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Sample records for survival analyses showed

  1. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials show suboptimal validity of surrogate outcomes for overall survival in advanced colorectal cancer.

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    Ciani, Oriana; Buyse, Marc; Garside, Ruth; Peters, Jaime; Saad, Everardo D; Stein, Ken; Taylor, Rod S

    2015-07-01

    To quantify and compare the treatment effects on three surrogate end points, progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP), and tumor response rate (TR) vs. overall survival (OS) based on a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drug interventions in advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC). We systematically searched for RCTs of pharmacologic therapies in aCRC between 2003 and 2013. Trial characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes were recorded based on a predefined form. Univariate and multivariate random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate pooled summary treatment effects. The ratio of hazard ratios (HRs)/odds ratios (ORs) and difference in medians were used to quantify the degree of difference in treatment effects on the surrogate end points and OS. Spearman ρ, surrogate threshold effect (STE), and R(2) were also estimated across predefined trial-level covariates. We included 101 RCTs. In univariate and multivariate meta-analyses, we found larger treatment effects for the surrogates than for OS. Compared with OS, treatment effects were on average 13% higher when HRs were measured and 3% to 45% higher when ORs were considered; differences in median PFS/TTP were higher than on OS by an average of 0.5 month. Spearman ρ ranged from 0.39 to 0.80, mean R(2) from 0.06 to 0.65, and STE was 0.8 for HRPFS, 0.64 for HRTTP, or 0.28 for ORTR. The stratified analyses revealed high variability across all strata. None of the end points in this study were found to achieve the level of evidence (ie, mean R(2)trial > 0.60) that has been set to select high or excellent correlation levels by common surrogate evaluation tools. Previous surrogacy relationships observed between PFS and TTP vs. OS in selected settings may not apply across other classes or lines of therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrative Analyses of Colorectal Cancer Show Immunoscore Is a Stronger Predictor of Patient Survival Than Microsatellite Instability.

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    Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Angell, Helen K; Maby, Pauline; Angelova, Mihaela; Tougeron, David; Church, Sarah E; Lafontaine, Lucie; Fischer, Maria; Fredriksen, Tessa; Sasso, Maristella; Bilocq, Amélie M; Kirilovsky, Amos; Obenauf, Anna C; Hamieh, Mohamad; Berger, Anne; Bruneval, Patrick; Tuech, Jean-Jacques; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Le Pessot, Florence; Mauillon, Jacques; Rafii, Arash; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Speicher, Michael R; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Michel, Pierre; Sesboüe, Richard; Frebourg, Thierry; Pagès, Franck; Valge-Archer, Viia; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Galon, Jérôme

    2016-03-15

    Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer predicts favorable outcomes. However, the mechanistic relationship between microsatellite instability, tumor-infiltrating immune cells, Immunoscore, and their impact on patient survival remains to be elucidated. We found significant differences in mutational patterns, chromosomal instability, and gene expression that correlated with patient microsatellite instability status. A prominent immune gene expression was observed in microsatellite-instable (MSI) tumors, as well as in a subgroup of microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors. MSI tumors had increased frameshift mutations, showed genetic evidence of immunoediting, had higher densities of Th1, effector-memory T cells, in situ proliferating T cells, and inhibitory PD1-PDL1 cells, had high Immunoscores, and were infiltrated with mutation-specific cytotoxic T cells. Multivariate analysis revealed that Immunoscore was superior to microsatellite instability in predicting patients' disease-specific recurrence and survival. These findings indicate that assessment of the immune status via Immunoscore provides a potent indicator of tumor recurrence beyond microsatellite-instability staging that could be an important guide for immunotherapy strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyses adjusting for selective crossover show improved overall survival with adjuvant letrozole compared with tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 study

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    Colleoni, Marco; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Regan, Meredith M

    2011-01-01

    Among postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer, the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, when compared with tamoxifen, has been shown to significantly improve disease-free survival (DFS) and time to distant recurrence (TDR). We investigated whether letrozole monotherapy prolonged...

  4. Analyses adjusting for selective crossover show improved overall survival with adjuvant letrozole compared with tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 study.

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    Colleoni, Marco; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Regan, Meredith M; Thürlimann, Beat; Mouridsen, Henning; Mauriac, Louis; Forbes, John F; Paridaens, Robert; Láng, István; Smith, Ian; Chirgwin, Jacquie; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Wardley, Andrew; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2011-03-20

    Among postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer, the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, when compared with tamoxifen, has been shown to significantly improve disease-free survival (DFS) and time to distant recurrence (TDR). We investigated whether letrozole monotherapy prolonged overall survival (OS) compared with tamoxifen monotherapy. Of 8,010 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer enrolled on the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study, 4,922 were randomly assigned to 5 years of continuous adjuvant therapy with either letrozole or tamoxifen. Of 2,459 patients enrolled in the tamoxifen treatment arm, 619 (25.2%) selectively crossed over to either adjuvant or extended letrozole after initial trial results were presented in January 2005. To gain better estimates of relative treatment effects in the presence of selective crossover, we used inverse probability of censoring weighted (IPCW) modeling. Weighted Cox models, by using IPCW, estimated a statistically significant, 18% reduction in the hazard of an OS event with letrozole treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.95). Estimates of 5-year OS on the basis of IPCW were 91.8% and 90.4% for letrozole and tamoxifen, respectively. The HRs of DFS and TDR events by using IPCW modeling were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.94), respectively (P < .05 for DFS, OS, and TDR). Median follow-up was 74 months. Adjuvant treatment with letrozole, compared with tamoxifen, significantly reduces the risk of death, the risk of recurrent disease, and the risk of recurrence at distant sites in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

  5. Men and women show similar survival rates after breast cancer.

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    Bender, Paulo Franscisco Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Letícia Lima; Costa, Célia Regina; de Aguiar, Suzana Sales; Bergmann, Anke; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2017-04-01

    To compare the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of men and women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study of patients with breast cancer diagnosed and treated at the Cancer Hospital III of the National Cancer Institute of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1999 and 2013. Male breast cancer cases were matched for age, year of diagnosis, and clinical staging to three female cases (1:3). Patient characteristics were abstracted from hospital records and medical charts. Cases were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and comparisons between the genders were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals. The study population comprised 98 men and 294 women. There were significant differences (p breast surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of palliative bisphosphonate therapy. Five- and 10-year DFS rates were, respectively, 80.0 and 51.4% for men and 71.4 and 63.5% for women (p = 0.245), and 5- and 10-year OS rates were, respectively, 65.0 and 47.5% for men and 56.5 and 41.4% for women (p = 0.221). There was no significant difference in prognosis (DFS and OS rates) between the genders, but significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were detected between male and female breast cancer cases.

  6. Quantifying Fire Cycle from Dendroecological Records Using Survival Analyses

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    Dominic Cyr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying fire regimes in the boreal forest ecosystem is crucial for understanding the past and present dynamics, as well as for predicting its future dynamics. Survival analyses have often been used to estimate the fire cycle in eastern Canada because they make it possible to take into account the censored information that is made prevalent by the typically long fire return intervals and the limited scope of the dendroecological methods that are used to quantify them. Here, we assess how the true length of the fire cycle, the short-term temporal variations in fire activity, and the sampling effort affect the accuracy and precision of estimates obtained from two types of parametric survival models, the Weibull and the exponential models, and one non-parametric model obtained with the Cox regression. Then, we apply those results in a case area located in eastern Canada. Our simulation experiment confirms some documented concerns regarding the detrimental effects of temporal variations in fire activity on parametric estimation of the fire cycle. Cox regressions appear to provide the most accurate and robust estimator, being by far the least affected by temporal variations in fire activity. The Cox-based estimate of the fire cycle for the last 300 years in the case study area is 229 years (CI95: 162–407, compared with the likely overestimated 319 years obtained with the commonly used exponential model.

  7. Accuracy of medical subject heading indexing of dental survival analyses.

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    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To assess the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing of articles that employed time-to-event analyses to report outcomes of dental treatment in patients. Articles published in 2008 in 50 dental journals with the highest impact factors were hand searched to identify articles reporting dental treatment outcomes over time in human subjects with time-to-event statistics (included, n = 95), without time-to-event statistics (active controls, n = 91), and all other articles (passive controls, n = 6,769). The search was systematic (kappa 0.92 for screening, 0.86 for eligibility). Outcome-, statistic- and time-related MeSH were identified, and differences in allocation between groups were analyzed with chi-square and Fischer exact statistics. The most frequently allocated MeSH for included and active control articles were "dental restoration failure" (77% and 52%, respectively) and "treatment outcome" (54% and 48%, respectively). Outcome MeSH was similar between these groups (86% and 77%, respectively) and significantly greater than passive controls (10%, P indexed as such. Significantly more time-related MeSH were allocated to the included than the active controls (92% and 79%, respectively, P = .02), or to the passive controls (22%, P < .001). MeSH allocation within MEDLINE to time-to-event dental articles was inaccurate and inconsistent. Statistical MeSH were omitted from 30% of the included articles and incorrectly allocated to 15% of active controls. Such errors adversely impact search accuracy.

  8. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Shows No Survival Advantage to Chemotherapy Alone in Stage IIIA Patients.

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    Krantz, Seth B; Mitzman, Brian; Lutfi, Waseem; Kuchta, Kristine; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Howington, John A; Kim, Ki Wan

    2018-02-13

    For operable patients with clinical stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer, the optimum neoadjuvant treatment strategy remains unclear. Our aim was to compare perioperative and long-term outcomes for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) alone. We queried the National Cancer Database to identify all patients with N2 and either T1-T2 non-small cell lung cancer who received either NCRT or NCT followed by lobectomy between 2006 and 2012. Patients with T3 tumors were excluded. A propensity match analysis was performed incorporating preoperative variables, and the incidence of postoperative complications, pathologic downstaging, and long-term survival were compared. In all, 1,936 patients met criteria, 745 NCT and 1,191 NCRT. The NCRT patients were younger, less likely to be treated at an academic medical center, and more likely to have adenocarcinoma. After propensity matching, patients in the NCT group showed lower 30-day mortality (1.3% versus 2.9%) and 90-day mortality (2.9% versus 6.0%), and were more likely to undergo a minimally invasive resection (25.7% versus 14.1%). The NCRT patients were more likely to have a pathologic complete response (14.2% versus 4.0%) and to be N0 at the time of resection (45.2% versus 38.7%). In the multivariable analysis, NCRT patients were at a greater risk of mortality than NCT patients (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.36). In our cohort, combined neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy was associated with improved pathologic downstaging but showed increased perioperative mortality with no improvement in long-term overall survival. For stage IIIA patients with smaller tumors without local invasion, chemotherapy alone may be the preferred neoadjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced behavioral analyses show that the presence of food causes subtle changes in C. elegans movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eAngstman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used and studied model organism, C. elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  10. Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Statistical Confirmation of Improved Survival in Responders by Landmark Analyses.

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    Riaz, Ahsun; Gabr, Ahmed; Abouchaleh, Nadine; Ali, Rehan; Alasadi, Ali; Mora, Ronald; Kulik, Laura; Desai, Kush; Thornburg, Bartley; Mouli, Samdeep; Hickey, Ryan; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Ganger, Daniel; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2017-08-18

    Does imaging response predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)? We studied the ability of post-therapeutic imaging response to predict overall survival. Over 14 years, 948 HCC patients were treated with radioembolization. Patients with baseline metastases, vascular invasion, multifocal disease, Child-Pugh>B7 and transplanted/resected were excluded. This created our homogenous study cohort of 134 Child-Pugh≤B7 patients with solitary HCC. Response (using European Association for Study of the Liver [EASL] and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 [RECIST 1.1] criteria) was associated with survival using Landmark and risk-of-death methodologies after reviewing 960 scans. In a sub-analysis, survival times of responders were compared to those of patients with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Uni/multivariate survival analyses were performed at each Landmark. At the 3-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR:0.46; CI:0.26-0.82; P=0.002) but not RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR:0.70; CI:0.37-1.32; P=0.32). At the 6-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR:0.32; CI:0.15-0.77; P<0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR:0.50; CI:0.29-0.87; P=0.021). At the 12-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR:0.34; CI:0.15-0.77; P<0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR:0.52;CI 0.27-0.98; P=0.049). At 6 months, risk of death was lower for responders by EASL (P<0.001) and RECIST 1.1 (P=0.0445). In sub-analyses, responders lived longer than patients with SD or PD. EASL response was a significant predictor of survival at 3, 6, and 12 month Landmarks on uni/multivariate analyses. Response to radioembolization in patients with solitary HCC can prognosticate improved survival. EASL necrosis criteria outperformed RECIST 1.1 size criteria in predicting survival. The therapeutic objective of radioembolization should be radiologic response and not solely to prevent progression

  11. New Genetic and Linguistic Analyses Show Ancient Human Influence on Baobab Evolution and Distribution in Australia

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    Rangan, Haripriya; Bell, Karen L.; Baum, David A.; Fowler, Rachael; McConvell, Patrick; Saunders, Thomas; Spronck, Stef; Kull, Christian A.; Murphy, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of human agency in the gene flow and geographical distribution of the Australian baobab, Adansonia gregorii. The genus Adansonia is a charismatic tree endemic to Africa, Madagascar, and northwest Australia that has long been valued by humans for its multiple uses. The distribution of genetic variation in baobabs in Africa has been partially attributed to human-mediated dispersal over millennia, but this relationship has never been investigated for the Australian species. We combined genetic and linguistic data to analyse geographic patterns of gene flow and movement of word-forms for A. gregorii in the Aboriginal languages of northwest Australia. Comprehensive assessment of genetic diversity showed weak geographic structure and high gene flow. Of potential dispersal vectors, humans were identified as most likely to have enabled gene flow across biogeographic barriers in northwest Australia. Genetic-linguistic analysis demonstrated congruence of gene flow patterns and directional movement of Aboriginal loanwords for A. gregorii. These findings, along with previous archaeobotanical evidence from the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, suggest that ancient humans significantly influenced the geographic distribution of Adansonia in northwest Australia. PMID:25830225

  12. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

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    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic prediction of survival time in a population of brown laying hens showing cannibalistic behavior

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    Alemu, Setegn W.; Calus, Mario P.L.; Muir, William M.; Peeters, Katrijn; Vereijken, Addie; Bijma, Piter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mortality due to cannibalism causes both economic and welfare problems in laying hens. To limit mortality due to cannibalism, laying hens are often beak-trimmed, which is undesirable for animal welfare reasons. Genetic selection is an alternative strategy to increase survival and is

  14. Immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction showed limited advantage in patient survival after stratifying by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Yu, Ke-Da; Zuo, Wen-Jia; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Postmastectomy breast reconstruction is widely used in breast cancer patients for its aesthetic effect. Although several studies have casted suspicion upon the oncological safety of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy, the potential impact of different reconstruction methods on patient survival remains unclear. We identified 35,126 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared among patients who underwent mastectomy with or without immediate breast reconstruction (autologous reconstruction or implant reconstruction) using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In multivariate analysis unadjusted for family income, patients undergoing immediate postmastectomy reconstruction exhibited improved BCSS [POOLED reconstruction (any types of reconstruction): hazard ratio (HR)  =  0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.95, P = 0.001] and OS (pooled reconstruction: HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.65-0.75, Padvantage in BCSS and OS compared with those undergoing mastectomy alone. When comparing between the two reconstruction methods, no significant differences were observed in either BCSS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.11, 95%CI 0.90-1.35, P = 0.330) or OS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.07, 95% 0.90-1.28, P = 0.424). Compared to mastectomy alone, immediate postmastectomy reconstruction had limited advantage in survival after adjusting for confounding factor of family income. Our findings, if validated in other large databases, may help to illustrate the actual effect of immediate postmastectomy reconstruction on patient survival.

  15. Human Milk Analyser shows that the lactation period affects protein levels in preterm breastmilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl, Alexandra; Zwiauer, Valentina; Repa, Andreas; Binder, Christoph; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Jilma, Bernd; Berger, Angelika; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the composition of preterm human breastmilk, particularly the protein content, with the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser, compared our results with published values and determined the relationship between protein content and lactation period. We analysed 83 samples of 24-hour pooled human milk from 76 mothers who delivered preterm infants weighing under 1500 g at less than 32 weeks of gestational age. The milk's protein, fat and energy were measured by the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser and compared to reference values. The relationship between protein content and lactation period was quantified. On average, the samples contained 1.1 ± 0.37 g (0.2-2.2 g) of protein, 3.2 ± 0.85 g (range 1.1-6.1 g) of fat, 6.6 ± 0.34 g of lactose (5.5-8.0 g) and 60 ± 11 kcal (39-94 kcal) of energy per 100 mL. The wide variations in macronutrient content were not influenced by the gestational age of the infant and the lactation day results from 70 of the mothers correlated inversely with the protein content (p lactation. With adjustments, the MIRIS might provide a helpful tool for individualised fortification. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Reporting quality of survival analyses in medical journals still needs improvement. A minimal requirements proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraira, Víctor; Muriel, Alfonso; Emparanza, José I; Pijoan, José I; Royuela, Ana; Plana, María Nieves; Cano, Alejandra; Urreta, Iratxe; Zamora, Javier

    2013-12-01

    We reviewed publications with two main objectives: to describe how survival analyses are reported across medical journal specialties and to evaluate changes in reporting across periods and journal specialties. Systematic review of clinical research articles published in 1991 and 2007, in 13 high-impact medical journals. The number of articles performing survival analysis published in 1991 (104) and 2007 (240) doubled (17% vs. 33.5%; P = 0.000), although not uniformly across specialties. The percentage of studies using regression models and the number of patients included also increased. The presentation of results improved, although only the reporting of precision of effect estimates reached satisfactory levels (53.1% in 1991 vs. 94.2% in 2007; P = 0.000). Quality of reporting also varied across specialties; for example, cardiology articles were less likely than oncology ones to discuss sample size estimation (odds ratio = 0.12; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.30). We also detected an interaction effect between period and specialty regarding the likelihood of reporting precision of curves and precision of effect estimates. The application of survival analysis to medical research data is increasing, whereas improvement in reporting quality is slow. We propose a list of minimum requirements for improved application and description of survival analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptome analyses of chronic traumatic encephalopathy show alterations in protein phosphatase expression associated with tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Sun; Lee, Seungbok; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Hwang, Yu Jin; Cho, Hyesun; Yoo, Seong-Keun; Kim, Yunha; Lim, Sungsu; Kim, Yun Kyung; Hwang, Eun Mi; Kim, Su Hyun; Kim, Chong-Hyun; Hyeon, Seung Jae; Yun, Ji-Young; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Yona; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D; Lee, Junghee; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Jong-Il; Kowall, Neil W; Ryu, Hoon; McKee, Ann C

    2017-05-19

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with repetitive head injury and has distinctive neuropathological features that differentiate this disease from other neurodegenerative diseases. Intraneuronal tau aggregates, although they occur in different patterns, are diagnostic neuropathological features of CTE, but the precise mechanism of tauopathy is not known in CTE. We performed whole RNA sequencing analysis of post-mortem brain tissue from patients with CTE and compared the results to normal controls to determine the transcriptome signature changes associated with CTE. The results showed that the genes related to the MAP kinase and calcium-signaling pathways were significantly downregulated in CTE. The altered expression of protein phosphatases (PPs) in these networks further suggested that the tauopathy observed in CTE involves common pathological mechanisms similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using cell lines and animal models, we also showed that reduced PPP3CA/PP2B phosphatase activity is directly associated with increases in phosphorylated (p)-tau proteins. These findings provide important insights into PP-dependent neurodegeneration and may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to reduce the tauopathy associated with CTE.

  18. Transcriptome analyses of chronic traumatic encephalopathy show alterations in protein phosphatase expression associated with tauopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Sun; Lee, Seungbok; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Hwang, Yu Jin; Cho, Hyesun; Yoo, Seong-Keun; Kim, Yunha; Lim, Sungsu; Kim, Yun Kyung; Hwang, Eun Mi; Kim, Su Hyun; Kim, Chong-Hyun; Hyeon, Seung Jae; Yun, Ji-Young; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Yona; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D; Lee, Junghee; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Jong-Il; Kowall, Neil W; Ryu, Hoon; McKee, Ann C

    2017-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with repetitive head injury and has distinctive neuropathological features that differentiate this disease from other neurodegenerative diseases. Intraneuronal tau aggregates, although they occur in different patterns, are diagnostic neuropathological features of CTE, but the precise mechanism of tauopathy is not known in CTE. We performed whole RNA sequencing analysis of post-mortem brain tissue from patients with CTE and compared the results to normal controls to determine the transcriptome signature changes associated with CTE. The results showed that the genes related to the MAP kinase and calcium-signaling pathways were significantly downregulated in CTE. The altered expression of protein phosphatases (PPs) in these networks further suggested that the tauopathy observed in CTE involves common pathological mechanisms similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using cell lines and animal models, we also showed that reduced PPP3CA/PP2B phosphatase activity is directly associated with increases in phosphorylated (p)-tau proteins. These findings provide important insights into PP-dependent neurodegeneration and may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to reduce the tauopathy associated with CTE. PMID:28524178

  19. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Steven L; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Meinzer, Frederick C; Kitin, Peter; Strauss, Steven H

    2011-04-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after growing either as free-standing trees in the field or as supported by stakes in a greenhouse. In free-standing trees, a 20 to 40% reduction in lignin content was associated with increased xylem vulnerability to embolism, shoot dieback and mortality. In staked trees, the decreased biomechanical demands on the xylem was associated with increases in the leaf area to sapwood area ratio and wood specific conductivity (k(s)), and with decreased leaf-specific conductivity (k(l)). These shifts in hydraulic architecture suggest that the bending stresses perceived during growth can affect traits important for xylem water transport. Severe 4CL-downregulation resulted in the patchy formation of discoloured, brown wood with irregular vessels in which water transport was strongly impeded. These severely 4CL-downregulated trees had significantly lower growth efficiency (biomass/leaf area). These results underscore the necessity of adequate lignification for mechanical support of the stem, water transport, tree growth and survival. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Thymidine kinase 1 deficient cells show increased survival rate after UV-induced DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, T; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Balanced deoxynucleotide pools are known to be important for correct DNA repair, and deficiency for some of the central enzymes in deoxynucleotide metabolism can cause imbalanced pools, which in turn can lead to mutagenesis and cell death. Here we show that cells deficient for the thymidine salvage...... enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than TK1 positive cells although they have thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels of only half the size of control cells. Our results suggest that higher thymidine levels in the TK- cells caused by defect thymidine salvage to d...

  1. Survival time outcomes in randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses: the parallel universes of efficacy and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Patricia; Welton, Nicky J; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Ades, A E

    2011-01-01

    Many regulatory agencies require that manufacturers establish both efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The statistical analysis of the randomized, controlled trial (RCT) outcomes should be the same for both purposes. The question addressed by this article is the following: for survival outcomes, what is the relationship between the statistical analyses used to support inference and the statistical model used to support decision making based on cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA)? We performed a review of CEAs alongside trials and CEAs based on a synthesis of RCT results, which were submitted to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisal program and included survival outcomes. We recorded the summary statistics and the statistical models used in both efficacy and cost-effectiveness analyses as well as procedures for model diagnosis and selection. In no case was the statistical model for efficacy and CEA the same. For efficacy, relative risks or Cox regression was used. For CEA, the common practice was to fit a parametric model to the control arm, then to apply the hazard ratio from the efficacy analysis to predict the treatment arm. The proportional hazards assumption was seldom checked; the choice of model was seldom based on formal criteria, and uncertainty in model choice was seldom addressed and never propagated through the model. Both inference and decisions based on CEAs should be based on the same statistical model. This article shows that for survival outcomes, this is not the case. In the interests of transparency, trial protocols should specify a common procedure for model choice for both purposes. Further, the sufficient statistics and the life tables for each arm should be reported to improve transparency and to facilitate secondary analyses of results of RCTs. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Željko D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876. The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules

  3. Adjusting for treatment switching in the METRIC study shows further improved overall survival with trametinib compared with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Bell, Helen; Abrams, Keith R; Amonkar, Mayur M; Casey, Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Trametinib, a selective inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) and MEK2, significantly improves progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in patients with BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive advanced or metastatic melanoma (MM). However, the pivotal clinical trial permitted randomized chemotherapy control group patients to switch to trametinib after disease progression, which confounded estimates of the overall survival (OS) advantage of trametinib. Our purpose was to estimate the switching-adjusted treatment effect of trametinib for OS and assess the suitability of each adjustment method in the primary efficacy population. Of the patients randomized to chemotherapy, 67.4% switched to trametinib. We applied the rank-preserving structural failure time model, inverse probability of censoring weights, and a two-stage accelerated failure time model to obtain estimates of the relative treatment effect adjusted for switching. The intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis estimated a 28% reduction in the hazard of death with trametinib treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98) for patients in the primary efficacy population (data cut May 20, 2013). Adjustment analyses deemed plausible provided OS HR point estimates ranging from 0.48 to 0.53. Similar reductions in the HR were estimated for the first-line metastatic subgroup. Treatment with trametinib, compared with chemotherapy, significantly reduced the risk of death and risk of disease progression in patients with BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive advanced melanoma or MM. Adjusting for switching resulted in lower HRs than those obtained from standard ITT analyses. However, CI are wide and results are sensitive to the assumptions associated with each adjustment method. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Survival data analyses in ecotoxicology: critical effect concentrations, methods and models. What should we use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Charles, Sandrine; Billoir, Elise; Delignette-Muller, Marie Laure

    2012-05-01

    In ecotoxicology, critical effect concentrations are the most common indicators to quantitatively assess risks for species exposed to contaminants. Three types of critical effect concentrations are classically used: lowest/ no observed effect concentration (LOEC/NOEC), LC( x) (x% lethal concentration) and NEC (no effect concentration). In this article, for each of these three types of critical effect concentration, we compared methods or models used for their estimation and proposed one as the most appropriate. We then compared these critical effect concentrations to each other. For that, we used nine survival data sets corresponding to D. magna exposition to nine different contaminants, for which the time-course of the response was monitored. Our results showed that: (i) LOEC/NOEC values at day 21 were method-dependent, and that the Cochran-Armitage test with a step-down procedure appeared to be the most protective for the environment; (ii) all tested concentration-response models we compared gave close values of LC50 at day 21, nevertheless the Weibull model had the lowest global mean deviance; (iii) a simple threshold NEC-model both concentration and time dependent more completely described whole data (i.e. all timepoints) and enabled a precise estimation of the NEC. We then compared the three critical effect concentrations and argued that the use of the NEC might be a good option for environmental risk assessment.

  5. Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Analyse i Politiken om frynsegoder med udgangspunkt i bogen Occupational Welfare - Winners and Losers publiceret på Edward Elgar......Analyse i Politiken om frynsegoder med udgangspunkt i bogen Occupational Welfare - Winners and Losers publiceret på Edward Elgar...

  6. Data and analyses of woody restoration planting survival and growth as a function of wild ungulate herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P. Averett

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available These data and analyses support the research article “Wild ungulate herbivory suppresses deciduous woody plant establishment following salmonid stream restoration” Averett et al. (2017 [1]. The data and analyses presented here include: (1 planting density, survival and growth (two years post restoration of riparian plantings along an ~11 km stream reach in northeastern Oregon as a function of herbivory treatment (protected/not protected from wild ungulate herbivory, habitat type, and planting species; and (2 abundance and height distributions of naturally occurring deciduous woody species along the restored stream reach two years post restoration. Survival and growth analyses are provided as output from multiple logistic and mixed effect regression models respectively.

  7. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  8. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  9. Treatment algorithm based on the multivariate survival analyses in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with trans-arterial chemoembolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh J Prajapati

    Full Text Available To develop the treatment algorithm from multivariate survival analyses (MVA in patients with Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC C (advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients treated with Trans-arterial Chemoembolization (TACE.Consecutive unresectable and non-tranplantable patients with advanced HCC, who received DEB TACE were studied. A total of 238 patients (mean age, 62.4yrs was included in the study. Survivals were analyzed according to different parameters from the time of the 1st DEB TACE. Kaplan Meier and Cox Proportional Hazard model were used for survival analysis. The SS was constructed from MVA and named BCLC C HCC Prognostic (BCHP staging system (SS.Overall median survival (OS was 16.2 months. In HCC patients with venous thrombosis (VT of large vein [main portal vein (PV, right or left PV, hepatic vein, inferior vena cava] (22.7% versus small vein (segmental/subsegmental PV (9.7% versus no VT had OSs of 6.4 months versus 20 months versus 22.8 months respectively (p<0.001. On MVA, the significant independent prognostic factors (PFs of survival were CP class, eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG performance status (PS, single HCC<5 cm, site of VT, metastases, serum creatinine and serum alpha-feto protein. Based on these PFs, the BCHP staging system was constructed. The OSs of stages I, II and III were 28.4 months, 11.8 months and 2.4 months accordingly (p<0.001. The treatment plan was proposed according to the different stages.On MVA of patients with advanced HCC treated with TACE, significant independent prognostic factors (PFs of survival were CP class, ECOG PS, single HCC<5 cm or others, site of VT, metastases, serum creatinine and serum alpha-feto protein. New BCHP SS was proposed based on MVA data to identify the suitable advanced HCC patients for TACE treatments.

  10. Escherichia coli K-12 survives anaerobic exposure at pH 2 without RpoS, Gad, or hydrogenases, but shows sensitivity to autoclaved broth products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Riggins

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria survive exposure to extreme acid (pH 2 or lower in gastric fluid. Aerated cultures survive via regulons expressing glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, activated by RpoS, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (Cfa and others. But extreme-acid survival is rarely tested under low oxygen, a condition found in the stomach and the intestinal tract. We observed survival of E. coli K-12 W3110 at pH 1.2-pH 2.0, conducting all manipulations (overnight culture at pH 5.5, extreme-acid exposure, dilution and plating in a glove box excluding oxygen (10% H2, 5% CO2, balance N2. With dissolved O2 concentrations maintained below 6 µM, survival at pH 2 required Cfa but did not require GadC, RpoS, or hydrogenases. Extreme-acid survival in broth (containing tryptone and yeast extract was diminished in media that had been autoclaved compared to media that had been filtered. The effect of autoclaved media on extreme-acid survival was most pronounced when oxygen was excluded. Exposure to H2O2 during extreme-acid treatment increased the death rate slightly for W3110 and to a greater extent for the rpoS deletion strain. Survival at pH 2 was increased in strains lacking the anaerobic regulator fnr. During anaerobic growth at pH 5.5, strains deleted for fnr showed enhanced transcription of acid-survival genes gadB, cfa, and hdeA, as well as catalase (katE. We show that E. coli cultured under oxygen exclusion (<6 µM O2 requires mechanisms different from those of aerated cultures. Extreme acid survival is more sensitive to autoclave products under oxygen exclusion.

  11. Comparative analyses of longevity and senescence reveal variable survival benefits of living in zoos across mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidière, Morgane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vérane; Müller, Dennis W H; Bingaman Lackey, Laurie; Gimenez, Olivier; Clauss, Marcus; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2016-11-07

    While it is commonly believed that animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, this assumption has rarely been tested. We compared four survival metrics (longevity, baseline mortality, onset of senescence and rate of senescence) between both sexes of free-ranging and zoo populations of more than 50 mammal species. We found that mammals from zoo populations generally lived longer than their wild counterparts (84% of species). The effect was most notable in species with a faster pace of life (i.e. a short life span, high reproductive rate and high mortality in the wild) because zoos evidently offer protection against a number of relevant conditions like predation, intraspecific competition and diseases. Species with a slower pace of life (i.e. a long life span, low reproduction rate and low mortality in the wild) benefit less from captivity in terms of longevity; in such species, there is probably less potential for a reduction in mortality. These findings provide a first general explanation about the different magnitude of zoo environment benefits among mammalian species, and thereby highlight the effort that is needed to improve captive conditions for slow-living species that are particularly susceptible to extinction in the wild.

  12. Adjuvant Sunitinib for High-risk Renal Cell Carcinoma After Nephrectomy: Subgroup Analyses and Updated Overall Survival Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motzer, Robert J; Ravaud, Alain; Patard, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    the relationship between baseline factors and DFS, pattern of recurrence, and updated overall survival (OS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data for 615 patients randomized to sunitinib (n=309) or placebo (n=306) in the S-TRAC trial. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Subgroup DFS analyses...... by baseline risk factors were conducted using a Cox proportional hazards model. Baseline risk factors included: modified University of California Los Angeles integrated staging system criteria, age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), weight, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio...

  13. Estimation of total genetic effects for survival time in crossbred laying hens showing cannibalism, using pedigree or genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, T; Raymond, B; Bijma, P; Vereijken, A; Ellen, E D

    2017-02-01

    Mortality of laying hens due to cannibalism is a major problem in the egg-laying industry. Survival depends on two genetic effects: the direct genetic effect of the individual itself (DGE) and the indirect genetic effects of its group mates (IGE). For hens housed in sire-family groups, DGE and IGE cannot be estimated using pedigree information, but the combined effect of DGE and IGE is estimated in the total breeding value (TBV). Genomic information provides information on actual genetic relationships between individuals and might be a tool to improve TBV accuracy. We investigated whether genomic information of the sire increased TBV accuracy compared with pedigree information, and we estimated genetic parameters for survival time. A sire model with pedigree information (BLUP) and a sire model with genomic information (ssGBLUP) were used. We used survival time records of 7290 crossbred offspring with intact beaks from four crosses. Cross-validation was used to compare the models. Using ssGBLUP did not improve TBV accuracy compared with BLUP which is probably due to the limited number of sires available per cross (~50). Genetic parameter estimates were similar for BLUP and ssGBLUP. For both BLUP and ssGBLUP, total heritable variance (T(2) ), expressed as a proportion of phenotypic variance, ranged from 0.03 ± 0.04 to 0.25 ± 0.09. Further research is needed on breeding value estimation for socially affected traits measured on individuals kept in single-family groups. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Rainbow trout surviving infections of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) show lasting antibodies to recombinant G protein fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encinas, P.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Grandes, Fregeneda

    2011-01-01

    sera from trout infected with the homologous VHSV isolate but also with the VHSV-DK-201433 heterologous isolate, which had 13 amino acid changes. Sera from healthy trout and/or from trout surviving infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infection, were used to calculate cut-off absorbances...... refinements of the frg-ELISA could allow detection of anti-VHSV trout Abs in natural outbreaks caused by different heterologous VHSV isolates. The homologous frg-ELISA method could be useful to follow G immunization attempts during vaccine development and/or to best understand the fish Ab response during VHSV...... infections. The viral frgs approach might also be used with other fish species and/or viruses....

  15. Directly Converted Human Fibroblasts Mature to Neurons and Show Long-Term Survival in Adult Rodent Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Avaliani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of human somatic cells to induced neurons (iNs, using lineage-specific transcription factors has opened new opportunities for cell therapy in a number of neurological diseases, including epilepsy. In most severe cases of epilepsy, seizures often originate in the hippocampus, where populations of inhibitory interneurons degenerate. Thus, iNs could be of potential use to replace these lost interneurons. It is not known, however, if iNs survive and maintain functional neuronal properties for prolonged time periods in in vivo. We transplanted human fibroblast-derived iNs into the adult rat hippocampus and observed a progressive morphological differentiation, with more developed dendritic arborisation at six months as compared to one month. This was accompanied by mature electrophysiological properties and fast high amplitude action potentials at six months after transplantation. This proof-of-principle study suggests that human iNs can be developed as a candidate source for cell replacement therapy in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  16. Estimation of Survival Probabilities for Use in Cost-effectiveness Analyses: A Comparison of a Multi-state Modeling Survival Analysis Approach with Partitioned Survival and Markov Decision-Analytic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire; Lewsey, James D; Mackay, Daniel F; Briggs, Andrew H

    2017-05-01

    Modeling of clinical-effectiveness in a cost-effectiveness analysis typically involves some form of partitioned survival or Markov decision-analytic modeling. The health states progression-free, progression and death and the transitions between them are frequently of interest. With partitioned survival, progression is not modeled directly as a state; instead, time in that state is derived from the difference in area between the overall survival and the progression-free survival curves. With Markov decision-analytic modeling, a priori assumptions are often made with regard to the transitions rather than using the individual patient data directly to model them. This article compares a multi-state modeling survival regression approach to these two common methods. As a case study, we use a trial comparing rituximab in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide v. fludarabine and cyclophosphamide alone for the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We calculated mean Life Years and QALYs that involved extrapolation of survival outcomes in the trial. We adapted an existing multi-state modeling approach to incorporate parametric distributions for transition hazards, to allow extrapolation. The comparison showed that, due to the different assumptions used in the different approaches, a discrepancy in results was evident. The partitioned survival and Markov decision-analytic modeling deemed the treatment cost-effective with ICERs of just over £16,000 and £13,000, respectively. However, the results with the multi-state modeling were less conclusive, with an ICER of just over £29,000. This work has illustrated that it is imperative to check whether assumptions are realistic, as different model choices can influence clinical and cost-effectiveness results.

  17. Elapid snake venom analyses show the specificity of the peptide composition at the level of genera Naja and Notechis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Aisha; Trusch, Maria; Georgieva, Dessislava; Hildebrand, Diana; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Behnken, Henning; Harder, Sönke; Arni, Raghuvir; Spencer, Patrick; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian

    2014-02-28

    Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms-that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja), and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis). A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F) cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467) from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  18. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Aisha; Trusch, Maria; Georgieva, Dessislava; Hildebrand, Diana; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Behnken, Henning; Harder, Sönke; Arni, Raghuvir; Spencer, Patrick; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms—that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja), and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis). A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F) cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467) from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes. PMID:24590383

  19. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Munawar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms—that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja, and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis. A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467 from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  20. Genome-wide analyses in bacteria show small-RNA enrichment for long and conserved intergenic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chen-Hsun; Liao, Rick; Chou, Brendan; Palumbo, Michael; Contreras, Lydia M

    2015-01-01

    Interest in finding small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria has significantly increased in recent years due to their regulatory functions. Development of high-throughput methods and more sophisticated computational algorithms has allowed rapid identification of sRNA candidates in different species. However, given their various sizes (50 to 500 nucleotides [nt]) and their potential genomic locations in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions as well as in intergenic regions, identification and validation of true sRNAs have been challenging. In addition, the evolution of bacterial sRNAs across different species continues to be puzzling, given that they can exert similar functions with various sequences and structures. In this study, we analyzed the enrichment patterns of sRNAs in 13 well-annotated bacterial species using existing transcriptome and experimental data. All intergenic regions were analyzed by WU-BLAST to examine conservation levels relative to species within or outside their genus. In total, more than 900 validated bacterial sRNAs and 23,000 intergenic regions were analyzed. The results indicate that sRNAs are enriched in intergenic regions, which are longer and more conserved than the average intergenic regions in the corresponding bacterial genome. We also found that sRNA-coding regions have different conservation levels relative to their flanking regions. This work provides a way to analyze how noncoding RNAs are distributed in bacterial genomes and also shows conserved features of intergenic regions that encode sRNAs. These results also provide insight into the functions of regions surrounding sRNAs and into optimization of RNA search algorithms. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Recombinant Tula hantavirus shows reduced fitness but is able to survive in the presence of a parental virus: analysis of consecutive passages in a cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plyusnin Alexander

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tula hantavirus carrying recombinant S RNA segment (recTULV grew in a cell culture to the same titers as the original cell adapted variant but presented no real match to the parental virus. Our data showed that the lower competitiveness of recTULV could not be increased by pre-passaging in the cell culture. Nevertheless, the recombinant virus was able to survive in the presence of the parental virus during five consecutive passages. The observed survival time seems to be sufficient for transmission of newly formed recombinant hantaviruses in nature.

