from pre-DM to overt T2DM is caused neither by the amount of excess body weight at DM onset nor by the proximate increases in body weight/adiposity during the pre-DM period of impaired glucose tolerance. Obesity was, however, essential preceding all NHP cases that developed T2DM. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Stygar, A H; Dolecheck, K A; Kristensen, A R
Frequent BW monitoring of growing pigs can be useful for identifying production (e.g. feeding), health and welfare problems. However, in order to construct a tool which will properly recognize abnormalities in pigs' growth a precise description of the growth process should be used. In this study we proposed a new model of pig growth accounting for daily fluctuations in BW. Body weight measurements of 1710 pigs (865 gilts and 843 barrows) originating from five consecutive batches from a Danish commercial farm were collected. Pigs were inserted into a large pen (maximum capacity=400) between November 2014 and September 2015. On average, each pig was observed for 42 days and weighed 3.6 times a day when passing from the resting to feeding area. Altogether, 243,160 BW measurements were recorded. A multilevel model of pig growth was constructed and fitted to available data. The BW of pigs was modeled as a quadratic function of time. A diurnal pattern was incorporated into the model by a cosine wave with known length (24 h). The model included pig effect which was defined as a random autoregressive process with exponential correlation. Variance of within-pigs error was assumed to increase with time. Because only five batches were observed, it was not possible to obtain the random effect for batch. However, in order to account for the batch effect the model included interactions between batch and fixed parameters: intercept, time, square value of time and cosine wave. The gender effect was not significant and was removed from the final model. For all batches, morning and afternoon peaks in the frequency of visits to the feeding area could be distinguished. According to results, pigs were lighter in the morning and heavier in the evening (minimum BW was reached around 1000 h and maximum around 2200 h). However, the exact time of obtaining maximum and minimum BW during the day differed between batches. Pigs had access to natural light and, therefore, existing differences
The data used for this study were collected on 16 644 kids born between 2000 and 2004 in 12 different Angora goat studs representing different management systems. Body weight and growth rate of kids from birth to 16 months of age, as well the 18- and 21-month body weights and first kidding performance of ewe kids ...
Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...
Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270
Robert G Hahn
Conclusion: How strongly the kidneys excrete or retain fluid, which can be assessed by urine sampling, was the strongest indicator of the increase in body weight during the day of surgery. The amount of fluid alone did not correlate with the gain in body weight.
van Gent, R.; van der Ent, C.K.; Rovers, M.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Essen-Zandvliet, L.E.M.; de Meer, G.
Background: Asthma and excessive body weight frequently coexist, whereas the exact relationship between the 2 diseases is unknown. Objective: To study whether asthma combined with excessive body weight has a greater effect on quality of life in children than the separate effects of asthma or
Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C
PURPOSE: To examine how weight information labels on variously sized media models affect (pre)adolescent girls' body perceptions and how they compare themselves with media models. METHODS: We used a three (body shape: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight) × three (information label: 6-kg
The effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on body weight and liver lipids in rats were studied. Male albino rats were fed a modified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid to provoke hyperlipidaemia. The hyperlipidaemic rats were given 10 mg/kg body weight of either aqueous ...
Boström, G; Diderichsen, Finn
The purpose of this study was to analyse misclassification of height, weight and body mass index (BMI), derived from mail questionnaires, and its dependency on socioeconomic factors.......The purpose of this study was to analyse misclassification of height, weight and body mass index (BMI), derived from mail questionnaires, and its dependency on socioeconomic factors....
Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo
Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.
Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.
Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…
Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A
Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.
Wengstrom, Y; Wahren, L K; Grodzinsky, E
Poor nutritional status amongst elderly individuals with hip fractures is well documented. Studies have suggested that 30-50 % of patients admitted to orthopaedic departments suffer from protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). An 6 month intervention study. The study was conducted in Sweden between February 2005 and October 2006. Elderly patients with hip fractures (n=32). Evaluation of compliance with individual nutritional support and whether body weight and body fat (BF) could be maintained after six months. Evaluation of possible effects of nutritional supplements and dietary advice after hip fracture on BMI, BF, and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Overall compliance with supplement intake was 73%. After six months, BMI was unchanged. Women's BF had decreased (P weight/day. Three groups could be identified: one group with increased body weight and BF, one with loss of body weight and BF, and one with increased body weight together with increased TBW and loss of BF. PARTICIPANTS who consumed 0-1 supplements daily lost more weight than those who consumed 2 supplements daily. There was a positive difference (p= women between MNA values at baseline and after six months. In the present study compliance was satisfactory at the group level, and the energy and protein intake increased significantly. BMI was unchanged during the 6 months period. However, the women lost BF during the study period of with some had increasing total body water (TBW). MNA values for women changed in a positive direction.
Li, Aihua; Teo, Koon K; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David
The effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and offspring obesity traits, as well as the maternal and offspring genetic contribution to GWG and postpartum weight retention, were examined. Blood samples from mothers (n = 608) and offspring (n = 541) were genotyped for 83 BMI-associated SNPs and 47 waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)-associated SNPs. Linear regression and mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine clinical epidemiological and genetic associations with unweighted and weighted BMI and WHR genetic risk scores (GRS). Prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with offspring weight and BMI Z-score from birth to 5 years. GWG was positively associated with maternal postpartum weight retention at 1 and 5 years and with offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old. The maternal unweighted BMI GRS was associated with prepregnancy BMI, postpartum weight retention at 5 years, and offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old, but not associated with GWG. Both maternal and offspring unweighted WHR GRSs were negatively associated with GWG. Maternal BMI-associated SNPs may contribute to the genetic link between prepregnancy BMI variation, long-term postpartum weight retention, and offspring birth weight and longitudinal weight. Maternal and offspring WHR-associated SNPs may contribute to GWG variation. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels
Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...... for nonmacerated fetuses and for mildly, moderately, and markedly macerated fetuses at 12 to 43 weeks of gestation. Cases were selected from a consecutive series of 1800 fetal and perinatal autopsies. Cases with malformations, hydrops, infection, or chromosomal abnormality, fetuses from multiple births...
Cachelin, F M; Striegel-Moore, R H; Elder, K A
Recently, a shift in obesity treatment away from emphasizing ideal weight loss goals to establishing realistic weight loss goals has been proposed; yet, what constitutes "realistic" weight loss for different populations is not clear. This study examined notions of realistic shape and weight as well as body size assessment in a large community-based sample of African-American, Asian, Hispanic, and white men and women. Participants were 1893 survey respondents who were all dieters and primarily overweight. Groups were compared on various variables of body image assessment using silhouette ratings. No significant race differences were found in silhouette ratings, nor in perceptions of realistic shape or reasonable weight loss. Realistic shape and weight ratings by both women and men were smaller than current shape and weight but larger than ideal shape and weight ratings. Compared with male dieters, female dieters considered greater weight loss to be realistic. Implications of the findings for the treatment of obesity are discussed.
Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai
To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.
Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.
Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Yamamoto, Loren G; Inaba, Alson S; Young, Lynette L; Anderson, Kathy M
Length-based dosing systems reduce errors associated with resuscitation drug dosing. Obese and thin children of the same length are dosed the same despite their different weights. Length (height) and weight were measured in children after a body habitus icon assignment. Within each body habitus group, regression analysis was performed to generate a weight-estimation formula using body habitus and length (BHL). This BHL method was compared to the Broselow tape (BT). Height and weight data were plotted to obtain visual scattergrams. Logarithmic regression yielded higher correlation coefficients than standard linear regression. Within body habitus groups, BHL epinephrine dose estimates were more accurate than BT dose estimates using 0.01 mg/kg as a dosing standard. Adding body habitus information to the patient's length results in a more accurate weight estimate than length alone in children. The accuracy improvement is greater in children 3 years and older as compared to younger children.
Filippatos, Theodosios D; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Georgoula, Maria; Tellis, Constantinos C; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) catabolism, but its serum concentration is not uniformly associated with cardiovascular disease in clinical studies. Obesity is linked with increased cardiovascular risk, but the effect of increased body weight and short-term weight loss on serum PCSK9 levels is not well studied. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to assess differences in serum PCSK9 levels (determined with a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay) between otherwise healthy drug-naïve obese subjects and healthy individuals with normal body weight. Additionally, PCSK9 levels were determined at baseline and after a 3-month weight-loss program with a low-fat diet in a randomly assigned subgroup of the obese subjects (n = 15). Obese subjects (n = 35) were older (age: 43 ±11 years) and had significantly higher body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) index levels, as well as significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration, compared with normal-weight subjects (n = 20, age: 35 ±6 years). Serum PCSK9 levels were significantly higher in obese subjects compared with normal-weight individuals, even after adjustment for age, LDL-C, triglycerides, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein E, glucose, insulin and HOMA index levels (p = 0.018). Obese subjects experienced significant weight loss (from 109 ±22 to 104 ±23 kg, p weight-loss program. Serum PCSK9 levels are higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight individuals. Short-term weight loss with a low-fat diet does not significantly affect PCSK9 levels.
Variance and covariance components and ratios pertaining to direct additive genetic variation, maternal additive genetic variation, maternal permanent environmental variation, and the relationship between direct and maternal effects for birth weight (BW; kg), weaning weight (WW; kg) and body weight at 8, 12 and 16 ...