  2. Transcriptome instability in colorectal cancer identified by exon microarray analyses: Associations with splicing factor expression levels and patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, Anita; Agesen, Trude H; Nesbakken, Arild; Rognum, Torleiv O; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2011-05-27

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease that, on the molecular level, can be characterized by inherent genomic instabilities; chromosome instability and microsatellite instability. In the present study we analyze genome-wide disruption of pre-mRNA splicing, and propose transcriptome instability as a characteristic that is analogous to genomic instability on the transcriptome level. Exon microarray profiles from two independent series including a total of 160 CRCs were investigated for their relative amounts of exon usage differences. Each exon in each sample was assigned an alternative splicing score calculated by the FIRMA algorithm. Amounts of deviating exon usage per sample were derived from exons with extreme splicing scores. There was great heterogeneity within both series in terms of sample-wise amounts of deviating exon usage. This was strongly associated with the expression levels of approximately half of 280 splicing factors (54% and 48% of splicing factors were significantly correlated to deviating exon usage amounts in the two series). Samples with high or low amounts of deviating exon usage, associated with overall transcriptome instability, were almost completely separated into their respective groups by hierarchical clustering analysis of splicing factor expression levels in both sample series. Samples showing a preferential tendency towards deviating exon skipping or inclusion were associated with skewed transcriptome instability. There were significant associations between transcriptome instability and reduced patient survival in both sample series. In the test series, patients with skewed transcriptome instability showed the strongest prognostic association (P = 0.001), while a combination of the two characteristics showed the strongest association with poor survival in the validation series (P = 0.03). We have described transcriptome instability as a characteristic of CRC. This transcriptome instability has associations with splicing

  3. Mental health selection and income support dynamics: multiple spell discrete-time survival analyses of welfare receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The higher occurrence of common psychiatric disorders among welfare recipients has been attributed to health selection, social causation and underlying vulnerability. The aims of this study were to test for the selection effects of mental health problems on entry and re-entry to working-age welfare payments in respect to single parenthood, unemployment and disability. Nationally representative longitudinal data were drawn from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Multiple spell discrete-time survival analyses were conducted using multinomial logistic regression models to test if pre-existing mental health problems predicted transitions to welfare. Analyses were stratified by sex and multivariate adjusted for mental health problems, father's occupation, socioeconomic position, marital status, employment history, smoking status and alcohol consumption, physical function and financial hardship. All covariates were modelled as either lagged effects or when a respondent was first observed to be at risk of income support. Mental health problems were associated with increased risk of entry and re-entry to disability, unemployment and single parenting payments for women, and disability and unemployment payments for men. These associations were attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for contemporaneous risk factors. Although we do not control for reciprocal causation, our findings are consistent with a health selection hypothesis and indicate that mental illness may be a contributing factor to later receipt of different types of welfare payments. We argue that mental health warrants consideration in the design and targeting of social and economic policies.

  4. Keeping Up with the Reality Show: A Ten-Years-Later Review of Surviving Teaching on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Louise Ripley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A dozen years ago, I set out to teach my first Internet course at York University, a large urban Canadian university with 55,000+ students who are mainly commuters. Two years later I wrote an article titled, "Survivor!: When the Next Reality Show is You Teaching Your First Internet Course", in which I argued that there are ten major things you should not do when teaching on the Internet. Now ten years later, in this paper I revisit those recommendations to see if they still hold true, and to see if we need to add any new ones.

  5. Comparative analyses of nonpathogenic, opportunistic, and totally pathogenic mycobacteria reveal genomic and biochemical variabilities and highlight the survival attributes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Singh, Yadvir; Kohli, Sakshi; Ahmad, Javeed; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Tyagi, Anil K; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2014-11-04

    Mycobacterial evolution involves various processes, such as genome reduction, gene cooption, and critical gene acquisition. Our comparative genome size analysis of 44 mycobacterial genomes revealed that the nonpathogenic (NP) genomes were bigger than those of opportunistic (OP) or totally pathogenic (TP) mycobacteria, with the TP genomes being smaller yet variable in size--their genomic plasticity reflected their ability to evolve and survive under various environmental conditions. From the 44 mycobacterial species, 13 species, representing TP, OP, and NP, were selected for genomic-relatedness analyses. Analysis of homologous protein-coding genes shared between Mycobacterium indicus pranii (NP), Mycobacterium intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (TP) revealed that 4,995 (i.e., ~95%) M. indicaus pranii proteins have homology with M. intracellulare, whereas the homologies among M. indicus pranii, M. intracellulare ATCC 13950, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were significantly lower. A total of 4,153 (~79%) M. indicus pranii proteins and 4,093 (~79%) M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteins exhibited homology with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome, while 3,301 (~82%) and 3,295 (~82%) M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins showed homology with M. indicus pranii and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteomes, respectively. Comparative metabolic pathway analyses of TP/OP/NP mycobacteria showed enzymatic plasticity between M. indicus pranii (NP) and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), Mycobacterium avium 104 (OP), and M. tuberculosis H37Rv (TP). Mycobacterium tuberculosis seems to have acquired novel alternate pathways with possible roles in metabolism, host-pathogen interactions, virulence, and intracellular survival, and by implication some of these could be potential drug targets. The complete sequence analysis of Mycobacterium indicus pranii, a novel species of Mycobacterium shown earlier to have strong immunomodulatory properties and currently in use for

  6. GATA2 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia-paired samples analyses show that the mutation is unstable during disease evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hsin-An; Lin, Yun-Chu; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Chou, Wen-Chien; Lin, Chien-Chin; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Lin, Liang-In; Tseng, Mei-Hsuan; Huang, Chi-Fei; Chiang, Ying-Chieh; Liu, Ming-Chih; Liu, Chia-Wen; Tang, Jih-Luh; Yao, Ming; Huang, Shang-Yi; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Shang-Ju; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2015-02-01

    Recently, mutations of the GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) gene were identified in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with CEBPA double mutations (CEBPA (double-mut)), but the interaction of this mutation with other genetic alterations and its dynamic changes during disease progression remain to be determined. In this study, 14 different missense GATA2 mutations, which were all clustered in the highly conserved N-terminal zinc finger 1 domain, were identified in 27.4, 6.7, and 1 % of patients with CEBPA (double-mut), CEBPA (single-mut), and CEBPA wild type, respectively. All but one patient with GATA2 mutation had concurrent CEBPA mutation. GATA2 mutations were closely associated with younger age, FAB M1 subtype, intermediate-risk cytogenetics, expression of HLA-DR, CD7, CD15, or CD34 on leukemic cells, and CEBPA mutation, but negatively associated with FAB M4 subtype, favorable-risk cytogenetics, and NPM1 mutation. Patients with GATA2 mutation had significantly better overall survival and relapse-free survival than those without GATA2 mutation. Sequential analysis showed that the original GATA2 mutations might be lost during disease progression in GATA2-mutated patients, while novel GATA2 mutations might be acquired at relapse in GATA2-wild patients. In conclusion, AML patients with GATA2 mutations had distinct clinic-biological features and a favorable prognosis. GATA2 mutations might be lost or acquired at disease progression, implying that it was a second hit in the leukemogenesis of AML, especially those with CEBPA mutation.

  7. High Content Analysis of Hippocampal Neuron-Astrocyte Co-cultures Shows a Positive Effect of Fortasyn Connect on Neuronal Survival and Postsynaptic Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lieke F. van Deijk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal and synaptic membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer. Supplementation with dietary precursors for phospholipid synthesis –docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, uridine and choline– has been shown to increase neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. A role for multi-nutrient intervention with specific precursors and cofactors has recently emerged in early Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by decreased synapse numbers in the hippocampus. Moreover, the medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect (FC, improves memory performance in early Alzheimer's disease patients, possibly via maintaining brain connectivity. This suggests an effect of FC on synapses, but the underlying cellular mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of FC (consisting of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C and E, and selenium, on synaptogenesis by supplementing it to primary neuron-astrocyte co-cultures, a cellular model that mimics metabolic dependencies in the brain. We measured neuronal developmental processes using high content screening in an automated manner, including neuronal survival, neurite morphology, as well as the formation and maturation of synapses. Here, we show that FC supplementation resulted in increased numbers of neurons without affecting astrocyte number. Furthermore, FC increased postsynaptic PSD95 levels in both immature and mature synapses. These findings suggest that supplementation with FC to neuron-astrocyte co-cultures increased both neuronal survival and the maturation of postsynaptic terminals, which might aid the functional interpretation of FC-based intervention strategies in neurological diseases characterized by neuronal loss and impaired synaptic functioning.

  8. [Bevacizumab and taxanes in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer : overall survival and subgroup analyses of the ATHENA study in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierga, Jean-Yves; Delva, Rémy; Pivot, Xavier; Espié, Marc; Dalenc, Florence; Serin, Daniel; Veyret, Corinne; Lortholary, Alain; Gligorov, Joseph; Joly, Katelle; Hernandez, Juana; Hardy-Bessard, Anne-Claire

    2014-09-01

    The international phase IIIb study, ATHENA assessed the combination of bevacizumab/taxane-based chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in real-life setting. Among the 365 patients included in France, median overall survival (OS) is 28.4 months (CI95% 24.8-33.0), with a median time from treatment start to end of study of 36,5 months (25,1-45,4). Exploratory analyses in three sub-groups show that the median OS in long responder patients (not progressing for at least one year; n = 116) is not reached. In responder patients (n = 308), median OS is 33.0 months (CI95% 28.6-37.4) and 12.4 months (CI95% 11.2-17.4) in non-responders (n = 41). In patients with mBC expressing hormone receptors (HR+), treated with first-line hormone therapy before inclusion (n = 87) median OS in is 23.2 months (CI95% 19.6-28.6), and 35.3 months (CI95% 32.2-not reached); P = 0.004 in patients treated first with chemotherapy + bevacizumab (n = 179). The safety analysis in the various sub-groups of grade 3-5 adverse events of particular interest to bevacizumab of this study was comparable to the safety data of randomized phase III studies.

  9. MRI analyses show that kinesio taping affects much more than just the targeted superficial tissues and causes heterogeneous deformations within the whole limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Uluç; Yucesoy, Can A

    2015-12-16

    Kinesio taping (KT) is widely used in the treatment of sports injuries and various neuro-musculoskeletal disorders. However, it is considered as selectively effective on targeted tissues and its mechanical effects have not been quantified objectively. Ascribed to continuity of muscular and connective tissues, mechanical loading imposed can have widespread heterogeneous effects. The aim was to characterize the mechanical effects of KT objectively and to test the hypotheses that KT causes acutely, local deformations not necessarily (I) in agreement with tape adhering direction and (II) limited to the directly targeted tissues. High-resolution 3D magnetic resonance image sets were acquired in healthy human subjects (n=5) prior to and acutely after KT application over the skin along m. tibialis anterior (TA). Hip, knee and ankle angles were kept constant. Demons image registration algorithm was used to calculate local tissue deformations within the lower leg, in vivo. Mean peak tissue strains were significantly higher than strain artifacts. Only KT-to-TA region in part shows local deformations in agreement with tape adhering direction whereas, superficial skin, the rest of KT-to-TA and TA regions show deformations (up to 51.5% length change) in other directions. Non-targeted tissues also show sizable heterogeneous deformations, but in smaller amplitudes. Inter-subject variability is notable. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses allow for a detailed assessment of local tissue deformation occurring acutely after KT application. The findings confirm our hypotheses and characterize how KT affects the underlying tissues, both immediately targeted and distant. This allows revealing mechanisms that can affect clinical outcomes of KT objectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined multivariate and pathway analyses show that allergen-induced gene expression changes in CD4+ T cells are reversed by glucocorticoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids (GCs play a key role in the treatment of allergy. However, the genome-wide effects of GCs on gene expression in allergen-challenged CD4(+ T cells have not been described. The aim of this study was to perform a genome-wide analysis to investigate whether allergen-induced gene expression changes in CD4(+ T cells could be reversed by GCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression microarray analysis was performed to profile gene expression in diluent- (D, allergen- (A, and allergen + hydrocortisone- (T challenged CD4(+ T cells from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Principal component analysis (PCA showed good separation of the three groups. To identify the correlation between changes in gene expression in allergen-challenged CD4(+ T cells before and after GC treatment, we performed orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA followed by Pearson correlation analysis. This revealed that allergen-induced genes were widely reversed by GC treatment (r = -0.77, P<0.0001. We extracted 547 genes reversed by GC treatment from OPLS-DA models based on their high contribution to the discrimination and found that those genes belonged to several different inflammatory pathways including TNFR2 Signalling, Interferon Signalling, Glucocorticoid Receptor Signalling and T Helper Cell Differentiation. The results were supported by gene expression microarray analyses of two independent materials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Allergen-induced gene expression changes in CD4(+ T cells were reversed by treatment with glucocorticoids. The top allergen-induced genes that reversed by GC treatment belonged to several inflammatory pathways and genes of known or potential relevance for allergy.

  11. Molecular analyses of unselected head and neck cancer cases demonstrates that human papillomavirus transcriptional activity is positively associated with survival and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Liam; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Lehmann, Martin; Scholtz, Lars-Uwe; Sterling, Jane C; Sudhoff, Holger H; Goon, Peter K C

    2016-06-13

    Human papillomavirus DNA detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been linked to improved patient prognosis. The main aims of the study was to test the hypotheses that HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene and p53 function within tumours were associated with the widely reported improved patient survival and prognosis in head and neck cancer. HPV16 DNA, mRNA and p53 mRNA presence were analysed in a prospective study of 42 unselected HNSCC patients; correlating the data with patient age, tumour staging/grade, treatment response, disease recurrence and survival. HPV16 DNA and HPV16 mRNA were present in 45.2 % and 21.4 % of patients, respectively. There was a significant positive association between the detection of HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA and p53 mRNA (p = 0.032), but this was not replicated for HPV16 DNA. Five-year disease free survival for the whole cohort was 63 % (CI 52.5-73.5 %). Multivariable analysis revealed only HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA expression to have significant prognostic influence (p = 0.04). Our study suggests that HPV16 oncogenic transcriptional activity within HNSCC tumours is associated with improved patient survival and better prognosis in a German population. Simple HPV DNA detection alone did not demonstrate this association. The significant association of full-length (wild-type) p53 with HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA is further evidence for a functional relationship, which could contribute to the widely reported improved survival and prognosis. Larger studies are required to validate the frequency of HPV16 mRNA expression in HNSCC.

  12. Molecular analyses of unselected head and neck cancer cases demonstrates that human papillomavirus transcriptional activity is positively associated with survival and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Masterson, Liam; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L. R.; Vaughan, Katie; Lehmann, Martin; Scholtz, Lars-Uwe; Sterling, Jane C; Sudhoff, Holger H; Goon, Peter K C

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus DNA detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been linked to improved patient prognosis. The main aims of the study was to test the hypotheses that HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene and p53 function within tumours were associated with the widely reported improved patient survival and prognosis in head and neck cancer. Methods HPV16 DNA, mRNA and p53 mRNA presence were analysed in a prospective study of 42 unselected HNSCC patients; correlating the data with pat...

  13. Short Term Survival after Admission for Heart Failure in Sweden: Applying Multilevel Analyses of Discriminatory Accuracy to Evaluate Institutional Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Ghith

    Full Text Available Hospital performance is frequently evaluated by analyzing differences between hospital averages in some quality indicators. The results are often expressed as quality charts of hospital variance (e.g., league tables, funnel plots. However, those analyses seldom consider patients heterogeneity around averages, which is of fundamental relevance for a correct evaluation. Therefore, we apply an innovative methodology based on measures of components of variance and discriminatory accuracy to analyze 30-day mortality after hospital discharge with a diagnosis of Heart Failure (HF in Sweden.We analyzed 36,943 patients aged 45-80 treated in 565 wards at 71 hospitals during 2007-2009. We applied single and multilevel logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratios and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUC. We evaluated general hospital and ward effects by quantifying the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and the increment in the AUC obtained by adding random effects in a multilevel regression analysis (MLRA. Finally, the Odds Ratios (ORs for specific ward and hospital characteristics were interpreted jointly with the proportional change in variance (PCV and the proportion of ORs in the opposite direction (POOR.Overall, the average 30-day mortality was 9%. Using only patient information on age and previous hospitalizations for different diseases we obtained an AUC = 0.727. This value was almost unchanged when adding sex, country of birth as well as hospitals and wards levels. Average mortality was higher in small wards and municipal hospitals but the POOR values were 15% and 16% respectively.Swedish wards and hospitals in general performed homogeneously well, resulting in a low 30-day mortality rate after HF. In our study, knowledge on a patient's previous hospitalizations was the best predictor of 30-day mortality, and this information did not improve by knowing the sex and country of birth of the patient or where the

  14. Joint analyses of longitudinal and time-to-event data in research on aging: Implications for predicting health and survival

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    Konstantin G. Arbeev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal data on aging, health and longevity provide a wealth of information to investigate different aspects of the processes of aging and development of diseases leading to death. Statistical methods aimed at analyses of time-to-event data jointly with longitudinal measurements became known as the joint models (JM. An important point to consider in analyses of such data in the context of studies on aging, health, and longevity is how to incorporate knowledge and theories about mechanisms and regularities of aging-related changes that accumulate in the research field into respective analytic approaches. In the absence of specific observations of longitudinal dynamics of relevant biomarkers manifesting such mechanisms and regularities, traditional approaches have a rather limited utility to estimate respective parameters that can be meaningfully interpreted from the biological point of view. A conceptual analytic framework for these purposes, the stochastic process model of aging (SPM, has been recently developed in the biodemographic literature. It incorporates available knowledge about mechanisms of aging-related changes which may be hidden in the individual longitudinal trajectories of physiological variables and this allows for analyzing their indirect impact on risks of diseases and death. Despite, essentially, serving similar purposes, JM and SPM developed in parallel in different disciplines with very limited cross-referencing. Although there were several publications separately reviewing these two approaches, there were no publications presenting both these approaches in some detail. Here we overview both approaches jointly and provide some new modifications of SPM. We discuss the use of stochastic processes to capture biological variation and heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns and important and promising (but still largely underused applications of JM and SPM to predictions of individual and population mortality and health

  15. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA analyses showed comparative genetic diversity between parent and offspring populations of Korean black rockfish in a hatchery facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, H S; Lee, J W; Park, J Y; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2013-12-09

    The black rockfish, Sebastes inermis (Sebastidae), is an important commercial fishery resource in Korea. As a preliminary investigation into the effect of artificial reproduction in a hatchery facility, the genetic divergence between parent and offspring populations of black rockfish was accessed using 10 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and a mitochondrial (mt) control gene. All loci that were screened showed marked polymorphisms. mtDNA control region sequences were also highly variable. Of approximately 350 base pairs (bp) sequenced, 52 variable sites, comprising 56 base substitutions, were found among 233 individuals. Offspring populations showed less genetic variability than the parent population in terms of numbers of microsatellite alleles and mtDNA haplotypes, as well as mtDNA haplotype diversity. Statistical analysis of the fixation index (ΦST and F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance using both DNA markers showed significant genetic differences between the parent and offspring populations. These results suggest that random genetic drift and/or inbreeding events, as well as artificial selection and founder effects, occurred when the offspring strain was reproduced in a hatchery facility despite thousands of males and females from different hatcheries being maintained for artificial reproduction. Therefore, it is necessary to improve current hatchery programs by monitoring genetic variation in both the broodstock and progeny and controlling inbreeding within stocks in commercial breeding facilities to maintain the production of high-quality black rockfish. This information will be useful for determining suitable guidelines for establishing and maintaining cultured stocks and the aquaculture industry of S. inermis.

  16. Metabolic and molecular analyses of white mutant Vaccinium berries show down-regulation of MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB regulatory factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetta, Anja K; Karppinen, Katja; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2015-09-01

    MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB transcription factor shows down-regulation in white mutant berries of Vaccinium uliginosum deficient in anthocyanins but not proanthocyanidins suggesting a role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Berries of the genus Vaccinium are among the best natural sources of flavonoids. In this study, the expression of structural and regulatory flavonoid biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of flavonoids in white mutant and blue-colored wild-type bog bilberry (V. uliginosum) fruits were measured at different stages of berry development. In contrast to high contents of anthocyanins in ripe blue-colored berries, only traces were detected by HPLC-ESI-MS in ripe white mutant berries. However, similar profile and high levels of flavonol glycosides and proanthocyanidins were quantified in both ripe white and ripe wild-type berries. Analysis with qRT-PCR showed strong down-regulation of structural genes chalcone synthase (VuCHS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (VuDFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (VuANS) as well as MYBPA1-type transcription factor VuMYBPA1 in white berries during ripening compared to wild-type berries. The profiles of transcript accumulation of chalcone isomerase (VuCHI), anthocyanidin reductase (VuANR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (VuLAR) and flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (VuF3'5'H) were more similar between the white and the wild-type berries during fruit development, while expression of UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VuUFGT) showed similar trend but fourfold lower level in white mutant. VuMYBPA1, the R2R3 MYB family member, is a homologue of VmMYB2 of V. myrtillus and VcMYBPA1 of V. corymbosum and belongs to MYBPA1-type MYB family which members are shown in some species to be related with proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in fruits. Our results combined with earlier data of the role of VmMYB2 in white mutant berries of V. myrtillus suggest that the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vaccinium species could differ

  17. Patients with high c-MYC-expressing squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue show better survival than those with low- and medium-expressing tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindlund, Klas; Troiano, Giuseppe; Sgaramella, Nicola; Coates, Philip J; Gu, Xiaolian; Boldrup, Linda; Califano, Luigi; Fahraeus, Robin; Muzio, Lorenzo Lo; Ardito, Fatima; Colella, Giuseppe; Tartaro, Gianpaolo; Franco, Renato; Norberg-Spaak, Lena; Saadat, Mohammad; Nylander, Karin

    2017-11-01

    c-MYC is a potent oncoprotein with roles in a wide range of cellular processes such as differentiation, apoptosis and growth control. Deregulation of the MYC gene is commonly seen in human tumours resulting in overexpression of the protein. Here we studied expression of c-MYC in correlation to clinical outcome in patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify c-MYC in a group of 104 tongue squamous cell carcinomas with an antibody directed against the N-terminal part of the protein. Staining was evaluated by multiplying the percentage of c-MYC-expressing cells with staining intensity, giving a quick score for each tumour. All 104 tumours expressed c-MYC at varying levels. Quantitation according to per cent of positive cells and staining intensity revealed that most (15/21; 71%) high-expressing tumours were seen in males. Within the group of high c-MYC-expressing tumours, the majority were alive 2 and 5 years after treatment. The present findings show that expression of c-MYC has prognostic value in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, and could be useful in choice of therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Elotuzumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: ELOQUENT-2 follow-up and post-hoc analyses on progression-free survival and tumour growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Lonial, Sagar; White, Darrell; Moreau, Philippe; Palumbo, Antonio; San-Miguel, Jesus; Shpilberg, Ofer; Anderson, Kenneth; Grosicki, Sebastian; Spicka, Ivan; Walter-Croneck, Adam; Magen, Hila; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Belch, Andrew; Reece, Donna; Beksac, Meral; Bleickardt, Eric; Poulart, Valerie; Sheng, Jennifer; Sy, Oumar; Katz, Jessica; Singhal, Anil; Richardson, Paul

    2017-09-01

    The randomized phase III ELOQUENT-2 study (NCT01239797) evaluated the efficacy and safety of elotuzumab + lenalidomide/dexamethasone (ELd) versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Ld) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. ELd reduced the risk of disease progression/death by 30% versus Ld (hazard ratio [HR] 0·70). Median time from diagnosis was 3·5 years. We present extended 3-year follow-up data. Endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR) and interim overall survival (OS). Exploratory post-hoc analyses included impact of time from diagnosis and prior lines of therapy on PFS, and serum M-protein dynamic modelling. ORR was 79% (ELd) and 66% (Ld) (P = 0·0002). ELd reduced the risk of disease progression/death by 27% versus Ld (HR 0·73; P = 0·0014). Interim OS demonstrated a trend in favour of ELd (P = 0·0257); 1-, 2- and 3-year rates with ELd versus Ld were: 91% versus 83%, 73% versus 69% and 60% versus 53%. In patients with ≥ median time from diagnosis and one prior therapy, ELd resulted in a 53% reduction in the risk of progression/death versus Ld (HR 0·47). Serum M-protein dynamic modelling showed slower tumour regrowth with ELd. Adverse events were comparable between arms. ELd provided a durable and clinically relevant improvement in efficacy, with minimal incremental toxicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  20. Duration of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2 positive breast cancer: Overall and disease free survival results from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Niraula, Saroj

    2017-11-01

    One year of trastuzumab, chosen empirically, improves survival of women with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer but also adds substantially to cost, toxicity, and inconvenience. Longer treatment does not improve outcomes, but potentiates toxicities. Medline, Embase, and major conference proceedings were searched systematically in June 2017 to identify Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing one year versus shorter durations of trastuzumab in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Reported Hazard-Ratios (HR) for Overall Survival (OS) and Disease-Free Survival (DFS), and Odds-Ratio for cardiac events, with respective 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) from each study was weighted using generic inverse-variance, and pooled in a meta-analysis. Inter-study heterogeneity and sub-group difference (based on hormone-receptors and node-positivity) were assessed using I 2 , and chi 2 statistics, respectively. Four studies (n=7614) satisfied inclusion criteria. Individual RCTs had diverse pre-specified upper-limits of 95% CI for declaring non-inferiority (range: <1.15 to <1.53). Pooled results demonstrated significant improvements in OS (HR 1.28, p=0.04), and DFS (HR 1.24, p=0.005) with 1year of trastuzumab compared to shorter durations. Absence of multiplicity argument allowed for declaring superiority of 1year of trastuzumab based on our results despite non-inferiority designs of individual trials. No influence on overall effect by duration of trastuzumab in experimental arm (9weeks versus 6months) was noted. No statistical interaction by hormone-receptor status and node-positivity on overall results was noticed [p(sub-group difference) 0.73, and 0.52, respectively]. Odds-Ratio for cardiac events was 2.65 (p<0.001) favoring shorter duration. One year of trastuzumab prolongs overall, and disease-free survivals in women with early-stage HER2 positive breast cancer compared to shorter durations and this should remain as the standard of care. Cardiotoxicity increased

  1. Exploratory analyses assessing the impact of early tumour shrinkage and depth of response on survival outcomes in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer receiving treatment in three randomised panitumumab trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb, Julien; Rivera, Fernando; Siena, Salvatore; Karthaus, Meinolf; Valladares-Ayerbes, Manuel; Gallego, Javier; Geissler, Michael; Koukakis, Reija; Demonty, Gaston; Peeters, Marc

    2018-02-01

    To report exploratory analyses of early tumour shrinkage (ETS) and depth of response (DpR) in patients with RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), receiving the first-line treatment in three randomised panitumumab trials. Data from the PRIME (NCT00364013), PEAK (NCT00819780) and PLANET (NCT00885885) studies were included. Median DpR, the proportion of patients achieving ETS ≥ 20% or ≥ 30% at week 8, and the impact of ETS and DpR (including by category) on outcome were analysed. Factors associated with ETS and DpR and the optimal ETS/DpR cut-off values for predicting improved overall survival (OS) were assessed. Overall, 505, 170 and 53 patients had RAS WT mCRC in PRIME, PEAK and PLANET, respectively. Patients receiving panitumumab had higher ETS rates (≥ 30%: PRIME 59% vs. 38%; PEAK 64% vs. 45%) and greater DpR (PRIME: 54% vs. 46%; PEAK: 65% vs. 46%) than those receiving treatment without panitumumab. In multiple regression analyses, panitumumab treatment, liver-only metastases and WT BRAF status were consistently associated with improved ETS and DpR outcomes. Irrespective of treatment, ETS and DpR were associated with improved progression-free survival, overall survival and resection rates; most resections occurred in patients in the two highest DpR categories. In PRIME and PEAK, respectively, the optimal cut-offs for predicting improved OS were 32 and 34% for ETS, and 59 and 70% for DpR. These exploratory analyses suggest that panitumumab is associated ETS and DpR benefits in patients with RAS WT mCRC and that achieving these endpoints during first-line treatment is linked with favourable outcomes.

  2. SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF EPLERENONE IN PATIENTS AT HIGH RISK FOR HYPERKALEMIA AND/OR WORSENING RENAL FUNCTION. ANALYSES OF THE EMPHASIS-HF STUDY SUBGROUPS (EPLERENONE IN MILD PATIENTS HOSPITALIZATION AND SURVIVAL STUDY IN HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eschalier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation articles:R. Eschalier, J.J.V. McMurray, K. Swedberg, D.J. van Veldhuisen, H. Krum, S.J. Pocock, H. Shi, J. Vincent, P. Rossignol, F. Zannad, B. Pitt, for the EMPHASIS-HF Investigators “Safety and Efficacy of Eplerenone in Patients at High Risk for Hyperkalemia and/or Worsening Renal Function. Analyses of the EMPHASIS-HF Study Subgroups (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure”  J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62(17:1585-93; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.04.086

  3. Multi-omics Analyses of Starvation Responses Reveal a Central Role for Lipoprotein Metabolism in Acute Starvation Survival in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvald, Eva Bang; Sprenger, Richard R; Dall, Kathrine Brændgaard

    2017-01-01

    Starvation causes comprehensive metabolic changes, which are still not fully understood. Here, we used quantitative proteomics and RNA sequencing to examine the temporal starvation responses in wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans and animals lacking the transcription factor HLH-30. Our findings show...

  4. Review: Martin Spetsmann-Kunkel (2004. Die Moral der Daytime Talkshow. Eine soziologische Analyse eines umstrittenen Fernsehformats [The Morality of the Daytime Talk Show. A Sociological Analysis of a Controversial Television Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Döring

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This book deals with the phenomenon of the daytime talk show from a sociological perspective. The author questions the common cultural pessimism of this TV format ("exhibitionist guests," "voyeuristic spectators". He first describes the characteristics of the daytime talk show and summarizes the results of previous surveys that reveal a broad variety of talk show guests' and recipients' motives—beyond pathology. Drawing on concepts like civilization and individualisation, the book outlines the societal functions of the daytime talk show. A participatory observation study in the editorial office of "Hans Meiser" and free interpretations of three series from "Vera am Mittag" are presented as "empirical evidence." Unfortunately the book lacks theoretical and methodological rigor and a sound empirical basis. The bibliography could have been more comprehensive. The work is useful, though, as an inspired, readable introduction into the topic. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603119

  5. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  6. Showing/Sharing: Analysing Visual Communication from a Praxeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Schreiber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a methodological framework for empirical research into visual practices on social media. The framework identifies practices, pictures and platforms as relevant dimensions of analysis. It is mainly developed within, and is compatible with qualitative, interpretive approaches which focus on visual communication as part of everyday personal communicative practices. Two screenshots from Instagram and Facebook are introduced as empirical examples to investigate collaborative practices of meaning-making relating to pictures on social media. While social media seems to augment reflexive, processual practices of negotiating identities, visual media, in particular, amps up aesthetic, ambivalent and embodied dimensions within these practices.

  7. Challenges in the estimation of Net SURvival: The CENSUR working survival group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, R

    2016-10-01

    Net survival, the survival probability that would be observed, in a hypothetical world, where the cancer of interest would be the only possible cause of death, is a key indicator in population-based cancer studies. Accounting for mortality due to other causes, it allows cross-country comparisons or trends analysis and provides a useful indicator for public health decision-making. The objective of this study was to show how the creation and formalization of a network comprising established research teams, which already had substantial and complementary experience in both cancer survival analysis and methodological development, make it possible to meet challenges and thus provide more adequate tools, to improve the quality and the comparability of cancer survival data, and to promote methodological transfers in areas of emerging interest. The Challenges in the Estimation of Net SURvival (CENSUR) working survival group is composed of international researchers highly skilled in biostatistics, methodology, and epidemiology, from different research organizations in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Slovenia, and Canada, and involved in French (FRANCIM) and European (EUROCARE) cancer registry networks. The expected advantages are an interdisciplinary, international, synergistic network capable of addressing problems in public health, for decision-makers at different levels; tools for those in charge of net survival analyses; a common methodology that makes unbiased cross-national comparisons of cancer survival feasible; transfer of methods for net survival estimations to other specific applications (clinical research, occupational epidemiology); and dissemination of results during an international training course. The formalization of the international CENSUR working survival group was motivated by a need felt by scientists conducting population-based cancer research to discuss, develop, and monitor implementation of a common methodology to analyze net survival in order

  8. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  9. Survival analysis of orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Jae; Ahn, Sug-Joon; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2010-02-01

    Survival analysis is useful in clinical research because it focuses on comparing the survival distributions and the identification of risk factors. Our aim in this study was to investigate the survival characteristics and risk factors of orthodontic mini-implants with survival analyses. One hundred forty-one orthodontic patients (treated from October 1, 2000, to November 29, 2007) were included in this survival study. A total of 260 orthodontic mini-implants that had sandblasted (large grit) and acid-etched screw parts were placed between the maxillary second premolar and the first molar. Failures of the implants were recorded as event data, whereas implants that were removed because treatment ended and those that were not removed during the study period were recorded as censored data. A nonparametric life table method was used to visualize the hazard function, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated to identify the variables associated with implant failure. Prognostic variables associated with implant failure were identified with the Cox proportional hazard model. Of the 260 implants, 22 failed. The hazard function for implant failure showed that the risk is highest immediately after placement. The survival function showed that the median survival time of orthodontic mini-implants is sufficient for relatively long orthodontic treatments. The Cox proportional hazard model identified that increasing age is a decisive factor for implant survival. The decreasing pattern of the hazard function suggested gradual osseointegration of orthodontic mini-implants. When implants are placed in a young patient, special caution is needed to lessen the increased probability of failure, especially immediately after placement.

  10. Survival from tumours of the central nervous system in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2018-01-01

    + siblings 3.60; CI 1.52; 8.53) and a trend of better survival was observed for children with parents of younger age at child's diagnosis and poorer survival of children with parents of older age. Despite free and uniform access to health care services, some family circumstances appear to affect survival......Little is known about social inequalities in childhood cancer survival. We investigated the impact of family circumstances on survival from paediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumours in a nationwide, register-based cohort of Danish children. All children born between 1973 and 2006...... associations between survival and any family characteristic. Analyses by CNS tumour subtypes showed reduced survival for children with glioma when living outside of Copenhagen (HR 1.55; CI 1.03; 2.35). For embryonal CNS tumours, the number of full siblings was associated with worse survival (HR for having 3...

  11. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  12. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  13. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  14. Win, Place, or Show?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Kappen, Philip; Zander, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    of entry into technologies that represent new additions to the MNC's technology portfolio. Repeated events analyses of the complete U.S. patenting activity in 226 foreign locations of 21 Swedish multinationals reveal a substantially higher likelihood of entry into new technologies among investment...

  15. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  16. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  17. Alcohol consumption and non-Hodgkin lymphoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Foss, Francine M; Ma, Shuangge; Holford, Theodore R; Boyle, Peter; Leaderer, Brian; Zhao, Ping; Dai, Min; Zhang, Yawei

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that moderate alcohol drinkers have a lower death rate for all causes. Alcohol drinking has also been associated with reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Here, we examined the role of alcohol consumption on NHL survival by type of alcohol consumed and NHL subtype. A cohort of 575 female NHL incident cases diagnosed during 1996-2000 in Connecticut was followed-up for a median of 7.75 years. Demographic, clinical, and lifestyle information was collected at diagnosis. Survival analyses were conducted with Kaplan-Meier methods, and hazard ratios (HR) were estimated from Cox Proportional Hazards models. Compared to never drinkers, wine drinkers experienced better overall survival (75% vs. 69% five-year survival rates, p-value for log-rank test = 0.030) and better disease free survival (70% vs. 67% five-year disease-free survival rates, p-value for log-rank test = 0.049). Analysis by NHL subtype shows that the favorable effect of wine consumption was mainly seen for patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (wine drinkers for more than 25 years vs. never drinkers: HR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.94 for overall survival; HR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.94 for disease-free survival), and the adverse effect of liquor consumption was also observed among DLBCL patients (liquor drinkers vs. never drinkers: HR=2.49, 95% CI 1.26-4.93 for disease-free survival). Our results suggest a moderate relationship between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and NHL survival, particularly for DLBCL. The results need to be replicated in larger studies. Pre-diagnostic behaviors might impact the prognosis and survival of NHL patients.

  18. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies...... are made from digital scans of the original dias slides located in the collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Roskilde. In front of the audience entering the space and placed on it’s own stand, is an original 60s style telephone with turning dial. Action begins when the audience lift the phone...... and dial a number. Any number will make the Dias change. All numbers are also assigned to specific sound documents: clips form rare interviews and the complete sound-re-enactment of the Show-Bix piece ‘Omringning’ (‘Surrounding’) in five channels (a quintophonie). This was originally produced...

  19. Show and Tell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Fredag d. 1 november blev Kunsthal Charlottenborg indtaget af performanceprogrammet Show & Tell med et bredspektret program af danske og internationale kunstnere indenfor performance-, lyd- og installationskunst. Programmet præsenterer værker, der undersøger kroppens stadig mere symbiotiske forhold...... og studienævnet på Performance-design. Show & Tell - Performance program: kl. 16.30-19 Adresse: Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Nyhavn 2, 1051 København K...

  20. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  1. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication....... More specifically, the article demonstrates how online comments posted on the day of Voice’s 2012 season finale can be grouped into four basic action types: (1) Invitation to consume content, (2) Request for participation, (3) Request for collaboration and (4) Online commenting. These action types...

  2. Um show de cacau

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, José Francisco; UNIGRANRIO / PPGA; Mello, Simone; UNIGRANRIO

    2016-01-01

    O caso de ensino apresenta a trajetória de Alexandre Tadeu da Costa e da chocolateria Cacau Show. Seu objetivo é levar os estudantes a identificar alternativas e tomar decisões sobre posicionamento para continuidade do desenvolvimento de vantagens competitivas, sustentação de competência logística e possíveis abordagens ao mercado externo. 

  3. Taking in a Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  4. Neyman, Markov processes and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Grace

    2013-07-01

    J. Neyman used stochastic processes extensively in his applied work. One example is the Fix and Neyman (F-N) competing risks model (1951) that uses finite homogeneous Markov processes to analyse clinical trials with breast cancer patients. We revisit the F-N model, and compare it with the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) formulation for right censored data. The comparison offers a way to generalize the K-M formulation to include risks of recovery and relapses in the calculation of a patient's survival probability. The generalization is to extend the F-N model to a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Closed-form solutions of the survival probability are available in special cases of the nonhomogeneous processes, like the popular multiple decrement model (including the K-M model) and Chiang's staging model, but these models do not consider recovery and relapses while the F-N model does. An analysis of sero-epidemiology current status data with recurrent events is illustrated. Fix and Neyman used Neyman's RBAN (regular best asymptotic normal) estimates for the risks, and provided a numerical example showing the importance of considering both the survival probability and the length of time of a patient living a normal life in the evaluation of clinical trials. The said extension would result in a complicated model and it is unlikely to find analytical closed-form solutions for survival analysis. With ever increasing computing power, numerical methods offer a viable way of investigating the problem.

  5. The survival and return of institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardiancich, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Opening a new phase in historical institutionalism, Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen show how a rigid dichotomy between incremental adaptation and radical transformation fails to capture important transformative processes common to advanced political economies. While their research focuses......, where the old logic survives due to the redundancy of the new institutional arrangement; and reaction, where structural reforms generate demand for the old incentive structures, which are ultimately reintroduced. To elucidate the concepts, recent Croatian, Hungarian and Polish pension reforms...... are compared and their institutional instability analysed....

  6. Allergies, obesity, other risk factors and survival from pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sara H; Chou, Joanne F; Ludwig, Emmy; O'Reilly, Eileen; Allen, Peter J; Jarnagin, William R; Bayuga, Sharon; Simon, Jennifer; Gonen, Mithat; Reisacher, William R; Kurtz, Robert C

    2010-11-15

    Survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains extremely poor, approximately 5% at 5 years. Risk factors include smoking, high body mass index (BMI), family history of pancreatic cancer, and long-standing diabetes; in contrast, allergies are associated with reduced risk. Little is known about associations between these factors and survival. We analyzed overall survival in relation to risk factors for 475 incident cases who took part in a hospital based case-control study. Analyses were conducted separately for those who did (160) and did not (315) undergo tumor resection. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to describe survival according to smoking, BMI, family history, diabetes, and presence of allergies. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for covariates. There was no association with survival based on smoking, family history, or history of diabetes in either group. Among patients with resection, those with allergies showed nonstatistically significant longer survival, a median of 33.1 months (95% CI: 19.0-52.5) vs. 21.8 months (95% CI: 18.0-33.1), p = 0.25. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.43-1.23), p = 0.23. Among patients without resection, those with self-reported allergies survived significantly longer than those without allergies: 13.3 months (95% CI: 10.6-16.9) compared to 10.4 months (95% CI: 8.8-11.0), p = 0.04, with an adjusted HR of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49-0.95), p = 0.02. Obesity was nonsignificantly associated with poorer survival, particularly in the resected group (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 0.76-3.44). The mechanisms underlying the association between history of allergies and improved survival are unknown. These novel results need to be confirmed in other studies.

  7. Surviving death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstroem, Anna

    2013-01-01

    such phases. The aim of this paper is to explore how an organization’s identity is re-constructed after organizational death. Based on interviews with members of a bankrupted bank who narrate their bankruptcy experiences, the paper explores how legacy organizational identity is constructed after...... organizational death. The paper shows how members draw on their legacy organizational identity to justify their past interpretations and responses to the intensifying bankruptcy threats. Members refer to their firm belief in the bank’s solid and robust identity claim when they explain how they disregarded...

  8. Surviving at high elevations: an inter- and intra-specific analysis in a mountain bird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, G; Tavecchia, G; Meléndez, L; Seoane, J; Obeso, J R; Laiolo, P

    2017-06-01

    Elevation represents an important selection agent on self-maintenance traits and correlated life histories in birds, but no study has analysed whether life-history variation along this environmental cline is consistent among and within species. In a sympatric community of passerines, we analysed how the average adult survival of 25 open-habitat species varied with their elevational distribution and how adult survival varied with elevation at the intra-specific level. For such purpose, we estimated intra-specific variation in adult survival in two mountainous species, the Water pipit (Anthus spinoletta) and the Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) in NW Spain, by means of capture-recapture analyses. At the inter-specific level, high-elevation species showed higher survival values than low elevation ones, likely because a greater allocation to self-maintenance permits species to persist in alpine environments. At the intra-specific level, the magnitude of survival variation was lower by far. Nevertheless, Water pipit survival slightly decreased at high elevations, while the proportion of transient birds increased. In contrast, no such relationships were found in the Northern wheatear. Intra-specific analyses suggest that living at high elevation may be costly, such as for the Water pipit in our case study. Therefore, it seems that a species can persist with viable populations in uplands, where extrinsic mortality is high, by increasing the investment in self-maintenance and prospecting behaviours.

  9. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  10. HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that the near-Starchless aps1 and pgm leaves accumulate wild type levels of ADPglucose: further evidence for the occurrence of important ADPglucose biosynthetic pathway(s alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Bahaji

    Full Text Available In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM, ADPglucose (ADPG pyrophosphorylase (AGP and starch synthase (SS, and (b is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI. This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low.

  11. Advanced prostate cancer survival in Spain according to the Gleason score, age and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campá, J; Mar-Barrutia, G; Extramiana, J; Arróspide, A; Mar, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the overall and disaggregated survival based on the Gleason score, age and extent of a patient cohort diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer according to standard clinical practice. We used an observational and retrospective design for the study. For each patient, we recorded clinical variables such as the extent (metastatic or locally advanced), Gleason score, age, date of diagnosis, date of last contact with the health system and the vital status during the last contact. We used univariate and multivariate statistical techniques of survival. The parametric survival methods enabled us to calculate the mean survival using extrapolation. We analysed 219 patients treated in the public health system between 2008 and 2011. The analysis showed statistically significant differences in survival depending on Gleason score, age and stage. The longest survival was in the subgroup younger than 75 years, with a local extent and a low-risk category on the Gleason scale (19.41 years), and the shortest survival (0.97 years) was in the 75 years or older group. The survival of the other subgroups ranged between these outliers. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first to calculate the mean survival of advanced prostate cancer in Spain in terms of the variables of our study population. This information helps clinicians predict the life expectancy of each patient according to their prognostic factors. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab versus mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: updated overall survival analyses of the open-label, non-inferiority, randomised phase III: SOFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hideo; Yamada, Yasuhide; Takahari, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masato; Yoshida, Motoki; Iwamoto, Shigeyoshi; Shimada, Ken; Komatsu, Yoshito; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Satoh, Taroh; Takahashi, Keiichi; Mishima, Hideyuki; Muro, Kei; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakata, Yuh; Morita, Satoshi; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    The SOFT study previously demonstrated that S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab was non-inferior to l-leucovorin, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab in terms of the primary end point of progression-free survival (PFS) as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The overall survival (OS) data were immature at the time of the primary analysis. A total of 512 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab (5 mg/kg of bevacizumab, followed by 200 mg/m2 of l-leucovorin given simultaneously with 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin, followed by a 400 mg/m2 bolus of 5-FU on day 1 and then 2400 mg/m2 of 5-FU as an intravenous infusion over the course of 46 hours, every 2 weeks) or SOX plus bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg of bevacizumab, 130 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin on day 1 and 40-60 mg of S-1 two times per day for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week rest). The primary end point was PFS. After the primary analysis, the follow-up survey was cut-off on 30 September 2013, and the final OS data were analysed. With a median follow-up of 37.7 months, the median survival time (MST) was 29.7 months with mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab and 29.6 months with SOX plus bevacizumab (HR, 1.018; 95% CI 0.823 to 1.258). Median PFS was 11.7 months in the mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab group and 12.2 months in the SOX plus bevacizumab group (HR, 1.051; 95% CI 0.876 to 1.262; pnon-inferiority=0.0115). Our results reconfirmed that SOX plus bevacizumab is non-inferior to mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab in terms of PFS. MST did not differ between the groups. SOX plus bevacizumab is considered an effective regimen for first-line chemotherapy in patients with mCRC and can be used instead of mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab. JapicCTI-090699.

  13. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  14. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop.

  15. Hope, optimism and survival in a randomised trial of chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Penelope E; Stockler, M R; Zannino, D; Tebbutt, N C; Price, T J; Simes, R J; Wong, N; Pavlakis, N; Ransom, D; Moylan, E; Underhill, C; Wyld, D; Burns, I; Ward, R; Wilcken, N; Jefford, M

    2016-01-01

    Psychological responses to cancer are widely believed to affect survival. We investigated associations between hope, optimism, anxiety, depression, health utility and survival in patients starting first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Four hundred twenty-nine subjects with metastatic colorectal cancer in a randomised controlled trial of chemotherapy completed baseline questionnaires assessing the following: hopefulness, optimism, anxiety and depression and health utility. Hazard ratios (HRs) and P values were calculated with Cox models for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in univariable and multivariable analyses. Median follow-up was 31 months. Univariable analyses showed that OS was associated negatively with depression (HR 2.04, P optimism, anxiety or hopefulness. PFS was not associated with hope, optimism, anxiety or depression in any analyses. Depression and health utility, but not optimism, hope or anxiety, were associated with survival after controlling for known prognostic factors in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Further research is required to understand the nature of the relationship between depression and survival. If a causal mechanism is identified, this may lead to interventional possibilities.

  16. Survival of acral lentiginous melanoma in the National Cancer Institute of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C A; Flórez, J P; López, H G; Meneses, M X; de Vries, E

    2017-03-01

    To determine survival of a cohort of patients with acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), treated at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia, the largest referral hospital of the country. All patients diagnosed with an invasive ALM between 2003 and 2009 at the Colombian National Cancer Institute were included for analyses and followed for vital status and date of death. Using Kaplan-Meier methods, overall survival at 1, 3 and 5 years post diagnosis was determined, and Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for the variables showing a significant effect on survival in univariate analyses. Overall survival of this cohort of 90 patients was 77% at 1 year, 59% at 3 years and 54% at 5 years after diagnosis. Females had a better prognosis in univariate analyses but this advantage disappeared in multivariate models. Clinical stage was a strong predictor of survival, in univariate and multivariate models, particularly among elderly patients. Prognosis of ALM in Colombia is relatively poor, particularly for patients with higher clinical stage. The large proportions of ALM diagnosed in stage III and IV explain the relatively poor survival, and illustrate the importance of improving prognosis by lowering stage at diagnosis through better education and early detection programmes. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. IGFBP2 expression predicts IDH-mutant glioma patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin Eric; Cohen, Adam L; Colman, Howard; Jensen, Randy L; Fults, Daniel W; Couldwell, William T

    2017-01-03

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes occur in ~80% of lower-grade (WHO grade II and grade III) gliomas. Mutant IDH produces (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate, which induces DNA hypermethylation and presumably drives tumorigenesis. Interestingly, IDH mutations are associated with improved survival in glioma patients, but the underlying mechanism for the difference in survival remains unclear. Through comparative analyses of 286 cases of IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant lower-grade glioma from a TCGA data set, we report that IDH-mutant gliomas have increased expression of tumor-suppressor genes (NF1, PTEN, and PIK3R1) and decreased expression of oncogenes(AKT2, ARAF, ERBB2, FGFR3, and PDGFRB) and glioma progression genes (FOXM1, IGFBP2, and WWTR1) compared with IDH-wildtype gliomas. Furthermore, each of these genes is prognostic in overall gliomas; however, within the IDH-mutant group, none remains prognostic except IGFBP2 (encodinginsulin-like growth factor binding protein 2). Through validation in an independent cohort, we show that patients with low IGFBP2 expressiondisplay a clear advantage in overall and disease-free survival, whereas those with high IGFBP2 expressionhave worse median survival than IDH-wildtype patients. These observations hold true across different histological and molecular subtypes of lower-grade glioma. We propose therefore that an unexpected biological consequence of IDH mutations in glioma is to ameliorate patient survival by promoting tumor-suppressor signaling while inhibiting that of oncogenes, particularly IGFBP2.

  18. Treatment outcomes of occult breast carcinoma and prognostic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Ye-fan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xue; Gao, Yin-qi; Fang, Yi

    2013-08-01

    The surgical management of occult breast cancer is controversial. We compared the outcomes of different treatments of occult breast cancer and evaluated the potential prognostic factors for overall survival and recurrence. We retrospectively reviewed 77 patients who presented to our hospital from 1968 to 2011 with a diagnosis of occult breast cancer. Patients were divided into three groups: 42 patients (63%) were treated with modified radical mastectomy+axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), 16 patients (24%) were treated with ALND + postoperative radiotherapy, and 9 patients (13%) with only ALND. Survival analyses were undertaken to compare the efficacy of these three treatments. Of the 77 patients with occult breast cancer, 2 patients were lost to follow-up and 8 patients refused surgical treatment: 67 patients (90.4%) were included in this analysis. The median follow-up was 62.2 (0.6-328.0) months. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed no significant difference in overall survival and recurrence-free survival between the three groups (P = 0.494 and 0.397, respectively). The prevalence of local recurrence was 11.9% for the mastectomy + ALND, 18.8% for ALND + radiotherapy, and 11.1% for ALND-only groups, and those for distant recurrence were 2.4%, 12.5%, and 11.1%, respectively. Compared with progesterone receptor-negative subjects, progesterone receptor-positive patients had better overall survival and lower recurrence rates (P = 0.057 and 0.062, respectively). There was no significant difference in outcomes between mastectomy and breast-preserving surgery. Expression of the progesterone receptor should be taken into account when evaluating the prognosis of occult breast cancer.

  19. Association between the duration of palliative care service and survival in terminal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Joo; Yang, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Jung-Wook; Yoon, Johi; Nah, Jung-Ran; Choi, Whan-Seok; Kim, Chul-Min

    2015-04-01

    Preliminary studies of early palliative care showed improved quality of life, less medical cost, and better survival time. But, most terminal cancer patients tend to be referred to palliative care late. For the proper care of terminal cancer patients, it is necessary to refer to hospice and palliative care timely. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the duration of palliative care services on the survival in terminal cancer patients. We reviewed 609 patients who had died from terminal cancer between January 2010 and December 2012. We analyzed correlations of age, first Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) level, duration of palliative care service, and survival time. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for both univariate and multivariate analyses of survival. Duration of palliative care services was significantly correlated with survival time. In univariate Cox regression analysis, age, and each group of duration of palliative care service showed significant associations with survival. Final multivariate Cox regression model retained four parameters as independent prognostic factors for survival (age HR = 0.99 (p = 0.002), 1∼10 days HR = 2.64 (p care services showed poor prognostic factor. Timely referral system from the end of chemotherapy is warranted.

  20. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J

    2012-01-01

    .... In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient...

  1. Changes in the genetic level and the effects of age at first calving and milk production on survival during the first lactation over the last 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, M L; de Jong, G; Veerkamp, R F

    2016-12-01

    Survival during the first year after first calving was investigated over the last 25 years, 1989-2013, as well as how the association of survival with season of calving, age at first calving (AFC) and within-herd production level has changed over that period. The data set contained 1 108 745 Dutch black-and-white cows in 2185 herds. Linear models were used to estimate (1) effect of year and season and their interaction and (2) effect of AFC, within-herd production level, and 5-year intervals and their two-way interactions, and the genetic trend. All models contained AFC and percentage of Holstein Friesian as a fixed effect, and herd-year-season, sire and maternal grandsire as random effects. Survival and functional survival were analysed. Functional survival was defined as survival adjusted for within-herd production level. Survival rate increased by 8% up to 92% in the last 25 years. When accounting for pedigree, survival showed no improvement up to 1999, but improved since then. Genetically, survival increased 3% to 4% but functional survival did not increase over the 25 years. We found an interesting difference between the genetic trends for survival and functional survival for bulls born between 1985 and 1999, where the trend for survival was still increasing, but was negative for functional survival. Since 1999, genetic trend picked up again for both survival and functional survival. AFC, season of calving and within-herd production level affected survival. Survival rate decreased 0.6%/month for survival and 1.5% for functional survival between AFC of 24 and 32 months. Calving in summer resulted in 2.0% higher survival than calving in winter. Within herd, low-producing cows had a lower survival rate than high-producing cows. However, these effects became less important during the recent years. Based on survival optimum AFC is around 24 months, but based on functional survival it is better to have an AFCmilk production. More recently, the importance of a high

  2. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: effect on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Rossella; Ficano, Leonardo; Piccoli, Federico; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2011-05-15

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is offered to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with severe dysphagia. Immediate benefits of PEG are adequate food intake and weight stabilization. However, the impact of PEG on survival is still uncertain. In this work we retrospectively evaluated the effect of PEG on survival in a cohort of ALS patients followed in a tertiary referral centre. Between 2000 and 2007, 150 dysphagic ALS patients were followed until death or tracheostomy. PEG was placed in 76 patients who accepted the procedure and survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier life-table method. In ALS patients submitted to PEG, no major complications were observed. Total median survival time from symptom onset was 38 months for PEG users as compared to 32 months for the remaining dysphagic patients who declined the procedure (p=0.05). Among bulbar-onset patients, PEG users showed a median survival time longer than those with no PEG (28 months vs. 25 months), even though the difference was not significant. Conversely, dysphagic spinal-onset patients with PEG lived significantly longer than those who refused this palliative care (44 months vs. 36 months, p=0.046). Survival in patients with PEG was not affected by the severity of the respiratory impairment, as measured by forced vital capacity. This study demonstrates that PEG improves survival in dysphagic ALS patients, with few side effects. The procedure is safe and applicable even to patients with impaired respiratory function. PEG remains a milestone in palliative care in dysphagic ALS patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  4. Survival in systemic lupus erythematosus, 1995-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, A; Laustrup, H; Hjelmborg, J

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective of this paper is to investigate survival and causes of death in a Danish lupus population.MethodsTwo hundred and fifteen SLE patients (94% Caucasians) were followed prospectively for up to 16 years. Thirty-eight patients died. Survival rate and causes of death were analysed......%) and malignancies (13%). Deaths due to infections and active SLE were rare and predominated within the first seven years after diagnosis and before age 40, while cardiovascular deaths prevailed after 20 years' follow-up.ConclusionThis study shows that despite progress in lupus management, including direct access...... to specialized hospital care and increased use of hydroxychloroquine, mortality in lupus patients is still increased. Main causes of death were active disease and infections among the young and newly diagnosed, while cardiovascular deaths prevailed in longstanding disease....

  5. Survival From Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2016-01-01

    .76 (CI 2.01; 16.51) were observed for the fourth or later born children with ALL (N = 41) and AML (N = 9), respectively. Children with older parents showed a tendency toward inferior ALL survival, while for AML young maternal age was related to poorer survival. Based on small numbers, a trend toward...

  6. Domesticating Ugandan local earthworms: Survival of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3.5; E, 90±2.8 and E. eugeniae There was significant effect (P<0.05) of feeding rate on the survival of both species and the Fisher's LSD multiple comparison test also showed significant different (P<0.05) in the survival among the two species.

  7. EFFECT OF SALINITY ON SURVIVAL AND LARVAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations was conducted to gain a better insight into the effect of changing salinity regime on the development and survival of Macrobrachium vollenhoveli larvae. At water temperature of 28 ± 2oC, larvae reared in the salinity range of 0 to 10 ppt showed low survival (<48%), whereas those reared at 12 ...

  8. Perioperative beta-blocker use and survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cata, Juan P; Villarreal, John; Keerty, Dinesh; Thakar, Dilip R; Liu, Diane D; Sood, Anil K; Gottumukkala, Vijaya

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of perioperative beta blockers on recurrence and overall survival after non-small cell lung cancer surgery. Retrospective study. Academic medical center. The medical records of patients with stage 1, 2, and 3a non-small cell lung cancer were divided into three different groups: those patients who never received beta blockers perioperatively, those receiving nonselective beta blockers within 60 days of surgery, and those taking selective beta blockers within 60 days of surgery. Recurrence-free survival and overall survival were the main clinical endpoints. Univariate log-rank tests and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the effects of selective beta blockers, nonselective beta blockers, or no beta blockers on recurrence-free survival and overall survival. The analysis included records of 435 patients. Univariate analyses showed that the use of both selective and nonselective beta blockers was associated with decreased recurrence-free survival (P = 0.014) and overall survival (P = 0.009). However, these findings were not sustained after adjusting for possible confounding variables in the multivariate analysis. The hazard ratios for recurrence-free survival (selective beta blockers vs no beta blocker use were: 1.304; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.973 - 1.747; P = 0.075; for nonselective beta blockers vs no beta blockers: 0.989; 95% CI 0.639 - 1.532; P = 0.962. The hazard ratios for overall survival were: selective beta blocker use vs no beta blockers: 1.335; 95% CI 0.966 - 1.846; P = 0.080; nonselective beta blocker use vs no beta blocker use: 1.108; 95% CI 0.678 - 1.812; P = 0.682. Administration of beta blockers during the perioperative period did not improve recurrence-free or overall survival in patients undergoing resection of non-small cell lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute traumatic coagulopathy decreased actual survival rate when compared with predicted survival rate in severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Gap Su; Moon, Sung Woo; Choi, Sung Hyuck; Hong, Yun Sik

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) should be combined with the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) to predict outcome in severe trauma patients and investigate effects of the change in coagulation state during early resuscitation on the actual survival rate. This was a retrospective study. Significant variables that affected 28-day mortality were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Study patients were classified into three groups: no coagulopathy, mild coagulopathy or severe coagulopathy. Concordance between actual and predicted survival rates were compared for each group. The predicted survival rate was calculated using the TRISS method. The study also determined whether changes in the coagulation state during inhospital resuscitation affected the relationship between actual and predicted survival in patients who had rechecked coagulation profile within 12 h after presentation. Data from a total of 336 patients were analysed. At presentation, 20.8% of the study patients had mild coagulopathy, whereas 7.7% had severe coagulopathy. Age, injury severity score, revised trauma score and presence of ATC at presentation were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Actual survival was significantly lower than predicted survival in the mild and severe coagulopathy groups. Aggravation of coagulation state from normal or mild to severe coagulopathy or persistent severe coagulopathy during inhospital resuscitation mainly contributed to the discrepancy between actual and predicted survival. ATC decreased actual survival more than expected. ATC should be combined with TRISS to predict trauma outcome in severely injured patients. Improvement in coagulopathy during resuscitation may reduce the incidence of preventable death after trauma.

  10. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  11. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  12. The association of cancer survival with four socioeconomic indicators: a longitudinal study of the older population of England and Wales 1981–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Harriet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found socioeconomic differentials in cancer survival. Previous studies have generally demonstrated poorer cancer survival with decreasing socioeconomic status but mostly used only ecological measures of status and analytical methods estimating simple survival. This study investigate socio-economic differentials in cancer survival using four indicators of socioeconomic status; three individual and one ecological. It uses a relative survival method which gives a measure of excess mortality due to cancer. Methods This study uses prospective record linkage data from The Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study for England and Wales. The participants are Longitudinal Study members, recorded at census in 1971 and 1981 and with a primary malignant cancer diagnosed at age 45 or above, between 1981 and 1997, with follow-up until end 2000. The outcome measure is relative survival/excess mortality, compared with age and sex adjusted survival of the general population. Relative survival and Poisson regression analyses are presented, giving models of relative excess mortality, adjusted for covariates. Results Different socioeconomic indicators detect survival differentials of varying magnitude and definition. For all cancers combined, the four indicators show similar effects. For individual cancers there are differences between indicators. Where there is an association, all indicators show poorer survival with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Cancer survival differs markedly by socio-economic status. The commonly used ecological measure, the Carstairs Index, is adequate at demonstrating socioeconomic differentials in survival for combined cancers and some individual cancers. A combination of car access and housing tenure is more sensitive than the ecological Carstairs measure at detecting socioeconomic effects on survival – confirming Carstairs effects where they occur but additionally identifying

  13. Pre-transplant levels of ficolin-3 are associated with kidney graft survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Jakob T; Hein, Estrid; Sørensen, Søren S

    2013-01-01

    . 97 blood donors served as controls. Ficolin-3, C4 and C3 were measured in pre-transplant as well as in control serum samples. In controls, deposition of ficolin-3, C4, C3 and the terminal complement complex (TCC) was measured in an assay based on acetylated albumin as matrix. The ficolin-3 levels...... correlated with the serum levels of C4 and C3. The serum levels of ficolin-3 correlated with the deposition of ficolin-3, C4, C3 and TCC. Survival analyses showed that high pre-transplant serum levels of ficolin-3 were associated with decreased graft survival. These results suggest an important role...

  14. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  15. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC...... and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPRprior. RESULTS: The study...... included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPRprior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPRduring group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPRprior...

  16. From basic survival analytic theory to a non-standard application

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Georg Zimmermann provides a mathematically rigorous treatment of basic survival analytic methods. His emphasis is also placed on various questions and problems, especially with regard to life expectancy calculations arising from a particular real-life dataset on patients with epilepsy. The author shows both the step-by-step analyses of that dataset and the theory the analyses are based on. He demonstrates that one may face serious and sometimes unexpected problems, even when conducting very basic analyses. Moreover, the reader learns that a practically relevant research question may look rather simple at first sight. Nevertheless, compared to standard textbooks, a more detailed account of the theory underlying life expectancy calculations is needed in order to provide a mathematically rigorous framework. Contents Regression Models for Survival Data Model Checking Procedures Life Expectancy Target Groups Researchers, lecturers, and students in the fields of mathematics and statistics Academics and experts work...

  17. Negative impact of rurality on lung cancer survival in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westeel, Virginie; Pitard, Alexandre; Martin, Mael; Thaon, Isabelle; Depierre, Alain; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Arveux, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that rurality is a risk factor for worse prognosis in cancer. The study population included the 2268 lung cancer cases collected between 1981 and 1996 in the Doubs Cancer Registry (France). The numbers of patients were 849 (31.8%) in rural areas and 89 (3.3%) in very rural areas. The relative 5-year survival was 15.2% in rural areas and 13.4% in urban areas (p = 0.5), and 2.7% in very rural areas and 14.4% in extended urban areas (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses of observed and relative survival showed that patients living in very rural areas (p < 0.0001), 65 years of age and older and having small cell carcinoma had a significantly shorter survival. This study showed that the multidimensional definition of rurality identified a population with unfavorable prognoses.

  18. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  19. New Firm Survival: Industry versus Firm Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); P. Houweling (Patrick); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies show that the likelihood of survival differs significantly across firms. Both firm and industry characteristics are hypothesized to account for this heterogenity. Using a longitudinal database of manufacturing firms we investigate whether firm or industry characteristics

  20. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses Show Co-option of khdrbs Genes for Origin of Vertebrate Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Su Wang; Su Wang; Qingyun Yang; Qingyun Yang; Ziyue Wang; Ziyue Wang; Shuoqi Feng; Shuoqi Feng; Hongyan Li; Hongyan Li; Dongrui Ji; Dongrui Ji; Shicui Zhang; Shicui Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Genes generated by whole genome duplications (WGD) can be co-opted by changing their regulation process or altering their coding proteins, which has been shown contributable to the emergence of vertebrate morphological novelties such as vertebrate cartilage. Mouse khdrbs genes, differing from its invertebrate orthologs, were mainly expressed in brain, hinting that khdrbs gene family as a member of genetic toolkit may be linked to vertebrate brain development. However, the evolutionary relatio...

  1. Microsatellite analyses of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus in a fragmented environment show structured clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vignaud

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of shark species are generally poorly described because highly mobile marine life is challenging to investigate. Here we investigate the genetic population structure of the blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus in French Polynesia. Five demes were sampled from five islands with different inter-island distances (50-1500 km. Whether dispersal occurs between islands frequently enough to prevent moderate genetic structure is unknown. We used 11 microsatellites loci from 165 individuals and a strong genetic structure was found among demes with both F-statistics and Bayesian approaches. This differentiation is correlated with the geographic distance between islands. It is likely that the genetic structure seen is the result of all or some combination of the following: low gene flow, time since divergence, small effective population sizes, and the standard issues with the extent to which mutation models actually fit reality. We suggest low levels of gene flow as at least a partial explanation of the level of genetic structure seen among the sampled blacktip demes. This explanation is consistent with the ecological traits of blacktip reef sharks, and that the suitable habitat for blacktips in French Polynesia is highly fragmented. Evidence for spatial genetic structure of the blacktip demes we studied highlights that similar species may have populations with as yet undetected or underestimated structure. Shark biology and the market for their fins make them highly vulnerable and many species are in rapid decline. Our results add weight to the case that total bans on shark fishing are a better conservation approach for sharks than marine protected area networks.

  2. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  3. Sproglig Metode og Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011......Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011...

  4. High-dose IL2 in metastatic melanoma: better survival in patients immunized with antigens from autologous tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Robert O; Depriest, Carol; McClure, Stephanie E

    2014-03-01

    Abstract Various published data show that in patients with metastatic melanoma, high-dose interleukin-2 (IL2) is associated with 5-year survival rates of 15% from treatment initiation. We previously reported a median survival of 15.6 months, and a 20% 5-year survival rate for 150 patients who were treated with inpatient IL2 (Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2012;27:337). In the current study, we sought to determine whether treatment with active specific immunotherapy (ASI) with patient-specific tumor stem cell vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell (TC) lines contributed to the survival result. Existing databases revealed that 32/149 IL2-treated patients also received ASI, while 117 did not. ASI was given within 12 months of IL2 therapy in 19/32 patients. Patients who received IL2 plus ASI had better overall survival (pIL2-alone patients who died before 12 months of follow-up (p=0.12). In subset analyses, survival was longer for 25 patients who received ASI after IL2 than for 7 who received ASI before IL2 (5-year survival 46% vs. 14%, pIL2 followed by a patient-specific melanoma stem cell vaccine is associated with better survival than IL2 alone.

  5. Dietary lutein modulates growth and survival genes in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Kanakasabai, Saravanan; Gokarn, Sarita V; Krueger, Eric G; Bright, John J

    2015-02-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid pigment present in fruits and vegetables that has anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. In this study, we examined the effect of lutein on proliferation and survival-associated genes in prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. We found that in vitro culture of PC-3 cells with lutein induced mild decrease in proliferation that improved in combination treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists and other chemotherapeutic agents. Flow cytometry analyses showed that lutein improved drug-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer. Gene array and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that lutein altered the expression of growth and apoptosis-associated biomarker genes in PC-3 cells. These findings highlight that lutein modulates the expression of growth and survival-associated genes in prostate cancer cells.

  6. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  7. Survival analysis of piglet pre-weaning mortality

    OpenAIRE

    P. Carnier; E. Zanetti; F. Maretto; Cecchinato, A.

    2010-01-01

    Survival analysis methodology was applied in order to analyse sources of variation of preweaning survival time and to estimate variance components using data from a crossbred piglets population. A frailty sire model was used with the litter effect treated as an additional random source of variation. All the variables considered had a significant effect on survivability: sex, cross-fostering, parity of the nurse-sow and litter size. The variance estimates of sire and litter were closed to 0.08...

  8. 30-Day Survival Probabilities as a Quality Indicator for Norwegian Hospitals: Data Management and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Sahar; Lindman, Anja Schou; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Tomic, Oliver; Helgeland, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC) reports 30-day survival as a quality indicator for Norwegian hospitals. The indicators have been published annually since 2011 on the website of the Norwegian Directorate of Health (www.helsenorge.no), as part of the Norwegian Quality Indicator System authorized by the Ministry of Health. Openness regarding calculation of quality indicators is important, as it provides the opportunity to critically review and discuss the method. The purpose of this article is to describe the data collection, data pre-processing, and data analyses, as carried out by NOKC, for the calculation of 30-day risk-adjusted survival probability as a quality indicator. Three diagnosis-specific 30-day survival indicators (first time acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture) are estimated based on all-cause deaths, occurring in-hospital or out-of-hospital, within 30 days counting from the first day of hospitalization. Furthermore, a hospital-wide (i.e. overall) 30-day survival indicator is calculated. Patient administrative data from all Norwegian hospitals and information from the Norwegian Population Register are retrieved annually, and linked to datasets for previous years. The outcome (alive/death within 30 days) is attributed to every hospital by the fraction of time spent in each hospital. A logistic regression followed by a hierarchical Bayesian analysis is used for the estimation of risk-adjusted survival probabilities. A multiple testing procedure with a false discovery rate of 5% is used to identify hospitals, hospital trusts and regional health authorities with significantly higher/lower survival than the reference. In addition, estimated risk-adjusted survival probabilities are published per hospital, hospital trust and regional health authority. The variation in risk-adjusted survival probabilities across hospitals for AMI shows a decreasing trend over time: estimated survival probabilities for AMI in

  9. 30-Day Survival Probabilities as a Quality Indicator for Norwegian Hospitals: Data Management and Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Hassani

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC reports 30-day survival as a quality indicator for Norwegian hospitals. The indicators have been published annually since 2011 on the website of the Norwegian Directorate of Health (www.helsenorge.no, as part of the Norwegian Quality Indicator System authorized by the Ministry of Health. Openness regarding calculation of quality indicators is important, as it provides the opportunity to critically review and discuss the method. The purpose of this article is to describe the data collection, data pre-processing, and data analyses, as carried out by NOKC, for the calculation of 30-day risk-adjusted survival probability as a quality indicator.Three diagnosis-specific 30-day survival indicators (first time acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke and hip fracture are estimated based on all-cause deaths, occurring in-hospital or out-of-hospital, within 30 days counting from the first day of hospitalization. Furthermore, a hospital-wide (i.e. overall 30-day survival indicator is calculated. Patient administrative data from all Norwegian hospitals and information from the Norwegian Population Register are retrieved annually, and linked to datasets for previous years. The outcome (alive/death within 30 days is attributed to every hospital by the fraction of time spent in each hospital. A logistic regression followed by a hierarchical Bayesian analysis is used for the estimation of risk-adjusted survival probabilities. A multiple testing procedure with a false discovery rate of 5% is used to identify hospitals, hospital trusts and regional health authorities with significantly higher/lower survival than the reference. In addition, estimated risk-adjusted survival probabilities are published per hospital, hospital trust and regional health authority. The variation in risk-adjusted survival probabilities across hospitals for AMI shows a decreasing trend over time: estimated survival probabilities

  10. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  11. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  12. Survival and movement of the Congo forest mouse ( Deomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied survival and movement patterns of D. ferrugineus in both habitats. Capture-mark-recapture was used to study the effects of habitat on rodent life history both in primary rainforest and fallow land. Survival analyses taking into account trap-happiness effects were conducted using the program MARK. Abundance of ...

  13. Thyroid function and survival following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J; Borgquist, S; Almquist, M; Manjer, J

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid function has been associated with breast cancer risk, and breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. It is not clear whether thyroid function affects prognosis following breast cancer but, if so, this could have an important clinical impact. The present study analysed prospectively collected measurements of free tri-iodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in relation to breast cancer survival. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a prospective cohort study of 17 035 women in Sweden. Study enrolment was conducted between 1991 and 1996. Patients with incident breast cancer were identified through record linkage with cancer registries until 31 December 2006. Information on vital status was collected from the Swedish Cause of Death Registry, with the endpoint breast cancer mortality (31 December 2013). Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 per cent confidence intervals (c.i.) were obtained by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Some 766 patients with incident breast cancer were identified, of whom 551 were eligible for analysis. Compared with patients in the first free T4 tertile, breast cancer mortality was lower among those in the second tertile (HR 0·49, 95 per cent c.i. 0·28 to 0·84). There was an indication, although non-significant, of lower breast cancer mortality among patients in the second TSH tertile (HR 0·63, 0·37 to 1·09) and in those with positive TPO-Ab status (HR 0·61, 0·30 to 1·23). Free T3 showed no clear association with mortality. In the present study, there was a positive association between free T4 levels and improved breast cancer survival. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after...

  15. Show Me My Health Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Politi PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the Affordable Care Act was passed, more than 12 million individuals have enrolled in the health insurance marketplace. Without support, many struggle to make an informed plan choice that meets their health and financial needs. Methods: We designed and evaluated a decision aid, Show Me My Health Plans (SMHP, that provides education, preference assessment, and an annual out-of-pocket cost calculator with plan recommendations produced by a tailored, risk-adjusted algorithm incorporating age, gender, and health status. We evaluated whether SMHP compared to HealthCare.gov improved health insurance decision quality and the match between plan choice, needs, and preferences among 328 Missourians enrolling in the marketplace. Results: Participants who used SMHP had higher health insurance knowledge (LS-Mean = 78 vs. 62; P < 0.001, decision self-efficacy (LS-Mean = 83 vs. 75; P < 0.002, confidence in their choice (LS-Mean = 3.5 vs. 2.9; P < 0.001, and improved health insurance literacy (odds ratio = 2.52, P < 0.001 compared to participants using HealthCare.gov . Those using SMHP were 10.3 times more likely to select a silver- or gold-tier plan (P < 0.0001. Discussion: SMHP can improve health insurance decision quality and the odds that consumers select an insurance plan with coverage likely needed to meet their health needs. This study represents a unique context through which to apply principles of decision support to improve health insurance choices.

  16. Controlling chaotic transients: Yorke's game of survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Jacobo; D'ovidio, Francesco; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2004-01-01

    . This problem is focused as a two-person, mathematical game between two players called "the protagonist" and "the adversary." The protagonist's goal is to survive. He can lose but cannot win; the best he can do is survive to play another round, struggling ad infinitum. In the absence of actions by either player...... knows the action of the adversary in choosing his response and is permitted to choose the initial point x(0) of the game. We use the "slope 3" tent map in an example of this problem. We show that it is possible for the protagonist to survive....

  17. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...... the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase...

  18. Extent of resection and survival in supratentorial infiltrative low-grade gliomas: analysis of and adjustment for treatment bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Simon, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Any correlation between the extent of resection and the prognosis of patients with supratentorial infiltrative low-grade gliomas may well be related to biased treatment allocation. Patients with an intrinsically better prognosis may undergo more aggressive resections, and better survival may then be falsely attributed to the surgery rather than the biology of the disease. The present study investigates the potential impact of this type of treatment bias on survival in a series of patients with low-grade gliomas treated at the authors' institution. We conducted a retrospective study of 148 patients with low-grade gliomas undergoing primary treatment at our institution from 1996-2011. Potential prognostic factors were studied in order to identify treatment bias and to adjust survival analyses accordingly. Eloquence of tumor location proved the most powerful predictor of the extent of resection, i.e., the principal source of treatment bias. Univariate as well as multivariate Cox regression analyses identified the extent of resection and the presence of a preoperative neurodeficit as the most important predictors of overall survival, tumor recurrence and malignant progression. After stratification for eloquence of tumor location in order to correct for treatment bias, Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a consistent association between the degree of resection and improved survival. Treatment bias was not responsible for the correlation between extent of resection and survival observed in the present series. Our data seem to provide further support for a strategy of maximum safe resections for low-grade gliomas.

  19. Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Donald E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of Burkholderia pseudomallei to survive in water likely contributes to its environmental persistence in endemic regions. To determine the physiological adaptations which allow B. pseudomallei to survive in aqueous environments, we performed microarray analyses of B. pseudomallei cultures transferred from Luria broth (LB to distilled water. Findings Increased expression of a gene encoding for a putative membrane protein (BPSL0721 was confirmed using a lux-based transcriptional reporter system, and maximal expression was noted at approximately 6 hrs after shifting cells from LB to water. A BPSL0721 deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei was able to survive in water for at least 90 days indicating that although involved, BPSL0721 was not essential for survival. BPSL2961, a gene encoding a putative phosphatidylglycerol phosphatase (PGP, was also induced when cells were shifted to water. This gene is likely involved in cell membrane biosynthesis. We were unable to construct a PGP mutant suggesting that the gene is not only involved in survival in water but is essential for cell viability. We also examined mutants of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase (phbC, lipopolysaccharide (LPS oligosaccharide and capsule synthesis, and these mutations did not affect survival in water. LPS mutants lacking outer core were found to lose viability in water by 200 days indicating that an intact LPS core provides an outer membrane architecture which allows prolonged survival in water. Conclusion The results from these studies suggest that B. pseudomallei survival in water is a complex process that requires an LPS molecule which contains an intact core region.

  20. Proof-Carrying Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  1. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  2. Cause-specific mortality and 30-year relative survival of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Christian P; Andrews, Jane; Dent, Owen F; Norton, Ian; Jones, Brian; McDonald, Charles; Cowlishaw, James; Barr, Gavin; Selby, Warwick; Leong, Rupert W

    2013-08-01

    Data from the northern hemisphere suggest that patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have similar survival to the general population, whereas mortality in Crohn's disease (CD) is increased by up to 50%. There is a paucity of data from the southern hemisphere, especially in Australia. A prevalence cohort (1977-1992) of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) diagnosed after 1970 was studied. Survival status data and causes of death up to December 2010 were extracted from the National Death Index. Relative survival analysis was carried out separately for men and women. Of 816 cases (384 men, 432 women; 373 CD, 401 UC, 42 indeterminate colitis), 211 (25.9%) had died by December 2010. Median follow-up was 22.2 years. Relative survival of all patients with IBD was not significantly different from the general population at 10, 20, and 30 years of follow-up. Separate analyses of survival in CD and UC also showed no differences from the general population. There was no difference in survival between patients diagnosed earlier (1971-1979) or later (1980-1992). At least 17% of the deaths were caused by IBD. Fatal cholangiocarcinomas were more common in IBD (P < 0.001), and fatal colorectal cancers more common in UC (P = 0.047). In Australia, IBD patient survival is similar to the general population. In contrast to data from Europe and North America, survival in CD is not diminished in Australia. IBD caused direct mortality in 17%, especially as biliary and colorectal cancers are significant causes of death.