Senthilvelkumar, Thangavelu; Magimairaj, Henry; Fletcher, Jebaraj; Tharion, George; George, Jacob
To compare the effectiveness of body weight-supported treadmill training and body weight-supported overground training for improving gait and strength in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. Assessor blinded randomized trial. Rehabilitation institute of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Sixteen participants with traumatic motor incomplete tetraplegia and within two years of injury. Participants were randomised to one of two groups: body weight-supported overground training on level ground and body weight-supported treadmill training. Both groups received 30 minutes of gait training per day, five days a week for eight weeks. In addition, both groups received regular rehabilitation which included flexibility, strength, balance, self care and functional training. The primary outcome measure was the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (/20 points) and the secondary outcome was the Lower Extremity Muscle Score (/50 points). There was no statistically significant between group differences in the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury [mean difference=0.3points; 95% CI (-4.8 to 5.4); p=0.748] or the Lower Extremity Muscle Score [mean difference=0.2 points; 95% CI (-3.8 to 5.1); p=0.749]. Gait training with body weight-supported overground training is comparable to treadmill training for improving locomotion in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. © The Author(s) 2014.
Robinson, Tammy Renee'
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between appearance management, created appearance, body cathexis, and clothing behavior for a group of women enrolled in a commercial weight loss program. Subjects were 171 females enrolled in Weight WatchersÂ® programs in Christiansburg, Virginia. No previous research had investigated clothing behavior, appearance management, created appearance, and body cathexis of women in a weight loss program. Because clothing is such an integra...
Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío
The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.
Zhou, Long; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng
To explore the relationship between weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of 14 population samples from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology conducted in 1998 were used. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body weight at age 25 years. The body mass index (BMI) at the age 25 years was calculated. The association between body weight in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age and T2DM was examined by using logistic regression model. The incidence of T2DM in low weight group (BMIweight group (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group (BMI: 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese group (BMI:≥28.0 kg/m(2)) at 25 years old were 2.4%(30/1263), 2.8%(266/9562), 4.0%(70/1739) and 6.4% (7/110), respectively (P value for trendweight change 12.5 kg at middle age were 2.5% (18/712), 1.3%(21/1629), 2.1%(48/2330), 2.3%(59/2585), 3.7%(94/2518), and 4.6% (133/2900) respectively. (P value for trend weight gain were positively correlated with T2DM after adjusted other risk factors (all P values for trend weight gain at middle age were both independently associated with the increased risk of T2DM in middle-aged men and women.
Praygod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel
This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV status.......7) in weight and 6.8kg (95% CI 5.2; 8.3) in handgrip strength among females and 9.1kg (95% CI 7.3; 10.9) in weight and 6.8kg (95% CI 5.2; 8.4) in handgrip strength among males. In both sexes, PTB+ was associated with deficits in AFA and AMA. Among females, HIV was associated with deficits in AMA and handgrip...... support may be necessary to ensure reversal of the deficits, and may improve treatment outcomes....
Bozić-Krstić, V S; Pavlica, T M; Rakić, R S
Height and weight are the most important measures of growth and development and indirect indicators of living conditions. The socio-economic conditions in Serbia have varied drastically. In 1990, a political and economic crisis started causing a rapid fall of standards of living. The study aimed to determine the height and weight of children aged 3-11 in the periods between 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 in Novi Sad, Serbia. This investigation was carried out in the same primary schools and pre-school institutions. The data included children of Serbian nationality born in Novi Sad whose parents were also born there and had the same socio-economic background. Positive changes in height and weight were recorded in the decades 1971-1981 and 1981-1991, except for the height of 8-year-old children. In the period 1991-2001, an increase in height was observed only at the age of 8 in boys and until the age of 9 in girls. As for weight, an increase was recorded in 9-year-old boys, while in girls it was present at all ages except for the ages of 7 and 10. Considering the period 1971-2001, positive changes in height were recorded from the age of 6 in boys and 5 in girls. The changes in weight were positive at all ages except the age of 5 in boys and after the age of 6 in girls. Lower values of height and weight recorded in 2001 are probably due to the changes in living conditions or they indicate that the acceleration reached its peak. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Hairunnisa Bt Mohd Anas K
Full Text Available Foot impressions form a valuable physical evidence to solve crime. Foot impression measurements provide valuable information in estimating stature, weight, gender and age in crime scene investigation. In Asian countries, many people living in rural places walk without footwear. The aim of this research is to generate regression equations to determine living body weight from foot outline length among the Iban population of Malaysia. The study involved 200 (100 males, 100 females adult Ibans, mostly living in Sarawak, a state in Malaysia. Following the standard procedure, the foot outlines were collected followed by body weight measurements and were recorded for analysis. The collected data were analysed with PASW 20 computer software. The correlation coefficient (R between the foot outline lengths and body weight was determined for males, females and pooled sample. Based on the foot outline and body weight, 30 regression equations were generated, 10 for males, 10 for females and 10 for pooled samples/unknown gender. The correlation coefficient (R values were positive and statistically significant. It is concluded that the present investigation provided regression equations to determine body weight from foot outline anthropometry. These equations can be used to determine body weight even when partial foot impressions are available at crime scenes. Keywords: Forensic Science, Body Weight, Foot Outline, Iban Population, Malaysia
The prediction of live body weight from six body measurements was studied using the Cobb broiler strain. A total of two hundred and sixty-four chicks comprising of one hundred and thirty- four at males and females were used. Mean body weights day-old, 3,6,9 and 12 weeks of age were 36.7g, 276.16g, 856.72, 1,334.1g ...
Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae
Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.
Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla
Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.
van den Berg, Patricia A; Keery, Helene; Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
... (weight status, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and encouraging child to diet) at baseline, as assessed by both mothers and adolescents, and associations with adolescents' body dissatisfaction and weight control practices 5 years later...
Rosenbaum, M; Hirsch, J; Murphy, E; Leibel, R L
Weight gain and loss increases and decreases energy expenditure, respectively, out of proportion to changes in metabolic mass. We hypothesized that changes in energy expenditure associated with weight gain or loss were due in part to changes in catecholamine release, thyroid hormones, carbohydrate utilization, or a combination thereof. Urinary catecholamine excretion, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and results of 3-h oral-glucose-tolerance tests were examined in obese and never-obese subjects at their usual weights, during weight loss or gain, and at stable weights 10-20% below or 10% above usual. Urinary norepinephrine excretion decreased significantly during and after weight loss and increased during and after weight gain. Serum concentrations of reverse triiodothyronine increased significantly during and after weight loss, whereas serum concentrations of triiodothyronine increased significantly (by approximately 0%) during and after weight gain. Serum insulin and glucose concentrations during the oral-glucose-tolerance test increased significantly after weight gain in obese subjects. The percentage change in urinary norepinephrine excretion and in serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were significantly correlated with percentage changes in energy expenditure and with each other. Changes in body weight were associated with changes in catecholamine excretion and thyroid hormones, which might-by virtue of the effects on energy expenditure-have favored a return to usual body weight. Weight gain induced more apparent insulin resistance in the obese than the never-obese subjects, suggesting a threshold effect of total body fat on this phenomenon.
Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang
Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…
Parasitaemia reached the maximum on day 28 post infection. Trypanosoma infection led to significant decrease in weight gain (WG), PCV and SC. These parameters were significantly lower in infected Gudali, compared to Namchi. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.66) between parasitaemia and PCV levels. Clinical ...
They were sacrificed by dazing with a cervical blow at the end of the experimental period. The kidney, liver, intestine and spleen were excised and weighed. Results: Relative kidney, liver, spleen and intestinal weights increased significantly in groups fed diets incorporated with 10% Vernonia amygdalina and Vernonia ...
identity (if known), kid identity, kidding date, birth weight, sex, birth and rearing status, rearing group and ... supplementation. 5. (12). Does on pastures Does on pastures. Does kid on pastures. Does on pastures. All kids on pastures. From the reproduction data the following reproduction parameters were calculated for each ...
Background: Overweight/obesity is on the rise in developing countries, especially in urban areas. Although overweight/obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death less is known about the prevalence of obesity and the perceptions about weight among patients attending healthcare facilities. Previous studies ...
The purposes of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits and to develop a suitable model for the data set used. Data were collected in the Zandi sheep breed from 1992 to 2007 from the Khojir Sheep Breeding Station, Tehran, Iran. Number of observation were 5711 for birth weight (BW), 4619 for ...
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Joyce S; Lai, Ching-Man; Ho, Roger C
This study examined the associations of body esteem with gender, age, and Body Mass Index (BMI) among 905 Hong Kong adolescents using the Body-Esteem Scale (BES). Older age, male gender and lower BMI were associated with better body esteem. Multiple regression analyses indicated significant main effects of gender, age and weight on BES-Total. Significant interaction effects of gender × BMI and gender × age × BMI were also found on BES-Weight (beta = -0.149, p = .028) and BES-Total (beta = -0.139, p = .044). Improvement of body esteem with age may be associated with age-related BMI differences.
Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.
Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…
McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.
A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…
Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol
Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.
Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.