  3. Relationship Between Spiritual Coping and Survival in Patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironson, Gail; Kremer, Heidemarie; Lucette, Aurelie

    2016-09-01

    Studies of spirituality in initially healthy people have shown a survival advantage, yet there are fewer research studies in the medically ill, despite the widespread use of spirituality/religiousness to cope with serious physical illness. In addition, many studies have used limited measures such as religious service attendance. We aimed to examine if, independent of medication adherence, the use of spirituality/religiousness to cope with HIV predicts survival over 17 years. This was a longitudinal study, started in 1997. Study materials were administered semi annually. A diverse sample of 177 HIV patients initially in the mid-stage of disease (150-500 CD4-cells/mm(3); no prior AIDS-defining symptoms) participated in the study. Participants were administered a battery of psychosocial questionnaires and a blood draw. They completed interviews and essays to assess current stressors. Spiritual coping (overall/strategies) was rated by qualitative content analysis of interviews regarding stress and coping with HIV, and essays. Controlling for medical variables (baseline CD4/viral load) and demographics, Cox regression analyses showed that overall positive spiritual coping significantly predicted greater survival over 17 years (mortality HR = 0.56, p = 0.039). Findings held even after controlling for health behaviors (medication adherence, substance use) and social support. Particular spiritual coping strategies that predicted longer survival included spiritual practices (HR = 0.26, p < 0.001), spiritual reframing (HR = 0.27, p = 0.006), overcoming spiritual guilt (HR = 0.24, p < 0.001), spiritual gratitude (HR = 0.40, p = 0.002), and spiritual empowerment (HR = 0.52, p = 0.024), indicating that people using these strategies were 2-4 times more likely to survive. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a prospective relationship of spiritual coping in people who are medically ill with survival over such a long period of time, and

  4. Survival analysis of piglet pre-weaning mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Carnier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis methodology was applied in order to analyse sources of variation of preweaning survival time and to estimate variance components using data from a crossbred piglets population. A frailty sire model was used with the litter effect treated as an additional random source of variation. All the variables considered had a significant effect on survivability: sex, cross-fostering, parity of the nurse-sow and litter size. The variance estimates of sire and litter were closed to 0.08 and 2 respectively and the heritability of pre-weaning survival was 0.03.

  5. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  6. Education for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  7. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  8. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  9. Survival After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  10. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V

    2016-01-01

    the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between......PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  11. Survival of ovarian cancer patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen McKinnon; Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg

    2016-01-01

    linked via the patients' personal identification number and the analyses included data on cancer stage, age, survival, surgery status and comorbidity. The computed outcome measures were age-adjusted mortality rates and age-adjusted overall and relative survival rates for one and five years. RESULTS: We......BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate, especially in Denmark where mortality rates have been reported higher than in adjacent countries with similar demographics. This study therefore examined recent survival and mortality among Danish ovarian cancer patients over an 18-year study...... period. METHODS: This nationwide registry-based observational study used data from the Danish Gynecology Cancer Database, Danish Pathology Registry, and Danish National Patient Registry. All patients with ovarian cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012 were included in the study. The data sources were...

  12. Meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Maria A.; Luyten, Johannes W.; Scheerens, Jaap; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Scheerens, J

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter results of a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analyses of three facets of time effects in education are presented, namely time at school during regular lesson hours, homework, and extended learning time. The number of studies for these three facets of time that could be used

  13. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach...

  14. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    . Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...

  15. Chromosome analyses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Berg, N; Bullerdiek, J; Murua Escobar, H; Nolte, I

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetics is the study of normal and abnormal chromosomes. Every species is characterized by a given number of chromosomes that can be recognized by their specific shape. The chromosomes are arranged according to standard classification schemes for the respective species. While pre- and postnatal chromosome analyses investigate the constitutional karyotype, tumor cytogenetics is focused on the detection of clonal acquired, tumor-associated chromosome aberrations. Cytogenetic investigations in dogs are of great value especially for breeders dealing with fertility problems within their pedigrees, for veterinarians and last but not least for the dog owners. Dogs and humans share a variety of genetic diseases, including cancer. Thus, the dog has become an increasingly important model for genetic diseases. However, cytogenetic analyses of canine cells are complicated by the complex karyotype of the dog. Only just 15 years ago, a standard classification scheme for the complete canine karyotype was established. For chromosome analyses of canine cells the same steps of chromosome preparation are used as in human cytogenetics. There are few reports about cytogenetic changes in non-neoplastic cells, involving predominantly the sex chromosomes. Cytogenetic analyses of different entities of canine tumors revealed that, comparable to human tumors, tumors of the dog are often characterized by clonal chromosome aberrations, which might be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. The integration of modern techniques (molecular genetic approaches, adaptive computer programs) will facilitate and complete conventional cytogenetic studies. However, conventional cytogenetics is still non-replaceable.

  16. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  17. Filmstil - teori og analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    Filmstil påvirker på afgørende vis vores oplevelse af film. Men filmstil, måden, de levende billeder organiserer fortællingen på fylder noget mindre end filmens handling, når vi taler om film. Filmstil - teori og analyse er en rigt eksemplificeret præsentation, kritik og videreudvikling af...

  18. Tetranectin positive expression in tumour tissue leads to longer survival in Danish women with ovarian cancer. Results from the 'Malova' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Rask, Lene; Høgdall, Claus K

    2015-01-01

    of the disease. Using tissue arrays we analysed the expression levels in tissues from 166 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) and 592 women with ovarian cancer (OC). A panel of three antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry: a polyclonal and two monoclonal antibodies. Serum TN was measured using......The primary objective of this study was to analyse Tetranectin (TN) expression in tumour tissues and TN serum concentration in 758 women with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate, whether TN tissue expression levels correlate with clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis...... the polyclonal antibody A-371. Univariate survival analyses stratified for chemotherapy showed that positive tissue TN as demonstrated by the polyclonal antibody indicated a significantly longer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0001) as well as cancer specific survival (CSS) (p

  19. Cancer survival in Cuba, 1994-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, L F; Alvarez, Y G; Babie, P T; Yi, M G; Alvarez, M G; Cicili, M L

    2011-01-01

    The population-based cancer registry in Cuba is a national cancer registry established in 1964; cancer registration is entirely done by passive methods. Data on survival from 13 cancer sites or types registered during 1994-1995 are reported. Follow-up has been carried out predominantly by passive methods, with median follow-up ranging from 13-54 months. The proportion with histologically verified diagnosis for various cancers ranged between 34-100%; death certificates only (DCOs) comprised 8-50%; 50-89% of total registered cases were included for the survival analysis. The 5-year age-standardized relative survival for selected cancers were breast (69%), colon (41%), cervix (56%), urinary bladder (64%), rectum (48%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (49%). The 5-year relative survival by age group showed no distinct pattern or trend, and was fluctuating. A decreasing survival with increasing clinical extent of disease was noted for all cancers studied. The data on survival trend revealed that the 5-year relative survival of most cancers diagnosed in 1994-1995 was greater than that in 1988-1989.

  20. Obesity adversely affects survival in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R; Matsumoto, Martha E; Burch, Patrick A; Kim, George P; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; de Andrade, Mariza; Reid-Lombardo, Kaye; Bamlet, William R

    2010-11-01

    Higher body-mass index (BMI) has been implicated as a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer, but its effect on survival has not been thoroughly investigated. The authors assessed the association of BMI with survival in a sample of pancreatic cancer patients and used epidemiologic and clinical information to understand the contribution of diabetes and hyperglycemia. A survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards by usual adult BMI was performed on 1861 unselected patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma; analyses were adjusted for covariates that included clinical stage, age, and sex. Secondary analyses incorporated self-reported diabetes and fasting blood glucose in the survival model. BMI as a continuous variable was inversely associated with survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio [HR], 1.019 for each increased unit of BMI [kg/m2], Ppancreatic cancer. Although the mechanism of this association remains undetermined, diabetes and hyperglycemia do not appear to account for the observed association. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  1. Survival in common cancers defined by risk and survival of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on survival between familial and sporadic cancers have been inconclusive and only recent data on a limited number of cancers are available on the concordance of survival between family members. In this review, we address these questions by evaluating the published and unpublished data from the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database and a total of 13 cancer sites were assessed. Using sporadic cancer as reference, HRs were close to 1.0 for most of the familial cancers in both the offspring and parental generations, which suggested that survival in patients with familial and sporadic cancers was equal, with an exception for ovarian cancer with a worse prognosis. Compared to offspring whose parents had a poor survival, those with a good parental survival had a decreased risk of death for most cancers and HR was significantly decreased for cancers in the breast, prostate, bladder, and kidney. For colorectal and nervous system cancers, favorable survival between the generations showed a borderline significance. These data are consistent in showing that both good and poor survival in certain cancers aggregate in families. Genetic factors are likely to contribute to the results. These observations call for intensified efforts to consider heritability in survival as one mechanism regulating prognosis in cancer patients.

  2. Survival Predictions of Ceramic Crowns Using Statistical Fracture Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, S; Katsube, N; Seghi, R R; Rokhlin, S I

    2017-05-01

    This work establishes a survival probability methodology for interface-initiated fatigue failures of monolithic ceramic crowns under simulated masticatory loading. A complete 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis model of a minimally reduced molar crown was developed using commercially available hardware and software. Estimates of material surface flaw distributions and fatigue parameters for 3 reinforced glass-ceramics (fluormica [FM], leucite [LR], and lithium disilicate [LD]) and a dense sintered yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YZ) were obtained from the literature and incorporated into the model. Utilizing the proposed fracture mechanics-based model, crown survival probability as a function of loading cycles was obtained from simulations performed on the 4 ceramic materials utilizing identical crown geometries and loading conditions. The weaker ceramic materials (FM and LR) resulted in lower survival rates than the more recently developed higher-strength ceramic materials (LD and YZ). The simulated 10-y survival rate of crowns fabricated from YZ was only slightly better than those fabricated from LD. In addition, 2 of the model crown systems (FM and LD) were expanded to determine regional-dependent failure probabilities. This analysis predicted that the LD-based crowns were more likely to fail from fractures initiating from margin areas, whereas the FM-based crowns showed a slightly higher probability of failure from fractures initiating from the occlusal table below the contact areas. These 2 predicted fracture initiation locations have some agreement with reported fractographic analyses of failed crowns. In this model, we considered the maximum tensile stress tangential to the interfacial surface, as opposed to the more universally reported maximum principal stress, because it more directly impacts crack propagation. While the accuracy of these predictions needs to be experimentally verified, the model can provide a fundamental understanding of the

  3. Dropped object protection analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Ingve

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore structural engineering Impact from dropped object is a typical accident action (NOKSOK N-004, 2013). Hence, the DOP structure is to be analyzed in an accidental limit state (ALS) design practice, which means that a non-linear finite element analysis can be applied. The DOP structure will be based on a typical DOP structure. Several FEM analyses are performed for the DOP structure. Different shapes size and weights and various impact positions are used for si...

  4. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  5. Tooth survival after root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Medline, the Cochrane Library, hand searches of the International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics, Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics, Dental Traumatology (& Endodontics) and bibliographies of all relevant articles and review articles. Unpublished studies were identified by searching abstracts and conference proceedings. Personal contacts were used to identify ongoing or unpublished studies. Two reviewers independently assessed and selected the studies with disagreements being resolved by discussion. Clinical studies of RCTx on more than 30 teeth and of at least six-month duration, where the success was based on survival of tooth and the proportion of teeth surviving was given, or could be calculated from the raw data, were included. Data were extracted by two reviewers independently using custom-designed forms. The weighted pooled proportion of teeth surviving after treatment and the combined effects (expressed as odds ratio) of clinical factors on tooth survival were estimated using fixed and random effects meta-analyses using DerSimonean and Laird's methods. The survival data were pooled into three groups based on the duration after treatment: 2 or 3 years; 4 or 5 years; and 8, 9 or 10 years. Statistical heterogeneity amongst the studies was assessed by Cochran's (Q) test. Of the 31 articles identified, 14 studies were included. The majority (10) were retrospective. The reported survival is shown in Table 1. Substantial differences in study characteristics were found to hinder effective direct comparison of findings. Evidence for the effect of prognostic factors on tooth survival was weak. Based on the data available for meta-analysis, four conditions were found to significantly improve tooth survival. In descending order of influence, the conditions increasing observed proportion of survival were as follows: (i) a crown restoration after RCTx; (ii) tooth having both mesial and distal proximal contacts; (iii

  6. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  7. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  8. Cracking the survival code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  9. Artillery Survivability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    experiment mode also enables users to set their own design of experiment by manipulating an editable CSV file. The second one is a real-time mode that...renders a 3D virtual environment of a restricted battlefield where the survivability movements of an artillery company are visualized . This mode...provides detailed visualization of the simulation and enables future experimental uses of the simulation as a training tool. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  10. Juvenile survival in a tropical population of roseate terns: Interannual variation and effect of tick parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Many demographic studies on long-lived seabirds have focused on the estimation of adult survival, but much less is known about survival during the early years of life, especially in tropical species. We report analyses of a capture–recapture dataset of 685 roseate terns ringed as fledglings and adults between 1998 and 2005 on Aride Island, Seychelles, and recaptured/resighted at the same colony site over a 5 yr (2002 to 2006) period. A multistate model was used to estimate survival for different age classes, including juvenile (first-year) birds returning as non-breeding prospectors. The effect of infestation by parasites (ticks) on survival was also examined. Overall, the estimated return of first-year individuals to the natal colony was very variable, ranging from 2 to 22%. Conditioned on survival, the probability of returning from Age 2 yr onwards increased to 70%. Survival rates were best modeled as time-specific, with estimates varying from 0.02 to 1.00 (mean 0.69) in first-year birds with a marked negative effect of tick infestation. In older birds (minimum age of 2 yr), the annual estimates fell between 0.69 and 0.86 (mean 0.77). Using a components of variance approach for estimation of year-to-year variation, we found high temporal variability for first-year individuals (coefficient of variation [CV] = 65%) compared to much less variation in the survival rate of older birds (CV = 9%). These findings agree with the life-history prediction that demographic rates of juveniles are usually lower and more variable than those of older individuals. Our results are also consistent with the predicted negative effect of tick parasitism on juvenile survival. Compared with data from other roseate tern populations, survival over the first 2 yr (Age 0 to 2 yr) was 18 to 40% higher in this study, suggesting that a high ‘young’ survival rate may be an important demographic trait in this tropical population to compensate for the low annual reproductive success. Our

  11. The impact of psychosocial intervention on survival in cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wayne W; Popovic, Marko; Agarwal, Arnav; Milakovic, Milica; Fu, Terence S; McDonald, Rachel; Fu, Gordon; Lam, Michael; Chow, Ronald; Cheon, Stephanie; Pulenzas, Natalie; Lam, Henry; DeAngelis, Carlo; Chow, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The impact of psychosocial interventions on survival remains controversial in patients with cancer. A meta-analysis of the recent literature was conducted to evaluate the potential survival benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central were searched from January 2004 to May 2015 for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared survival outcomes between cancer patients receiving a psychosocial intervention and those receiving other, or no interventions. Endpoints included one-, two-, and four-year overall survival. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare group-versus individually-delivered interventions, and to assess breast cancer-only trials. Of 5,080 identified articles, thirteen trials were included for analysis. There was a significant survival benefit for the intervention group at one year [risk ratio (RR) =0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-1.00; P=0.04] and two years (RR =0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; P=0.003). However, no significant difference was detected at four years (RR =0.94; 95% CI, 0.85-1.04; P=0.24). Among patients with breast cancer, there was a significant survival benefit of psychosocial interventions at one year (RR =0.59; 95% CI, 0.42-0.82; P=0.002), but no difference at two years (RR =0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-1.02; P=0.07) or four years (RR =0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.23; P=0.68). Group-delivered interventions had a significant survival benefit favouring the intervention group at one year (RR =0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.79; P=0.0008), but no difference at two years (RR =0.84; 95% CI, 0.68-1.02; P=0.08) or four years (RR =0.94; 95% CI, 0.75-1.20; P=0.64). Individually-delivered interventions had no significant survival benefit at one year (RR =0.92; 95% CI, 0.79-1.08; P=0.32), two years (RR =0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-1.00; P=0.05), or four years (RR =0.93; 95% CI, 0.84-1.04; P=0.21). For the main analysis and group-delivered treatments, psychosocial interventions demonstrated only short

  12. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AS LONG TERM SURVIVAL INSTRUMENT OF BUSINESS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Silineviča, Irēna

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical aspects in Strategic management of small business enterprises is analysed. Research of small enterprise management in the Latgale region is performed with the aim to do an analyses of how small business enterprises, which have survived in economic crises conditions, use strategic management opportunities. Findings have clarified the main factors which influence business management in a changing business environment in small business companies.

  13. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  14. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Wierucka

    Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.

  15. Circulating tumor cell clusters-associated gene plakoglobin and breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingeng; Zeng, Hongmei; Gu, Xinsheng; Ma, Wenxue

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer recurrence is a major cause of the disease-specific death. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are negatively associated with breast cancer survival. Plakoglobin, a cell adhesion protein, was recently reported as a determinant of CTCs types, single or clustered ones. Here, we aim to summarize the studies on the roles of plakoglobin and evaluate the association of plakoglobin and breast cancer survival. Plakoglobin as a key component in both cell adhesion and the signaling pathways was briefly reviewed first. Then the double-edge functions of plakoglobin in tumors and its association with CTCs and breast cancer metastasis were introduced. Finally, based on an open-access database, the association between plakoglobin and breast cancer survival was investigated using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Plakoglobin may be a molecule functioning as a double-edge sword. Loss of plakoglobin expression leads to increased motility of epithelial cells, thereby promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition and further metastasis of cancer. However, studies also show that plakoglobin can function as an oncogene. High expression of plakoglobin results in clustered tumor cells in circulation with high metastatic potential in breast cancer and shortened patient survival. Plakoglobin may be a potential prognostic biomarker that can be exploited to develop as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  16. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies...... three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto I plant in Finland...... with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power...

  17. Panspermia Survival Scenarios for Organisms that Survive Typical Hypervelocity Solar System Impact Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, D.

    2014-04-01

    Previous experimental studies have demonstrated the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events, testing the panspermia and litho-panspermia hypotheses [1]. It has been demonstrated by the authors that Nannochloropsis Oculata Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone' (sunlit surface layers of oceans [2]), survive impacts up to 6.93 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 40 GPa) [3, 4]. Also shown to survive impacts up to 5.49 km s-1 is the tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini (a complex micro-animal consisting of 40,000 cells) [5, 6]. It has also been shown that they can survive sustained pressures up to 600 MPa using a water filled pressure capsule [7]. Additionally bacteria can survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (~30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1], and the survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 (~30 GPa) has also recently been demonstrated [8]. Other groups have also reported that the lichen Xanthoria elegans is able to survive shocks in similar pressure ranges (~40 GPa) [9]. Here we present various simulated impact regimes to show which scenarios are condusive to the panspermia hypothesis of the natural transfer of life (via an icy body) through space to an extraterrestrial environment.

  18. Survival Kinetics of Starving Bacteria Is Biphasic and Density-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiboun, Andy; Zhang, Yiming; Park, Boryung; Kim, Minsu

    2015-01-01

    In the lifecycle of microorganisms, prolonged starvation is prevalent and sustaining life during starvation periods is a vital task. In the literature, it is commonly assumed that survival kinetics of starving microbes follows exponential decay. This assumption, however, has not been rigorously tested. Currently, it is not clear under what circumstances this assumption is true. Also, it is not known when such survival kinetics deviates from exponential decay and if it deviates, what underlying mechanisms for the deviation are. Here, to address these issues, we quantitatively characterized dynamics of survival and death of starving E. coli cells. The results show that the assumption – starving cells die exponentially – is true only at high cell density. At low density, starving cells persevere for extended periods of time, before dying rapidly exponentially. Detailed analyses show intriguing quantitative characteristics of the density-dependent and biphasic survival kinetics, including that the period of the perseverance is inversely proportional to cell density. These characteristics further lead us to identification of key underlying processes relevant for the perseverance of starving cells. Then, using mathematical modeling, we show how these processes contribute to the density-dependent and biphasic survival kinetics observed. Importantly, our model reveals a thrifty strategy employed by bacteria, by which upon sensing impending depletion of a substrate, the limiting substrate is conserved and utilized later during starvation to delay cell death. These findings advance quantitative understanding of survival of microbes in oligotrophic environments and facilitate quantitative analysis and prediction of microbial dynamics in nature. Furthermore, they prompt revision of previous models used to analyze and predict population dynamics of microbes. PMID:25838110

  19. Tree survival and maximum density of planted forests – Observations from South African spacing studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus v. Gadow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Among the most important aspects of risk and hazard studies relating to forest ecosystems are maximum forest density and density-dependent tree survival. Methods Long-term observations about the maximum density of unthinned Pinus patula and P. elliottii field plots based on the Correlated Curve Trend (CCT spacing studies which were established almost 8 decades ago by O’Connor (Forest Research with Special Reference to Planting Distances and Thinning, 1935 in South Africa. Three specific approaches were introduced for analysing maximum density and tree survival, namely the ‘limiting line’, Nilson’s sparsity and tree survival with the Weibull function. Results The main results are: a Maximum densities differ greatly among the two species grown on the same site and within the same species grown on different sites; it is possible to relate these differences to site index in both species. b The relationship between the quadratic mean diameter and the minimum average spacing of surviving trees (known as Nilson’s Sparsity appears to be surprisingly similar in both species. c An analysis of tree survival in response to different initial planting espacements shows that the Weibull survival function parameters can be estimated if the initial planting density is known. This result is presented for each of the eight large experiments used in this study. Conclusions This study contributes to a better understanding of tree survival and maximum density which are the key factors required for estimating risk and uncertainty. The risk of tree mortality is not constant, but varies with tree species, planting density, tree age and growing site. For estimating that risk, therefore, continuous long-term observation on different sites and with varying planting densities, as provided by the unthinned CCT series, are essential.

  20. A hemocyte gene expression signature correlated with predictive capacity of oysters to survive Vibrio infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rafael

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex balance between environmental and host factors is an important determinant of susceptibility to infection. Disturbances of this equilibrium may result in multifactorial diseases as illustrated by the summer mortality syndrome, a worldwide and complex phenomenon that affects the oysters, Crassostrea gigas. The summer mortality syndrome reveals a physiological intolerance making this oyster species susceptible to diseases. Exploration of genetic basis governing the oyster resistance or susceptibility to infections is thus a major goal for understanding field mortality events. In this context, we used high-throughput genomic approaches to identify genetic traits that may characterize inherent survival capacities in C. gigas. Results Using digital gene expression (DGE, we analyzed the transcriptomes of hemocytes (immunocompetent cells of oysters able or not able to survive infections by Vibrio species shown to be involved in summer mortalities. Hemocytes were nonlethally collected from oysters before Vibrio experimental infection, and two DGE libraries were generated from individuals that survived or did not survive. Exploration of DGE data and microfluidic qPCR analyses at individual level showed an extraordinary polymorphism in gene expressions, but also a set of hemocyte-expressed genes whose basal mRNA levels discriminate oyster capacity to survive infections by the pathogenic V. splendidus LGP32. Finally, we identified a signature of 14 genes that predicted oyster survival capacity. Their expressions are likely driven by distinct transcriptional regulation processes associated or not associated to gene copy number variation (CNV. Conclusions We provide here for the first time in oyster a gene expression survival signature that represents a useful tool for understanding mortality events and for assessing genetic traits of interest for disease resistance selection programs.

  1. Adoption of pleurectomy and decortication for malignant mesothelioma leads to similar survival as extrapleural pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batirel, Hasan Fevzi; Metintas, Muzaffer; Caglar, Hale Basak; Ak, Guntulu; Yumuk, Perran Fulden; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yuksel, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    We changed our surgical approach to malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in August 2011 and adopted pleurectomy and decortication (PD) instead of extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP). In this study, we analyzed our perioperative and survival results during the 2 periods. All patients who underwent surgical intervention for MPM during 2003-2014 were included. Data were retrospectively analyzed from a prospective database. Before August 2011, patients underwent evaluation for EPP and adjuvant chemoradiation (group 1). After August 2011, patients were evaluated for PD and adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation (group 2). Demographic characteristics, surgical technique, histology, side, completeness of resection, and types of treatments were recorded. Statistics was performed using Student t test, χ(2) tests, uni- and multivariate regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The same surgical team operated on 130 patients. Median age was 55.7 years (range, 26-80 years) and 76 were men. EPP and extended PD was performed in 72 patients. Ninety-day mortality was 10%. Median survival was 17.8 months with a 5-year survival rate of 14%. Uni- and multivariate analyses showed that epithelioid histology, stage N0, and trimodality treatment were associated with better survival (P = .039, P = .012, and P < .001, respectively). Demographic variables and overall survival (15.6 vs 19.6 months, respectively) were similar between the groups, whereas nonepithelioid histology, use of preoperative chemotherapy, and incomplete resections were more frequent in group 2 (P < .001, P < .001, and P = .006, respectively). Follow-up was shorter in group 2 (22.5 ± 20.6 vs 16.4 ± 10.9 months; P < .001). Adoption of PD as the main surgical approach is not associated with survival disadvantage in the surgical treatment of MPM. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coordinated Analyses of Diverse Components in Whole Stardust Cometary Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, A. N.; Frank, D.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of samples returned from Comet Wild-2 by the Stardust spacecraft have resulted in a number of surprising findings that show the origins of comets are more complex than previously suspected [1]. Stardust aerogel tracks show considerable compositional diversity and the degree of impact related thermal modification and destruction is also highly variable. We are performing systematic examinations of entire Stardust tracks to discern the representative mineralogy and origins of comet Wild 2 components and to search for well preserved fine grained materials. Previously, we used ultramicrotomy to prepare sequential thin sections of entire "carrot" and "bulbous" type tracks along their axis while preserving their original shapes [2]. This technique allows us to characterize the usually well-preserved terminal particle (TP), but also any associated, fine-grained fragments that were shed along the track pathway. This report focuses on coordinated analyses of surviving indigenous cometary materials (crystalline and amorphous) along the aerogel track walls, their interaction with aerogel during collection and comparisons with their TPs. We examined the distribution of fragments throughout the track from the entrance hole to the TP.

  3. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  4. Minding the body: psychotherapy and cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews evidence regarding effects of psychotherapy on overall cancer survival time. Special emphasis is given to research on adverse effects of depression on cancer survival, breast cancer, and mediating psychophysiological pathways linking psychosocial support to longer survival. It reviews all published clinical trials addressing effects of psychotherapy on cancer survival, emphasizing depression, breast cancer, and psychophysiological evidence linking stress, depression, and support to cancer survival. Systematic literature review and synthesis. Eight of 15 published trials indicate that psychotherapy enhances cancer survival time. No studies show an adverse effect of psychotherapy on cancer survival. Potential psychophysiological mechanisms linking stress to shorter survival include dysregulation of diurnal cortisol, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced natural killer cell activity, shorter telomeres and lower telomerase activity, glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of p53 and BrCA1 gene expression, and sympathetic nervous system activation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Stress and support affect the course of cancer progression. What is known? Stress and support have been thought to be related to cancer risk and progression, but evidence has been mixed. Depression is a natural co-morbid condition with cancer. It has not been clear how stress and support could physiologically affect the rate of cancer progression. Immune function was not thought to have much relevance to cancer progression. Few other physiological mechanisms linking stress to cancer progression were known. What does this paper add? There is evidence from 15 RCTs indicating that effective psychosocial support improves quantity as well as quality of life with cancer. There is evidence that chronic depression predicts poorer prognosis with cancer. Dysregulated circadian cortisol patterns predict more rapid cancer progression. Inflammatory processes affect cancer

  5. Netrin-1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for poor patient survival in brain metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick N Harter

    Full Text Available The multifunctional molecule netrin-1 is upregulated in various malignancies and has recently been presented as a major general player in tumorigenesis leading to tumor progression and maintenance in various animal models. However, there is still a lack of clinico-epidemiological data related to netrin-1 expression. Therefore, the aim of our study was to elucidate the association of netrin-1 expression and patient survival in brain metastases since those constitute one of the most limiting factors for patient prognosis. We investigated 104 brain metastases cases for netrin-1 expression using in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with regard to clinical parameters such as patient survival and MRI data. Our data show that netrin-1 is strongly upregulated in most cancer subtypes. Univariate analyses revealed netrin-1 expression as a significant factor associated with poor patient survival in the total cohort of brain metastasis patients and in sub-entities such as non-small cell lung carcinomas. Interestingly, many cancer samples showed a strong nuclear netrin-1 signal which was recently linked to a truncated netrin-1 variant that enhances tumor growth. Nuclear netrin-1 expression was associated with poor patient survival in univariate as well as in multivariate analyses. Our data indicate both total and nuclear netrin-1 expression as prognostic factors in brain metastases patients in contrast to other prognostic markers in oncology such as patient age, number of brain metastases or Ki67 proliferation index. Therefore, nuclear netrin-1 expression constitutes one of the first reported molecular biomarkers for patient survival in brain metastases. Furthermore, netrin-1 may constitute a promising target for future anti-cancer treatment approaches in brain metastases.

  6. Local relapse after breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. Effects on survival parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Josef; Spiegl, Kurt J.; Feichtinger, Johannes; Braeutigam, Elisabeth [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwesten Hospital, Linz (Austria); Track, Christine [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwesten Hospital, Linz (Austria); Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Barmherzige Schwesten Hospital, Linz (Austria); Seewald, Dietmar H. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital, Voecklabruck (Austria); Petzer, Andreas L. [Dept. of Internal Medicine I - Hematology and Oncology, Barmherzige Schwesten Hospital, Linz (Austria); Langsteger, Werner [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Barmherzige Schwesten Hospital, Linz (Austria); Poestlberger, Sabine [Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Barmherzige Schwesten Hospital, Linz (Austria); Dept. of Surgery, Barmherzige Schwesten Hospital, Linz (Austria)

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: This retrospective analysis of 1,610 women treated for breast cancer and 88 patients with local relapse aims to show the poor survival parameters after local failure and to evaluate risk factors and compare them with other studies and analyses published. Patients and methods: Between 1984 and 1997, 1,610 patients presenting with a total of 1,635 pT1-2 invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the breast were treated at the authors' institution. The mean age was 57.1 years (range 25-85 years). Treatment protocols involved breast-conserving surgery with or without systemic therapy and whole-breast radiotherapy in all women, followed by a boost dose to the tumor bed according to risk factors for local recurrence. All axillary node-positive patients underwent systemic therapy (six cycles of classic CMF or tamoxifen 20 mg/day for 2-5 years). The time of diagnosis of local relapse was defined as time 0 for the survival curves after local failure. The association of clinicopathologic factors was studied using uni- and multivariate analyses. Survival and local control were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier actuarial method and significance by the log-rank test. Results: After a mean follow-up of 104 months, 88 local failures were recorded (5.4%). Calculated from the time of diagnosis of local relapse, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 62.8%, metastasis-free survival 60.6%, and disease-specific survival 64.2%. In patients with failure during the first 5 years after treatment, the survival parameters were worse (OS 50.6%) compared to those who relapsed after 5 years (OS 78.8%; p < 0.028). Significances were also found for initial T- and N-stage and type of failure (solid tumor vs. diffuse spread). Conclusion: This analysis again shows that the survival parameters are worsening after local relapse, especially in case of early occurrence. In breast cancer treatment, therefore, the goal remains to avoid local failure. (orig.)

  7. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in US veterans. VIII. Long-term survival after onset of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, M T; Page, W F; Kurtzke, J F

    2000-08-01

    Survival to 1996 was analysed for nearly 2500 veterans of World War II who were rated as 'service-connected' for multiple sclerosis as of 1956 by the then Veterans Administration. Survival from onset was defined for all white women and black men, and a random sample of white men. Median survival times from onset were 43 years (white females), 30 years (black males) and 34 years (white males). Crude 50-year survival rates were 31.5% (white females), 21.5% (black males) and 16.6% (white males), but only the white females and white males were significantly different. A proportional hazard analysis was used to identify risk factors for mortality from multiple sclerosis onset year. Significant risk factors included male sex (risk ratio: 1.57), older age at onset (risk ratio: 1.05 per year) and high socioeconomic status (risk ratio: 1.05 per socioeconomic status category). There were no statistically significant differences in survival following multiple sclerosis onset by race or latitude of place of entry into military service, both significant risk factors associated with the development of multiple sclerosis. Standardized mortality ratios utilizing national US data (for 1956-96) showed a marked excess for all three race-sex groups of multiple sclerosis cases, with little difference among them, but with a decreasing excess over time. Relative survival rates, used to compare the survival of multiple sclerosis cases with that of other military veterans, did not differ significantly by sex-race group, nor by latitude of place of entry into military service, but did differ significantly by socioeconomic class. The lack of difference in male and female relative survival rates suggests that the significant difference in survival between male and female multiple sclerosis cases is, at least in part, a result of sex per se and not the disease.

  8. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  9. Analyse af elbilers forbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Denne rapport undersøger GPS og CAN bus datagrundlaget opsamlet ved kørsel med elbiler og analysere på elbilers forbrug. Analyserne er baseret på godt 133 millioner GPS og CAN bus målinger opsamlet fra 164 elbiler (Citroen C-Zero, Mitsubishi iMiev og Peugeot Ion) i kalenderåret 2012....... For datagrundlaget kan det konstateres, at der er behov for væsentlige, men simple opstramninger for fremadrettet at gøre det nemmere at anvende GPS/CAN bus data fra elbiler i andre analyser. Brugen af elbiler er sammenlignet med brændstofbiler og konklusionen er, at elbiler generelt kører 10-15 km/t langsommere på...

  10. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  11. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  12. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild

    1992-01-01

    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  13. Pre- and post-diagnostic β-blocker use and lung cancer survival: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberpals, Janick; Jansen, Lina; Haefeli, Walter E; Hoffmeister, Michael; Wolkewitz, Martin; Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P van; Vissers, Pauline A J; Brenner, Hermann

    2017-06-06

    Beta-blockers have been associated with decreased cancer mortality. However, evidence for lung cancer is sparse and reported beneficial effects might be based on biased analyses. In this so far largest study we investigated the association between β-blocker use and lung cancer survival. Therefore, patients with a lung cancer diagnosis between April 1998 and December 2011 were selected from a database linkage of the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the PHARMO Database Network. After matching eligible patients on the propensity score, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic and time-dependent β-blocker use and overall survival. Duration and dose-response analyses and stratified analyses by β-blocker type, histological subgroups and stage were conducted. Of 3,340 eligible lung cancer patients, 1437 (43%) took β-blockers four months prior to diagnosis. Pre-diagnostic β-blocker use was not associated with overall survival (HR 1.00 (0.92-1.08)) in the adjusted model. Time-dependent post-diagnostic analysis showed similar results with a HR of 1.03 (0.94-1.11). Trend analyses showed no association for cumulative dose (HR 0.99 (0.97-1.02)) and cumulative duration (HR 1.00 (0.96-1.05)). In conclusion, β-blocker use is not associated with reduced mortality among lung cancer patients.

  14. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    firmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Lan- ..... Discussion. The EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN identified as upregulated genes in high-growth group have been reported to be involved in myotube survival and .... cDNA probes and libraries. Proc.

  15. Genome-wide methylation analyses in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose K Lai

    Full Text Available Few studies had investigated genome-wide methylation in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. Our goals were to study differential methylation across the genome in gene promoters using an array-based method, as well as repetitive elements using surrogate global methylation markers. The discovery sample set for this study consisted of 54 GBM from Columbia University and Case Western Reserve University, and 24 brain controls from the New York Brain Bank. We assembled a validation dataset using methylation data of 162 TCGA GBM and 140 brain controls from dbGAP. HumanMethylation27 Analysis Bead-Chips (Illumina were used to interrogate 26,486 informative CpG sites in both the discovery and validation datasets. Global methylation levels were assessed by analysis of L1 retrotransposon (LINE1, 5 methyl-deoxycytidine (5m-dC and 5 hydroxylmethyl-deoxycytidine (5hm-dC in the discovery dataset. We validated a total of 1548 CpG sites (1307 genes that were differentially methylated in GBM compared to controls. There were more than twice as many hypomethylated genes as hypermethylated ones. Both the discovery and validation datasets found 5 tumor methylation classes. Pathway analyses showed that the top ten pathways in hypomethylated genes were all related to functions of innate and acquired immunities. Among hypermethylated pathways, transcriptional regulatory network in embryonic stem cells was the most significant. In the study of global methylation markers, 5m-dC level was the best discriminant among methylation classes, whereas in survival analyses, high level of LINE1 methylation was an independent, favorable prognostic factor in the discovery dataset. Based on a pathway approach, hypermethylation in genes that control stem cell differentiation were significant, poor prognostic factors of overall survival in both the discovery and validation datasets. Approaches that targeted these methylated genes may be a future therapeutic goal.

  16. Genome-wide methylation analyses in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Rose K; Chen, Yanwen; Guan, Xiaowei; Nousome, Darryl; Sharma, Charu; Canoll, Peter; Bruce, Jeffrey; Sloan, Andrew E; Cortes, Etty; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Su, Tao; Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Ostrom, Quinn; Lee, Annette; Gregersen, Peter; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Few studies had investigated genome-wide methylation in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Our goals were to study differential methylation across the genome in gene promoters using an array-based method, as well as repetitive elements using surrogate global methylation markers. The discovery sample set for this study consisted of 54 GBM from Columbia University and Case Western Reserve University, and 24 brain controls from the New York Brain Bank. We assembled a validation dataset using methylation data of 162 TCGA GBM and 140 brain controls from dbGAP. HumanMethylation27 Analysis Bead-Chips (Illumina) were used to interrogate 26,486 informative CpG sites in both the discovery and validation datasets. Global methylation levels were assessed by analysis of L1 retrotransposon (LINE1), 5 methyl-deoxycytidine (5m-dC) and 5 hydroxylmethyl-deoxycytidine (5hm-dC) in the discovery dataset. We validated a total of 1548 CpG sites (1307 genes) that were differentially methylated in GBM compared to controls. There were more than twice as many hypomethylated genes as hypermethylated ones. Both the discovery and validation datasets found 5 tumor methylation classes. Pathway analyses showed that the top ten pathways in hypomethylated genes were all related to functions of innate and acquired immunities. Among hypermethylated pathways, transcriptional regulatory network in embryonic stem cells was the most significant. In the study of global methylation markers, 5m-dC level was the best discriminant among methylation classes, whereas in survival analyses, high level of LINE1 methylation was an independent, favorable prognostic factor in the discovery dataset. Based on a pathway approach, hypermethylation in genes that control stem cell differentiation were significant, poor prognostic factors of overall survival in both the discovery and validation datasets. Approaches that targeted these methylated genes may be a future therapeutic goal.

  17. Salvage surgery in recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Oncologic outcome and predictors of disease free survival

    OpenAIRE

    Hamoir, Marc; Holvoet, Emma; Ambroise, Jérôme; Lengelé, Benoît; Schmitz, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Objective Salvage surgery in recurrent SCCHN is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to better identify suitable surgical candidates and those at high risk of new recurrence. Materials and methods Single-center retrospective analysis of 109 patients undergoing salvage surgery for recurrent SCCHN. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify prognostic factors affecting disease-free survival (DFS). Results The following factors showed a significant impact on DFS: Disea...

  18. Cancer survival in adult patients in Spain. Results from nine population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, M D; Salmerón, D; Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Mateos, A; Torrella, A; Jiménez, R; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Ardanaz, E; Sant, M; Minicozzi, P; Navarro, C; Sánchez, M J

    2017-07-17

    With the aim of providing cancer control indicators, this work presents cancer survival in adult (≥15 years) patients in Spain diagnosed during the period 2000-2007 from Spanish cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE project. Cancer cases from nine Spanish population-based cancer registries were included and analysed as a whole. All primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed in adult patients were eligible for the analysis. Cancer patients were followed until 31 December 2008. For each type of cancer, 1-, 3- and 5-year observed and relative survival were estimated by sex, age and years from diagnosis. Furthermore, age-standardized 5-year relative survival for the period 2000-2007 has been compared with that of the period 1995-1999. Skin melanoma (84.6 95% CI 83.0-86.2), prostate (84.6% 95% CI 83.6-85.6) and thyroid (84.2% CI 95% 82.0-86.6) cancers showed the highest 5-year relative survival, whereas the worst prognosis was observed in pancreatic (6% 95% CI 5.1-7.0) and oesophageal (9.4% 95% CI 7.9-11.1) cancers. Overall, survival is higher in women (58.0%) than in men (48.9%). The absolute difference in relative survival between 2000-2007 and 1995-1999 was positive for all cancers as a whole (+4.8% in men, +1.6% in women) and for most types of tumours. Survival increased significantly for chronic myeloid leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectum cancer in both sexes, and for acute lymphoid leukaemia, prostate, liver and colon cancers in men and Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer in women. Survival patterns by age were similar in Europe and Spain. A decline in survival by age was observed in all tumours, being more pronounced for ovarian, corpus uteri, prostate and urinary bladder and less for head and neck and rectum cancers. High variability and differences have been observed in survival among adults in Spain according to the type of cancer diagnosed, from above 84% to below 10%, reflecting high heterogeneity. The differences in prognosis by age, sex

  19. Oral rehabilitation with dental implants in irradiated patients: a meta-analysis on implant survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiegnitz, E; Al-Nawas, B; Kämmerer, P W; Grötz, K A

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this comprehensive literature review is to provide recommendations and guidelines for dental implant therapy in patients with a history of radiation in the head and neck region. For the first time, a meta-analysis comparing the implant survival in irradiated and non-irradiated patients was performed. An extensive electronic search in the electronic databases of the National Library of Medicine was conducted for articles published between January 1990 and January 2013 to identify literature presenting survival data on the topic of dental implants in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Review and meta-analysis were performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses statement. For meta-analysis, only studies with a mean follow-up of at least 5 years were included. After screening 529 abstracts from the electronic database, we included 31 studies in qualitative and 8 in quantitative synthesis. The mean implant survival rate of all examined studies was 83 % (range, 34-100 %). Meta-analysis of the current literature (2007-2013) revealed no statistically significant difference in implant survival between non-irradiated native bone and irradiated native bone (odds ratio [OR], 1.44; confidence interval [CI], 0.67-3.1). In contrast, meta-analysis of the literature of the years 1990-2006 showed a significant difference in implant survival between non-irradiated and irradiated patients ([OR], 2.12; [CI], 1.69-2.65) with a higher implant survival in the non-irradiated bone. Meta-analysis of the implant survival regarding bone origin indicated a statistically significant higher implant survival in the irradiated native bone compared to the irradiated grafted bone ([OR], 1.82; [CI], 1.14-2.90). Within the limits of this meta-analytic approach to the literature, this study describes for the first time a comparable implant survival in non-irradiated and irradiated native bone in the current literature. Grafted

  20. Survival after elective surgery for colonic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawid, S K; Hemmingsen, L; Boesby, S

    2012-01-01

    % of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark. Only patients having elective surgery for colonic cancer in the period 2001-2008 were included. Overall and relative survival analyses were carried out. The study period was divided into the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. RESULTS: 9149 patients were......AIM: Total mesorectal excision (TME) has been shown to improve the outcome for patients with rectal cancer. In contrast, there are fewer data on complete mesocolic excision (CME) for colonic cancer. METHOD: Data from the National Colorectal Cancer Database were analysed. This includes about 95...... included for the final analysis. The overall 5-year survival rates were 0.65 in 2001-2004 and 0.66 in 2005-2008. The relative 5-year survival rates were also within 1% of each other. None of these comparisons was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Survival following elective colon cancer surgery has...

  1. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works....... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...

  2. Survival of head and neck cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Friborg, Jeppe; Rosborg, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is frequent in the Inuit population of Greenland and is characterized by a very high incidence of Epstein-Barr virus associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, information on the treatment and survival of Inuit head and neck cancer patients is practically non......-existent. The aim of this study, therefore, was to analyse the epidemiological pattern, time course and survival of head and neck cancer patients in Greenland....

  3. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  4. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...

  5. Obesity in cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V

    2012-08-21

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.

  6. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M

    1993-11-06

    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  8. Environmental pollution has sex-dependent effects on local survival

    OpenAIRE

    Eeva, Tapio; Hakkarainen, Harri; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollutants cause a potential hazard for survival in free-living animal populations. We modelled local survival (including emigration) by using individual mark–recapture histories of males and females in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) living around a point source of heavy metals (copper smelter). Local survival of F. hypoleuca females did not differ between polluted and unpolluted environments. Males, however, showed...

  9. Improved survival after rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Harling, H; Iversen, L H

    2010-01-01

    treated from 1994 to 2006. Method The study was based on the National Rectal Cancer Registry and the National Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented with data from the Central Population Registry. The analysis included actuarial overall and relative survival. Results A total of 10 632 patients were......Objective In 1995, an analysis showed an inferior prognosis after rectal cancer in Denmark compared with the other Scandinavian countries. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) was established with the aim of improving the prognosis, and in this study we present a survival analysis of patients...

  10. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  11. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  12. Joint modelling of longitudinal CEA tumour marker progression and survival data on breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana; Sousa, Inês; Castro, Luis

    2017-06-01

    This work proposes the use of Biostatistics methods to study breast cancer in patients of Braga's Hospital Senology Unit, located in Portugal. The primary motivation is to contribute to the understanding of the progression of breast cancer, within the Portuguese population, using a more complex statistical model assumptions than the traditional analysis that take into account a possible existence of a serial correlation structure within a same subject observations. We aim to infer which risk factors aect the survival of Braga's Hospital patients, diagnosed with breast tumour. Whilst analysing risk factors that aect a tumour markers used on the surveillance of disease progression the Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). As survival and longitudinal processes may be associated, it is important to model these two processes together. Hence, a joint modelling of these two processes to infer on the association of these was conducted. A data set of 540 patients, along with 50 variables, was collected from medical records of the Hospital. A joint model approach was used to analyse these data. Two dierent joint models were applied to the same data set, with dierent parameterizations which give dierent interpretations to model parameters. These were used by convenience as the ones implemented in R software. Results from the two models were compared. Results from joint models, showed that the longitudinal CEA values were signicantly associated with the survival probability of these patients. A comparison between parameter estimates obtained in this analysis and previous independent survival[4] and longitudinal analysis[5][6], lead us to conclude that independent analysis brings up bias parameter estimates. Hence, an assumption of association between the two processes in a joint model of breast cancer data is necessary. Results indicate that the longitudinal progression of CEA is signicantly associated with the probability of survival of these patients. Hence, an assumption of

  13. Modelling survival after treatment of intraocular melanoma using artificial neural networks and Bayes theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taktak, Azzam F G [Department of Clinical Engineering, Duncan Building, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); Fisher, Anthony C [Department of Clinical Engineering, Duncan Building, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom); Damato, Bertil E [Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-07

    This paper describes the development of an artificial intelligence (AI) system for survival prediction from intraocular melanoma. The system used artificial neural networks (ANNs) with five input parameters: coronal and sagittal tumour location, anterior tumour margin, largest basal tumour diameter and the cell type. After excluding records with missing data, 2331 patients were included in the study. These were split randomly into training and test sets. Date censorship was applied to the records to deal with patients who were lost to follow-up and patients who died from general causes. Bayes theorem was then applied to the ANN output to construct survival probability curves. A validation set with 34 patients unseen to both training and test sets was used to compare the AI system with Cox's regression (CR) and Kaplan-Meier (KM) analyses. Results showed large differences in the mean 5 year survival probability figures when the number of records with matching characteristics was small. However, as the number of matches increased to >100 the system tended to agree with CR and KM. The validation set was also used to compare the system with a clinical expert in predicting time to metastatic death. The rms error was 3.7 years for the system and 4.3 years for the clinical expert for 15 years survival. For <10 years survival, these figures were 2.7 and 4.2, respectively. We concluded that the AI system can match if not better the clinical expert's prediction. There were significant differences with CR and KM analyses when the number of records was small, but it was not known which model is more accurate.

  14. Do alternative methods for analysing count data produce similar estimates? Implications for meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Peter; Robertson, M Clare; McKenzie, Joanne E

    2015-11-17

    Many randomised trials have count outcomes, such as the number of falls or the number of asthma exacerbations. These outcomes have been treated as counts, continuous outcomes or dichotomised and analysed using a variety of analytical methods. This study examines whether different methods of analysis yield estimates of intervention effect that are similar enough to be reasonably pooled in a meta-analysis. Data were simulated for 10,000 randomised trials under three different amounts of overdispersion, four different event rates and two effect sizes. Each simulated trial was analysed using nine different methods of analysis: rate ratio, Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, risk ratio from dichotomised data, survival to the first event, two methods of adjusting for multiple survival times, ratio of means and ratio of medians. Individual patient data was gathered from eight fall prevention trials, and similar analyses were undertaken. All methods produced similar effect sizes when there was no difference between treatments. Results were similar when there was a moderate difference with two exceptions when the event became more common: (1) risk ratios computed from dichotomised count outcomes and hazard ratios from survival analysis of the time to the first event yielded intervention effects that differed from rate ratios estimated from the negative binomial model (reference model) and (2) the precision of the estimates differed depending on the method used, which may affect both the pooled intervention effect and the observed heterogeneity. The results of the case study of individual data from eight trials evaluating exercise programmes to prevent falls in older people supported the simulation study findings. Information about the differences in treatments is lost when event rates increase and the outcome is dichotomised or time to the first event is analysed otherwise similar results are obtained. Further research is needed to examine the effect of

  15. IRF4 rs12203592 functional variant and melanoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrony, Miriam; Rebollo-Morell, Aida; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Zimmer, Lisa; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Tell-Marti, Gemma; Sucker, Antje; Badenas, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Schadendorf, Dirk; Puig, Susana

    2017-04-15

    Inherited genetic factors may modulate clinical outcome in melanoma. Some low-to-medium risk genes in melanoma susceptibility play a role in melanoma outcome. Our aim was to assess the role of the functional IRF4 SNP rs12203592 in melanoma prognosis in two independent sets (Barcelona, N = 493 and Essen, N = 438). Genotype association analyses showed that the IRF4 rs12203592 T allele increased the risk of dying from melanoma in both sets (Barcelona: odds ratio [OR] = 6.53, 95% CI 1.38-30.87, Adj p = 0.032; Essen: OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.04-2.72, Adj p = 0.035). Survival analyses only showed significance for the Barcelona set (hazard ratio = 4.58, 95% CI 1.11-18.92, Adj p = 0.036). This SNP was also associated with tumour localization, increasing the risk of developing melanoma in head or neck (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.07-2.98, Adj p = 0.032) and protecting from developing melanoma in the trunk (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.85, Adj p = 0.004). These findings suggest for the first time that IRF4 rs12203592 plays a role in the modulation of melanoma outcome and confirms its contribution to the localization of the primary tumour. © 2017 UICC.

  16. A common variant within the HNF1B gene is associated with overall survival of multiple myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos-Tamayo, Rafael; Lupiañez, Carmen Belén; Campa, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    of patients with MM, we analysed genotyping data of 936 MM patients collected by the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMENSE) consortium and an independent set of 700 MM patients recruited by the University Clinic of Heidelberg. A meta-analysis of the cox regression results of the two sets showed......Diabetogenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have recently been associated with multiple myeloma (MM) risk but their impact on overall survival (OS) of MM patients has not been analysed yet. In order to investigate the impact of 58 GWAS-identified variants for type 2 diabetes (T2D) on OS...

  17. Survival analysis of patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the continuous improvement of dialysis technology and pharmacological treatment, mortality rates for dialysis patients are still high. A 2-year prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital to determine the factors influencing survival among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. 96 patients with end-stage renal disease surviving more than 3 months on hemodialysis (8-12 h/week were studied. Follow-up was censored at the time of death or at the end of 2-year study period, whichever occurred first. Of the 96 patients studied (mean age 49.74 ± 14.55 years, 75% male and 44.7% diabetics, 19 died with an estimated mortality rate of 19.8%. On an age-adjusted multivariate analysis, female gender and hypokalemia independently predicted mortality. In Cox analyses, patient survival was associated with delivered dialysis dose (single pool Kt/V, hazard ratio [HR] =0.01, P = 0.016, frequency of hemodialysis (HR = 3.81, P = 0.05 and serum albumin (HR = 0.24, P = 0.005. There was no significant difference between diabetes and non-diabetes in relation to death (Relative Risk = 1.109; 95% CI = 0.49-2.48, P = 0.803. This study revealed that mortality among hemodialysis patients remained high, mostly due to sepsis and ischemic heart disease. Patient survival was better with higher dialysis dose, increased frequency of dialysis and adequate serum albumin level. Efforts at minimizing infectious complications, preventing cardiovascular events and improving nutrition should increase survival among hemodialysis patients.

  18. Estimates of conditional survival in gastric cancer reveal a reduction of racial disparities with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyimbazi, David; Nelson, Rebecca A; Choi, Audrey H; Li, Lily; Chao, Joseph; Sun, Virginia; Hamner, John B; Kim, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    In prior analyses, conditional survival (CS) estimates for gastric cancer have weighed clinical and pathologic factors to predict prognosis at time intervals after surgery. Since racial disparities in gastric cancer outcomes were not considered, our objective was to determine whether race influences CS estimates. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry were used to identify gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent curative surgical intervention between 1988 and 2005. Five-year relative conditional survival (RCS) was computed for patients who survived at least 1 to 5 years after surgery. RCS was calculated by assessing observed and expected survival in an age- and race-matched standard population. Results were compared across time and racial groups (white, black, and Asian) using z test statistics. Of 14,067 patients, 63.8 % were white, 15.5 % black, and 20.7 % Asian. Racial disparities among groups were observed with improved survival of Asians at time point zero and improved RCS at 1 year. At 5 years following curative surgery, each racial group had increased RCS and the greatest magnitude of relative increase was observed in white and black patients (121 and 118 %, respectively). Comparison of RCS at the 5-year time point revealed a reduction of racial disparities in survival among the three groups. Our investigation shows that racial disparities in gastric cancer outcomes are pronounced at the time of curative surgery but diminish after years of survival, thus suggesting race has less influence over outcomes the longer patients survive. The reasons for reduction of racial disparities remain unclear and warrant future study.

  19. Deep learning predictions of survival based on MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgh, Hannelore K; Schmidt, Ruben; Westeneng, Henk-Jan; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Berg, Leonard H; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease, with large variation in survival between patients. Currently, it remains rather difficult to predict survival based on clinical parameters alone. Here, we set out to use clinical characteristics in combination with MRI data to predict survival of ALS patients using deep learning, a machine learning technique highly effective in a broad range of big-data analyses. A group of 135 ALS patients was included from whom high-resolution diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted images were acquired at the first visit to the outpatient clinic. Next, each of the patients was monitored carefully and survival time to death was recorded. Patients were labeled as short, medium or long survivors, based on their recorded time to death as measured from the time of disease onset. In the deep learning procedure, the total group of 135 patients was split into a training set for deep learning (n = 83 patients), a validation set (n = 20) and an independent evaluation set (n = 32) to evaluate the performance of the obtained deep learning networks. Deep learning based on clinical characteristics predicted survival category correctly in 68.8% of the cases. Deep learning based on MRI predicted 62.5% correctly using structural connectivity and 62.5% using brain morphology data. Notably, when we combined the three sources of information, deep learning prediction accuracy increased to 84.4%. Taken together, our findings show the added value of MRI with respect to predicting survival in ALS, demonstrating the advantage of deep learning in disease prognostication.

  20. Deep learning predictions of survival based on MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore K. van der Burgh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neuromuscular disease, with large variation in survival between patients. Currently, it remains rather difficult to predict survival based on clinical parameters alone. Here, we set out to use clinical characteristics in combination with MRI data to predict survival of ALS patients using deep learning, a machine learning technique highly effective in a broad range of big-data analyses. A group of 135 ALS patients was included from whom high-resolution diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted images were acquired at the first visit to the outpatient clinic. Next, each of the patients was monitored carefully and survival time to death was recorded. Patients were labeled as short, medium or long survivors, based on their recorded time to death as measured from the time of disease onset. In the deep learning procedure, the total group of 135 patients was split into a training set for deep learning (n = 83 patients, a validation set (n = 20 and an independent evaluation set (n = 32 to evaluate the performance of the obtained deep learning networks. Deep learning based on clinical characteristics predicted survival category correctly in 68.8% of the cases. Deep learning based on MRI predicted 62.5% correctly using structural connectivity and 62.5% using brain morphology data. Notably, when we combined the three sources of information, deep learning prediction accuracy increased to 84.4%. Taken together, our findings show the added value of MRI with respect to predicting survival in ALS, demonstrating the advantage of deep learning in disease prognostication.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within interferon signaling pathway genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Lu

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN signaling has been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to examine potentially functional genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, IRF5, IRF7, type I and type II IFN and their receptor genes with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC risk and clinical outcome. Altogether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were covered by the 34 SNPs genotyped in a hospital-based case-control study of 1327 CRC cases and 758 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 483 patients. Seven SNPs in IFNA1, IFNA13, IFNA21, IFNK, IFNAR1 and IFNGR1 were associated with CRC risk. After multiple testing correction, the associations with the SNPs rs2856968 (IFNAR1 and rs2234711 (IFNGR1 remained formally significant (P = 0.0015 and P<0.0001, respectively. Multivariable survival analyses showed that the SNP rs6475526 (IFNA7/IFNA14 was associated with overall survival of the patients (P = 0.041 and event-free survival among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, P = 0.034. The hazard ratios (HRs for rs6475526 remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, gender, grade and stage (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036, respectively, suggesting that rs6475526 is an independent prognostic marker for CRC. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the IFN signaling pathway genes may play a role in the etiology and survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within interferon signaling pathway genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun; Pardini, Barbara; Cheng, Bowang; Naccarati, Alessio; Huhn, Stefanie; Vymetalkova, Veronika; Vodickova, Ludmila; Buchler, Thomas; Hemminki, Kari; Vodicka, Pavel; Försti, Asta

    2014-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) signaling has been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to examine potentially functional genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF5, IRF7, type I and type II IFN and their receptor genes with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. Altogether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were covered by the 34 SNPs genotyped in a hospital-based case-control study of 1327 CRC cases and 758 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 483 patients. Seven SNPs in IFNA1, IFNA13, IFNA21, IFNK, IFNAR1 and IFNGR1 were associated with CRC risk. After multiple testing correction, the associations with the SNPs rs2856968 (IFNAR1) and rs2234711 (IFNGR1) remained formally significant (P = 0.0015 and P<0.0001, respectively). Multivariable survival analyses showed that the SNP rs6475526 (IFNA7/IFNA14) was associated with overall survival of the patients (P = 0.041 and event-free survival among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, P = 0.034). The hazard ratios (HRs) for rs6475526 remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, gender, grade and stage (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036, respectively), suggesting that rs6475526 is an independent prognostic marker for CRC. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the IFN signaling pathway genes may play a role in the etiology and survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.

  3. Molecular responses of mouse macrophages to copper and copper oxide nanoparticles inferred from proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Carrière, Marie; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Habert, Aurélie; Chevallet, Mireille; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    The molecular responses of macrophages to copper-based nanoparticles have been investigated via a combination of proteomic and biochemical approaches, using the RAW264.7 cell line as a model. Both metallic copper and copper oxide nanoparticles have been tested, with copper ion and zirconium oxide nanoparticles used as controls. Proteomic analysis highlighted changes in proteins implicated in oxidative stress responses (superoxide dismutases and peroxiredoxins), glutathione biosynthesis, the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and mitochondrial proteins (especially oxidative phosphorylation complex subunits). Validation studies employing functional analyses showed that the increases in glutathione biosynthesis and in mitochondrial complexes observed in the proteomic screen were critical to cell survival upon stress with copper-based nanoparticles; pharmacological inhibition of these two pathways enhanced cell vulnerability to copper-based nanoparticles, but not to copper ions. Furthermore, functional analyses using primary macrophages derived from bone marrow showed a decrease in reduced glutathione levels, a decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and inhibition of phagocytosis and of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production. However, only a fraction of these effects could be obtained with copper ions. In conclusion, this study showed that macrophage functions are significantly altered by copper-based nanoparticles. Also highlighted are the cellular pathways modulated by cells for survival and the exemplified cross-toxicities that can occur between copper-based nanoparticles and pharmacological agents.

  4. Molecular Responses of Mouse Macrophages to Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Inferred from Proteomic Analyses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Carrière, Marie; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Habert, Aurélie; Chevallet, Mireille; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The molecular responses of macrophages to copper-based nanoparticles have been investigated via a combination of proteomic and biochemical approaches, using the RAW264.7 cell line as a model. Both metallic copper and copper oxide nanoparticles have been tested, with copper ion and zirconium oxide nanoparticles used as controls. Proteomic analysis highlighted changes in proteins implicated in oxidative stress responses (superoxide dismutases and peroxiredoxins), glutathione biosynthesis, the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and mitochondrial proteins (especially oxidative phosphorylation complex subunits). Validation studies employing functional analyses showed that the increases in glutathione biosynthesis and in mitochondrial complexes observed in the proteomic screen were critical to cell survival upon stress with copper-based nanoparticles; pharmacological inhibition of these two pathways enhanced cell vulnerability to copper-based nanoparticles, but not to copper ions. Furthermore, functional analyses using primary macrophages derived from bone marrow showed a decrease in reduced glutathione levels, a decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and inhibition of phagocytosis and of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production. However, only a fraction of these effects could be obtained with copper ions. In conclusion, this study showed that macrophage functions are significantly altered by copper-based nanoparticles. Also highlighted are the cellular pathways modulated by cells for survival and the exemplified cross-toxicities that can occur between copper-based nanoparticles and pharmacological agents. PMID:23882024

  5. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Eun H; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2017-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans.

  6. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  7. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  8. Structural design optimization with survivability dependent constraints application: Primary wing box of a multi-role fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolvin, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    The superior survivability of a multirole fighter is dependent upon balanced integration of technologies for reduced vulnerability and susceptability. The objective is to develop a methodology for structural design optimization with survivability dependent constraints. The design criteria for optimization will be survivability in a tactical laser environment. The following analyses are studied to establish a dependent design relationship between structural weight and survivability: (1) develop a physically linked global design model of survivability variables; and (2) apply conventional constraints to quantify survivability dependent design. It was not possible to develop an exact approach which would include all aspects of survivability dependent design, therefore guidelines are offered for solving similar problems.

  9. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  10. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  11. Will the olympics survive?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, T.

    1977-01-01

    The United States of America dominated 58 events in athletics, field and swimming, which between them accounted for 35 per cent of all events in the Munich Olympiad. 1972; these events favour taller individuals. But, in 25 per cent of other events (1) cycling, (2) fencing, (3) gymnastics, (4) judo, (5) weightlifting and (6) Graeco Roman wrestling the U.S.A. did not win a single medal. The failure of the U.S.A. to maintain her lead in Munich was largely due to weaknesses in these other events in many of which the potential medallists can be derived from the lower half of the height distribution (events 3 to 6). These weaknesses are Russia's strength and they continued to remain unstrengthened at Montreal. Also, the domination held by the U.S.A. in swimming was seriously challenged by East Germany. The present trends indicate that the U.S.A.'s ranking is likely to slip further to the third position in Moscow 1980. Factors inhibiting the survival of the Olympics are pointed. PMID:861436

  12. Alternative lengthening of telomeres and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakin-Smith, V; Jellinek, D A; Levy, D; Carroll, T; Teo, M; Timperley, W R; McKay, M J; Reddel, R R; Royds, J A

    2003-03-08

    Despite advances in the molecular pathogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme, no reliable prognostic markers have been identified. We analysed telomerase activity and telomere lengths in glioblastoma multiformes from 77 patients. 19 patients (25%) had tumours with the alternative-lengthening-of-telomere (ALT) phenotype. Median survival for patients with this phenotype was 542 days (95% CI 114-970) compared with 247 days (224-270) for glioblastoma multiformes with normal telomeres (p=0.0003). Cox's regression analysis showed that this association is independent of age. In patients with non-ALT tumours, telomerase activity did not affect survival (median 287 [199-375] vs 236 [230-242] days, p=0.275). We conclude that ALT is a prognostic indicator for patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

  13. Child survival revolutions revisited - lessons learned from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Lars Åke; Rahman, Anisur; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Musafili, Aimable; Hoa, Dinh Phuong

    2017-06-01

    Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multisectorial development efforts and community engagement. Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Bacterial survival responses to extreme desiccation and high humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinjie; Yokobori, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    The presence of water is thought to be essential for life and strongly considered in life searching operation on extraterrestrial planets. In this study we show different survival responses of bacterial species to water availability and temperatures (25, 4 and - 70 o C). At these temperatures, E.coli lost viability much faster under extreme desiccation than under high humidity. Deinococcus radiodurans exhibited much higher survival rate under desiccation than under high humidity at 25 o C, while its survivals under desiccation and high humidity increased to the same level at 4 and - 70 o C. Bacillus pumilus spores generally survived well under all tested conditions. Water is favorable for the survival of most microorganisms but not a "safeguard" for all microorganisms. Microbial survival at low temperatures may not be affected by water availability. Water absence should not preclude us from seeking life on other planets.

  15. Meta-analysis of survival prediction with Palliative Performance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Michael; Lau, Francis; Lesperance, Mary; Karlson, Nicholas; Shaw, Jack; Kuziemsky, Craig; Bernard, Steve; Hanson, Laura; Olajide, Lola; Head, Barbara; Ritchie, Christine; Harrold, Joan; Casarett, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to reconcile the use of Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2) for survival prediction in palliative care through an international collaborative study by five research groups. The study involves an individual patient data meta-analysis on 1,808 patients from four original datasets to reanalyze their survival patterns by age, gender, cancer status, and initial PPS score. Our findings reveal a strong association between PPS and survival across the four datasets. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves show each PPS level as distinct, with a strong ordering effect in which higher PPS levels are associated with increased length of survival. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model to adjust for study differences, we found females lived significantly longer than males, with a further decrease in hazard for females not diagnosed with cancer. Further work is needed to refine the reporting of survival times/probabilities and to improve prediction accuracy with the inclusion of other variables in the models.

  16. [Dealing with competing events in survival analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchade, Clémence; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Survival analyses focus on the occurrences of an event of interest, in order to determine risk factors and estimate a risk. Competing events prevent from observing the event of interest. If there are competing events, it can lead to a bias in the risk's estimation. The aim of this article is to explain why Cox model is not appropriate when there are competing events, and to present Fine and Gray model, which can help when dealing with competing risks. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Bumblebee family lineage survival is enhanced in high-quality landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvell, Claire; Bourke, Andrew F. G.; Dreier, Stephanie; Freeman, Stephen N.; Hulmes, Sarah; Jordan, William C.; Redhead, John W.; Sumner, Seirian; Wang, Jinliang; Heard, Matthew S.

    2017-03-01

    Insect pollinators such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are in global decline. A major cause of this decline is habitat loss due to agricultural intensification. A range of global and national initiatives aimed at restoring pollinator habitats and populations have been developed. However, the success of these initiatives depends critically upon understanding how landscape change affects key population-level parameters, such as survival between lifecycle stages, in target species. This knowledge is lacking for bumblebees, because of the difficulty of systematically finding and monitoring colonies in the wild. We used a combination of habitat manipulation, land-use and habitat surveys, molecular genetics and demographic and spatial modelling to analyse between-year survival of family lineages in field populations of three bumblebee species. Here we show that the survival of family lineages from the summer worker to the spring queen stage in the following year increases significantly with the proportion of high-value foraging habitat, including spring floral resources, within 250-1,000 m of the natal colony. This provides evidence for a positive impact of habitat quality on survival and persistence between successive colony cycle stages in bumblebee populations. These findings also support the idea that conservation interventions that increase floral resources at a landscape scale and throughout the season have positive effects on wild pollinators in agricultural landscapes.

  18. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological

  19. Trends and territorial inequalities of incidence and survival of childhood leukaemia and their relations to socioeconomic status in Hungary, 1971-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Juhasz, Attila; Nagy, Csilla; Schuler, Dezso; Garami, Miklos

    2017-09-01

    The Hungarian Childhood Cancer Registry, a population-based national registry of the Hungarian Paediatric Haemato-Oncology Network founded in 1971, monitors the incidence and mortality of childhood cancer. Our aims were to carry out a longitudinal study to investigate the trends and spatial inequalities of incidence and survival of leukaemia, and the association between survival and deprivation in Hungary. All cases of childhood leukaemia and myelodysplasia were analysed (3157 cases, 1971-2015, age: 0-14 years). Time trends and the annual percentage change in direct standardized incidence and mortality were assessed. Survival and association with deprivation were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. Incidence rates of leukaemia (23.5-56.0/million) increased with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of 1%, determined by an increase in the incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (14.6-39.2/million, AAPC: 1.25%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant improvement in overall survival over the study period. Starting from 25% of cases surviving 5 years in the 70s; the overall 5-year survival reached 80% by 2010. Survival differences were observed with sex, leukaemia type and age at diagnosis. A reverse association was found in the survival probability of leukaemia by degree of deprivation. The Cox proportional hazards model verified a significant reverse association with deprivation [hazard ratio=1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. This is the first nationwide study to confirm the prognostic role of deprivation on the basis of a large cohort of patients with childhood leukaemia during a 45-year period. To maintain further improvement in treatment results, it is important to detect inequalities. Our results showed that deprivation may also be important in the survival of leukaemia.

  20. Survival After Relapse of Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Carl; Bloom, Karina; Upadhyaya, Santhosh; Geyer, J Russell; Leary, Sarah E S

    2016-05-01

    Survival after recurrence of medulloblastoma has not been reported in an unselected cohort of patients in the contemporary era. We reviewed 55 patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma between 2000 and 2010, and treated at Seattle Children's Hospital to evaluate patterns of relapse treatment and survival. Fourteen of 47 patients (30%) over the age of 3 experienced recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma after standard therapy. The median time from diagnosis to recurrence was 18.0 months (range, 3.6 to 62.6 mo), and site of recurrence was metastatic in 86%. The median survival after relapse was 10.3 months (range, 1.3 to 80.5 mo); 3-year survival after relapse was 18%. There were trend associations between longer survival and having received additional chemotherapy (median survival 12.8 vs. 1.3 mo, P=0.16) and radiation therapy (15.4 vs. 5.9 mo, P=0.20). Isolated local relapse was significantly associated with shorter survival (1.3 vs. 12.8 mo, P=0.009). Recurrence of medulloblastoma is more likely to be metastatic than reported in previous eras. Within the limits of our small sample, our data suggest a potential survival benefit from retreatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation even in heavily pretreated patients. This report serves as a baseline against which to evaluate novel therapy combinations.

  1. Macrophages improve survival, proliferation and migration of engrafted myogenic precursor cells into MDX skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Lesault

    Full Text Available Transplantation of muscle precursor cells is of therapeutic interest for focal skeletal muscular diseases. However, major limitations of cell transplantation are the poor survival, expansion and migration of the injected cells. The massive and early death of transplanted myoblasts is not fully understood although several mechanisms have been suggested. Various attempts have been made to improve their survival or migration. Taking into account that muscle regeneration is associated with the presence of macrophages, which are helpful in repairing the muscle by both cleansing the debris and deliver trophic cues to myoblasts in a sequential way, we attempted in the present work to improve myoblast transplantation by coinjecting macrophages. The present data showed that in the 5 days following the transplantation, macrophages efficiently improved: i myoblast survival by limiting their massive death, ii myoblast expansion within the tissue and iii myoblast migration in the dystrophic muscle. This was confirmed by in vitro analyses showing that macrophages stimulated myoblast adhesion and migration. As a result, myoblast contribution to regenerating host myofibres was increased by macrophages one month after transplantation. Altogether, these data demonstrate that macrophages are beneficial during the early steps of myoblast transplantation into skeletal muscle, showing that coinjecting these stromal cells may be used as a helper to improve the efficiency of parenchymal cell engraftment.

  2. Search Strategy to Identify Dental Survival Analysis Articles Indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Articles reporting survival outcomes (time-to-event outcomes) in patients over time are challenging to identify in the literature. Research shows the words authors use to describe their dental survival analyses vary, and that allocation of medical subject headings by MEDLINE indexers is inconsistent. Together, this undermines accurate article identification. The present study aims to develop and validate a search strategy to identify dental survival analyses indexed in MEDLINE (Ovid). A gold standard cohort of articles was identified to derive the search terms, and an independent gold standard cohort of articles was identified to test and validate the proposed search strategies. The first cohort included all 6,955 articles published in the 50 dental journals with the highest impact factors in 2008, of which 95 articles were dental survival articles. The second cohort included all 6,514 articles published in the 50 dental journals with the highest impact factors for 2012, of which 148 were dental survival articles. Each cohort was identified by a systematic hand search. Performance parameters of sensitivity, precision, and number needed to read (NNR) for the search strategies were calculated. Sensitive, precise, and optimized search strategies were developed and validated. The performances of the search strategy maximizing sensitivity were 92% sensitivity, 14% precision, and 7.11 NNR; the performances of the strategy maximizing precision were 93% precision, 10% sensitivity, and 1.07 NNR; and the performances of the strategy optimizing the balance between sensitivity and precision were 83% sensitivity, 24% precision, and 4.13 NNR. The methods used to identify search terms were objective, not subjective. The search strategies were validated in an independent group of articles that included different journals and different publication years. Across the three search strategies, dental survival articles can be identified with sensitivity up to 92%, precision up to 93

  3. Survival of indicator organisms, e.g. E. coli in drinking water pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Silhan, J.; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.

    2006-01-01

    The survival of E. coli was investigated in used drinking water pipes from households. The investigation showed that E. coli survived longer in plastic pipes than in cupper pipes and galvanized steel pipes. The investigation also showed longer survival at cold water temperatures (15?C) than at hot...

  4. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  5. Epidemiology, survival, and costs of localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime L Rubin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Jaime L Rubin1, Myrlene Sanon1, Douglas CA Taylor1, John Coombs2, Vamsi Bollu2, Leonardo Sirulnik21i3 Innovus, Medford, MA, USA; 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAPurpose: The aim of this study is to examine the epidemiologic and economic burden in surgically resected localized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST patients versus age- and gender-matched controls.Method: Two data sources were used to conduct a series of complementary analyses. First, the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER cancer registry was used to identify diagnosed GIST patients from 1993 to 2002 and determine incidence, prevalence, and 3-year survival. Second, using the SEER–Medicare linked database, a matched case-control analysis was conducted to determine resource utilization, GIST recurrence, and costs. Because GIST recurrence is not explicitly defined in the database, patterns in resource use were used to identify probable recurrence. Kaplan–Meier Sample Average (KMSA Estimator technique was used to estimate costs of GIST and recurrence.Results: SEER registry results show over the 10-year time horizon average annual GIST incidence was 0.32 per 100,000 persons in the United States, 15-year limited-duration prevalence was 1.62 per 100,000 persons, and 3-year survival was 73%. A total of 292 GIST patients were included in the SEER–Medicare analyses; 35 were identified with probable recurrence. GIST patients had increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence intervals: 0.94–1.61 compared to controls. Median recurrence-free and postrecurrence survival was 45 and 46 months, respectively. GIST patients incurred significantly higher medical care costs in the first year after initial resection, with $23,221 attributable to GIST. GIST recurrence costs totaled $101,700 over 5 years after initial resection.Conclusions: GIST is associated with substantial medical care costs, estimated recurrence costs more than $100

  6. Proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms of Mycena dendrobii promoting transplantation survival and growth of tissue culture seedlings of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X B; Ma, X Y; Lei, H H; Song, H M; Ying, Q C; Xu, M J; Liu, S B; Wang, H Z

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Its seedlings generally show low survival and growth when transferred from in vitro tissue culture to a greenhouse or field environment. In this study, the effect of Mycena dendrobii on the survival and growth of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings and the mechanisms involved was explored. Mycena dendrobii were applied underneath the roots of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings. The seedling survival and growth were analysed. The root proteins induced by M. dendrobii were identified using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Mycena dendrobii treatment significantly enhanced survival and growth of D. officinale seedlings. Forty-one proteins induced by M. dendrobii were identified. Among them, 10 were involved in defence and stress response, two were involved in the formation of root or mycorrhizae, and three were related to the biosynthesis of bioactive constituents. These results suggest that enhancing stress tolerance and promoting new root formation induced by M. dendrobii may improve the survival and growth of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings. This study provides a foundation for future use of M. dendrobii in the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobiums. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Mars One the ultimate reality TV show?

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book dissects the hype and hubris of the Mars One venture. Every aspect of the mission design is scrutinized, from the haphazard selection process to the unproven mission architecture. A controversial project, many professional astronauts consider Mars One a reckless attempt, yet it gained popular attention. This go-to reference guide provides the reader with insights into the myriad issues arising from the project's loss of funding, loss of sponsorship, loss of TV rights. It explains what contributed to an overly optimistic assessment of Mars One's mission-specific technology, and what captivated the public and the many willing candidates despite these flaws. From the author of Survival and Sacrifice in Mars Exploration (2015) among many more books on spacefaring, this is yet another up-to-the-minute account of an emerging player in the private space market from an expert on the subject.

  8. Actuarial survival of a large Canadian cohort of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlsson Arne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased survival of preterm and very low birth weight infants in recent years has been well documented but continued surveillance is required in order to monitor the effects of new therapeutic interventions. Gestation and birth weight specific survival rates most accurately reflect the outcome of perinatal care. Our aims were to determine survival to discharge for a large Canadian cohort of preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and to examine the effect of gender on survival and the effect of increasing postnatal age on predicted survival. Methods Outcomes for all 19,507 infants admitted to 17 NICUs throughout Canada between January 1996 and October 1997 were collected prospectively. Babies with congenital anomalies were excluded from the study population. Gestation and birth weight specific survival for all infants with birth weight Results Survival to discharge at 24 weeks gestation was 54%, compared to 82% at 26 weeks and 95% at 30 weeks. In infants with birth weights 600–699, survival to discharge was 62%, compared to 79% at 700–799 g and 96% at 1,000–1,099 g. In infants born at 24 weeks gestational age, survival was higher in females but there were no significant gender differences above 24 weeks gestation. Actuarial analysis showed that risk of death was highest in the first 5 days. For infants born at 24 weeks gestation, estimated survival probability to 48 hours, 7 days and 4 weeks were 88 (CI 84,92%, 70 (CI 64, 76% and 60 (CI 53,66% respectively. For smaller birth weights, female survival probabilities were higher than males for the first 40 days of life. Conclusion Actuarial analysis provides useful information when counseling parents and highlights the importance of frequently revising the prediction for long term survival particularly after the first few days of life.

  9. Integrin Signaling, Cell Survival, and Anoikis: Distinctions, Differences, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre H. Vachon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell survival and apoptosis implicate an increasing complexity of players and signaling pathways which regulate not only the decision-making process of surviving (or dying, but as well the execution of cell death proper. The same complex nature applies to anoikis, a form of caspase-dependent apoptosis that is largely regulated by integrin-mediated, cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Not surprisingly, the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis, and anoikis furthermore implicates additional mechanistic distinctions according to the specific tissue, cell type, and species. Incidentally, studies in recent years have unearthed yet another layer of complexity in the regulation of these cell processes, namely, the implication of cell differentiation state-specific mechanisms. Further analyses of such differentiation state-distinct mechanisms, either under normal or physiopathological contexts, should increase our understanding of diseases which implicate a deregulation of integrin function, cell survival, and anoikis.

  10. Survival from childhood cancer in northern England, 1968-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, N O; James, P W; Gomez-Pozo, B; Craft, A W; McNally, R J Q

    2011-10-25

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in children in the developed world. The study investigated patterns and trends in survival from childhood cancer in patients from northern England diagnosed 1968-2005. Five-year survival was analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimation for four successive time periods. Cox regression analysis was used to explore associations with age and demographic factors. The study included 2958 cases (1659 males and 1299 females). Five-year survival for all cancers improved significantly from 39% in 1968-1977 to 79% in 1998-2005 (Psurvival for leukaemia increased from 24% to 81% (PSurvival was worse for cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Psurvival over a 38-year time span. Future work should examine factors that could influence further improvement in survival such as diagnosis delays.

  11. Assessment of Confounding in Studies of Delay and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Vedsted, Peter; Frydenberg, Morten

    BACKGROUND: Whether longer time to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) in patients with cancer symptoms is directly and independently associated with poor prognosis cannot be determined in randomised controlled trials. Analysis of observational data is therefore necessary. Many previous studies of the i...... of delay and cancer survival and enable us to make a more appropriate and reasonable choice of statistical models when analysing delay and survival data.......BACKGROUND: Whether longer time to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) in patients with cancer symptoms is directly and independently associated with poor prognosis cannot be determined in randomised controlled trials. Analysis of observational data is therefore necessary. Many previous studies...... of the influence of delay on survival have been subject to great uncertainties due to unmeasured confounding and measurement error. Systematic evaluation of confounding is needed. AIM: The purpose of this project is to assess confounding in studies of delay and survival in breast cancer patients. We aim to: 1...