Dunaev, Jamie; Markey, Charlotte H; Brochu, Paula M
Internalized weight bias and body dissatisfaction are associated with a number of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. The current study examined the effectiveness of body-focused gratitude, through a short writing exercise, as a strategy to reduce internalized weight bias and improve body image. Young adults (M age = 22.71, SD = 2.08, 51.2% female) were randomly assigned to either a body gratitude condition (n = 185) or a control condition (n = 184). Results indicated that participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly lower weight bias internalization and significantly more favorable appearance evaluation and greater body satisfaction when compared to the control condition. These effects were in the small range (ds = 0.27-0.33), and neither gender nor BMI moderated these effects. These findings provide preliminary support for body-focused gratitude writing exercises as an effective individual-level strategy for both reducing internalized weight bias and improving body image. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. Results The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (−0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from −0.62 to −0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P feed intake for the high group was less (P efficient) had both the lowest (P feed intake (18.86 vs. 19.57 and 20.41 kg) and the highest (P feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time. PMID:23865507
Ransone, Jack; Hughes, Brian
OBJECTIVE: To determine fluctuations in total body weight of the elite collegiate wrestler during the competitive season. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study period lasted 2 competitive seasons, beginning 1 month before the 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001 competitive seasons and ending 1 month after the National Championships. SUBJECTS: Seventy-eight male subjects (age = 21.3 +/- 1.5 years, height = 154.1 +/- 0.5 cm) from 4 major universities whose teams finished in the top 5 at both the 2000 and 2001 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I National Wrestling Championships. MEASUREMENTS: Each subject was asked to report to the testing area 24 hours before, 1 hour before, and 24 hours after a competitive wrestling match, and weight was recorded to the nearest 0.1 lb (0.45 kg). Comparisons among the prematch weights, official weigh-ins, and postmatch weights were made using a randomized, 1-group, repeated-measures factorial analysis of covariance with an alpha level of.05. RESULTS: A significant difference (F(2,154) = 229.99, P body-weight changes 24 hours and 1 hour before the match (t(77) = 56.21, P <.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Elite collegiate wrestlers, like novice wrestlers, significantly reduce weight immediately before and gain weight after the competition.
Albergotti, William G; Davis, Kara S; Abberbock, Shira; Bauman, Julie E; Ohr, James; Clump, David A; Heron, Dwight E; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Kim, Seungwon; Johnson, Jonas T; Ferris, Robert L
Pretreatment body mass index (BMI) >25kg/m(2) is a positive prognostic factor in patients with head and neck cancer. Previous studies have not been adequately stratified by human papilloma virus (HPV) status or subsite. Our objective is to determine prognostic significance of pretreatment BMI on overall survival in HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). This is a retrospective review of patients with HPV+ OPSCC treated between 8/1/2006 and 8/31/2014. Patients were stratified by BMI status (>/25kg/m(2) had a longer overall survival (HR=0.49, P=0.01) as well as a longer disease-specific survival (HR=0.43, P=0.02). Overall survival remained significantly associated with high BMI on multivariate analysis (HR=0.54, P=0.04). Pre-treatment normal or underweight BMI status is associated with worse overall survival in HPV+ OPSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
mean square error, conceptual predictive criterion and Akaike information criterion ... (2000), such questionable estimates of LW lead to inaccuracies in decision-making ... aimed at developing models for predicting LW of Afar goats using body ... A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed for selecting the primary ...
Mori, DeAnna L.; Morey, Leslie
A central component of anorexia nervosa is a body image disturbance (BID). BID, as it is experienced in anorexia nervosa, is defined as an inability to recognize how thin one really is and is exhibited by a sense of feeling overweight in spite of severe emaciation. Several researchers have recognized a relationship between depressive personality…
Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary
will result in good performance and a significant genetic gain throughout the lifetime of Marshall Broiler chickens. Keywords: Repeatability, Marshall Broiler, linear body variables,. Introduction. In Nigeria, poultry contributes significantly to the animal protein supply of the populace. The poultry population was put at 114.3 ...
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre
Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…
The study was conducted to measure the development of several testicular characteristics and to investigate the relationship between testicular parameters with body growth, semen characteristics and serum testosterone levels in growing ram lambs. Seventeen single born Kivircik ram lambs from three to four year old ewes ...
Nov 9, 2016 ... To elucidate the genetic mechanism of growth trait in Takifugu rubripes during ontogeny, developmental genetic analysis of body ... mechanism of quantitative traits changes with temporal and spatial patterns (Zhu, ..... development, epigenetic selection and phenotypic evolution. Evolution 46(46):495-518.
Carson, Kenneth R.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; McDonald, Jay R.; Luo, Suhong; Zeringue, Angelique; Liu, Jingxia; Fu, Qiang; Chang, Su-Hsin; Colditz, Graham A.
Purpose Obesity increases the risk of death from many malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common form of NHL, the association between body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis and survival is unclear. Patients and Methods We evaluated the association between BMI at diagnosis and overall survival in a retrospective cohort of 2,534 United States veterans diagnosed with DLBCL between October 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. Cox modeling was used to control for patient- and disease-related prognostic variables. Results Mean age at diagnosis was 68 years (range, 20 to 100 years); 64% of patients were overweight (BMI, 25 to < 30) or obese (BMI, ≥ 30). Obese patients were significantly younger, had significantly fewer B symptoms, and trended toward lower-stage disease, compared with other BMI groups. Cox analysis showed reduced mortality in overweight and obese patients (overweight: hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.83; obese: HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.80), compared with normal-weight patients (BMI, 18.5 to < 25). Treatment during the rituximab era reduced the risk of death without affecting the association between BMI and survival. Disease-related weight loss occurred in 29% of patients with weight data 1 year before diagnosis. Cox analysis based on BMI 1 year before diagnosis continued to demonstrate reduced risk of death in overweight and obese patients. Conclusion Being overweight or obese at the time of DLBCL diagnosis is associated with improved overall survival. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for this association will require further study. PMID:22649138
Bryngelsson, Susanne; Asp, Nils-Georg
This overview focuses on the scientific support for selected popular diets; the Atkins diet, glycaemic index methods, the Montignac diet and the palaeolithic diet. The practical application of the diets, and their nutritional composition, in comparison with official dietary recommendations, are also discussed. In conclusion, any diet reducing energy intake may be effective in short-term weight reduction. However, the long-term safety and efficacy of the popular diets need more research to be ...
Durá Travé, T; Gallinas Victoriano, F
To analyze the chronological evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in order to raise public awareness within the different areas of intervention (family, school, business environment, health services) and to take effective actions. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of 604 healthy subjects (307 males and 297 females) have been recorded at birth and at the age of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 years. The excess body weight has been calculated according to national references from Ferrández et al. Prevalence of excess body weight at age 14 years was significantly higher (Pbody weight at age 14, with respect to patients with normal nutritional status of the same age. Those groups with excess body weight at age 14 showed a BMI (Z-score) reaching overweight or obesity levels at age 4, and progressively increasing. Excess body weight probably starts at early stages in life, when dietary habits of the child depends almost exclusively on family habits, and may be aggravated during school attendance. Finally, a disproportionate weight increase occurs in adolescence that is probably related to unhealthy dietary habits and way of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and age and ethnicity with 50 NW students. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, eating behaviour and physical activity, a weight management knowledge inventory (WMKI) and the Body Silhouette Chart. The study sample comprised Malays (40%), Chinese (30%) and Indians (30%) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 1.15 years. The majority of them were from families with a monthly household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (χ2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (χ2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices.
Moncada, Rafael; Becerril, Sara; Rodríguez, Amaia; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Ramírez, Beatriz; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Gil, M Jesús; Fernández, Secundino; Cienfuegos, Javier A; Valentí, Víctor; Frühbeck, Gema
Susceptibility to obesity is associated with a notable inter-individual variation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on weight loss and metabolic profile in obesity-prone (OP) rats vs animals that are non-susceptible to obesity (NSO). Young male Wistar rats (n = 101) were put in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) programme with ad libitum access to a high-fed diet (HFD) during 12 months. Body weight and food intake were regularly registered. Thereafter, rats were ranked by final body weight to identify the obesity-prone (OP) (n = 13) and non-susceptible to obesity (NSO) (n = 14) animals. OP and NSO rats were submitted to surgical interventions (sham operation, SG and pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve-gastrectomized rats). Body weight, food intake, energy expenditure, body temperature, fat pads weight, and metabolic profiling were analysed 4 weeks after surgical or dietary interventions. SG in both OP and NSO rats decreased body weight as compared to sham and pair-fed groups (P weight loss achieved in sleeve-gastrectomized OP and NSO rats was higher than that of pair-fed ones (P obesity-prone rats also benefit from surgery responding effectively to SG, as evidenced by the significant body weight reduction and the metabolic profile improvement.
Mikulan, Rita; Piko, Bettina E
Due to chronic dissatisfaction with body weight in youth, efforts to lose weight often lead to pathological dietary behaviours. Regular and heavy sports activity may contribute to the optimization of body weight, not only by elevating the energy utilization but also by increasing the health consciousness and the tendency to self-monitor. Research generally finds a beneficial role of extracurricular sports activity in body weight control. Therefore, we aim to analyze how regular, heavy sports activity (more precisely, competitive sports) may contribute to body weight control among two groups of youth: athletes and non-athletes. Our study was carried out using 347 adolescents; among them there were 91 athletes and 259 controls. The subjects completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their body weight control and dietary habits. We found that girls were less satisfied with their body weight and reported dieting more frequently with a greater emphasis on healthy dieting than boys. Sport influenced these strong gender differences only regarding healthy dieting, young male athletes laid a larger emphasis on healthy diets than their non-athlete counterparts, therefore their attitude became similar to that of female athletes and non-athletes. We conclude that despite the normal weight in high school students, episodes of dieting that might contribute to eating disorders were quite frequent. This was not influenced by the students' extracurricular sports activity. A greater monitoring of male athletes' and their friend's diet draw attention to the need for developing health education programs specific to boys.