  12. Weight, physical activity and breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, Anne

    2018-02-26

    Weight, weight change and physical activity may affect prognosis among women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. Observational studies show associations between overweight/obesity and weight gain with several measures of reduced prognosis in women with breast cancer, and some suggestions of lower survival in women who are underweight or who experience unexplained weight loss after diagnosis. Observational studies have also shown an association between higher levels of physical activity and reduced breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, although a dose-response relationship has not been established. The effects of purposive dietary weight loss and increase in physical activity on survival or recurrence in breast cancer are not yet established, and randomised controlled trials are needed for definitive data. This paper presents the epidemiologic evidence on weight status, weight change, and physical activity and breast cancer survival; suggests potential mediating mechanisms; summarises evidence on weight loss interventions in breast cancer survivors; describes ongoing randomised clinical trials designed to test the effects of weight loss or physical activity on breast cancer survival; and provides information on available guidelines on weight and physical activity for cancer survivors.

  13. Survival by Dialysis Modality-Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin B; Bargman, Joanne M

    2016-06-06

    In light of the recent emphasis on patient-centered outcomes and quality of life for patients with kidney disease, we contend that the nephrology community should no longer fund, perform, or publish studies that compare survival by dialysis modality. These studies have become redundant; they are methodologically limited, unhelpful in practice, and therefore a waste of resources. More than two decades of these publications show similar survival between patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and those receiving thrice-weekly conventional hemodialysis, with differences only for specific subgroups. In clinical practice, modality choice should be individualized with the aim of maximizing quality of life, patient-reported outcomes, and achieving patient-centered goals. Expected survival is often irrelevant to modality choice. Even for the younger and fitter home hemodialysis population, quality of life, not just duration of survival, is a major priority. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that patients with ESRD continue to experience poor quality of life because of high symptom burden, unsolved clinical problems, and unmet needs. Patients care more about how they will live instead of how long. It is our responsibility to align our research with their needs. Only by doing so can we meet the challenges of ESRD patient care in the coming decades. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Survival on Home Dialysis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R.; Walker, Rachael C.; Polkinghorne, Kevan R.; Lynn, Kelvin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background New Zealand (NZ) has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis (HD) relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. Methods We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. Results We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category) associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (3 years), with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. Conclusion Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase. PMID:24806458

  15. Survival on home dialysis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New Zealand (NZ has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD and home haemodialysis (HD relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. METHODS: We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. RESULTS: We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (3 years, with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase.

  16. Survival Outcomes for Combined Modality Therapy for Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Phoebe; Manes, R Peter; Schwam, Zachary G; Judson, Benjamin L

    2017-01-01

    Objective Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Multi-institutional studies examining outcomes of combined modality treatment versus other treatment modalities have not been performed. The objective of our study was to present outcomes for multimodality therapy through use of the National Cancer Database. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database. Methods A total of 435 cases of SNUC diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 were identified. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to find 5-year cumulative survival rates. Multivariate Cox regression evaluated overall survival based on treatment when adjusting for other prognostic factors (age, primary site, sex, race, comorbidity, insurance, and TNM stage). Within the surgery + chemoradiotherapy group, survival analysis was also performed to compare outcomes for induction and adjuvant chemotherapy. Results The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 41.5%, and 36.1% of patients received surgery with chemoradiotherapy. In multivariate analysis, surgery + chemoradiotherapy was associated with significantly improved overall survival versus surgery + radiotherapy and radiotherapy but not significantly different from chemoradiotherapy. Within the surgery + chemoradiotherapy group, induction and adjuvant chemotherapy groups did not have associated differences in survival. Conclusion Combined modality therapy (chemoradiotherapy or surgery + chemoradiotherapy) is associated with improved survival outcomes versus other treatment modalities in patients with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.

  17. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population.

  18. Surviving a cluster collapse: risk aversion as a core value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Hospers, Gerrit J.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper analyses firms, which survived in a collapsed regional cluster. The target is to analyze whether the principles for enduring success identified researching success factors of very old firms also apply in such an environment. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conduct a

  19. Metastatic breast cancer - age has a significant effect on survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data on 217 elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) and 209 middleaged postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, from 1976 to 1985 were analysed to determine the effect of age on survival. When considered as a group, the elderly have a more ...

  20. Survival and development of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... All developmental and survivorship tests were replicated five times. Multiple factorial design and analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to test the effects of treatment on developmental time or survival rate. When a significant F value was obtained in the. ANOVA, means were then separated by Duncan's ...

  1. Survival of the fattest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgani, Sophie M; Brickman, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Experiments on the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum show that the origins of lineage bias in this system lie in the nutritional history of individual cells. Clues to the molecular basis for this process suggest similar forces may be at work in early mammalian development.......Experiments on the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum show that the origins of lineage bias in this system lie in the nutritional history of individual cells. Clues to the molecular basis for this process suggest similar forces may be at work in early mammalian development....

  2. Post-Progression Survival Associated with Overall Survival in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Docetaxel Monotherapy as Second-Line Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Mie; Miura, Yosuke; Imai, Hisao; Mori, Keita; Sakurai, Reiko; Kaira, Kyoichi; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Minato, Koichi; Saito, Ryusei; Hisada, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    In patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effects of second-line chemotherapy on overall survival (OS) might be confounded by subsequent therapies. Therefore, using individual-level data, we aimed to determine the relationships between progression-free survival (PFS) and post-progression survival (PPS) with OS in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with docetaxel monotherapy as second-line chemotherapy. Between April 2002 and December 2014, data from 86 patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent second-line docetaxel monotherapy following first-line treatment with platinum combination chemotherapy were analyzed. The relationships of PFS and PPS with OS were analyzed at the individual level. Spearman rank correlation and linear regression analyses showed that PPS was strongly associated with OS (r = 0.86, p chemotherapy were significantly associated with PPS (p chemotherapy, when compared with PFS, PPS had a stronger association with OS. This finding suggests that subsequent treatment after disease progression following second-line docetaxel monotherapy has a significant influence on OS. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Research Waste: How Are Dental Survival Articles Indexed and Reported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Research waste occurs when research is ignored, cannot be found, cannot be used, or is unintentionally repeated. This article aims to investigate how dental survival analyses were indexed and reported, and to discuss whether errors in indexing and writing articles are affecting identification and use of survival articles, contributing to research waste. Articles reporting survival of dental prostheses in humans (also known as time-to-event) were identified by searching 50 dental journals that had the highest Impact Factor in 2008. These journals were hand searched twice (Kappa 0.92), and the articles were assessed by two independent reviewers (Kappa 0.86) to identify dental survival articles ("case" articles, n = 95), likely false positives (active controls, n = 91), and all other true negative articles (passive controls, n = 6,769). This means that the study used a case:control method. Once identified, the different groups of articles were assessed and compared. Allocation of medical subject headings (MeSH) by MEDLINE indexers that related to survival was sought, use of words by authors in the abstract and title that related to survival was identified, and use of words and figures by authors that related to survival in the articles themselves was also sought. Differences were assessed with chi-square and Fisher's Exact statistics. Reporting quality was also assessed. The results were reviewed to discuss their potential impact on research waste. Allocation of survival-related MeSH index terms across the three article groups was inconsistent and inaccurate. Statistical MeSH had not been allocated to 30% of the dental survival "case" articles and had been incorrectly allocated to 15% of active controls. Additionally, information reported by authors in titles and abstracts varied, with only two-thirds of survival "case" articles mentioning survival "statistics" in the abstract. In the articles themselves, time-to-event statistical methods, survival curves, and life

  4. Altruism: A natural strategy for enhancing survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Alejandro F.; Luis Gruver, José; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2006-09-01

    We study the influence of altruistic behavior in a prey-predator model permitting the preys to commit suicide by confronting the predators instead of escaping. Surprising, altruistic behavior at microscopic (local) scale, leads to the emergence of new complex macroscopic (global) phenomena characterized by dramatic changes in the dynamic topology of the prey-predator spatiotemporal distribution, yielding spiral patterns. We show that such dynamics enhances the prey's survivability.

  5. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  6. Salinity and survival of Martesia striata (Linn) in Cochin harbour

    OpenAIRE

    Cheriyan, P.V.; Cherian, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of salinity variations on the survival of Martesia striata from Cochin harbour are presented. It is observed that at least a few of the animals survive the low saline conditions during monsoon. Laboratory experiments showed the lethal salinity as 6‰ when animals acclimatised in 34‰ were subjected to abrupt changes in salinity. But acclimatisation to 17‰ salinity showed a downward shift in the lethal salinity to 4‰. The present observations indicate that M. striata is euryhaline ar...

  7. PARP-2 deficiency affects the survival of CD4+CD8+ double-positive thymocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, José; Monreal, Yolanda; Saenz, Luis; Aguado, Enrique; Schreiber, Valérie; Mota, Rubén; Fuente, Teodomiro; Minguela, Alfredo; Parrilla, Pascual; de Murcia, Gilbert; Almarza, Elena; Aparicio, Pedro; Ménissier-de Murcia, Josiane

    2006-01-01

    Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) belongs to a large family of enzymes that synthesize and transfer ADP-ribose polymers to acceptor proteins, modifying their functional properties. PARP-2-deficient (Parp-2−/−) cells, similar to Parp-1−/− cells, are sensitive to both ionizing radiation and alkylating agents. Here we show that inactivation of mouse Parp-2, but not Parp-1, produced a two-fold reduction in CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocytes associated with decreased DP cell survival. Microarray analyses revealed increased expression of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Noxa in Parp-2−/− DP thymocytes compared to littermate controls. In addition, DP thymocytes from Parp-2−/− have a reduced expression of T-cell receptor (TCR)α and a skewed repertoire of TCRα toward the 5′ Jα segments. Our results show that in the absence of PARP-2, the survival of DP thymocytes undergoing TCRα recombination is compromised despite normal amounts of Bcl-xL. These data suggest a novel role for PARP-2 as an important mediator of T-cell survival during thymopoiesis by preventing the activation of DNA damage-dependent apoptotic response during the multiple rounds of TCRα rearrangements preceding a positively selected TCR. PMID:16946705

  8. Ovarian cancer survival population differences: a "high resolution study" comparing Philippine residents, and Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uy Gemma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to most other forms of cancer, data from some developing and developed countries show surprisingly similar survival rates for ovarian cancer. We aimed to compare ovarian cancer survival in Philippine residents, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US, using a high resolution approach, taking potential differences in prognostic factors into account. Methods Using databases from the SEER 13 and from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed using the period analysis method and compared between Filipino-American ovarian cancer patients with cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasians in the US. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Results Despite more favorable distribution of age and cancer morphology and similar stage distribution, 5-year absolute and relative survival were lower in Philippine residents (Absolute survival, AS, 44%, Standard Error, SE, 2.9 and Relative survival, RS, 49.7%, SE, 3.7 than in Filipino-Americans (AS, 51.3%, SE, 3.1 and RS, 54.1%, SE, 3.4. After adjustment for these and additional covariates, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents was found (Relative Risk, RR, 2.45, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.99-3.01. In contrast, no significant differences were found between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US. Conclusion Multivariate analyses disclosed strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients, for which differences in access to health care might have played an important role. Survival is no worse among Filipino-Americans than among Caucasians living in the US.

  9. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment. METHODS: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were...... referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had...... adenocarcinoma, 2% had large cell carcinoma and 8% had NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS). In all, 28 (16%) had small cell lung cancer. A total of 142 patients (82%) received treatment; 20 underwent surgery (ten stage Ib, one stage IIa, five stage IIb, four stage IIIa); palliative chemotherapy was given to 122...

  10. Operational slack and venture survival

    OpenAIRE

    Azadegan, Arash; Patel, Pankaj; Parida, Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environme...

  11. Antioxidant defenses predict long-term survival in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal and pathological processes entail the production of oxidative substances that can damage biological molecules and harm physiological functions. Organisms have evolved complex mechanisms of antioxidant defense, and any imbalance between oxidative challenge and antioxidant protection can depress fitness components and accelerate senescence. While the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and aging has been studied intensively in humans and model animal species under laboratory conditions, there is a dearth of knowledge on its role in shaping life-histories of animals under natural selection regimes. Yet, given the pervasive nature and likely fitness consequences of oxidative damage, it can be expected that the need to secure efficient antioxidant protection is powerful in molding the evolutionary ecology of animals. Here, we test whether overall antioxidant defense varies with age and predicts long-term survival, using a wild population of a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, as a model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC of breeding individuals was measured using standard protocols and annual survival was monitored over five years (2006-2010 on a large sample of selection episodes. AOC did not covary with age in longitudinal analyses after discounting the effect of selection. AOC positively predicted annual survival independently of sex. Individuals were highly consistent in their relative levels of AOC, implying the existence of additive genetic variance and/or environmental (including early maternal components consistently acting through their lives. CONCLUSIONS: Using longitudinal data we showed that high levels of antioxidant protection positively predict long-term survival in a wild animal population. Present results are therefore novel in disclosing a role for antioxidant protection in determining survival under natural conditions, strongly demanding for more

  12. Surviving Violence, Contesting Victimhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Atreyee

    2011-01-01

    between local Hindus and Muslims. These tensions had everyday and extreme manifestations (ranging from quotidian expressions of symbolic violence to rioting, looting and bomb blasts) which increased the vulnerabilities of Muslim male children in the slums; the latter being humiliated by ordinary passers...... physically assaulting local women who were caught having affairs with Hindu men. In my paper I show how the power, presence and practices of these child squads upturned traditional structures of male and female authority, contested conventional notions of male childhood in a volatile urban space...

  13. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Greenleaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR], controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed patients. Results Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08–1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22–1.46], respectively and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00–1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03–1.29], respectively than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08–1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25–2.11], respectively than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P < 0.0001. Conclusions Even after controlling for other prognostic factors, married patients

  14. Trend analysis and survival of primary gallbladder cancer in the United States: a 1973-2009 population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Simoes, Eduardo J; Schmaltz, Chester; Jackson, Christian S; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2017-04-01

    Primary gallbladder cancer is an aggressive and uncommon cancer with poor outcomes. Our study examines epidemiology, trend, and survival of gallbladder cancer in the United States from 1973 to 2009. We utilized the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (SEER). Frequency and rate analyses on demographics, stage, and survival were compared among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African American, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. A total of 18,124 cases were reported in SEER from 1973 to 2009 comprising 1.4% of all reported gastrointestinal cancers. Gallbladder cancer was more common in females than males (71 vs. 29%, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence rate was 1.4 per 100,000, significantly higher in females than males (1.7 vs. 1.0). Trend analysis showed that the incidence rate has been decreasing over the last three decades for males. However, among females, the incidence rate had decreased from 1973 to mid-90s but has remained stable since then. Trend analysis for stage at diagnosis showed that the proportion of late-stage cases has been increasing significantly since 2001 after a decreasing pattern since 1973. Survival has improved considerably over time, and survival is better in females than males and in Asian/Pacific Islanders than other racial groups. The highest survival was in patients who received both surgery and radiation. Trend analysis revealed a recent increase of the incidence of late-stage gallbladder cancer. Highest survival was associated with receiving both surgery and radiation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sex disparity in childhood and young adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival: Evidence from US population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Jobayer; Xie, Li

    2015-12-01

    Sex variation has been persistently investigated in studies concerning acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival outcomes but has not been fully explored among pediatric and young adult AML patients. We detected sex difference in the survival of AML patients diagnosed at ages 0-24 years and explored distinct effects of sex across subgroups of age at diagnosis, race-ethnicity and AML subtypes utilizing the United States Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population based dataset of 4865 patients diagnosed with AML between 1973 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier survival function, propensity scores and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used for data analyses. After controlling for other prognostic factors, females showed a significant survival advantage over their male counterparts, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.00-1.18). Compared to females, male patients had substantially increased risk of mortality in the following subgroups of: ages 20-24 years at diagnosis (aHR1.30), Caucasian (1.14), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) (1.35), acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) (1.39), AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) (2.57), AML with minimum differentiation (1.47); and had substantially decreased aHR in AML t(9;11)(p22;q23) (0.57) and AML with maturation (0.82). Overall, females demonstrated increased survival over males and this disparity was considerably large in patients ages 20-24 years at diagnosis, Caucasians, and in AML subtypes of AML inv(16), APL and AEL. In contrast, males with AML t(9;11)(p22;q23), AML with maturation and age at diagnosis of 10-14 years showed survival benefit. Further investigations are needed to detect the biological processes influencing the mechanisms of these interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery on survival rate of patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Huan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery, a type of stereotactic body radiotherapy, in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer after resection or ablation, as well as the effect of clinical factors on survival rate. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 34 patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery who were treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery. The patients′ survival rate and survival time after radiotherapy were calculated, and the influencing factors for survival were analyzed. The gross tumor volume of tumor target was 1.475-1082.075 cm3 (median 162.99 cm3. The fraction dose was 7-20 Gy (median 9 Gy, the number of times of irradiation was 2-8 times (median 5 times, and the tumor dose was 24-60 Gy (median 45 Gy once a day. The major indices for observation were short-term outcome, toxic and side effects, and long-term outcome. The log-rank test was used to analyze the surviral-related factors. The chi-square test and fisher test were used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy were 91.2%, 70.6%, and 44.1%, respectively, and the median survival time was 34 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free survival rates were 55.9%, 38.2%, and 29.4%, respectively. There were no significant differences in 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy between the ≤1-year (early postoperative group and the >1-year (late postoperative group (89%/73.7%/57.9% vs 93%/73.3%/33.3%, χ2=0.354, P=0.368. The univariate analyses showed that sex, age, time to postoperative recurrence, diameter and number of recurrent lesions, liver function classification, alpha-fetoprotein level, and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with patients' survival after radiotherapy. ConclusionCyberKnife radiosurgery is safe and effective in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer, with the

  17. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  18. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  19. Prognostic model for survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the international kidney cancer working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Judith; Royston, Patrick; Elson, Paul; McCormack, Jennifer Bacik; Mazumdar, Madhu; Négrier, Sylvie; Escudier, Bernard; Eisen, Tim; Dutcher, Janice; Atkins, Michael; Heng, Daniel Y C; Choueiri, Toni K; Motzer, Robert; Bukowski, Ronald

    2011-08-15

    To develop a single validated model for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) using a comprehensive international database. A comprehensive database of 3,748 patients including previously reported clinical prognostic factors was established by pooling patient-level data from clinical trials. Following quality control and standardization, descriptive statistics were generated. Univariate analyses were conducted using proportional hazards models. Multivariable analysis using a log-logistic model stratified by center and multivariable fractional polynomials was conducted to identify independent predictors of survival. Missing data were handled using multiple imputation methods. Three risk groups were formed using the 25th and 75th percentiles of the resulting prognostic index. The model was validated using an independent data set of 645 patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Median survival in the favorable, intermediate and poor risk groups was 26.9 months, 11.5 months, and 4.2 months, respectively. Factors contributing to the prognostic index included treatment, performance status, number of metastatic sites, time from diagnosis to treatment, and pretreatment hemoglobin, white blood count, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and serum calcium. The model showed good concordance when tested among patients treated with TKI therapy (C statistic = 0.741, 95% CI: 0.714-0.768). Nine clinical factors can be used to model survival in mRCC and form distinct prognostic groups. The model shows utility among patients treated in the TKI era. ©2011 AACR.

  20. Epidemic and Cascading Survivability of Complex Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzano, Marc; Calle, Eusebi; Ripoll, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Our society nowadays is governed by complex networks, examples being the power grids, telecommunication networks, biological networks, and social networks. It has become of paramount importance to understand and characterize the dynamic events (e.g. failures) that might happen in these complex...... networks. For this reason, in this paper, we propose two measures to evaluate the vulnerability of complex networks in two different dynamic multiple failure scenarios: epidemic-like and cascading failures. Firstly, we present epidemic survivability ( ES ), a new network measure that describes...... the vulnerability of each node of a network under a specific epidemic intensity. Secondly, we propose cascading survivability ( CS ), which characterizes how potentially injurious a node is according to a cascading failure scenario. Then, we show that by using the distribution of values obtained from ES and CS...

  1. Epidemic and Cascading Survivability of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Manzano, Marc; Ripoll, Jordi; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Torres-Padrosa, Victor; Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Our society nowadays is governed by complex networks, examples being the power grids, telecommunication networks, biological networks, and social networks. It has become of paramount importance to understand and characterize the dynamic events (e.g. failures) that might happen in these complex networks. For this reason, in this paper, we propose two measures to evaluate the vulnerability of complex networks in two different dynamic multiple failure scenarios: epidemic-like and cascading failures. Firstly, we present \\emph{epidemic survivability} ($ES$), a new network measure that describes the vulnerability of each node of a network under a specific epidemic intensity. Secondly, we propose \\emph{cascading survivability} ($CS$), which characterizes how potentially injurious a node is according to a cascading failure scenario. Then, we show that by using the distribution of values obtained from $ES$ and $CS$ it is possible to describe the vulnerability of a given network. We consider a set of 17 different compl...

  2. Hearing loss in adults surviving pneumococcal meningitis is associated with otitis and pneumococcal serotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, S.; Brouwer, M.; van den Ende, A.; Hensen, E.F.; van de Beek, D.

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 849-855 We assessed the incidence of hearing loss and its relationship with clinical characteristics and pneumococcal serotypes in adults surviving pneumococcal meningitis. We analysed hearing loss in 531 adults surviving pneumococcal meningitis included in two

  3. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  4. Reduced Long-Term Relative Survival in Females and Younger Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Bull Enger

    Full Text Available To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients.8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths. Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality.During follow-up (median 6.4 years, 2,044 patients (23.9% died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1. Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR. The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR 1.35 (1.19-1.54, p<0.001. Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79-0.84, p<0.001.Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The beneficial effect lasted shorter in

  5. Community-level physiological profiling analyses show potential to identify the copiotrophic bacteria present in soil environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku e0171638. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-09040P; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15086 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION PATTERNS * CARBON-SOURCE UTILIZATION * MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  6. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munawar, Aisha; Trusch, Maria; Georgieva, Dessislava; Hildebrand, Diana; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Behnken, Henning; Harder, Soenke; Arni, Raghuvir; Spencer, Patrick; Schlueter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian

    Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms-that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja), and the Peninsula tiger

  7. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Kyu [Department of Marine Science, College of Natural Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon, 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: jeoh@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1} for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}; PFOA: 1500 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  8. Genetic analyses of captive Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) using AFLP analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Bianchi, Kiara R.

    2006-01-01

    affected by the mutation rate at microsatellite loci, thus introducing a bias. Also, the number of loci that can be studied is frequently limited to fewer than 10. This theoretically represents a maximum of one marker for each of 10 chromosomes. Dominant markers like AFLP allow a larger fraction of the genome to be screened. Large numbers of loci can be screened by AFLP to resolve very small individual differences that can be used for identification of individuals, estimates of pairwise relatedness and, in some cases, for parentage analyses. Since AFLP is a dominant marker (can not distinguish between +/+ homozygote versus +/- heterozygote), it has limitations for parentage analyses. Only when both parents are homozygous for the absence of alleles (-/-) and offspring show a presence (+/+ or +/-) can the parents be excluded. In this case, microsatellites become preferable as they have the potential to exclude individual parents when the other parent is unknown. Another limitation of AFLP is that the loci are generally less polymorphic (only two alleles/locus) than microsatellite loci (often >10 alleles/locus). While generally fewer than 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci are enough to exclude and assign parentage, it might require up to 100 or more AFLP loci. While there are pros and cons to different methodologies, the total number of loci evaluated by AFLP generally offsets the limitations imposed due to the dominant nature of this approach and end results between methods are generally comparable. Overall objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of genetic diversity in the captive population of Alala, to compare genetic data with currently available pedigree information, and to determine the extent of relatedness of mating pairs and among founding individuals.

  9. Ergonomic analyses of downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Publie, J; Zinzen, E

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide electromyographic feedback for (1) pedagogical advice in motor learning, (2) the ergonomics of materials choice and (3) competition. For these purposes: (1) EMG data were collected for the Stem Christie, the Stem Turn and the Parallel Christie (three basic ski initiation drills) and verified for the complexity of patterns; (2) integrated EMG (iEMG) and linear envelopes (LEs) were analysed from standardized positions, motions and slopes using compact, soft and competition skis; (3) in a simulated 'parallel special slalom', the muscular activity pattern and intensity of excavated and flat snow conditions were compared. The EMG data from the three studies were collected on location in the French Alps (Tignes). The analog raw EMG was recorded on the slopes with a portable seven-channel FM recorder (TEAC MR30) and with pre-amplified bipolar surface electrodes supplied with a precision instrumentation amplifier (AD 524, Analog Devices, Norwood, USA). The raw signal was full-wave rectified and enveloped using a moving average principle. This linear envelope was normalized according to the highest peak amplitude procedure per subject and was integrated in order to obtain a reference of muscular intensity. In the three studies and for all subjects (elite skiers: n = 25 in studies 1 and 2, n = 6 in study 3), we found a high level of co-contractions in the lower limb extensors and flexors, especially during the extension phase of the ski movement. The Stem Christie and the Parallel Christie showed higher levels of rhythmic movement (92 and 84%, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Survivable HF communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, John T.

    Robust HF uses a noncoherent FSK (frequency-shift-keyed) signal. It uses fast pseudorandom frequency hopping and a rugged modulation format which makes it impervious to multipath, atmospheric, and man-made noise. It is optimized as an antijam system. The robust-HF operating frequency range is 2-30 MHz. The pseudorandom frequency hopping uses variable bandwidth and adapts to the best frequencies between the lowest usable frequency and the maximum usable frequency. The system operates skywave (long distance) or ground wave (up to 100 km, or even more over water). Buried hard antennas have been tested and show almost no degradation in system performance. Robust HF uses powerful error coding with variable code rates and code combining, which automatically adapt according to link conditions. The result is exceptional processing gain. A powerful cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is included to prevent delivery of corrupt data. System bit rates run as high as 600 b/s, with average throughput of about 75 b/s, depending on the code rate.

  11. An Easy Tool to Predict Survival in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhoff, Paulien G., E-mail: p.g.westhoff@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graeff, Alexander de [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Monninkhof, Evelyn M. [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bollen, Laurens; Dijkstra, Sander P. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M. van der [ARTI Institute for Radiation Oncology Arnhem, Arnhem (Netherlands); Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leer, Jan Willem H. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Marijnen, Corrie A.; Linden, Yvette M. van der [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with bone metastases have a widely varying survival. A reliable estimation of survival is needed for appropriate treatment strategies. Our goal was to assess the value of simple prognostic factors, namely, patient and tumor characteristics, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and patient-reported scores of pain and quality of life, to predict survival in patients with painful bone metastases. Methods and Materials: In the Dutch Bone Metastasis Study, 1157 patients were treated with radiation therapy for painful bone metastases. At randomization, physicians determined the KPS; patients rated general health on a visual analogue scale (VAS-gh), valuation of life on a verbal rating scale (VRS-vl) and pain intensity. To assess the predictive value of the variables, we used multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses and C-statistics for discriminative value. Of the final model, calibration was assessed. External validation was performed on a dataset of 934 patients who were treated with radiation therapy for vertebral metastases. Results: Patients had mainly breast (39%), prostate (23%), or lung cancer (25%). After a maximum of 142 weeks' follow-up, 74% of patients had died. The best predictive model included sex, primary tumor, visceral metastases, KPS, VAS-gh, and VRS-vl (C-statistic = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.70-0.74). A reduced model, with only KPS and primary tumor, showed comparable discriminative capacity (C-statistic = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.69-0.72). External validation showed a C-statistic of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.70-0.73). Calibration of the derivation and the validation dataset showed underestimation of survival. Conclusion: In predicting survival in patients with painful bone metastases, KPS combined with primary tumor was comparable to a more complex model. Considering the amount of variables in complex models and the additional burden on patients, the simple model is preferred for daily use. In addition, a risk table for survival is

  12. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  13. Mediation analysis for survival data using semiparametric probit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Cai, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Causal mediation modeling has become a popular approach for studying the effect of an exposure on an outcome through mediators. Currently, the literature on mediation analyses with survival outcomes largely focused on settings with a single mediator and quantified the mediation effects on the hazard, log hazard and log survival time (Lange and Hansen 2011; VanderWeele 2011). In this article, we propose a multi-mediator model for survival data by employing a flexible semiparametric probit model. We characterize path-specific effects (PSEs) of the exposure on the outcome mediated through specific mediators. We derive closed form expressions for PSEs on a transformed survival time and the survival probabilities. Statistical inference on the PSEs is developed using a nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator under the semiparametric probit model and the functional Delta method. Results from simulation studies suggest that our proposed methods perform well in finite sample. We illustrate the utility of our method in a genomic study of glioblastoma multiforme survival. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  14. A global synthesis of survival estimates for microbats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini, Pia E; Bird, Tomas J; Griffiths, Stephen R; Godinho, Lisa N; Wintle, Brendan A

    2015-08-01

    Accurate survival estimates are needed to construct robust population models, which are a powerful tool for understanding and predicting the fates of species under scenarios of environmental change. Microbats make up 17% of the global mammalian fauna, yet the processes that drive differences in demographics between species are poorly understood. We collected survival estimates for 44 microbat species from the literature and constructed a model to determine the effects of reproductive, feeding and demographic traits on survival. Our trait-based model indicated that bat species which produce more young per year exhibit lower apparent annual survival, as do males and juveniles compared with females and adults, respectively. Using 8 years of monitoring data for two Australian species, we demonstrate how knowledge about the effect of traits on survival can be incorporated into Bayesian survival analyses. This approach can be applied to any group and is not restricted to bats or even mammals. The incorporation of informative priors based on traits can allow for more timely construction of population models to support management decisions and actions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  16. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Listl; Lina Jansen; Albrecht Stenzinger; Kolja Freier; Katharina Emrich; Bernd Holleczek; Alexander Katalinic; Adam Gondos; Hermann Brenner

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002-2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well...

  17. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  18. Conjoint-Analyse und Marktsegmentierung

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Winfried J.; Baumgartner, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Die Marktsegmentierung zählt neben der Neuproduktplanung und Preisgestaltung zu den wesentlichen Einsatzgebieten der Conjoint-Analyse. Neben traditionell eingesetzten zweistufigen Vorgehensweisen, bei denen Conjoint-Analyse und Segmentierung in zwei getrennten Schritten erfolgen, stehen heute mit Methoden wie der Clusterwise Regression oder Mixture-Modellen neuere Entwicklungen, die eine simultane Segmentierung und Präferenzschätzung ermöglichen, zur Verfügung. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblic...

  19. Analyse des Organisations en Afrique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de celle-ci pourtenter d'identifier et d'élucider les dynamiques sociales qui s'y déroulent, puis de les examiner en rapport avec les stratégies d'acteurs et le contexte général (l'environnement) dans lequel évolue cette organisation, ... Et son Analyse. L'analyse des organisations est une démarche ancienne dont les ...

  20. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  1. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  2. Career development at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Laser Therapy Shows Promise Against Eye 'Floaters'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167324.html Laser Therapy Shows Promise Against Eye 'Floaters' These spots ... 2017 THURSDAY, July 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A laser treatment can reduce spots in people's vision known ...

  4. Psychotherapy with children in refugee families who have survived torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    1997-01-01

    Children of refugee families who have survived torture often have emotional, psychosomatic and behavioural problems as well as problems with learning. In order to understand the difficulties of these children, we have to recognize the complicated interaction of cumulative traumatic strain...... this complicated mixture of repeated trauma and chronic strain may show as a pervasive tendency to retreat to defensive survival strategies combined with continual repetition of more specific traces of the impact of the trauma on the individual. This paper focuses on how the enacted survival strategies can...

  5. The Value of Serum NR2 Antibody in Prediction of Post-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidari, Ali; Vaziri, Samira; Moazen Zadeh, Ehsan; Farahmand, Sahar; Talachian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits antibody (NR2-ab) is a sensitive marker of ischemic brain damage in clinical circumstances, such as cerebrovascular accidents. We aimed to assess the value of serum NR2-ab in predicting the post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) survival. Methods: In this cohort study, we examined serum NR2-ab levels 1 hour after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in 49 successfully resuscitated patients. Patients with traumatic or asphyxic arrests, prior neurological insults, or major medical illnesses were excluded. Participants were followed until death or hospital discharge. Demographic data, coronary artery disease risk factors, time before initiation of CPR, and CPR duration were documented. In addition, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood pressure, and survival status of patients were recorded at 1, 6, 24, and 72 hour(s) after ROSC. Descriptive analyses were performed, and the Cox proportional hazard model was applied to assess if NR2-ab level is an independent predictive factor of survival. Results: 49 successfully resuscitated patients were evaluated; 27 (55%) survived to hospital discharge, 4 (8.1%) were in vegetative state, 10 (20.4%) were physically disabled, and 13 (26.5%) were physically functional. Within 72 hours of ROSC all of the 12 NR2-ab positive patients died. In contrast, 31 (84%) of the NR2-ab negative patients survived. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of NR2-ab in prediction of survival were 54.5% (95%CI=32.7%-74.9%), 100% (95%CI=84.5%-100%), infinite, and 45.5% (95%CI=28.8%-71.8%), respectively. Subsequent analysis showed that both NR2-ab status and GCS were independent risk factors of death. Conclusions: A positive NR2-ab serum test 1 hour after ROSC correlated with lower 72-hour survival. Further studies are required to validate this finding and demonstrate the value of a quantitative NR2-ab assay and its optimal time of measurement. PMID:26495391

  6. The Value of Serum NR2 Antibody in Prediction of Post-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits antibody (NR2-ab is a sensitive marker of ischemic brain damage in clinical circumstances, such as cerebrovascular accidents. We aimed to assess the value of serum NR2-ab in predicting the post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR survival. Methods: In this cohort study, we examined serum NR2-ab levels 1 hour after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC in 49 successfully resuscitated patients. Patients with traumatic or asphyxic arrests, prior neurological insults, or major medical illnesses were excluded. Participants were followed until death or hospital discharge. Demographic data, coronary artery disease risk factors, time before initiation of CPR, and CPR duration were documented.  In addition, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, blood pressure, and survival status of patients were recorded at 1, 6, 24, and 72 hour(s after ROSC. Descriptive analyses were performed, and the Cox proportional hazard model was applied to assess if NR2-ab level is an independent predictive factor of survival. Results: 49 successfully resuscitated patients were evaluated; 27 (55% survived to hospital discharge, 4 (8.1% were in vegetative state, 10 (20.4% were physically disabled, and 13 (26.5% were physically functional. Within 72 hours of ROSC all of the 12 NR2-ab positive patients died. In contrast, 31 (84% of the NR2-ab negative patients survived. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of NR2-ab in prediction of survival were 54.5% (95%CI=32.7%-74.9%, 100% (95%CI=84.5%-100%, infinite, and 45.5% (95%CI=28.8%-71.8%, respectively. Subsequent analysis showed that both NR2-ab status and GCS were independent risk factors of death. Conclusions: A positive NR2-ab serum test 1 hour after ROSC correlated with lower 72-hour survival. Further studies are required to validate this finding and demonstrate the value of a quantitative NR2-ab assay and its optimal time of measurement.

  7. Overall Survival Following Thoracoscopic vs Open Lobectomy for Early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaji, Masatsugu; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Burt, Bryan M

    2017-01-01

    A majority of observational studies on overall survival following thoracoscopic vs open lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer did not demonstrate a significant difference, whereas several meta-analyses on this topic showed a significant difference. The PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were queried for studies published in the English language. We searched for meta-analyses and original studies comparing overall survival between thoracoscopic and open lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Our meta-analysis, using random effect models and with a hazard ratio as a measure of effect, was performed on original studies. Publication bias was evaluated with funnel plots of precision and the Egger test. Seven meta-analyses on this topic were found and all of them have shown that thoracoscopic lobectomy is associated with significantly more favorable overall survival than open lobectomy, using odds ratio, risk ratio, or risk difference as measures of effect. Our meta-analysis of 11 observational studies demonstrated no significant difference in overall survival between thoracoscopic (n = 2386) and open lobectomy (n = 3494) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (pooled hazard ratio: 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.09, P = 0.30). Neither funnel plots of precision nor the Egger test suggested a publication bias. Our meta-analysis, using a hazard ratio as a measure of effect for a time-to-event outcome, did not demonstrate a significant difference in overall survival between thoracoscopic and open lobectomy with the current dataset available in the literature, as opposed to previous meta-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  9. Survival Processing Eliminates Collaborative Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Matthew B; Bliss, Heather; Baker, Melissa A

    2017-04-11

    The present experiments examined the effect of processing words for their survival value, relevance to moving, and pleasantness on participants' free recall scores in both nominal groups (non-redundant pooled individual scores) and collaborative dyads. Overall, participants recalled more words in the survival processing conditions than in the moving and pleasantness processing conditions. Furthermore, nominal groups in both the pleasantness condition (Experiment 1) and the moving and pleasantness conditions (Experiment 2) recalled more words than collaborative groups, thereby replicating the oft-observed effect of collaborative inhibition. However, processing words for their survival value appeared to eliminate the deleterious effects of collaborative remembering in both Experiments 1 and 2. These results are discussed in the context of the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis and the effects of both expertise and collaborative skill on group remembering.

  10. 12-year survival of composite vs. amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdam, N J M; Bronkhorst, E M; Loomans, B A C; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2010-10-01

    Information about the long-term clinical survival of large amalgam and composite restorations is still lacking. This retrospective study compares the longevity of three- and four-/five-surface amalgam and composite restorations relative to patients' caries risk. Patient records from a general practice were used for data collection. We evaluated 1949 large class II restorations (1202 amalgam/747 composite). Dates of placement, replacement, and failure were recorded, and caries risk of patients was assessed. Survival was calculated from Kaplan-Meier statistics. After 12 years, 293 amalgam and 114 composite restorations had failed. Large composite restorations showed a higher survival in the combined population and in the low-risk group. For three-surface restorations in high-risk patients, amalgam showed better survival.

  11. Clinical Nomogram for Predicting Survival Outcomes in Early Mucinous Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Fu

    Full Text Available The features related to the prognosis of patients with mucinous breast cancer (MBC remain controversial. We aimed to explore the prognostic factors of MBC and develop a nomogram for predicting survival outcomes.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database was searched to identify 139611 women with resectable breast cancer from 1990 to 2007. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier methods. The 5-year and 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS rates were calculated using the Life-Table method. Based on Cox models, a nomogram was constructed to predict the probabilities of CSS for an individual patient. The competing risk regression model was used to analyse the specific survival of patients with MBC.There were 136569 (97.82% infiltrative ductal cancer (IDC patients and 3042 (2.18% MBC patients. Patients with MBC had less lymph node involvement, a higher frequency of well-differentiated lesions, and more estrogen receptor (ER-positive tumors. Patients with MBC had significantly higher 5 and10-year CSS rates (98.23 and 96.03%, respectively than patients with IDC (91.44 and 85.48%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that MBC was an independent factor for better prognosis. As for patients with MBC, the event of death caused by another disease exceeded the event of death caused by breast cancer. A competing risk regression model further showed that lymph node involvement, poorly differentiated grade and advanced T-classification were independent factors of poor prognosis in patients with MBC. The Nomogram can accurately predict CSS with a high C-index (0.816. Risk scores developed from the nomogram can more accurately predict the prognosis of patients with MBC (C-index = 0.789 than the traditional TNM system (C-index = 0.704, P< 0.001.Patients with MBC have a better prognosis than patients with IDC. Nomograms could help clinicians make more informed decisions in clinical practice. The competing risk

  12. Surviving endoplasmic reticulum stress is coupled to altered chondrocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Yeung Tsang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling (ERSS protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence of a 13-base pair deletion in Col10a1 (13del, misfolded alpha1(X chains accumulate in HCs and elicit ERSS. Histological and gene expression analyses showed that these chondrocytes survived ER stress, but terminal differentiation is interrupted, and endochondral bone formation is delayed, producing a chondrodysplasia phenotype. This altered differentiation involves cell-cycle re-entry, the re-expression of genes characteristic of a prehypertrophic-like state, and is cell-autonomous. Concomitantly, expression of Col10a1 and 13del mRNAs are reduced, and ER stress is alleviated. ERSS, abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, and altered growth plate architecture also occur in mice expressing mutant collagen II and aggrecan. Alteration of the differentiation program in chondrocytes expressing unfolded or misfolded proteins may be part of an adaptive response that facilitates survival and recovery from the ensuing ER stress. However, the altered differentiation disrupts the highly coordinated events of endochondral ossification culminating in chondrodysplasia.

  13. Survival in Women with NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katcoff, Hannah; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Schwartz, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, few studies have investigated the hormonal influence on survival after a lung cancer diagnosis and results have been inconsistent. We evaluated the role of reproductive and hormonal factors in predicting overall survival in women with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Population-based lung cancer cases diagnosed between November 1, 2001 and October 31, 2005 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Interview and follow-up data were collected for 485 women. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for death after an NSCLC diagnosis associated with reproductive and hormonal variables. Results Use of hormone therapy (HT) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–0.89), adjusting for stage, surgery, radiation, education level, pack-years of smoking, age at diagnosis, race, and a multiplicative interaction between stage and radiation. No other reproductive or hormonal factor was associated with survival after an NSCLC diagnosis. Increased duration of HT use before the lung cancer diagnosis (132 months or longer) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.37–0.78), and this finding remained significant in women taking either estrogen alone or progesterone plus estrogen, never smokers, and smokers. Conclusion These findings suggest that HT use, in particular use of estrogen plus progesterone, and long-term HT use are associated with improved survival of NSCLC. PMID:24496005

  14. Survival following spinal cord infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; McFarlane, C L

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective open cohort. To calculate the survival of patients with spinal cord infarction and to compare the cause of death in patients with different mechanisms of ischaemic injury. Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Consecutive admissions between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2008 with recent onset of spinal cord infarction. Linkage to the Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Victoria) was used to determine survival following discharge from in-patient rehabilitation and cause of death. A total of 44 patients were admitted (males=26, 59%), with a median age of 72 years (interquartile range (IQR) 62-79). One patient died during their in-patient rehabilitation programme. In all, 14 patients (n=14/44; 33%) died during the follow-up period. The median survival after diagnosis was 56 months (IQR 28-85) and after discharge from in-patient rehabilitation was 46 months (IQR 25-74). The 1- and 5-year mortality rates were 7.0% (n=3/43; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.4-18.6%) and 20.9% (n=9/43; 95% CI=11.4-35.2%). There was no statistically significant difference in survival between patients with the different aetiologies of spinal cord infarction (other vs idiopathic: χ(2)=0.6, P=0.7; other vs vascular: χ(2)=1.9, P=0.3). There was no relationship between survival and gender (χ(2)=0.2, P=0.6), age (χ(2)=3.0, P=0.08), level of injury (χ(2)=0.0, P=1) or American Spinal Cord Society Impairment Scale grade of spinal cord injury (χ(2)=0.02, P=0.9). Patients with spinal cord infarction appear to have a fair survival after discharge from in-patient rehabilitation, not withstanding the occurrence of risk factors of vascular disease in many patients.

  15. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  16. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    This paper analyses the effect of foreign acquisition on survival probability and employment growth of target plant using data on Swedish manufacturing plants during the period 1993-2002.  An improvement over previous studies is that we take into account firm level heterogeneity by separating...... the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter.  The effect differs depending on whether the acquisition is horizontal or vertical.  We also find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters, and only if the takeover is vertical, not horizontal....... the targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms before foreign takeover. The results, controlling for possible endogeneity of the acquisition dummy using an IV and propensity score matching approach suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases...

  17. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet survival, if possible, could have an important economic impact.

    Litters and sows

    Data on some 33.000 litters and some 400.000 piglets from a commercial breeding progr...

  18. Frailty Models in Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wienke, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of frailty offers a convenient way to introduce unobserved heterogeneity and associations into models for survival data. In its simplest form, frailty is an unobserved random proportionality factor that modifies the hazard function of an individual or a group of related individuals. "Frailty Models in Survival Analysis" presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental approaches in the area of frailty models. The book extensively explores how univariate frailty models can represent unobserved heterogeneity. It also emphasizes correlated frailty models as extensions of

  19. A Multidomain Survivable Virtual Network Mapping Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiancui Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the existing networks are more often deployed in the multidomain environment, most of existing researches focus on single-domain networks and there are no appropriate solutions for the multidomain virtual network mapping problem. In fact, most studies assume that the underlying network can operate without any interruption. However, physical networks cannot ensure the normal provision of network services for external reasons and traditional single-domain networks have difficulties to meet user needs, especially for the high security requirements of the network transmission. In order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes a survivable virtual network mapping algorithm (IntD-GRC-SVNE that implements multidomain mapping in network virtualization. IntD-GRC-SVNE maps the virtual communication networks onto different domain networks and provides backup resources for virtual links which improve the survivability of the special networks. Simulation results show that IntD-GRC-SVNE can not only improve the survivability of multidomain communications network but also render the network load more balanced and greatly improve the network acceptance rate due to employment of GRC (global resource capacity.

  20. The survival of Class V restorations in general dental practice: part 3, five-year survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, D; Creanor, S; Thornley, P; Bigg, T; Bromage, C; Browne, A; Cottam, D; Dalby, D; Gilmour, J; Horton, J; Roberts, E; Westoby, L; Burke, T

    2012-05-11

    To evaluate the survival over five years of Class V restorations placed by UK general practitioners, and to identify factors associated with increased longevity. Prospective longitudinal cohort multi-centre study. UK general dental practices. Ten general dental practitioners each placed 100 Class V restorations of varying sizes, using a range of materials and recorded selected clinical information at placement and recall visits. After five years the data were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests and Cox regressions models to identify significant associations between the time to restoration failure and different clinical factors. After five years 275/989 restorations had failed (27.8%), with 116 (11.7%) lost to follow-up. Cox regression analysis identified that, in combination, the practitioner, patient age, cavity size, moisture contamination and cavity preparation were found to influence the survival of the restorations. At least 60.5% of the restorations survived for five years. The time to failure of Class V restorations placed by this group of dentists was reduced in association with the individual practitioner, smaller cavities, glass ionomer restorations, cavities which had not been prepared with a bur, moisture contamination, increasing patient age, cavities confined to dentine and non-carious cavities.

  1. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. © 2015 UICC.

  2. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  3. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  4. Satire og diskurs i The Daily Show

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Alexander Leicht; Dall, Christoffer; Jakobsen, Sebastian Rasch; Duvander, Søren; Knøster, Morten; Kirkegaard, Elissa Valles; Wallin, Dea

    2014-01-01

    This project examines how The Daily Show and its host Jon Stewart takes part in the American political debate. Furthermore, the term satire is explained by linguist Paul Simpson who reckons that satire is not as much a genre as it is a practice of discourse. By the use of detailed statistics by Gallup and Pew Research Center, a picture of the American media and its consumers is provided to explain why The Daily Show has gained more viewership through the years. Throughout a critical discourse...

  5. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  6. Hip Fracture Surgery and Survival in Centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Paolo; Rea, Federico; Merlino, Luca; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Dubner, Lauren; Corrao, Giovanni; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Annoni, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    Hip fracture (HF) is increasingly frequent with advancing age. Studies describing the HF incidence rate and survival after surgery in centenarians are scanty. To fill this gap, we performed a large population-based investigation on Lombardy centenarians (Italy). Retrospective observational cohort study based on information from the Healthcare Utilization Database. Among the cohort of 7,830 residents that reached 100 years of age between 2004 and 2011, incidence rate of HF was calculated. Two hundred fifty-nine patients were discharged alive from a hospital after HF and surgical repair (HF cohort). For each HF cohort member, a control was randomly selected from the initial cohort to be matched for gender and date of birth, and who did not experience HF from the date of their hundredth birthday until the date of hospital discharge of the corresponding HF cohort member. The survival curves and the hazard functions of HF and control cohort were calculated within 2 years. Over a mean follow-up of 1.85 years, HF incidence rate was 23.1 per 1,000 centenarians per year. Survival probability was significantly lower in HF cohort than in control cohort (31.5 vs 48.1%, p < .001). Hazard functions showed an increased risk of death in HF cohort than in control cohort, especially in the 3 months after surgery. Survival analysis exhibited an excess mortality in the first 3 months among HF cohort members, but not beyond this period. Every effort to counteract HF is warranted, including prevention of falls and high quality of care, especially in the early postsurgical time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A novel lectin from Agrocybe aegerita shows high binding selectivity for terminal N-acetylglucosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Yijie; Wang, Man; Yin, Yalin; Pan, Yongfu; Gu, Bianli; Yu, Guojun; Li, Yamu; Wong, Barry Hon Cheung; Liang, Yi; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    A novel lectin was isolated from the mushroom Agrocybe aegerita (designated AAL-2) by affinity chromatography with GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine)-coupled Sepharose 6B after ammonium sulfate precipitation. The AAL-2 coding sequence (1224 bp) was identified by performing a homologous search of the five tryptic peptides identified by MS against the translated transcriptome of A. aegerita. The molecular mass of AAL-2 was calculated to be 43.175 kDa from MS, which was consistent with the data calculated from the amino acid sequence. To analyse the carbohydrate-binding properties of AAL-2, a glycan array composed of 465 glycan candidates was employed, and the result showed that AAL-2 bound with high selectivity to terminal non-reducing GlcNAc residues, and further analysis revealed that AAL-2 bound to terminal non-reducing GlcNAc residues with higher affinity than previously well-known GlcNAc-binding lectins such as WGA (wheatgerm agglutinin) and GSL-II (Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-II). ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) showed further that GlcNAc bound to AAL-2 in a sequential manner with moderate affinity. In the present study, we also evaluated the anti-tumour activity of AAL-2. The results showed that AAL-2 could bind to the surface of hepatoma cells, leading to induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, AAL-2 exerted an anti-hepatoma effect via inhibition of tumour growth and prolongation of survival time of tumour-bearing mice in vivo. PMID:22268569

  8. Spatial Habitat Features Derived from Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Are Associated with Molecular Subtype and 12-Month Survival Status in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonsang Lee

    Full Text Available One of the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumors is Glioblastoma multiforme. Despite the multimodality treatment such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide: TMZ, the median survival rate of glioblastoma patient is less than 15 months. In this study, we investigated the association between measures of spatial diversity derived from spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data with molecular status as well as 12-month survival in glioblastoma. We obtained 27 measures of spatial proximity (diversity via spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI data. These measures were used to predict 12-month survival status (≤12 or >12 months in 74 glioblastoma patients. Kaplan-Meier with receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to assess the relationship between derived spatial features and 12-month survival status as well as molecular subtype status in patients with glioblastoma. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that 14 spatial features were capable of stratifying overall survival in a statistically significant manner. For prediction of 12-month survival status based on these diversity indices, sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 and 0.64, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the accuracy were 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. For prediction of molecular subtype status, proneural subtype shows highest accuracy of 0.93 among all molecular subtypes based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. We find that measures of spatial diversity from point pattern analysis of intensity habitats from T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images are associated with both tumor subtype status and 12-month survival status and may therefore be useful indicators of patient prognosis, in addition to providing potential guidance for molecularly

  9. Survival of Salmonella Newport in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher M; Armstrong, Alexandra E; Evans, Sanford; Mild, Rita M; Langdon, Christopher J; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-08-02

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed foodborne illness in the United States and raw shellfish consumption is a commonly implicated source of gastrointestinal pathogens. A 2005 epidemiological study done in our laboratory by Brands et al., showed that oysters in the United States are contaminated with Salmonella, and in particular, a specific strain of the Newport serovar. This work sought to further investigate the host-microbe interactions between Salmonella Newport and oysters. A procedure was developed to reliably and repeatedly expose oysters to enteric bacteria and quantify the subsequent levels of bacterial survival. The results show that 10 days after an exposure to Salmonella Newport, an average concentration of 3.7 × 10(3)CFU/g remains within the oyster meat, and even after 60 days there still can be more than 10(2)CFU/g remaining. However, the strain of Newport that predominated in the market survey done by Brands et al. does not survive within oysters or the estuarine environment better than any other strains of Salmonella we tested. Using this same methodology, we compared Salmonella Newport's ability to survive within oysters to a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli and found that after 10 days the concentration of Salmonella was 200-times greater than that of E. coli. We also compared those same strains of Salmonella and E. coli in a depuration process to determine if a constant 120 L/h flux of clean seawater could significantly reduce the concentration of bacteria within oysters and found that after 3 days the oysters retained over 10(4)CFU/g of Salmonella while the oysters exposed to the non-pathogenic strain of E. coli contained 100-times less bacteria. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that any of the clinically relevant serovars of Salmonella can survive within oysters for significant periods of time after just one exposure event. Based on the drastic differences in survivability between Salmonella and a non

  10. Sarcopenia is an Independent Predictor of Severe Postoperative Complications and Long-Term Survival After Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Huang, Dong-Dong; Pang, Wen-Yang; Zhou, Chong-Jun; Wang, Su-Lin; Lou, Neng; Ma, Liang-Liang; Yu, Zhen; Shen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the association between sarcopenia and long-term prognosis after gastric cancer surgery has not been investigated. Moreover, the association between sarcopenia and postoperative complications remains controversial. This large-scale retrospective study aims to ascertain the prevalence of sarcopenia and assess its impact on postoperative complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. From December 2008 to April 2013, the clinical data of all patients who underwent elective radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer were collected prospectively. Only patients with available preoperative abdominal CT scan within 30 days of surgery were considered for analysis. Skeletal muscle mass was determined by abdominal (computed tomography) CT scan, and sarcopenia was diagnosed by the cut-off values obtained by means of optimum stratification. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluating risk factors of postoperative complications and long-term survival were performed. A total of 937 patients were included in this study, and 389 (41.5%) patients were sarcopenic based on the diagnostic cut-off values (34.9 cm2/m2 for women and 40.8 cm2/m2 for men). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for severe postoperative complications (OR = 3.010, P sarcopenia did not show significant association with operative mortality. Moreover, sarcopenia was an independent predictor for poorer overall survival (HR = 1.653, P sarcopenia remained an independent risk factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. Sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of severe postoperative complications after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Moreover, sarcopenia is independently associated with overall and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. PMID:27043677

  11. Racial disparities in breast carcinoma survival rates: seperating factors that affect diagnosis from factors that affect treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kenneth C; Lamar, Charisee A; Freeman, Harold P

    2003-06-01

    Black females have lower breast carcinoma survival rates compared with white females. One possible reason is that black females have more advanced-stage breast disease. Another factor may be racial differences in the utilization of cancer treatments. The authors determined racial differences in 6-year stage specific survival rates, adjusting for age and treatments (using estrogen receptor [ER] status), to determine whether there were racial differences in treatment. Racial differences in the stage distributions of breast disease were used to examine the impact of racial factors on breast carcinoma diagnosis. For all breast carcinoma cases, the stage specific 6-year survival rates, in general, were significantly lower for black females for all stages combined and for Stages I-III in every age group. However, examination by different treatments, as measured by ER status, revealed some different results. Only black women younger than age 50 years with ER-positive tumors and women younger than age 65 years with ER-negative tumors had significantly lower stage-specific survival rates. In addition, the stage distribution analyses showed that black females of every age group had less Stage I breast disease. For younger black women (younger than age 50 years), there was evidence of racial differences in treatment for both women with ER-positive tumors and women with ER-negative tumors, as indicated by their lower stage-specific survival rates. In contrast, for black females age 65 years or older with ER-positive or ER-negative tumors, the lack of a significant difference in the stage-specific survival rate suggests that Medicare may help to alleviate racial disparities in cancer treatment. Furthermore, racial differences in the stage distributions indicated the need for earlier diagnosis for black females of every age. Published 2003 American Cancer Society.

  12. TV-Show Retrieval and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems are becoming popular tools to aid users in finding interesting and relevant TV-shows and other digital video assets,based on implicitly learned user preferences. In this context, a common assumption is that user preferences can be specified by program types (movie, sports, ...)

  13. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  14. Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1964-01-01

    Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

  15. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  16. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  17. See you at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-05

    London Vet Show is fast approaching: it takes place from November 17 to 18 and is being held at ExCeL London for the first time. Zoe Davies, marketing manager, highlights some of what BVA is offering at the event. British Veterinary Association.

  18. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives us a safe way to see how the sun damages our skin. In the UV photos that ... on the right, you can see what hidden sun damage looks like. Compare these UV photos with ...

  19. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  20. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  1. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants. PMID:24399931

  2. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  3. Effects of provenance and seed size on seedling survival and mophology of Quercus pontica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Aksu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of provenance and seed size on seedling survival and growth of Quercus pontica. The study showed that seed parameters showed significant differences among provenances. Provenance and seed size affected seedling survival and seedling morphology. Bigger seed size increased seedling survival, and also the large sized seed showed significant higher seedling height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and Dickson Quality Index in 1+0 seedlings.

  4. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences......The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...

  5. School Leadership: Handbook for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stuart C., Ed.; And Others

    Based on the assumption that the survival of the nation's schools and their leaders depends on these leaders having real influence over the quality of schooling, this volume draws from the work of many authorities to look at leadership from three perspectives: the person, the structure, and the skills. Chapters focusing on the person who holds the…

  6. Long-term haemodialysis survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James; Nielsen, Arne Høj; Hansen, Henrik Post

    2012-01-01

    Haemodialysis (HD) treatment for end-stage renal disease bears a poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient who, apart from two transplant periods lasting 8 months in all, was treated with conventional in-centre HD three times a week and who survived for 41 years. Patients should be aware tha...

  7. Characteristics of Patients Who Survived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Choi, David; Versteeg, Anne; Albert, Todd; Arts, Mark; Balabaud, Laurent; Bunger, Cody; Buchowski, Jacob Maciej; Chung, Chung Kee; Coppes, Maarten Hubert; Crockard, Hugh Alan; Depreitere, Bart; Fehlings, Michael George; Harrop, James; Kawahara, Norio; Kim, Eun Sang; Lee, Chong-Suh; Leung, Yee; Liu, Zhongjun; Martin-Benlloch, Antonio; Massicotte, Eric Maurice; Mazel, Christian; Meyer, Bernhard; Peul, Wilco; Quraishi, Nasir A.; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Tomita, Katsuro; Ulbricht, Christian; Wang, Michael; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survival after metastatic cancer has improved at the cost of increased presentation with metastatic spinal disease. For patients with pathologic spinal fractures and/or spinal cord compression, surgical intervention may relieve pain and improve quality of life. Surgery is generally

  8. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet

  9. Cool echidnas survive the fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Julia; Cooper, Christine Elizabeth; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Fires have occurred throughout history, including those associated with the meteoroid impact at the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) boundary that eliminated many vertebrate species. To evaluate the recent hypothesis that the survival of the K–Pg fires by ancestral mammals was dependent on their ability to use energy-conserving torpor, we studied body temperature fluctuations and activity of an egg-laying mammal, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), often considered to be a ‘living fossil’, before, during and after a prescribed burn. All but one study animal survived the fire in the prescribed burn area and echidnas remained inactive during the day(s) following the fire and substantially reduced body temperature during bouts of torpor. For weeks after the fire, all individuals remained in their original territories and compensated for changes in their habitat with a decrease in mean body temperature and activity. Our data suggest that heterothermy enables mammals to outlast the conditions during and after a fire by reducing energy expenditure, permitting periods of extended inactivity. Therefore, torpor facilitates survival in a fire-scorched landscape and consequently may have been of functional significance for mammalian survival at the K–Pg boundary. PMID:27075255

  10. Modelling survival and connectivity of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, S.; Vansteenbrugge, L.; van Walraven, L.; van Langenberg, V.; van der Veer, H.W.; Hostens, K.; Pitois, S.; Robbens, J.

    2015-01-01

    Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model

  11. Survivability of SCADA Control Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, José; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The endorsement of information technologies for critical infrastructures control introduces new threats in their security and surveillance. Along with certain level of protection against attacks, it is desirable for critical processes to survive even if they succeed. A stochastic Petri Nets-based

  12. Experiential Strategies for the Survival of Small Cities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingham, Peter

    2009-01-01

    . The article concludes with an evaluation of the branding methods, which includes considerations of whether they can be used as models of survival for other small European cities. The evaluation refers to recent views on the question of representation and authenticity, and the role of cultural heritage......The aim of the article is to analyse, discuss and evaluate different methods of branding applied in experiential strategies for the survival of small cities in Europe. After the introduction that refers to the advent of the experience economy in the post-Fordist era, the article introduces various...... branding methods applied in experiential strategies. Then follows an analysis of how these branding methods are applied in experiential strategies for the development and survival of two small cities in Germany, Dresden and Wolfsburg, in which car production and city development have been combined...

  13. Worldwide comparison of ovarian cancer survival: Histological group and stage at diagnosis (CONCORD-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Melissa; Coleman, Michel P; Carreira, Helena; Salmerón, Diego; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Allemani, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer comprises several histological groups with widely differing levels of survival. We aimed to explore international variation in survival for each group to help interpret international differences in survival from all ovarian cancers combined. We also examined differences in stage-specific survival. The CONCORD programme is the largest population-based study of global trends in cancer survival, including data from 60 countries for 695,932 women (aged 15-99years) diagnosed with ovarian cancer during 1995-2009. We defined six histological groups: type I epithelial, type II epithelial, germ cell, sex cord-stromal, other specific non-epithelial and non-specific morphology, and estimated age-standardised 5-year net survival for each country by histological group. We also analysed data from 67 cancer registries for 233,659 women diagnosed from 2001 to 2009, for whom information on stage at diagnosis was available. We estimated age-standardised 5-year net survival by stage at diagnosis (localised or advanced). Survival from type I epithelial ovarian tumours for women diagnosed during 2005-09 ranged from 40 to 70%. Survival from type II epithelial tumours was much lower (20-45%). Survival from germ cell tumours was higher than that of type II epithelial tumours, but also varied widely between countries. Survival for sex-cord stromal tumours was higher than for the five other groups. Survival from localised tumours was much higher than for advanced disease (80% vs. 30%). There is wide variation in survival between histological groups, and stage at diagnosis remains an important factor in ovarian cancer survival. International comparisons of ovarian cancer survival should incorporate histology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrins (alpha7beta1) in muscle function and survival. Disrupted expression in merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vachon, P H; Xu, H; Liu, L

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in genes coding for dystrophin, for alpha, beta, gamma, and delta-sarcoglycans, or for the alpha2 chain of the basement membrane component merosin (laminin-2/4) cause various forms of muscular dystrophy. Analyses of integrins showed an abnormal expression and localization of alpha7beta1...... isoforms in myofibers of merosin-deficient human patients and mice, but not in dystrophin-deficient or sarcoglycan-deficient humans and animals. It was shown previously that skeletal muscle fibers require merosin for survival and function (Vachon, P.H., F. Loechel, H. Xu, U.M. Wewer, and E. Engvall. 1996...... in skeletal muscle; (b) indicate a merosin dependence for the accurate expression and membrane localization of alpha7beta1D integrins in myofibers; (c) provide a molecular basis for the critical role of merosin in myofiber survival; and (d) add new insights to the pathogenesis of neuromuscular disorders....

  15. LONG TERM SURVIVAL FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY: A POPULATION BASED PARAMETRIC SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Gordon Ward; Ransom, Jeanine; Mandrekar, Jay; Brown, Allen W

    2017-01-01

    Background Long term mortality may be increased following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however the degree to which survival could be reduced is unknown. We aimed to model life expectancy following post-acute TBI to provide predictions of longevity and quantify differences in survivorship with the general population. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study using data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) was performed. A random sample of patients from Olmsted County, Minnesota with a confirmed TBI between 1987 and 2000 was identified and vital status determined in 2013. Parametric survival modelling was then used to develop a model to predict life expectancy following TBI conditional on age at injury. Survivorship following TBI was also compared with the general population and age and gender matched non-head injured REP controls. Results 769 patients were included in complete case analyses. Median follow up time was 16.1 years (IQR 9.0–20.4) with 120 deaths occurring in the cohort during the study period. Survival after acute TBI was well represented by a Gompertz distribution. Victims of TBI surviving for at least 6 months post-injury demonstrated a much higher ongoing mortality rate compared to the US general population and non-TBI controls (hazard ratio 1·47, 95% CI 1·15–1·87). US general population cohort life table data was used to update the Gompertz model’s shape and scale parameters to account for cohort effects and allow prediction of life expectancy in contemporary TBI. Conclusions Survivors of TBI have decreased life expectancy compared to the general population. This may be secondary to the head injury itself or result from patient characteristics associated with both the propensity for TBI and increased early mortality. Post-TBI life expectancy estimates may be useful to guide prognosis, in public health planning, for actuarial applications and in the extrapolation of outcomes for TBI economic models. PMID:27165161

  16. Beskrivende analyse af mekaniske systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    Descriptive analysis is the activity, where a given product is analysed for obtaining insight into different aspects, leading to an explicit description of each of these aspects. This textbook is worked out for course 72101 Produktanalyse (Analysis of products) given at DTU.......Descriptive analysis is the activity, where a given product is analysed for obtaining insight into different aspects, leading to an explicit description of each of these aspects. This textbook is worked out for course 72101 Produktanalyse (Analysis of products) given at DTU....

  17. An extensible analysable system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    , this does not hold for real physical systems. Approaches such as threat modelling try to target the formalisation of the real-world domain, but still are far from the rigid techniques available in security research. Many currently available approaches to assurance of critical infrastructure security......Analysing real-world systems for vulnerabilities with respect to security and safety threats is a difficult undertaking, not least due to a lack of availability of formalisations for those systems. While both formalisations and analyses can be found for artificial systems such as software...

  18. Evaluating national pricing policies of innovative anti-cancer drugs: correlation analysis between costs and survival in 15 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mengato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating national pricing policies of innovative anti-cancer drugs: correlation analysis between costs and survival in 15 European countriesIntroductionIn recent years, public health systems in Europe have faced the challenge of sustainability in different ways. The aim of this study is to analyse the pricing policies of 15 European countries by studying the correlation between cost and survival of a series of anti-cancer drugs.MethodsOur study assessed nine anti-cancer drugs licensed by EMA in the last decade. Clinical benefits, measured as overall survival (OS and progression free survival (PFS, were obtained from EPAR or randomized controlled trials, while nominal and real prices in the 15 different countries (including discounts were derived from a published study. We performed a correlation analysis between cost and OS for each indication of any given drug.ResultsOnly two countries (Hungary and Lithuania demonstrated a strong correlation coefficient in the OS analysis. The PFS analysis has shown better results with 12 countries, with R values higher than 0.20.DiscussionTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the correlation between costs and outcomes has been studied in a large number of countries. Our results showed that, in these countries, prices had generally a poor correlation with OS and a better correlation with PFS.

  19. Project Listen Compute Show (LCS) - Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT NATICK/TR-04/010 APA ^QO^U PROJECT LISTEN, COMPUTE, SHOW (LCS) - MARINE by Victor Zue* John Wroclawski* and Michael Bolotski...Voice Communication Strategy 37 6.3 Adaptive Channel Multiplexing 38 6.4 Web Performance and the Cache Information Protocol 41 7. Handheld Device...view of the BB-4 stack. The digital board is at the top. Most of the area is the large FPGA and the two frame buffer memories 61 Figure 14

  20. Trematode Hemoglobins Show Exceptionally High Oxygen Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Kiger, Laurent; Rashid, Aftab K.; Griffon, Nathalie; Haque, Masoodul; Moens, Luc; Gibson, Quentin H.; Poyart, Claude; Marden, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of ox...

  1. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  2. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) show an attentional bias toward conspecifics’ emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E.; Jaasma, Linda; Bionda, Thomas; Wijnen, Jasper G.

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, the fast detection of group members’ emotional expressions promotes swift and adequate responses, which is crucial for the maintenance of social bonds and ultimately for group survival. The dot-probe task is a well-established paradigm in psychology, measuring emotional attention through reaction times. Humans tend to be biased toward emotional images, especially when the emotion is of a threatening nature. Bonobos have rich, social emotional lives and are known for their soft and friendly character. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether bonobos, similar to humans, have an attentional bias toward emotional scenes compared with conspecifics showing a neutral expression, and (ii) which emotional behaviors attract their attention the most. As predicted, results consistently showed that bonobos’ attention was biased toward the location of the emotional versus neutral scene. Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much—as is often observed in humans—by signs of distress or aggression. The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species. PMID:26976586

  3. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) show an attentional bias toward conspecifics' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; Jaasma, Linda; Bionda, Thomas; Wijnen, Jasper G

    2016-04-05

    In social animals, the fast detection of group members' emotional expressions promotes swift and adequate responses, which is crucial for the maintenance of social bonds and ultimately for group survival. The dot-probe task is a well-established paradigm in psychology, measuring emotional attention through reaction times. Humans tend to be biased toward emotional images, especially when the emotion is of a threatening nature. Bonobos have rich, social emotional lives and are known for their soft and friendly character. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether bonobos, similar to humans, have an attentional bias toward emotional scenes compared with conspecifics showing a neutral expression, and (ii) which emotional behaviors attract their attention the most. As predicted, results consistently showed that bonobos' attention was biased toward the location of the emotional versus neutral scene. Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much-as is often observed in humans-by signs of distress or aggression. The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species.

  4. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for the treatment of women with relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer in the UK: analysis based on the final survival data of the OVA-301 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark; Gore, Martin

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) compared with PLD alone for the treatment of patients with relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer who are not expected to benefit from retreatment with platinum-based therapies based on the final survival data published in October 2012. A decision-analytic model estimated the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for trabectedin plus PLD compared with PLD alone from the UK National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective over a lifetime horizon. Mean progression-free survival and overall survival were calculated by using parametric survival distributions adjusted for imbalances discovered in the final survival data. Between-arm imbalances included the platinum-free interval, cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score. Cost categories included drug, administration, medical management, and treatment of adverse events. Quality of life was measured by using the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire. Uncertainty was addressed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Over a lifetime horizon, trabectedin plus PLD increased mean progression-free survival by 3.0 months and overall survival by 9.7 months compared with PLD alone. The additional cost and QALYs of trabectedin plus PLD were £18,476 and 0.49, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £38,026 per QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were sensitive to platinum-free interval adjustment and the choice of survival distributions. The analysis estimated a significant improvement in mean overall survival and incremental cost per QALY compared with that calculated in the original National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence assessment, which was based on immature survival data. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Lipid degradation promotes prostate cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, Harri M; Brown, Michael; Urbanucci, Alfonso; Tredwell, Gregory; Lau, Chung Ho; Barfeld, Stefan; Hart, Claire; Guldvik, Ingrid J.; Takhar, Mandeep; Heemers, Hannelore V.; Erho, Nicholas; Bloch, Katarzyna; Davicioni, Elai; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Mohler, James L.; Clarke, Noel; Swinnen, Johan V.; Keun, Hector C.; Rekvig, Ole P.; Mills, Ian G.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer and androgen receptor (AR) is the major driver of the disease. Here we show that Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) is a novel AR-target that promotes prostate cancer cell survival. Increased ECI2 expression predicts mortality in prostate cancer patients (p = 0.0086). ECI2 encodes for an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and we use multiple metabolite profiling platforms and RNA-seq to show that inhibition of ECI2 expression leads to decreased glucose utilization, accumulation of fatty acids and down-regulation of cell cycle related genes. In normal cells, decrease in fatty acid degradation is compensated by increased consumption of glucose, and here we demonstrate that prostate cancer cells are not able to respond to decreased fatty acid degradation. Instead, prostate cancer cells activate incomplete autophagy, which is followed by activation of the cell death response. Finally, we identified a clinically approved compound, perhexiline, which inhibits fatty acid degradation, and replicates the major findings for ECI2 knockdown. This work shows that prostate cancer cells require lipid degradation for survival and identifies a small molecule inhibitor with therapeutic potential. PMID:28415728

  7. Analysing User Lifetime in Voluntary Online Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McHugh, Ronan; Larsen, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses persuasion in online collaboration projects. It introduces a set of heuristics that can be applied to such projects and combines these with a quantitative analysis of user activity over time. Two example sites are studies, Open Street Map and The Pirate Bay. Results show that ...... that there is a correspondance between some features of site design and user participation patterns in the projects.......This paper analyses persuasion in online collaboration projects. It introduces a set of heuristics that can be applied to such projects and combines these with a quantitative analysis of user activity over time. Two example sites are studies, Open Street Map and The Pirate Bay. Results show...

  8. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Iskandar; Drancourt, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.

  9. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drancourt Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Results Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Conclusions Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.

  10. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paijmans, Johanna L A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well. To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has yielded major progress with regard to both the phylogenetic positions of extinct species, as well as resolving population genetics questions in both extinct and extant species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Descriptive Analyses of Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2003-01-01

    Forord Produktanalyse og teknologianalyse kan gennmføres med et bredt socio-teknisk sigte med henblik på at forstå kulturelle, sociologiske, designmæssige, forretningsmæssige og mange andre forhold. Et delområde heri er systemisk analyse og beskrivelse af produkter og systemer. Nærværende kompend...

  12. Mitogenomic analyses of caniform relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Ulfur; Gullberg, Anette; Janke, Axel; Kullberg, Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Extant members of the order Carnivora split into two basal groups, Caniformia (dog-like carnivorans) and Feliformia (cat-like carnivorans). In this study we address phylogenetic relationships within Caniformia applying various methodological approaches to analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. Pinnipeds are currently well represented with respect to mitogenomic data and here we add seven mt genomes to the non-pinniped caniform collection. The analyses identified a basal caniform divergence between Cynoidea and Arctoidea. Arctoidea split into three primary groups, Ursidae (including the giant panda), Pinnipedia, and a branch, Musteloidea, which encompassed Ailuridae (red panda), Mephitidae (skunks), Procyonidae (raccoons) and Mustelidae (mustelids). The analyses favored a basal arctoid split between Ursidae and a branch containing Pinnipedia and Musteloidea. Within the Musteloidea there was a preference for a basal divergence between Ailuridae and remaining families. Among the latter, the analyses identified a sister group relationship between Mephitidae and a branch that contained Procyonidae and Mustelidae. The mitogenomic distance between the wolf and the dog was shown to be at the same level as that of basal human divergences. The wolf and the dog are commonly considered as separate species in the popular literature. The mitogenomic result is inconsistent with that understanding at the same time as it provides insight into the time of the domestication of the dog relative to basal human mitogenomic divergences.

  13. Evaluation "Risk analyses of agroparks"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, L.

    2011-01-01

    Dit TransForum project richt zich op analyse van de onzekerheden en mogelijkheden van agroparken. Dit heeft geleid tot een risicomodel dat de kwalitatieve en/of kwantitatieve onzekerheden van een agropark project in kaart brengt. Daarmee kunnen maatregelen en managementstrategiën worden

  14. Extracted magnetic resonance texture features discriminate between phenotypes and are associated with overall survival in glioblastoma multiforme patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Tanougast, Camel

    2016-11-01

    GBM is a markedly heterogeneous brain tumor consisting of three main volumetric phenotypes identifiable on magnetic resonance imaging: necrosis (vN), active tumor (vAT), and edema/invasion (vE). The goal of this study is to identify the three glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) phenotypes using a texture-based gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) approach and determine whether the texture features of phenotypes are related to patient survival. MR imaging data in 40 GBM patients were analyzed. Phenotypes vN, vAT, and vE were segmented in a preprocessing step using 3D Slicer for rigid registration by T1-weighted imaging and corresponding fluid attenuation inversion recovery images. The GBM phenotypes were segmented using 3D Slicer tools. Texture features were extracted from GLCM of GBM phenotypes. Thereafter, Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to select the significant features. Robust predictive GBM features were identified and underwent numerous classifier analyses to distinguish phenotypes. Kaplan-Meier analysis was also performed to determine the relationship, if any, between phenotype texture features and survival rate. The simulation results showed that the 22 texture features were significant with p value <0.05. GBM phenotype discrimination based on texture features showed the best accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 79.31, 91.67, and 98.75 %, respectively. Three texture features derived from active tumor parts: difference entropy, information measure of correlation, and inverse difference were statistically significant in the prediction of survival, with log-rank p values of 0.001, 0.001, and 0.008, respectively. Among 22 features examined, three texture features have the ability to predict overall survival for GBM patients demonstrating the utility of GLCM analyses in both the diagnosis and prognosis of this patient population.

  15. Software for portable laser light show system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

    1995-04-01

    Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

  16. Targeted Therapy Shows Benefit in Rare Type of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment with the multitargeted agent vandetanib (Caprelsa) improved progression-free survival in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), according to findings from a randomized clinical trial.

  17. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of our bird ringing data analyses series (Harnos et al. 2015a in which we continue to focus on exploring data using the R software. We give a short description of data distributions and the measures of data spread and explain how to obtain basic descriptive statistics. We show how to detect and select one and two dimensional outliers and explain how to treat these in case of avian ringing data.

  18. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  19. A Survey of WEC Reliability, Survival and Design Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G. Coe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A wave energy converter must be designed to survive and function efficiently, often in highly energetic ocean environments. This represents a challenging engineering problem, comprising systematic failure mode analysis, environmental characterization, modeling, experimental testing, fatigue and extreme response analysis. While, when compared with other ocean systems such as ships and offshore platforms, there is relatively little experience in wave energy converter design, a great deal of recent work has been done within these various areas. This paper summarizes the general stages and workflow for wave energy converter design, relying on supporting articles to provide insight. By surveying published work on wave energy converter survival and design response analyses, this paper seeks to provide the reader with an understanding of the different components of this process and the range of methodologies that can be brought to bear. In this way, the reader is provided with a large set of tools to perform design response analyses on wave energy converters.

  20. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  1. Demographic consequences of migratory stopover: linking red knot survival to horseshoe crab spawning abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David; Kalasz, Kevin S.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Dey, Amanda D.; Clark, Nigel A.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Minton, Clive D.T.; Kendall, William

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how events during one period of the annual cycle carry over to affect survival and other fitness components in other periods is essential to understanding migratory bird demography and conservation needs. Previous research has suggested that western Atlantic red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations are greatly affected by horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) egg availability at Delaware Bay stopover sites during their spring northward migration. We present a mass-based multistate, capturerecapture/resighting model linking (1) red knot stopover mass gain to horseshoe crab spawning abundance and (2) subsequent apparent annual survival to mass state at the time of departure from the Delaware Bay stopover area. The model and analysis use capture-recapture/resighting data with over 16,000 individual captures and 13,000 resightings collected in Delaware Bay over a 12 year period from 1997–2008, and the results are used to evaluate the central management hypothesis that red knot populations can be influenced by horseshoe crab harvest regulations as part of a larger adaptive management effort. Model selection statistics showed support for a positive relationship between horseshoe crab spawning abundance during the stopover and the probability of red knots gaining mass (parameter coefficient from the top model b = 1.71, SE = 0.46). Our analyses also supported the link between red knot mass and apparent annual survival, although average estimates for the two mass classes differed only slightly. The addition of arctic snow depth as a covariate influencing apparent survival improved the fit of the data to the models (parameter coefficient from the top model b = 0.50, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate that managing horseshoe crab resources in the Delaware Bay has the potential to improve red knot population status.

  2. Meta-analysis of the effects of beta blocker on survival time in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chel Hun; Song, Taejong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Jun Kuk; Park, Jin-Young; Yoon, Aera; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2014-07-01

    This study was to elucidate the potential benefit of beta blockers on cancer survival. We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013. Two authors independently screened and reviewed the eligibility of each study and coded the participants, treatment, and outcome characteristics. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Twelve studies published between 1993 and 2013 were included in the final analysis. Four papers reported results from 10 independent groups, resulting in a total of 18 comparisons based on data obtained from 20,898 subjects. Effect sizes (hazard ratios, HR) were heterogeneous, and random-effects models were used in the analyses. The meta-analysis demonstrated that beta blocker use is associated with improved OS (HR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.67-0.93; p = 0.004) and DFS (HR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.53-0.91; p = 0.009). Although statistically not significant, the effect size was greater in patients with low-stage cancer or cancer treated primarily with surgery than in patients with high-stage cancer or cancer treated primarily without surgery (HR 0.60 vs. 0.78, and 0.60 vs. 0.80, respectively). Although only two study codes were analyzed, the studies using nonselective beta blockers showed that there was no overall effect on OS (HR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.09-3.04). This meta-analysis provides evidence that beta blocker use can be associated with the prolonged survival of cancer patients, especially patients with early-stage cancer treated primarily with surgery.