Quick, V.; Nansel, T.; Liu, D.
OBJECTIVES: To examine 9-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. METHODS: Sociodemographic characteristics, body size perception and dieting...... for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents......, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence...
Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p adolescents (p self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Hester Casey N
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.
Voelker DK; Reel JJ; Greenleaf C
Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including tran...
Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani
The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term selection in Japanese quail for 4-wk BW and estimate genetic parameters of BW, carcass traits, and egg weight. A selected line and control line were randomly selected from a base population. In each generation, 39 sires and 7...
Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn
To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Butler, Scott M; Black, David R; Blue, Carolyn L; Gretebeck, Randall J
To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a significant increase occurred in body-weight parameters that may be attributed to significant decreases in total physical activity. Interventions are needed aimed at increasing physical activity; improving diet quality related to consumption of vegetables, fruits, breads and pasta, and meats; and decreasing alcohol consumption.
Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; King, Lesley A; Hattersley, Libby A; Howlett, Sarah A; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A
Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Gro...
Caccavale, Laura J; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J
This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6909 students in grades 6-10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status×social engagement). Adolescents' overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.
This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852
Lee, J.S.; Visser, M.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Schwartz, A.; Sahyoun, N.; Harris, T.B.; Newman, A.B.
BackgroundOlder adults are less able to conserve lean mass relative to fat mass with weight change. A cycle of weight loss and regain in an older individual could accelerate sarcopenia. We examined whether older adults experiencing weight loss and regain would show a greater loss of lean mass during
Full Text Available Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight.We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data.Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds.Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth
His, Mathilde; Le Guélennec, Marine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure
Although adult obesity has been associated with poor breast cancer survival, data on adiposity at different periods in life and its lifelong evolution are scarce. Our aims were to assess the associations between breast cancer survival and body size during childhood, puberty and early adulthood and body size trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Self-assessed body size at age 8, at puberty, at age 20-25 and at age 35-40 and trajectories of body size of 4,662 breast cancer survivors from the prospective E3N cohort were studied in relation to risk of death from any cause, death from breast cancer and second invasive cancer event using multivariate Cox regression models. Four trajectories of body size were identified (T1 "moderate increase," T2 "stable/low increase," T3 "increase at puberty" and T4 "constantly high"). Compared with stable body size, an increase in body size during adult life was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause (HR T1 vs. T2 = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.01-1.60) and an increased risk of second invasive cancer event (HR T1 vs. T2 = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.06-1.47). Silhouettes at various ages were not associated with survival. Our results suggest that the evolution of body size from childhood to adulthood has a long-term influence on breast cancer survival. Although these results need to be confirmed, this work sheds light on the need to combine lifelong approaches to current BMI to better identify breast cancer survivors who are at higher risk of recurrence or second primary cancer, or of death. © 2017 UICC.
Santosa, S; Demonty, I; Lichtenstein, A H; Jones, P J H
To determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirty-five otherwise healthy, hypercholesterolemic women completed a 24-week weight loss study. A 20% decrease in energy intake through diet and a 10% increase in energy expenditure by exercise were combined with motivational strategies to encourage weight loss. The diet was self-selected and comprised of 50-60% carbohydrates, 20% protein and dyslipidemia.
Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata
Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pbody height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.
Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan
Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.
Fan, Yiou; Li, Yanping; Liu, Ailing; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng; Xu, Guifa
Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct...
Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf
Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification.
Jeong, HaYoung; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Sin-Gon
Relocation to new environments can have a negative impact on health by altering body weight and dietary patterns. This study attempted to elucidate changes in body weight, food security, and their current food and nutrient consumption in adult North Korean refugees (NKR) living in South Korea (SK). This study analyzed data on 149 adult NKR from a North Korean refugee health in SK cohort at four time points (leaving North Korea, entering SK, first examination, and second examination). Body weight was self-reported at the two earlier time points and directly measured at the two later time points. Food security, diet-related behaviors (dietary habits and food consumption), and sociodemographic information were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intake information was obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS ver 23.0. Body weight increased during relocation by an average of 4 kg, although diversified patterns were observed during the settlement period in SK. Approximately 39.6% of subjects maintained their body weight between the first and second examinations, whereas 38.6% gained and 22.1% lost at least 3% of their body weight at the first examination by the second examination. Food security status improved from 12.1% food secure proportion to 61.7%. NKR showed generally good food and nutrient consumption (index of nutrient quality: 0.77-1.93). The body weight loss group showed the most irregular meal consumption pattern ( P < 0.05), and eating-out was infrequent in all three groups. Consumption frequencies of food groups did not differ by group, except in the fish group ( P = 0.036). This study observed considerable body weight adjustment during the settlement period in SK after initial weight gain, whereas food security consistently improved. More detailed understanding of this process is needed to assist healthy settlement for NKR in SK.
Sareen S. Gropper
Full Text Available Differences in weight, body mass index (BMI, percent and absolute body fat, fat-free mass, and waist circumference were investigated in a group of males and females during the first three years (from 2007 to 2010 of college. Significant three-year gains were observed for weight 2.1±4.7 kg, BMI 0.7±1.6 kg/m2, percent body fat 2.7±3.3%, and fat mass 2.3±3.5 kg. A significant loss of fat-free mass, −0.5 kg, was observed among females. Absolute gains in weight, BMI, and percent and absolute body fat were highest during the freshman year, followed by the junior year, and lowest during the sophomore year. Among the 70% of students gaining weight over the three years, weight gain averaged 4.3 kg. The numbers of females with over 30% body fat doubled, and the number of males with over 20% body fat increased fivefold. Initially 15% of students were classified as obese/overweight and 79% normal weight; by the end of the junior year, 24% were obese/overweight and 70% were normal weight. Efforts on college campuses to promote healthy lifestyles among its student population are needed throughout the college years.
Sailer, Corinna; Schmid, Vera; Fritsche, Louise; Gerter, Tsvetelina; Machicao, Fausto; Niess, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Heni, Martin
Not every participant responds with a comparable body weight loss to lifestyle intervention, despite the same compliance. Genetic factors may explain parts of this difference. Variation in fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is the strongest common genetic determinant of body weight. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of FTO genotype differences in the link between improvement of fitness and reduction of body weight during a lifestyle intervention. We genotyped 292 healthy subjects for FTO rs8050136. Participants underwent a 9-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after intervention, aerobic fitness was tested by bicycle (VO2max) and treadmill spiroergometry (individual anaerobic threshold (IAT), subgroup of N = 192). Participants lost body weight (p weight (p obesity-risk A-allele carriers in the higher quartiles of improvement in fitness lost significantly less body weight. Our data reveal that genetic variation in FTO impacts on body weight reduction during lifestyle intervention only in subjects with marked improvement in aerobic fitness. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G
The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Casanueva, Esther; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; de Regil, Luz María; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María
To evaluate changes in weight and body fat of Mexican adolescent compared to those of adult lactating women from the Northwest (NM) and Central (CM) regions of Mexico in the first trimester postpartum. A prospective design was used to evaluate 41 exclusively breastfeeding women (21 adolescents and 20 adults) recruited 1-2 days after delivering a healthy singleton at the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora (Northwest Mexico) and Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, in Mexico City. Socioeconomic status, height, body weight and composition, dietary intake, physical activity, and milk volume (quantified by deuterium dilution method) were measured at the 1st and 3rd month postpartum. Women did not lose weight throughout the first trimester postpartum. Mean postpartum weight retention at the end of the study was 3.8 kg. No differences in weight and body mass index (BMI) were found between adolescent and adult women in both periods. Energy and macronutrient intakes, physical activity and milk volume were similar between the two groups of women. In both periods, adolescents from the CM region had lower weight, BMI, and body fat than adolescents from the NM region (Pbreastfeeding for 3 months did not reduce weight or body fat in the Mexican population of this study. Efforts to avoid weight retention in the lactation period may contribute to prevent overweight and obesity in women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Diego Augusto Santos Silva
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.
Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Alfa J; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis; Lujani, Benjamin; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Anaeli, Amani; Njelekela, Marina A
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed perception about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this cross sectional study, nine schools were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle information including perception about body weight. Height and weight were measured following standard procedures. Chi- square tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine factors which influence perceptions about body weight. A total of 446 children were included into the study. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2 (16.1 ± 4.0 for males and 17.0 ± 4.0 for females). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher among girls, 13.1% and 6.3% compared to boys with 6.3% and 3.8% overweight and obese respectively (P=0.0314). Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.0% (10.1% among boys and 19.4% among girls). One-third (33.3%) of the children perceived their body weight as overweight or obese. Among overweight and obese children, 35.4% had unfavourable perception of their body weights. There was a statistically significant difference between perceived body weight and actual body weight as indicated by BMI for both boys and girls (P body weight. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is not very high in this population. However over a third of overweight and obese children, had unfavourable perception of their body weights. We recommend targeted educational programmes about
Scheid, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane; Leidy, Heather J; Williams, Nancy I
The aim of this study was to examine changes in fasting total peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin in nonobese premenopausal women after an exercise and diet program with and without weight loss. Body composition, energy balance parameters, ghrelin, and PYY were measured before and after a 3-month intervention in nonexercising controls (n = 7) and exercising women who either remained weight stable (n = 5) or lost weight (n = 10). At baseline, subjects were 20.6 ± 2.2 yr, weighed 58.0 ± 4.8 kg, and had 27.2% ± 4.9% body fat. Supervised exercise training occurred five times a week for up to 90 min at 70%-80% of maximum HR. Subjects were fed a controlled diet. Body weight (-3.2 ± 0.8 kg) and fat mass (-2.6 ± 0.7 kg) decreased significantly in the weight-loss exercise group. Neither fasting ghrelin nor PYY changed in response to exercise training in the absence of weight loss, and PYY did not change with exercise and weight loss. Fasting ghrelin did reveal a significant time × experimental group interaction (P = 0.025). The change in ghrelin was inversely correlated with the change in body weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, and energy availability. Neither fasting ghrelin nor fasting PYY seem to play a role in the adaptive changes associated with exercise training when exercise occurs in the absence of weight loss. Fasting ghrelin concentrations increase when body weight is lost and may respond to even smaller changes in energy availability. However, fasting PYY does not seem to play a key role in the regulation of energy balance during diet- and exercise-associated weight loss.
Ketterer, Caroline; Heni, Martin; Stingl, Krunoslav; Tschritter, Otto; Linder, Katarzyna; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Staiger, Harald; Fritsche, Andreas
The cannabinoid-receptor system is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we test whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CNR2, encoding the cannabinoid-receptor 2, are associated with weight in a cross-sectional cohort. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate if the identified hits influence weight loss during lifestyle intervention; and study a potential involvement of cerebral insulin action. 2006 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus were genotyped for 5 tagging SNPs in the CNR2 locus. All subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT. 345 subjects participated in a lifestyle intervention (TUebingen Lifestyle Intervention Programme). Cerebrocortical insulin sensitivity was measured by magnetoencephalography after intranasal insulin application in 43 subjects. In the cross-sectional cohort, the minor allele of rs3123554 was associated with lower BMI (Padd = 0.01, Prec = 0.004), and this was attributable to its effect in women only. Interestingly, during lifestyle intervention, carriers of the same allele lost less body weight (Padd = 0.03, Prec = 0.008). Moreover, carriers of this minor allele showed lower cerebral insulin sensitivity (Prec = 0.0402). The minor allele of rs3123554 is associated cross-sectionally with lower body weight, whereas during intervention the same allele led to less reduction of body weight. Reduced cerebral insulin sensitivity in carriers of this allele might contribute to these disadvantageous effects during lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)
Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.
Kampman, E.; Vrieling, A.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Winkels, R.M.
With the increase in the number of cancer patients worldwide in the coming years, the need for knowledge on the influence of lifestyle factors on cancer survival is increasing. In this paper, the current knowledge on diet, body mass index, and physical activity in relation to cancer outcome is
Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana
Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women.
Background: Micronutrient replacement is done indiscriminately, without recourse to peculiar socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables. Particularly, the relationship between parity, body weight, and some micronutrients has received minimal attention in Nigeria. Aim: To determine the relationship between parity, ...
Fawzy, Irene Atef; Kamal, Nashwa Nabil
Analysis of footprints can reveal very important clues which can be used as a forensic evidence and help in the estimation of stature and body weight of an individual. In this work, bilateral footprints were obtained from 50 male Egyptian medical students ranging in age between 18 and 25. Nine measurements were taken on each footprint. The result revealed significant bilateral asymmetry (p stature were shown by toe-5 length on right side (R = 0.58) and with body weight by foot breadth at ball on left side (R = -0.52). Regression equations presented smaller standard errors of estimate (3.52-4.69) in determination of stature than those in estimation of body weight (4.05-5.28). In conclusion, this study has provided equations that help to estimate stature and body weight from footprint measurements among Egyptians.
Dou, Tengfei; Zhao, Sumei; Rong, Hua; Gu, Dahai; Li, Qihua; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chu, Xiaohui; Tao, Linli; Liu, Lixian; Ge, Changrong; Pas, te, Marinus F.W; Jia, Junjing
.... The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain largely unknown. Non-artificially-selected indigenous Chinese chicken breeds display a wide variety of phenotypes, including differential growth rate, body weight, and muscularity...
Pouya Zamani; Hosein Salehian Dehkordi; Abbas Doosti; Alireza Abdolmohammadi
... (five new mutations) were found in both breeds. Associations of different genotypes with some traits including body weight, milk contents, milk somatic cell count and some immunological parameters were also studied...
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam
The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (Pmedia had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (Pbody weight of the girls (Pmedia, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D A; Fuller, R D
To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. Bulimics differed from runners and controls on most measures. Thus, the results did not support the proposition that weight loss through running leads to problems related to eating and body image. The failure to find disturbances in body image in runners suggests that body image disturbances are not a direct result of weight loss, as suggested by some theorists. PMID:1422651
Azra Okanović; Besim Prnjavorac; Edin Jusufović; Rifat Sejdinović
Aim To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2...
Anna Brzęk; Tarja Dworrak; Markus Strauss; Fabian Sanchis-Gomar; Ibtissam Sabbah; Birgit Dworrak; Roman Leischik
...) which occur when children are at school age. The reduction in the level of physical activity, increased body weight, overloaded school bags, asymmetry of the backpack straps, the method of putting on and taking off the backpacks and increased...
Sinharoy, Keshab; Mandal, Lopamudra; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Paul, Uttam Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Ramtanu; Basu, Asish Kumar
Low body weight type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a distinct entity in T2DM having different clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality patterns as well as biochemical profile when compared with classical T2 DM. This study was aimed at comparing three subtypes of T2 DM-overweight (BMI>25), normal weight (BMI>18.5 but body weight or lean type2 DM (BM1weight and 25-overweight) were selected. The present study revealed that normal C-peptide level with basal hyperglycaemia is an important characteristic of lean T2 DM. Lower prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and higher level of triglycerides were found in low body weight T2 DM.Lower prevalence of macrovascular and higher prevalence of microvascular complications are also noted.
Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I
Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.
Meyhoff, Christian S; Lund, Jørgen; Jenstrup, Morten T
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic studies in obese patients suggest that dosing of rocuronium should be based on ideal body weight (IBW). This may, however, result in a prolonged onset time or compromised conditions for tracheal intubation. In this study, we compared onset time, conditions for tracheal...... intubation, and duration of action in obese patients when the intubation dose of rocuronium was based on three different weight corrections. METHODS: Fifty-one obese patients, with a median (range) body mass index of 44 (34-72) kg/m2, scheduled for laparoscopic gastric banding or gastric bypass under...... propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were randomized into three groups. The patients received rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) based on IBW (IBW group, n = 17), IBW plus 20% of excess weight (corrected body weight [CBW]20% group, n = 17), or IBW plus 40% of excess weight (CBW40% group, n = 17). Propofol was administered...
Romeo, J; González-Gross, M; Wärnberg, J; Díaz, L E; Marcos, A
The effects of alcohol consumption on body weight have been evaluated in a large number of studies suggesting to be inversely as well as positively related to body weight and body fat. This study examined the relationships between moderate beer consumption and anthropometrical parameters in Spanish healthy adults. After a 30 day alcohol abstemious period, 58 healthy volunteers were submitted to a daily moderate consumption of beer during the following 30 days. Weight, height, skinfolds and circumferences were measured at three points: (a) basal; (b) abstemious and (c) after moderate consumption of beer. Biceps skinfold (mm) increased (p beer consumption in regard to abstinence period (5.74 +/- 1.70 vs. 6.23 +/- 1.74). No significant differences were observed in the rest of anthropometrical parameters studied in both women and men along the study intervention. Moderate beer consumption during one month did not mostly change weight and weight-related parameters in healthy adults.
Beavers, Kristen M; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Houston, Denise K; Bray, George A; Hill, James O; Jakicic, John M; Johnson, Karen C; Kritchevsky, Stephen B
To explore the impact of body weight change following intentional weight loss on measures of physical performance in adults with diabetes. 450 individuals with type 2 diabetes (age: 59.0±6.9 years, BMI: 35.5±5.9 kg/m2) who participated in the Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study and lost weight one year after being randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention were assessed. Body weight was measured annually, and participants were categorized as continued losers/maintainers, regainers, or cyclers based on a ±5% annual change in weight. Objective measures of physical performance were measured at the year 8/9 visit. Forty-four, 38 and 18% of participants were classified as regainers, cyclers, and continued losers/maintainers. In women, weight cycling and regain was associated with worse follow-up expanded physical performance battery score (1.46±0.07 and 1.48±0.07 vs. 1.63±0.07, both p≤0.02) and slower 20-meter walking speed (1.10±0.04 and 1.08±0.04 m/s vs. 1.17±0.04 m/s, both pweight loss. Male cyclers presented with weaker grip strength compared to regainers or continued losers/maintainers (30.12±2.21 kg versus 34.46±2.04 and 37.39±2.26 kg; both pWeight cycling and regain following intentional weight loss in older adults with diabetes was associated with worse physical function in women and grip strength in men.
Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E
Introduction Currently, no systematic review/meta-analysis has examined studies that used online social networks (OSN) as a primary intervention platform. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions delivered through OSN. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched (January 1990-November 2015) for studies with data on the effect of OSNs on weight loss. Only primary source articles that utilized OSN as the main platform for delivery of weight management/healthy lifestyle interventions, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals, and reported outcome data on weight were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Five articles were included in this review. Results One-hundred percent of the studies ( n = 5) reported a reduction in baseline weight. Three of the five studies (60%) reported significant decreases in body weight when OSN was paired with health educator support. Only one study reported a clinical significant weight loss of ≥5%. Conclusion Using OSN for weight management is in its early stages of development and, while these few studies show promise, more research is needed to acquire information about optimizing these interventions to increase their efficacy.
Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to
Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J
Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.
Full Text Available Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM, which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years; (2 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years and (3 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years. LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance, body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day. Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.
Moncada, Rafael; Rodríguez, Amaia; Becerril, Sara; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Valentí, Víctor; Ramírez, Beatriz; Cienfuegos, Javier A; Fernández, Secundino; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema
Aging and obesity are two conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to analyze whether an advanced age affects the beneficial effects of sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss and blood pressure in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Young (6-month-old) and old (18-month-old) male Wistar DIO rats (n = 101) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and sleeve gastrectomy) or dietary interventions (pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve gastrectomized animals). Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean (MBP) blood pressure values and heart rate (HR) were recorded in conscious, resting animals by non-invasive tail-cuff plethysmography before and 4 weeks after surgical or dietary interventions. Aging was associated with higher (P weight and subcutaneous and perirenal fat mass as well as mild cardiac hypertrophy. Sleeve gastrectomy induced a reduction in body weight, whole-body adiposity, and serum total ghrelin in both young and old DIO rats. The younger group achieved a higher excess weight loss than the older group (164 ± 60 vs. 82 ± 17 %, P weight was observed after sleeve gastrectomy independently of age. Our results provide evidence for the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy without increased operative risk in body weight and blood pressure reduction even in aged animals via endocrine changes that go beyond the mere caloric restriction.
Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José
The current study examined a path model testing the indirect effect of negative body-image related memories of being teased and bullied in childhood and adolescence on binge eating severity symptoms, via its effect on current body image shame and body image flexibility. Participants were 853 Portuguese women from the general community who completed a set of self-report measures of body image-related bullying and teasing experiences in childhood and adolescence, current body image shame, body image flexibility, binge eating symptoms, body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms. The path model accounted for 40% of the variance of binge eating symptoms and 14% of the variance of BMI, and revealed a very good fit. Findings corroborated the plausibility of the hypothesized associations suggesting that negative body image-related memories and emotional experiences are significantly associated with binge eating symptoms and BMI, and that body image flexibility is a significant mediator of these associations. The examined relationships were preserved after controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms. The current study's findings contribute to clarify the role that body image-related memories and emotional experiences may play on individuals' difficulties in regulating eating behaviour and weight, and provides preliminary support for the potential effect of body image flexibility as a self-regulatory process that operates in these associations. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association......: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals...
Martin, Dion C; Richards, Glenn N
The lung-protective ventilation bundle has been shown to reduce mortality in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This concept has expanded to other areas of acute adult ventilation and is recommended for pediatric ventilation. A component of lung-protective ventilation relies on a prediction of lean body weight from height. The predicted body weight (PBW) relationship employed in the ARDS Network trial is considered valid only for adults, with a dedicated formula required for each sex. No agreed PBW formula applies to smaller body sizes. This analysis investigated whether it might be practical to derive a unisex PBW formula spanning all body sizes, while retaining relevance to established adult protective ventilation practice. Historic population-based growth charts were adopted as a reference for lean body weight, from pre-term infant through to adult median weight. The traditional ARDSNet PBW formulae acted as the reference for prevailing protective ventilation practice. Error limits for derived PBW models were relative to these references. The ARDSNet PBW formulae typically predict weights heavier than the population median, therefore no single relationship could satisfy both references. Four alternate piecewise-linear lean body-weight predictive formulae were presented for consideration, each with different balance between the objectives. The 'PBWuf + MBW' model is proposed as an appropriate compromise between prevailing practice and simplification, while also better representing lean adult body-weight. This model applies the ARDSNet 'female' formula to both adult sexes, while providing a tight fit to median body weight at smaller statures down to pre-term. The 'PBWmf + MBW' model retains consistency with current practice over the adult range, while adding prediction for small statures.
Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.
This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engag...
Kelly, Scott A.; Nehrenberg, Derrick L.; Hua, Kunjie; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel
The regulation of body weight and composition is complex, simultaneously affected by genetic architecture, the environment, and their interactions. We sought to analyze the complex phenotypic relationships between voluntary exercise, food consumption, and changes in body weight and composition and simultaneously localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits. A large (n = 815) murine advanced intercross line (G4) was created from a reciprocal cross between a high-running line...
Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L
BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight...
Gesche, Joanna; Nilas, Lisbeth
OBJECTIVE: To assess birth weight in relation to gestational weight gain (GWG) among women who were and were not obese before pregnancy. METHODS: For a retrospective cohort study, data were obtained for women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by ......±410g) or at least 40 (3671±374g) than among non-obese women (3394±453g; P=0.0058). CONCLUSION: Birth weight is related to both maternal BMI and GWG. In obese women, adherence to GWG recommendations does not seem to prevent increased birth weights....
de Bruin, A.P.; Woertman, L.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.
Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18
Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F
, and postprandial hunger decreased (and postprandial fullness increased) significantly with rapid WL only. Basal total PYY, and basal and postprandial insulin decreased significantly, and similarly in both groups. After weight stabilization and no ketosis no differences between groups were found. CONCLUSIONS...
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.
Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi
Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.
Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Huseinovic, E; Winkvist, A; Bertz, F; Bertéus Forslund, H; Brekke, H K
To examine associations among eating frequency, energy intake and body weight at baseline, as well as associations among change in eating frequency and change in energy intake and weight during a 12-week successful weight loss intervention in overweight and obese postpartum women. Sixty-one Swedish women with pre-pregnancy body mass index of 25-35 kg/m(2) completed a 4-day diet record at 10-14 weeks postpartum (baseline) and 12 weeks later (post-intervention), which were used to calculate energy intake and eating frequency, that is, the mean number of intake occasions per day. The women had a mean eating frequency of 5.9 ± 1.2 intake occasions at baseline. A positive association was found between eating frequency and energy intake at baseline (β: 307 ± 46 kcal, PWomen receiving dietary intervention reduced their eating frequency more during the intervention period than did women not receiving dietary intervention (-1.0 ± 0.7 vs -0.5 ± 1.1, P=0.001). A positive association was found between eating frequency and energy intake at baseline and between reduced eating frequency and reduced energy intake during a 12-week weight loss intervention in overweight and obese postpartum women. Intervention studies on eating frequency are warranted to elucidate its effect on energy intake and weight among postpartum women.
Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D
The prevalence of obesity increases as women move from adolescence to young adulthood, and college women have been identified as a population at risk for unhealthy weight gain. Studies of weight gain in college populations have revealed that significant, variable weight change occurs in as few as eight weeks, but few have included participants beyond their freshman year of college or assessed body composition. The aims of the study were to use a repeated measures design to identify patterns of weight change among college women at all grade levels and to evaluate factors that may predict weight change over a one-year period. Undergraduate college women (N=131) completed measures of physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Height, weight, and body composition were collected at all assessment periods. Forty-four percent of participants gained at least 3lb, 23% lost at least 3lb, and 33% maintained weight over one year. Weight change was associated with changes in body fat and was not related to baseline BMI or age. There were no significant differences between grade levels, suggesting that future studies should include women at all grade levels. Baseline physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction did not predict weight change at one year, nor did they differentiate between individuals in the three weight change categories. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with weight gain in young adult women, and such studies should not be limited to college freshmen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alcalá-Bejarano Carrillo, Jesús; Yago Torregrosa, Maria Dolores; Mañas Almendros, Mariano; López Millán, María Belén; Martínez Burgos, María Alba; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio
"Globesity" is the term that the World Health Organization (WHO) employs to define the growth of obesity in the world from the last 40 years which started in the developed countries and has been inevitably propagated to the developing ones. Governments and international organizations are aware of the problem and they are trying to implement measures to fight it. To analyze the current evidence in terms of studies about the relationship between macronutrients (especially fat and lipid release systems) and the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides that are involved with satiety and satiation. The search was conducted in Medline (via Pubmed) using different combinations of MeSH terms and in the database LILACs using "DeCS". A selection of another articles relevant to the review topic was also examined. At present, there are several laboratories and industries developing novel bioactive ingredients aimed at the regulation of food intake, with emphasis on those related with fat intake and the different ways in which fat can be technologically processed in order to create structures able to enhance satiety and/ or diminish hunger. These ingredients will be the future of functional foods focused on the prevention of weight gain and the support of other strategies against obesity (dietary, behavioral, etc…). Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Betzel, Bark; Koehestanie, Parviez; Homan, Jens; Aarts, Edo O; Janssen, Ignace M C; de Boer, Hans; Wahab, Peter J; Groenen, Marcel J M; Berends, Frits J
The duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is an endoscopic device that induces weight loss and improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of DJBL explantation on glycemic control and body weight. This prospective, observational study included only patients with T2DM who had the DJBL implanted for at least 6 months and had a follow-up of at least 12 months after explantation. The primary endpoints were changes in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body weight during the 12 months after explantation. Secondary endpoints were changes in fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, and plasma lipid levels. In total, 59 patients completed the 12-month follow-up after explantation. During this period body weight increased by 5.6 (standard deviation, 6.4) kg (P body weight remained 8.0 (SD 8.6) kg (P body weight loss of 7.4% (SD 7.6) (P weight gain and worsening of glycemic control, although some beneficial effects remained detectable 12 months after explantation. A change in strategy is needed to preserve the beneficial effects of DJBL treatment. (Clinical trial registration number: 746∖100111.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nissen, Mary Jo; Shapiro, Alice; Swenson, Karen K
This study aimed to identify predictors of changes in weight and body composition among women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Data were from 49 women age 40-54 receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Weight, height, and body composition measurements from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning were completed at baseline (within 1 month of beginning chemotherapy) and 12 months. Caloric intake was assessed from food diaries at baseline, 6 and 12 months, and physical activity was measured by questionnaire at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Baseline body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with gains in weight (P = .01) and fat mass in torso (P = .006). Women of normal weight gained an average of 4.3 pounds and increased fat mass in torso and arms. Overweight women lost 3.0 pounds, and obese women lost 4.1 pounds, and neither group increased body fat. Decreased physical activity was associated with weight gain (P = .047). Additional predictors of increased fat mass in torso were younger age (P = .023) and treatment with tamoxifen (P = .015). Predictors of loss of bone mineral content included older age (P = .004) and treatment with aromatase inhibitor (P = .024), whereas treatment with bisphosphonate prevented bone loss (P Women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer who are of normal weight at the time of breast cancer diagnosis are more likely to gain weight and body fat during the following year than overweight or obese women.
Hahn, Robert G
The present study was undertaken to identify factors that correlate with the gain in body weight after surgery. Twenty-one patients (median age of 49 years) were randomized to receive either Ringer × s acetate or 6% dextran 70 as their first infusion fluid during cholecystectomy or hysterectomy. Each patient's body weight was measured before the surgery and on the first postoperative morning. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for signs of stress, inflammation, and kidney injury. The fluid retention index (FRI), which reflects how strongly the kidneys excrete or retain fluid, was also calculated. The body weight increased by a median of 0.4 kg in the crystalloid fluid group and by 1.0 kg in the colloid fluid group (maximum 2.5 kg, P weight did not correlate with the infused fluid volume, the plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein or cortisol, or the urinary excretion of albumin, cortisol, or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. However, the body weight increased with the postoperative FRI score (r = 0.64; P weight during the day of surgery. The amount of fluid alone did not correlate with the gain in body weight.
Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.
Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep. PMID:23666828
Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.
Saito, Kenji; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Xu, Yong
Objective Estrogens can act in the brain to prevent body weight gain. Tremendous research efforts have been focused on estrogen physiology in the brain in the context of body weight control; estrogen receptors and the related signals have been attractive targets for development of new obesity therapies. The objective is to review recent findings in these aspects. Methods We reviewed recent studies, primarily from those using the conventional and conditional knockout mouse strains, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the beneficial effects of estrogens on body weight balance. We also discuss emerging genetic tools that could further benefit the field of estrogen research, and newly developed estrogen-based regimen that produce body weight-lowering benefits. Results The body weight-lowering effects of estrogens are mediated by multiple forms of estrogen receptors, in different brain regions through distinct but coordinated mechanisms. Both rapid signals and “classic” nuclear receptor actions of estrogen receptors appear to contribute to estrogenic regulation on body weight. Conclusion Estrogen receptors and associated signal networks are potential targets for obesity treatment, and further investigations are warranted. PMID:25865677
Giacco, R; Della Pepa, G; Luongo, D; Riccardi, G
This viewpoint aims to 1) review the available scientific literature on the relationship between whole grain consumption and body weight regulation; 2) evaluate the potential mechanisms whereby whole grain intake may help reduce overweight and 3) try to understand why epidemiological studies and clinical trials provide diverging results on this topic. All the prospective epidemiological studies demonstrate that a higher intake of whole grains is associated with lower BMI and body weight gain. However, these results do not clarify whether whole grain consumption is simply a marker of a healthier lifestyle or a factor favoring "per se" lower body weight. Habitual whole grain consumption seems to cause lower body weight by multiple mechanisms such as lower energy density of whole grain based products, lower glycemic index, fermentation of non digestible carbohydrates (satiety signals) and finally by modulating intestinal microflora. In contrast with epidemiological evidence, the results of few clinical trials do not confirm that a whole grain low-calorie diet is more effective in reducing body weight than a refined cereal diet, but their results may have been affected by small sample size or short duration of the intervention. Therefore, further intervention studies with adequate methodology are needed to clarify this question. For the time being, whole grain consumption can be recommended as one of the features of the diet that may help control body weight but also because is associated with a lower risk to develop type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
L. V. Ledyaykina
Full Text Available The work purpose is to study blood indicators in dynamics among children with extremely low body weight in the Republic of Mordovia. 90 cards of outpatient observation (form 112/u within one year of every child’s life were analyzed: 30 children born with extremely low body weight, 30 – with very low body weight, 30 – the full-term, healthy newborns. We studied anamnesis of the children, the analysis of blood indicators and influence of various factors. Hematologic parameters in each group were analyzed, correlation analysis of erythroid lineage indicators and anthropometric data of children were carried out.The levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leucocytes and neutrophils at birth in small premature infants were lower than indicators of control group; stabilization of hemoglobin level took place only to six months of life, accompanied by simultaneous rising of erythrocytes level and the marked thrombocytosis, the reduced level of neutrophils persisted during the whole first year of life. Also average degree of correlation between indicators of body weight and hemoglobin level, and strong correlation dependence between a gain of body weight and indicators of erythrocytes in group of children with extremely low body/birth weight were detected.
Full Text Available The mouse is an important model organism for investigating the molecular mechanisms of body weight regulation, but a quantitative understanding of mouse energy metabolism remains lacking. Therefore, we created a mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism to predict dynamic changes of body weight, body fat, energy expenditure, and metabolic fuel selection. Based on the principle of energy balance, we constructed ordinary differential equations representing the dynamics of body fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM as a function of dietary intake and energy expenditure (EE. The EE model included the cost of tissue deposition, physical activity, diet-induced thermogenesis, and the influence of FM and FFM on metabolic rate. The model was calibrated using previously published data and validated by comparing its predictions to measurements in five groups of male C57/BL6 mice (N = 30 provided ad libitum access to either chow or high fat diets for varying time periods. The mathematical model accurately predicted the observed body weight and FM changes. Physical activity was predicted to decrease immediately upon switching from the chow to the high fat diet and the model coefficients relating EE to FM and FFM agreed with previous independent estimates. Metabolic fuel selection was predicted to depend on a complex interplay between diet composition, the degree of energy imbalance, and body composition. This is the first validated mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism and it provides a quantitative framework for investigating energy balance relationships in mouse models of obesity and diabetes.
Pecori, Laura; Serra Cervetti, Gian Giacomo; Marinari, Giuseppe M; Migliori, Franco; Adami, Gian Franco
The authors evaluated body image attitudes in post-obese persons following bariatric surgery who require cosmetic and body contouring operations. We studied 20 morbidly obese women prior to biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) (OB group), 20 post-obese women at >2 years following BPD (POST group), 10 post-obese women following BPD who required cosmetic procedures (POST-A group), 10 post-obese women after BPD and subsequent cosmetic surgery (POST-B group), and 20 healthy lean controls. Attitudes to weight and shape were evaluated by means of the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). In comparison with the obese patients in the POST group, lower BUT scores were observed, while in the POST-A group the values were very similar to those observed in the non-operated obese individuals. In the individuals having received cosmetic surgery, the BUT findings were similar to those recorded in the POST group patients, the values approaching data found in the controls. Despite a fully satisfactory weight loss and maintenance, the post-BPD individuals requiring aesthetic surgery showed some disparagement of body image; in these subjects, cosmetic and body contouring procedures may actually improve body weight and shape attitudes towards normality.
Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika
We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Lee, Antoinette Marie; Ho, Sai Yin; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Lam, Tai Hing; Fan, Susan Yun Sun; Yip, Paul Siu Fai
Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD) and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women) aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level.
Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera Junior, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de
The objective of this study was to assess the evolution and classification of body weight in relation to the results of bariatric surgery in women who underwent the procedure more than two years ago. A total of 141 women underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The participants were divided according to the time elapsed since surgery and the percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL): 75. The women in the group with %EWL 75 (36.2%) ranged from normal to pre-obese and presented lower late weight gain than the women in the other groups. Weight evolution two or more years after surgery showed the expected reductions, with some individuals responding better to surgery than others. This shows that it is necessary to monitor, investigate and intervene to obtain the desired results.
Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka M; Mariani, Claudio; Landi, Andrea; Vairo, Antonella; Pezzoli, Gianni
We evaluated body weight changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to clinical improvement. Thirty PD patients who received STN DBS were included (22 men, 8 women; mean age, 60.0 +/- 7.1 years; mean PD duration, 13.5 +/- 3.7 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 21.6 +/- 3.0 kg/m2). Body weight, physical activity, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were noted before and 3 and 12 months after the procedure. Significant weight gain occurred in 29 patients; the mean increase was 14.8 +/- 9.8% of initial body weight in 1 year. Of the patients, 46.5% reported weight gain in the first 3 months, 21.4% gradual weight gain in the first 6 months, and 32.1% a slow increase for 1 year. Mean BMI increased up to 24.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. After 1 year, mean UPDRS motor score improved significantly in off and in on; and therapy complications improved by 91.0 +/- 17.0%. BMI changes at 3 and 12 months were significantly correlated to dyskinesia score changes, and levodopa dosage was not. In PD, STN DBS produces not only symptom control, but also weight gain. DBS candidates should be given nutritional counseling before the intervention to prevent rapid and/or excessive weight gain.
Pasch, Lauri A; Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Martinez, Suzanna M; Deardorff, Julianna; de Groat, Cynthia L; Gregorich, Steven E; Flores, Elena; Butte, Nancy F; Greenspan, Louise C
Objective To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and weight measurements. Parents reported their preferred child body size and their perceptions of their child's weight. Parents' underestimation of their child's weight was calculated as the standardized difference between parent's perception of their child's weight and the child's body mass index (BMI) z-score. Demographic factors and parental BMI were also assessed. Results Although 50 % of children were overweight or obese, only 11 % of mothers and 10 % of fathers perceived their children as being somewhat or very overweight. Multiple regressions controlling for covariates (parental BMI and child age) showed that parents who preferred a heavier child body size underestimated their children's weight more, compared to those who preferred a leaner child (β for mothers = .13, p child body size underestimated their child's weight to a greater degree than parents who preferred a leaner child. Attempts by pediatricians to correct parents' misperceptions about child weight may damage rapport and ultimately fail if the misperception is actually a reflection of parents' preferences, which may not be readily amenable to change. Future research should address optimal methods of communication about child overweight which take into account parent preferences.
Pop, V.J.M.; Biondi, B.; Wijnen, H.; Kuppens, S.M.; Vader, H.L.
Context Obesity and too much weight gain during gestation have a negative effect on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Objective To determine the relationship between thyroid hormone parameters, body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during gestation. Design Prospective follow-up study of thyroid
van Baak, Marleen A; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Jebb, Susan A
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period wh...
Jung, Eun Young; Cho, Mi Kyoung; Hong, Yang-Hee; Kim, Jae Hwan; Park, Yooheon; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of yeast hydrolysate on the abdominal fat in obese humans. We observed the effects of yeast hydrolysate that had a molecular weight below 10 kDa on the anti-abdominal fat accumulation in obese men and women ages 20 to 50 y for 10 wk. The abdominal fat mass was assessed by computed tomographic scans. By the sixth week, the reductions in energy intake in the yeast group (yeast hydrolysate 1 g/d) were significantly greater than those in the control group (placebo 1 g/d) (P weight and body mass index (BMI) were significantly reduced by week 10 compared with baseline in the yeast group, and these differences were significantly greater than those in the control group: body weight 0.83 kg versus -2.60 k g (P loss of body weight in the yeast group, lean body mass did not significantly differ between the two groups. Body fat mass in the control group did not significantly change between baseline and week 10. However, the yeast group lost a significant amount of body fat mass after 10 wk of treatment (P weight and the accumulation of abdominal fat without an adverse effect on lean body mass in obese adults, regardless of sex, via the reduction of energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goulão, Beatriz; Santos, Osvaldo; Carmo, Isabel do
Immigrants may be more vulnerable to obesity as a result of the immigration process. The aim of this article is to summarize current knowledge about the impact of immigration on body mass index (BMI). A systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines through a database search of scientific articles (last updated in August 2014). Thirty-nine articles were included and assessed. Results varied according to ethnic background, country of origin and host country. A consistent positive association between BMI and time since immigration was found among Hispanic, European and African immigrants. Less than half of the studies observed a positive association among Asian immigrants. The quality of the majority of the studies assessed was poor, reflecting a need to improve methodology and concept definition. Immigration appears to have a deteriorative effect on BMI. Underlying causes may include changes in nutrition and physical activity, psychological and social factors, and genetic susceptibility and these aspects should be included as moderator variables in future studies.
Mollah, Md Bazlur R; Ishikawa, Akira
A previous genome-wide QTL study revealed many QTLs affecting postnatal body weight and growth in an intersubspecific backcross mouse population between the C57BL/6J (B6) strain and wild Mus musculus castaneus mice captured in the Philippines. Subsequently, several closely linked QTLs for body composition traits were revealed in an F(2) intercross population between B6 and B6.Cg-Pbwg1, a congenic strain on the B6 genetic background carrying the growth QTL Pbwg1 on proximal chromosome 2. However, no QTL affecting body weight has been duplicated in the F(2) population, except for mapping an overdominant QTL that causes heterosis of body weight. In this study, we developed 17 intersubspecific subcongenic strains with overlapping and nonoverlapping castaneus regions from the B6.Cg-Pbwg1 congenic strain in order to search for and genetically dissect QTLs affecting body weight into distinct closely linked loci. Phenotypic comparisons of several developed subcongenic strains with the B6 strain revealed that two closely linked but distinct QTLs that regulate body weight, named Pbwg1.11 and Pbwg1.12, are located on an 8.9-Mb region between D2Mit270 and D2Mit472 and on the next 3.6-Mb region between D2Mit205 and D2Mit182, respectively. Further analyses using F(2) segregating populations obtained from intercrosses between B6 and each of the two selected subcongenic strains confirmed the presence of these two body weight QTLs. Pbwg1.11 had an additive effect on body weight at 6, 10, and 13 weeks of age, and its castaneus allele decreased it. In contrast, the castaneus allele at Pbwg1.12 acted in a dominant fashion and surprisingly increased body weight at 6, 10, and 13 weeks of age despite the body weight of wild castaneus mice being 60% of that of B6 mice. These findings illustrate the complex genetic nature of body weight regulation and support the importance of subcongenic mouse analysis to dissect closely linked loci.
Yu.N. Pilipenko; Dmitriev, A. V.; V. G. Demikhov; E.F. Morschakova
Problem of prophylaxis and treatment of early anemia of prematurely born infants is still very important. It's related to increase of rate of infants, surviving with very low and extremely low body weight at the time of birth. The purpose of trial was to provide an optimization of scheme of treatment of early anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO, Recormon). This trial included 94 infants with very low and extremely low body weight at the time if birth. 26 infants was treated w...
Taylor, Wendell C; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Haughton McNeill, Lorna; Barnes, Ann Smith
Relationships among sedentary behavior, weight gain, and weight loss and regain are understudied particularly for African Americans, a high risk group for obesity. The hypotheses were: sedentary behavior is positively associated with current body mass and % of weight loss maintained after initial weight loss; these associations differ by physical activity status. Cross-sectional. National survey. 1,110 African American women. Observational study. A cross-sectional survey was administered to African Americans who had intentionally lost 10% of their body weight. Those who lost weight and maintained at least a 10% weight loss for a year were classified as weight loss maintainers; all others were classified as weight loss re-gainers. Participants were classified into one of four categories based on low and high levels of sedentary behavior and physical activity. The high physical activity, low sedentary behavior category was the reference group. Sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions were covariates. Data were collected in 2009 and analyzed in 2013. Each additional daily hour of sedentary time was associated with an increase in BMI (Pweight loss maintenance (Pweight loss maintained for high but not low physically active participants. High levels of sedentary behavior were associated with poorer weight-loss maintenance among African American women even for those with high levels of physical activity. The implications of this study are that physical activity and sedentary behavior, independently and combined, are associated with BMI and weight-loss maintenance.
Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid
The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.
Vila-Candel, Rafael; Soriano-Vidal, Francisco Javier; Navarro-Illana, Pedro; Murillo-Llorente, M Teresa; Martín-Moreno, José M
To ascertain the relationship between maternal weight gain and birth weight, in every pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) category. A two-stage sampling observational and descriptive study was carried out in the health department of La Ribera (Valencia, Spain). The sample was divided into four groups according to pre-gestational BMI. 140 pregnant women were studied. We observed rising pre-gestational weight gain (PWG) and trimestral gradients. There was a higher increase from the first to the second trimester than from the second to the third trimester in every pre-gestational BMI category. According to the international recommendations of Institute of Medicine, 16.4% of women had an inferior gestational weight gain (GWG), 38.6% were within the recommendations and 45% were above them. The pre-gestational BMI, categorized by the WHO, is related to the birth weight, showing a statistical significance (F=6.636 and and pweight gain than the recommended have newborns with higher birth weight (4,353 ± 821.924 g) and, underweight mothers with a lower weight gain than the recommended, have newborns with lower birth weights (2,900 ± 381.83 g) than the rest of the groups. The absolute gestational weight gain did not show a statistical significance compared to the birthweight in any of the pre-gestational BMI categories and, as an isolated indicator, is not an added value to the prenatal quality control. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh
Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship b...