  3. Improvement of piglet survival rate in relation to farrowing systems and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaitre, A; Le Dividich, J

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in the same farrowing house with the aim of comparing the efficiency of two types of floors and in order to estimate the effect of bedding material on the performance of newborn piglets. In addition, the productivity data of our sow herd as well as those of the national herd, were analysed in order to study the effect of the farrowing system and piglet maturity at birth on the survival rate of the newborn. The main results clearly show the detrimental effect on piglet survival of using slatted floors at farrowing. Furthermore the mode of sow tethering during parturition directly affects the piglets losses between birth and weaning, i.e. 2.03 piglets/litter for tethered sows, 2.17 for caged sows, 2.30 piglets when using farrowing rails. Use of a bedding material has a positive influence on the survival rate: 83.1% for straw, 78.5% for shredded paper versus 68.5% in the case of an insulated concrete floor. Rearing of newborn piglets in a cold environment leads to a drop in the rectal temperature, a poor body carbohydrate utilization and a decrease in colostrum intake. This results in a poor immunity, a low survival rate and a growth rate depression. Search for optimal environmental conditions for the newborn piglet is more important than for the sow. An adequate management of farrowing houses is recommended involving tethering of the sows, extra heating of the pens when the piglets are born and during their first 3 weeks of life.

  4. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2016-01-01

    physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient...... of physical activity after heart valve surgery are positively associated with higher survival rates and participation in cardiac rehabilitation.......OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...

  5. Red cell survival time in chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, R.N.; Das, R.K.; Panda, R.K.; Mahakur, A.C.; Patnaik, S.R. (M.K.C.G. Medical College, Berhampur (India))

    1979-10-01

    The red cell survival time was estimated in 50 cases of chronic renal failure and 20 healthy subjects, using radioactive chromium /sup 51/Cr. The mean value of red cell survival half time (T1/2/sup 51/Cr) was determined to be 25.9 +- 1.1 days in control subjects. The red cell survival half time (17.9 +- 4.67 days) was found to be significantly decreased in cases of chronic renal failure, when compared to the control group. An inverse relationship was observed between T1/2/sup 51/Cr value and blood urea, serum creatinine, the magnitude of hypertension, and duration of illness, whereas, creatinine clearance showed a direct relationship. There was no increased splenic uptake of radioactive chromium, indicating that haemolysis occurred elsewhere in the circulation other than spleen. The possible mechanism for the reduction of red cell survival time and the effect of uraemic environment on it has been discussed.

  6. Efficient estimation of semiparametric copula models for bivariate survival data

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2014-01-01

    A semiparametric copula model for bivariate survival data is characterized by a parametric copula model of dependence and nonparametric models of two marginal survival functions. Efficient estimation for the semiparametric copula model has been recently studied for the complete data case. When the survival data are censored, semiparametric efficient estimation has only been considered for some specific copula models such as the Gaussian copulas. In this paper, we obtain the semiparametric efficiency bound and efficient estimation for general semiparametric copula models for possibly censored data. We construct an approximate maximum likelihood estimator by approximating the log baseline hazard functions with spline functions. We show that our estimates of the copula dependence parameter and the survival functions are asymptotically normal and efficient. Simple consistent covariance estimators are also provided. Numerical results are used to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Survival Analysis of Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Gayo, W. S.; Bautista, L. A.; Baccay, E. B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a survival analysis of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) under Kaplan-Meier Estimates and Weibull Distribution. The data were obtained from the records of V. L. MakabaliMemorial Hospital with respect to time t (patient's age), covariates such as developed secondary disease (Pulmonary Congestion and Cardiovascular Disease), gender, and the event of interest: the death of ESRD patients. Survival and hazard rates were estimated using NCSS for Weibull Distribution and SPSS for Kaplan-Meier Estimates. These lead to the same conclusion that hazard rate increases and survival rate decreases of ESRD patient diagnosed with Pulmonary Congestion, Cardiovascular Disease and both diseases with respect to time. It also shows that female patients have a greater risk of death compared to males. The probability risk was given the equation R = 1 — e-H(t) where e-H(t) is the survival function, H(t) the cumulative hazard function which was created using Cox-Regression.

  8. TIMP-3 expression associates with malignant behaviors and predicts favorable survival in HCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Gu

    Full Text Available The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs are proteins that specifically inhibit the proteolytic activity of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. TIMP-3, the only member of the TIMPs that can tightly bind to the extracellular matrix, has been identified as a unique tumor suppressor that demonstrates the ability to inhibit tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. This study aimed to detect the expression of TIMP-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and investigate the association between TIMP-3 expression and its clinicopathological significance in HCC patients. In the current study, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting of HCC cell lines and one-step quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC analyses in HCC tissues were performed, to characterize the TIMP-3 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were utilized to evaluate the prognosis of 101 HCC patients. The results showed that the expression of TIMP-3 in HCC was significantly decreased relative to that of non-cancerous cells and tissues. Furthermore, the TIMP-3 expression was statistically associated with malignant behaviors of HCC, including portal vein invasion (p = 0.036 and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.030. Cox regression analysis revealed that TIMP-3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p = 0.039 and overall survival (p = 0.049. These data indicate that TIMP-3 expression is a valuable prognostic biomarker for HCC and that TIMP-3 expression suggests a favorable prognosis for HCC patients.

  9. Comparison of long-term drug survival and safety of biologic agents in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Bang, B; Bryld, L E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug survival (time to drug discontinuation) has recently emerged as an important parameter reflecting the long-term therapeutic performance in a real-life setting. Biologic drug survival in psoriasis is mainly limited by a gradual loss of efficacy over time. Previous studies have been...... and to analyse the factors that influence drug survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the prospective registry DERMBIO covering all patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with biologic agents in the academic centres in Denmark. Drug survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method...... longer for ustekinumab than for anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents (P

  10. Recurrence and survival after neck dissections in cutaneous head and neck melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Stemann; Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Thamsborg, Andreas Key Milan

    2014-01-01

    if there is a difference in nodal recurrence and survival after radical, modified or selective neck dissection. METHODS: A total of 57 patients treated for regional meta-stases of head and neck melanoma were analysed retrospectively with respect to type of neck dissection, use of sentinel node biopsy, nodal recurrence...... > 0.05). No significant difference in five-year survival was observed between the dissection types (56% for radical node dissection, 61% for modified radical node dissection and 48% for selective node dissection, p = 0.613). Multivariate and univariate analysis revealed that patients with metastatic...... deposits in sentinel nodes had a better survival than patients with clinically palpable nodes (five-year survival rate: 70% versus 36%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The extent of neck dissection does not significantly influence the rate of recurrence or survival. This study indicates that there is a survival...

  11. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  12. Total Laryngectomy Versus Larynx Preservation for T4a Larynx Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitra, Nandita; Li, Jiaqi [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Cohen, Roger B. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ahn, Peter H.; Lukens, John N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chalian, Ara A.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; O' Malley, Bert W. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lin, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.lin@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability of treatment–weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Results: A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment–weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not

  13. Genotypically defined lissencephalies show distinct pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Mark S; Squier, Waney; Dobyns, William B; Golden, Jeffrey A

    2005-10-01

    Lissencephaly is traditionally divided into 2 distinct pathologic forms: classic (type I) and cobblestone (type II). To date, mutations in 4 genes, LIS1, DCX, RELN, and ARX, have been associated with distinct type I lissencephaly syndromes. Each of these genes has been shown to play a role in normal cell migration, consistent with the presumed pathogenesis of type I lissencephaly. Based on these data, we hypothesized that all forms of radiographically defined type I lissencephaly independent of genotype would be pathologically similar. To test this hypothesis, we examined brains from 16 patients, including 15 lissencephalic patients and one patient with subcortical band heterotopia. Of these 16 patients, 6 had LIS1 deletions, 2 had DCX mutations, and 2 had ARX mutations. In addition, 6 patients had no defined genetic defect, although the patient with subcortical band heterotopia exhibited the same pattern of malformation expected with an XLIS mutation. In all cases, the cortex was thickened; however, the topographic distribution of the cortical pathology varied, ranging from frontal- to occipital-biased pathology to diffuse involvement of the neocortex. Although brains with LIS1 deletions exhibited the classic 4-layer lissencephalic architecture, patients with DCX and ARX mutations each had unique cytoarchitectural findings distinct from LIS1. Furthermore, 2 of the 5 patients with no known genetic defect showed a fourth type of histopathology characterized by a 2-layered cortex. Interestingly, the 2 brains with the fourth type of lissencephaly showed profound brainstem and cerebellar abnormalities. In summary, we identified at least 4 distinct histopathologic subtypes of lissencephaly that stratify with the underlying genetic defect. Based on these data, a new classification for lissencephaly is proposed that incorporates both pathologic and genetic findings.

  14. Survival analysis of preweaning piglet survival in a dry-cured ham-producing crossbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Bonfatti, V; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate piglet preweaning survival and its relationship with a total merit index (TMI) used for selection of Large White terminal boars for dry-cured ham production. Data on 13,924 crossbred piglets (1,347 litters), originated by 189 Large White boars and 328 Large White-derived crossbred sows, were analyzed under a frailty proportional hazards model, assuming different baseline hazard functions and including sire and nursed litter as random effects. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) indicated that sex, cross-fostering, year-month of birth, parity of the nurse sow, size of the nursed litter, and class of TMI were significant effects for piglet preweaning survival. Female piglets had less risk of dying than males (HR = 0.81), as well as cross-fostered piglets (HR = 0.60). Survival increased when piglets were nursed by sows of third (HR = 0.85), fourth (HR = 0.76), and fifth (HR = 0.79) parity in comparison with first and second parity sows. Piglets of small (HR = 3.90) or very large litters (HR >1.60) had less chance of surviving in comparison with litters of intermediate size. Class of TMI exhibited an unfavorable relationship with survival (HR = 1.20 for the TMI top class). The modal estimates of sire variance under different baseline hazard functions were 0.06, whereas the variance for the nursed litter was close to 0.7. The estimate of the nursed litter effect variance was greater than that of the sire, which shows the importance of the common environment generated by the nurse sow. Relationships between sire rankings obtained from different survival models were high. The heritability estimate in equivalent scale was low and reached a value of 0.03. Nevertheless, the exploitable genetic variation for this trait justifies the inclusion of piglet preweaning survival in the current breeding program for selection of Large White terminal boars for dry-cured ham production.

  15. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from yak milk show probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Harjodh; Jangra, Manoj; Kaur, Lakhwinder; Jaswal, Pallavi; Dureja, Chetna; Nandanwar, Hemraj; Chaudhuri, Saumya Ray; Raje, Manoj; Mishra, Sunita; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Probiotic industries strive for new, efficient and promising probiotic strains that impart a positive impact on consumer health. Challenges are persisting in isolation, screening, and selection of the new indigenous probiotic strains. In the present research, we explored the probiotic potential of 17 lactic acid bacteria isolated from Yak milk in a series of in vitro tests. We also demonstrated their health benefits, i.e., cholesterol degradation, lactose digestion, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Principal component analysis revealed that more than 50% of the strains fulfilled the examined criteria, e.g., survival in acidic pH, bile concentrations, and adherent property. Approximately all the strains produced antimicrobial substances against the maximum number of tested strains including clinical strains. Most strains degraded cholesterol in comparison to the reference probiotic strain whereas strain Yc showed 1.5 times higher the degradation efficiency of the control strain. Lan4 strain exhibited remarkable anticancer activity and induced the maximum apoptosis (87%) in the Hela cells and was non-toxic to the non-cancerous HEK293 cells. Around ten strains showed positive lactose digestion. Overall, this can be concluded that selected lactic acid bacteria revealed excellent probiotic properties along with desirable health benefits. These strains need to be further investigated in details for their application in the development of novel probiotic preparations for the improvement of public health.

  17. Mice Lacking Endoglin in Macrophages Show an Impaired Immune Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ojeda-Fernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily and plays an important role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall. Mutations in endoglin gene (ENG or in the closely related TGF-β receptor type I ACVRL1/ALK1 are responsible for a rare dominant vascular dysplasia, the Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT, or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. Endoglin is also expressed in human macrophages, but its role in macrophage function remains unknown. In this work, we show that endoglin expression is triggered during the monocyte-macrophage differentiation process, both in vitro and during the in vivo differentiation of blood monocytes recruited to foci of inflammation in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. To analyze the role of endoglin in macrophages in vivo, an endoglin myeloid lineage specific knock-out mouse line (Eng(fl/flLysMCre was generated. These mice show a predisposition to develop spontaneous infections by opportunistic bacteria. Eng(fl/flLysMCre mice also display increased survival following LPS-induced peritonitis, suggesting a delayed immune response. Phagocytic activity is impaired in peritoneal macrophages, altering one of the main functions of macrophages which contributes to the initiation of the immune response. We also observed altered expression of TGF-β1 target genes in endoglin deficient peritoneal macrophages. Overall, the altered immune activity of endoglin deficient macrophages could help to explain the higher rate of infectious diseases seen in HHT1 patients.

  18. Does Intelligence Provide Survival Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2009-01-01

    Intelligence is defined as a general mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas, and learn. Intelligence can also be defined as the ability to acquire and apply information gathered from the environment to modify its behavior. It is this intelligence that has allowed the genus Homo to survive for 2 million years. However, recently the global financial meltdown and the deleterious effects of climate change raise the question of whether intelligence has ...

  19. Survival on Land and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-01-01

    flower, leaf steams, and young leaves may be eaten cooked as greens provided you cook them in several changes of water to remove the bitter taste and...and become a weed almost throughout the tropics. Its bladdery pods contain a single retl tomato-like fruit that is edible. Raspberries, blackberries ...plant that 108 SURVIVAL OK LAND AND SEA is about one foot In height and has blue flowers and inflated leaf stems. The young leaves, leafy stalks

  20. Columbia Crew Survival Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA commissioned the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) to conduct a thorough review of both the technical and the organizational causes of the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew on February 1, 2003. The accident investigation that followed determined that a large piece of insulating foam from Columbia s external tank (ET) had come off during ascent and struck the leading edge of the left wing, causing critical damage. The damage was undetected during the mission. The CAIB's findings and recommendations were published in 2003 and are available on the web at http://caib.nasa.gov/. NASA responded to the CAIB findings and recommendations with the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Implementation Plan. Significant enhancements were made to NASA's organizational structure, technical rigor, and understanding of the flight environment. The ET was redesigned to reduce foam shedding and eliminate critical debris. In 2005, NASA succeeded in returning the space shuttle to flight. In 2010, the space shuttle will complete its mission of assembling the International Space Station and will be retired to make way for the next generation of human space flight vehicles: the Constellation Program. The Space Shuttle Program recognized the importance of capturing the lessons learned from the loss of Columbia and her crew to benefit future human exploration, particularly future vehicle design. The program commissioned the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team (SCSIIT). The SCSIIT was asked to perform a comprehensive analysis of the accident, focusing on factors and events affecting crew survival, and to develop recommendations for improving crew survival for all future human space flight vehicles. To do this, the SCSIIT investigated all elements of crew survival, including the design features, equipment, training, and procedures intended to protect the crew. This report documents the SCSIIT findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

  1. Statistical analysis of survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J; Breslow, N

    1984-01-01

    A general review of the statistical techniques that the authors feel are most important in the analysis of survival data is presented. The emphasis is on the study of the duration of time between any two events as applied to people and on the nonparametric and semiparametric models most often used in these settings. The unifying concept is the hazard function, variously known as the risk, the force of mortality, or the force of transition.

  2. The CAMAC logic state analyser

    CERN Document Server

    Centro, Sandro

    1981-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Large electronic experiments using distributed processors for parallel readout and data reduction need to analyse the data acquisition components status and monitor dead time constants of each active readout module and processor. For the UA1 experiment, a microprocessor-based CAMAC logic status analyser (CLSA) has been developed in order to implement these functions autonomously. CLSA is a single unit CAMAC module, able to record, up to 256 times, the logic status of 32 TTL inputs gated by a common clock, internal or external, with a maximum frequency of 2 MHz. The data stored in the internal CLSA memory can be read directly via CAMAC function or preprocessed by CLSA 6800 microprocessor. The 6800 resident firmware (4Kbyte) expands the module features to include an interactive monitor, data recording control, data reduction and histogram accumulation with statistics parameter evaluation. The microprocessor memory and the resident firmware can be externally extended using st...

  3. Effects of Dopamine Donor Pretreatment on Graft Survival after Kidney Transplantation: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuelle, Peter; Schmitt, Wilhelm H; Weiss, Christel; Habicht, Antje; Renders, Lutz; Zeier, Martin; Drüschler, Felix; Heller, Katharina; Pisarski, Przemyslaw; Banas, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K; Jung, Matthias; Lopau, Kai; Olbricht, Christoph J; Weihprecht, Horst; Schenker, Peter; De Fijter, Johan W; Yard, Benito A; Benck, Urs

    2017-03-07

    Donor dopamine improves initial graft function after kidney transplantation due to antioxidant properties. We investigated if a 4 µg/kg per minute continuous dopamine infusion administered after brain-death confirmation affects long-term graft survival and examined the exposure-response relationship with treatment duration. Five-year follow-up of 487 renal transplant patients from 60 European centers who had participated in the randomized, multicenter trial of dopamine donor pretreatment between 2004 and 2007 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00115115). Follow-up was complete in 99.2%. Graft survival was 72.6% versus 68.7% (P=0.34), and 83.3% versus 80.4% (P=0.42) after death-censoring in treatment and control arms according to trial assignment. Although infusion times varied substantially in the treatment arm (range 0-32.2 hours), duration of the dopamine infusion and all-cause graft failure exhibited an exposure-response relationship (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.92 to 1.00, per hour). Cumulative frequency curves of graft survival and exposure time of the dopamine infusion indicated a maximum response rate at 7.10 hours (95% CI, 6.99 to 7.21), which almost coincided with the optimum infusion time for improvement of early graft function (7.05 hours; 95% CI, 6.92 to 7.18). Taking infusion time of 7.1 hours as threshold in subsequent graft survival analyses indicated a relevant benefit: Overall, 81.5% versus 68.5%; P=0.03; and 90.3% versus 80.2%; P=0.04 after death-censoring. We failed to show a significant graft survival advantage on intention-to-treat. Dopamine infusion time was very short in a considerable number of donors assigned to treatment. Our finding of a significant, nonlinear exposure-response relationship disclosed a threshold value of the dopamine infusion time that may improve long-term kidney graft survival. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Uncertainty in Operational Atmospheric Analyses and Re-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, R.; Maue, R. N.

    2016-12-01

    This talk will describe uncertainty in atmospheric analyses of wind and temperature produced by operational forecast models and in re-analysis products. Because the "true" atmospheric state cannot be precisely quantified, there is necessarily error in every atmospheric analysis, and this error can be estimated by computing differences ( variance and bias) between analysis products produced at various centers (e.g., ECMWF, NCEP, U.S Navy, etc.) that use independent data assimilation procedures, somewhat different sets of atmospheric observations and forecast models with different resolutions, dynamical equations, and physical parameterizations. These estimates of analysis uncertainty provide a useful proxy to actual analysis error. For this study, we use a unique multi-year and multi-model data archive developed at NRL-Monterey. It will be shown that current uncertainty in atmospheric analyses is closely correlated with the geographic distribution of assimilated in-situ atmospheric observations, especially those provided by high-accuracy radiosonde and commercial aircraft observations. The lowest atmospheric analysis uncertainty is found over North America, Europe and Eastern Asia, which have the largest numbers of radiosonde and commercial aircraft observations. Analysis uncertainty is substantially larger (by factors of two to three times) in most of the Southern hemisphere, the North Pacific ocean, and under-developed nations of Africa and South America where there are few radiosonde or commercial aircraft data. It appears that in regions where atmospheric analyses depend primarily on satellite radiance observations, analysis uncertainty of both temperature and wind remains relatively high compared to values found over North America and Europe.

  5. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  6. Individual ant workers show self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Stephanie; Czaczkes, Tomer J

    2017-10-01

    Often, the first option is not the best. Self-control can allow humans and animals to improve resource intake under such conditions. Self-control in animals is often investigated using intertemporal choice tasks-choosing a smaller reward immediately or a larger reward after a delay. However, intertemporal choice tasks may underestimate self-control, as test subjects may not fully understand the task. Vertebrates show much greater apparent self-control in more natural foraging contexts and spatial discounting tasks than in intertemporal choice tasks. However, little is still known about self-control in invertebrates. Here, we investigate self-control in the black garden ant Lasius niger We confront individual workers with a spatial discounting task, offering a high-quality reward far from the nest and a poor-quality reward closer to the nest. Most ants (69%) successfully ignored the closer, poorer reward in favour of the further, better one. However, when both the far and the close rewards were of the same quality, most ants (83%) chose the closer feeder, indicating that the ants were indeed exercising self-control, as opposed to a fixation on an already known food source. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Intraspecific Variability within Fusarium avenaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kulik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium avenaceum is a common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen of a variety of hosts worldwide. This pathogen is often involved in the crown rot and head blight of cereals that affects grain yield and quality. F. avenaceum contaminates grain with enniatins more than any species, and they are often detected at the highest prevalence among fusarial toxins in certain geographic areas. We studied intraspecific variability of F. avenaceum based on partial sequences of elongation factor-1 alpha, enniatin synthase, intergenic spacer of rDNA, arylamine N-acetyltransferase and RNA polymerase II data sets. The phylogenetic analyses incorporated a collection of 63 F. avenaceum isolates of various origin among which 41 were associated with wheat. Analyses of the multilocus sequence (MLS data indicated a high level of genetic variation within the isolates studied with no significant linkage disequilibrium. Correspondingly, maximum parsimony analyses of both MLS and individual data sets showed lack of clear phylogenetic structure within F. avenaceum in relation to host (wheat and geographic origin. Lack of host specialization indicates no host selective pressure in driving F. avenaceum evolution, while no geographic lineage structure indicates widespread distribution of genotypes that resulted in nullifying the effects of geographic isolation on the evolution of this species. Moreover, significant incongruence between all individual tree topologies and little clonality is consistent with frequent recombination within F. avenaceum.

  9. When do we need competing risks methods for survival analysis in nephrology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Leffondré, Karen; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Zoccali, Carmine; Dekker, Friedo W.; Jager, Kitty J.

    2013-01-01

    Survival analyses are commonly applied to study death or other events of interest. In such analyses, so-called competing risks may form an important problem. A competing risk is an event that either hinders the observation of the event of interest or modifies the chance that this event occurs. For

  10. Survival and its predictors from age 75 to 85 in men and women belonging to cohorts with marked survival differences to age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkinen, E; Kauppinen, M; Schroll, M

    2016-01-01

    focusing on different domains of health, functional capacity, and physical and social activities. RESULTS: The proportion of survivors to age 75 was markedly smaller among the Finnish men and women than Danish or Swedish subjects. In the local population no marked differences in survival from age 75 to 85...... they pertained to social activities and morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite great differences in the proportions of survivors to age 75, and excepting the survival advantage of women, only minor differences were present in the subjects' further survival to age 85. In the univariate analyses, many of the factors...

  11. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  12. Offshore technology stresses substance over show

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T.R. Jr.; Abraham, K.S.

    1988-07-01

    Emphasis these days continues to be on practical, cost-effective solutions to real problems. With a couple of exceptions, gone are the glitz and glamour of big-ticket items developed on speculation for projects and situations that don't yet exist. Manufacturers are cautiously spending money on R and D for more down-to-earth items. There seems to be a motto that ''less can be more,'' if researchers focus their limited resources on developing items that are more efficient, easier to install and operate, and save money. Items reviewed on this and other pages by WORLD OIL this year are certainly reflective of such attitudes. Short on show, but long on substance, they provide practical answers to everyday, routine problems encountered by offshore operators. They range from a subsea wireline lubricator developed by BP and Schlumberger, to a new ''armoring'' system that coats platform risers and saves them from the ravages of Mother Nature. There are also an electric safety valve and assorted other goodies. In addition, engineers have completed a fascinating study, which determined why some drilling vessels really sank during blowouts. It is incorrect to assume that large-sized innovations have disappeared completely. For instance, Conoco and others have designed a single-leg, tension-leg platform for Gulf of Mexico duty, which is featured below. Keep in mind, however, the primary motivation for this design was to improve logistics, shorten the timeframe, and save money.

  13. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hoon [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Sang Jun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  14. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yonghoon; Byun, Sang Jun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  15. Adaptive memory: the survival-processing memory advantage is not due to negativity or mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has highlighted the adaptive function of memory by showing that imagining being stranded in the grasslands without any survival material and rating words according to their survival value in this situation leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. Studies examining the role of emotions in causing the survival-processing memory advantage have been inconclusive, but some studies have suggested that the effect might be due to negativity or mortality salience. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared the survival scenario to a control scenario that implied imagining a hopeless situation (floating in outer space with dwindling oxygen supplies) in which only suicide can avoid the agony of choking to death. Although this scenario was perceived as being more negative than the survival scenario, the survival-processing memory advantage persisted. In Experiment 3, thinking about the relevance of words for survival led to better memory for these words than did thinking about the relevance of words for death. This survival advantage was found for concrete, but not for abstract, words. The latter finding is consistent with the assumption that the survival instructions encourage participants to think about many different potential uses of items to aid survival, which may be a particularly efficient form of elaborate encoding. Together, the results suggest that thinking about death is much less effective in promoting recall than is thinking about survival. Therefore, the survival-processing memory advantage cannot be satisfactorily explained by negativity or mortality salience.

  16. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation

  17. Survival times of patients with a first hip fracture with and without subsequent major long-bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Angthong, Wirana; Harnroongroj, Thos; Naito, Masatoshi; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2013-01-01

    Survival rates are poorer after a second hip fracture than after a first hip fracture. Previous survival studies have included in-hospital mortality. Excluding in-hospital deaths from the analysis allows survival times to be evaluated in community-based patients. There is still a lack of data regarding the effects of subsequent fractures on survival times after hospital discharge following an initial hip fracture. This study compared the survival times of community-dwelling patients with hip fracture who had or did not have a subsequent major long-bone fracture. Hazard ratios and risk factors for subsequent fractures and mortality rates with and without subsequent fractures were calculated. Of 844 patients with hip fracture from 2000 through 2008, 71 had a subsequent major long-bone fracture and 773 did not. Patients who died of other causes, such as perioperative complications, during hospitalization were excluded. Such exclusion allowed us to determine the effect of subsequent fracture on the survival of community-dwelling individuals after hospital discharge or after the time of the fracture if they did not need hospitalization. Demographic data, causes of death, and mortality rates were recorded. Differences in mortality rates between the patient groups and hazard ratios were calculated. Mortality rates during the first year and from 1 to 5 years after the most recent fracture were 5.6% and 1.4%, respectively, in patients with subsequent fractures, and 4.7% and 1.4%, respectively, in patients without subsequent fractures. These rates did not differ significantly between the groups. Cox regression analysis and calculation of hazard ratios did not show significant differences between patients with subsequent fractures and those without. On univariate and multivariate analyses, age fracture. This study found that survival times did not differ significantly between patients with and without subsequent major long-bone fractures after hip fracture. Therefore, all

  18. Glioblastoma multiforme with long term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Prabal; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Agarwal, Deepak; Sarkar, Chitra

    2005-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) Patients generally have a dismal prognosis, with median survival of 10-12 months. GBM with long-term survival (LTS) of (3) > or = 5 years is rare, and no definite markers indicating better prognosis have been identified till date. The present study was undertaken to evaluate GBMs with LTS in order to identify additional correlates associated with favourable outcome. The cases were evaluated for relevant clinicopathological data, proliferation index and expression of tumortumour suppressor gene (p53 ), cyclin-dependant kinase-inhibitors (p27 and p16 ) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) proteins. Six cases of GBM with LTS with an average survival of 9 years (range 5-15 years) were identified. All were young patients with mean age of 27 years (range 8-45 years). Histology of three cases was consistent with conventional GBM, while two showed prominent oligodendroglial component admixed with GBM areas. One was a giant cell GBM, which progressed to gliosarcoma on recurrence. The mean MIB-1LI was 12% (range 6-20%). p53 was immunopositive in 4 out of 5 cases. EGFR and p27 were immunonegative in all, whereas p16 was immunonegative in 3 out of 5 cases. Currently, in the absence of specific molecular and genetic markers, GBM in young patients should be meticulously evaluated for foci of oligodendroglial component and/or giant cell elements, in addition to proliferative index and p53 expression, since these probably have prognostic connotations, as evident in this study. The role of p16 and p27 however needs better definition with study of more number of cases.

  19. Using ENSO to analyse Cloud Radiative Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolly, Allison; Huang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    When attempting to diagnose the climate sensitivity, clouds are the cause of much uncertainty as they are highly variable. There exists a discrepancy between climate models and observations on the sign and magnitude of cloud radiative feedback. For example, Dessler (2013) shows that models predict a very strong, positive feedback response to ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies in the central Pacific which is not present in observations. To better understand these discrepancies we are using radiation data from the CERES satellite and ERAi reanalysis data to look at the most recent El Nino events. By looking at temperature and humidity anomalies in the central Pacific which are associated with these events, and using radiative kernels, we can calculate their radiative effects. We extend previous work by not only performing an analysis of TOA but also analysing the surface and atmospheric radiation budgets. Additionally we analyse the latest GCMs (e.g. CMIP5 models) and compare them to observations.

  20. Population genetics of the westernmost distribution of the glaciations-surviving black truffle Tuber melanosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cunchillos, Iván; Sánchez, Sergio; Barriuso, Juan José; Pérez-Collazos, Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    The black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) is an important natural resource due to its relevance as a delicacy in gastronomy. Different aspects of this hypogeous fungus species have been studied, including population genetics of French and Italian distribution ranges. Although those studies include some Spanish populations, this is the first time that the genetic diversity and genetic structure of the wide geographical range of the natural Spanish populations have been analysed. To achieve this goal, 23 natural populations were sampled across the Spanish geographical distribution. ISSR technique demonstrated its reliability and capability to detect high levels of polymorphism in the species. Studied populations showed high levels of genetic diversity (h N  = 0.393, h S  = 0.678, Hs = 0.418), indicating a non threatened genetic conservation status. These high levels may be a consequence of the wide distribution range of the species, of its spore dispersion by animals, and by its evolutionary history. AMOVA analysis showed a high degree of genetic structure among populations (47.89%) and other partitions as geographical ranges. Bayesian genetic structure analyses differentiated two main Spanish groups separated by the Iberian Mountain System, and showed the genetic uniqueness of some populations. Our results suggest the survival of some of these populations during the last glaciation, the Spanish southern distribution range perhaps surviving as had occurred in France and Italy, but it is also likely that specific northern areas may have acted as a refugia for the later dispersion to other calcareous areas in the Iberian Peninsula and probably France.

  1. Dr. James McGee shows three astronauts how to handle non-poisonous snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Dr. James W. McGee (right), Medical Operations Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, shows three astronauts how to handle a non-poisonous snake during desert survival training in Washington state. Left to right, are Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, Alfred M. Worden, and John L. Swigert Jr.; and Dr. McGee. The astronauts are dressed in faked Arab clothing.

  2. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in centenarians: impact on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabuñal-Rey Ramón

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centenarian population is gradually increasing, so it is becoming more common to see centenarians in clinical practice. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in the elderly have been reported, but several methodological biases have been detected that limit the validity of their results. The aim of this study is to analyse the ECG abnormalities in a prospective study of the centenarian population and to assess their impact on survival. Method We performed a domiciliary visit, where a medical history, an ECG and blood analysis were obtained. Barthel index (BI, cognitive mini-exam (CME and Charlson index (ChI were all determined. Patients were followed up by telephone up until their death. Results A total of 80 centenarians were studied, 26 men and 64 women, mean age 100.8 (SD 1.3. Of these, 81% had been admitted to the hospital at least once in the past, 81.3% were taking drugs (mean 3.3, rank 0–11. ChI was 1.21 (SD 1.19. Men had higher scores both for BI (70 -SD 34.4- vs. 50.4 -SD 36.6-, P = .005 and CME (16.5 -SD 9.1- vs. 9.1 –SD 11.6-, P = .008; 40.3% of the centenarians had anaemia, 67.5% renal failure, 13% hyperglycaemia, 22.1% hypoalbuminaemia and 10.7% dyslipidaemia, without statistically significant differences regarding sex. Only 7% had a normal ECG; 21 (26.3% had atrial fibrillation (AF, 30 (37.5% conduction defects and 31 (38.8% abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, without sex-related differences. A history of heart disease was significantly associated with the presence of AF (P = .002, OR 5.2, CI 95% 1.8 to 15.2 and changes suggestive of ischemia (P = .019, OR 3.2, CI 95% 1.2-8.7. Mean survival was 628 days (SD 578.5, median 481 days. Mortality risk was independently associated with the presence of AF (RR 2.0, P = .011, hyperglycaemia (RR 2.2, P = .032, hypoalbuminaemia (RR 3.5, P P = .024. Conclusion Although ECG abnormalities are common in centenarians, they are not related to

  3. Biofilm formation enhances Helicobacter pylori survivability in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Ho, Bow

    2017-04-01

    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  5. Adoptive TIL Transfer in the Adjuvant Setting for Melanoma: Long-Term Patient Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Khammari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two first analyses of our clinical trial on TIL as adjuvant therapy for melanoma were published in 2002 and 2007. We present here an update of the clinical results after a 17-year median followup. In this trial, disease-free patients were randomly assigned to receive either TIL/IL-2 or IL-2. The relapse-free survival (RFS was the primary objective. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled. A new analysis performed in May 2013 did not show significant changes in RFS or OS duration. However, our first finding on the association between the number of invaded lymph nodes and TIL effectiveness was strengthened. The Cox model adjusted on this interaction showed for the first time a significant treatment effect when considering the overall population, both on the RFS and OS. Patients treated with TIL had a longer RFS (P=0.023 or OS (P=0.020. This study being with a very long followup (17 years, confirmed the association between TIL effectiveness and the number of invaded lymph nodes, indicating that a low tumor burden could be a crucial factor enhancing the curative effect of TIL in possible microscopic residual disease. Moreover, we confirmed that a prolonged survival was associated with the presence of specific TIL and a decrease in Foxp3 expression.

  6. Prospective postmarket device studies versus returned product analysis as a predictor of system survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, T R; Pulling, C C; Stanton, M S

    2000-07-01

    Monitoring and reporting mechanisms are vital tools for clinicians to assess ICD system performance over time for optimal patient care. This article explores the various reporting mechanisms available to the clinician, both historical and current, and compares and contrasts two such methods. The lead survival rates obtained by return product analysis (RPA) are compared with those from an ongoing prospective chronic study that actively follows patients for clinical ICD system failures (Tachyarrhythmia Chronic Systems Study [TCSS]). Examination of available data shows that a prospective study such as the TCSS is capable of detecting clinically significant adverse events in 2.2% of the 3,958 leads followed. By comparison, RPA-based monitoring of the same leads detects "out of specification" events in 0.5% of the 78,571 leads followed. Statistical analyses of two separate families of leads (RV leads and SQ Patch leads) show that survival rates obtained by the two methods begin to differ at approximately 2 years of implant experience, with 95% confidence intervals no longer overlapping at 3 years. The authors conclude that prospective chronic device studies are a superior tool for the ongoing monitoring of implanted device performance compared to RPA-based reports.

  7. Autonomic Nervous System Pretransplant Malfunction Is a Powerful Predictor of Survival After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Takahiko; Nakamae, Mika; Koh, Hideo; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Asao; Hino, Masayuki; Nakamae, Hirohisa

    2017-11-01

    Autonomic nervous system function indexed by heart rate variability (HRV) has shown prognostic value for mortality in various cardiovascular and noncardiovascular diseases including cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an association between HRV and outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We prospectively measured HRV as a surrogate pretransplant marker of autonomic nervous system activity in consecutive allo-HCTs with hematological diseases. We analyzed 112 allo-HCTs performed between July 2011 and July 2013 in our center. Univariate analysis showed that increased values of HRV components (low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] spectral component), SD of normal-to-normal RR interval (SDNN), and squares of the differences between adjacent normal-to-normal RR intervals (r-MSSD) were significantly associated with decreased probability of overall mortality (hazard ratio = 0.3 for LF, P transplantation-comorbidity index, and disease risk index models showed the highest values of ΔAkaike information criterion (16.5, 22.2, and 11.4, respectively). When stratified into quartiles of LF groups, 2-year overall survival was 92.9, 84.5, 59.7, and 33.2%, respectively (P transplantation-comorbidity index, and disease risk index. In addition, from bivariate analyses, decreased LF was an independent and significant factor for higher overall mortality in all models. Indicators reflective of autonomic nervous system function might be a powerful predictor of survival after allo-HCT.

  8. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  9. Cancer survival in England and Wales at the end of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachet, B; Woods, L M; Mitry, E; Riga, M; Cooper, N; Quinn, M J; Steward, J; Brenner, H; Estève, J; Sullivan, R; Coleman, M P

    2008-01-01

    Survival has risen steadily since the 1970s for most cancers in adults in England and Wales, but persistent inequalities exist between those living in affluent and deprived areas. These differences are not seen for children. For many of the common adult cancers, these inequalities in survival (the ‘deprivation gap') became more marked in the 1990s. This volume presents extended analyses of survival for adults diagnosed during the 14 years 1986–1999 and followed up to 2001, including trends in overall survival in England and Wales and trends in the deprivation gap in survival. The analyses include individual tumour data for 2.2 million cancer patients. This article outlines the structure of the supplement – an article for each of the 20 most common cancers in adults, followed by an expert commentary from one of the leading UK clinicians specialising in malignancies of that organ or system. The available data, quality control and methods of analysis are described here, rather than repeated in each of the 20 articles. We open the discussion between clinicians and epidemiologists on how to interpret the observed trends and inequalities in cancer survival, and we highlight some of the most important contrasts in these very different points of view. Survival improved substantially for adult cancer patients in England and Wales up to the end of the 20th century. Although socioeconomic inequalities in survival are remarkably persistent, the overall patterns suggest that these inequalities are largely avoidable. PMID:18813248

  10. Does debulking of enlarged positive lymph nodes improve survival in different gynaecological cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somashekhar, S P

    2015-08-01

    Lymph-node-positive gynaecological cancers remain a pharmacotherapeutic challenge, and patients with lymph-node-positive gynaecological cancers have poor survival. The purpose of this review is to determine whether a survival advantage arises from surgical debulking of enlarged positive lymph nodes in different types of gynaecological cancers. Information from studies published on the survival benefits from debulking lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers was investigated. Pertaining to therapeutic lymphadenectomy, survival benefit can be analysed in two ways, direct survival benefit following therapeutic lymphadenectomy of bulky positive metastatic lymph nodes and indirect survival benefit, which results after a sequela of systematic lymphadenectomy, proper, accurate staging of disease and stage migration and tailor-made adjuvant treatment. The direct hypothesis of therapeutic lymphadenectomy and survival benefit has been prospected in cervical cancers and vulval cancers and in post-chemotherapy residual paraarotic nodal mass in germ cell ovarian cancer. The indirect survival benefit of therapeutic paraarotic lymphadenectomy in high-risk endometrial cancers and advanced epithelial ovarian cancers needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials. More randomized controlled trials are required to investigate this research question. Further, indirect benefit due to tailor-made adjuvant treatment, secondary to accurate staging achieved as a sequela of systematic lymphadenectomy, needs to be analysed in future trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional role of kallikrein 6 in regulating immune cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel A Scarisbrick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kallikrein 6 (KLK6 is a newly identified member of the kallikrein family of secreted serine proteases that prior studies indicate is elevated at sites of central nervous system (CNS inflammation and which shows regulated expression with T cell activation. Notably, KLK6 is also elevated in the serum of multiple sclerosis (MS patients however its potential roles in immune function are unknown. Herein we specifically examine whether KLK6 alters immune cell survival and the possible mechanism by which this may occur.Using murine whole splenocyte preparations and the human Jurkat T cell line we demonstrate that KLK6 robustly supports cell survival across a range of cell death paradigms. Recombinant KLK6 was shown to significantly reduce cell death under resting conditions and in response to camptothecin, dexamethasone, staurosporine and Fas-ligand. Moreover, KLK6-over expression in Jurkat T cells was shown to generate parallel pro-survival effects. In mixed splenocyte populations the vigorous immune cell survival promoting effects of KLK6 were shown to include both T and B lymphocytes, to occur with as little as 5 minutes of treatment, and to involve up regulation of the pro-survival protein B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-XL, and inhibition of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim. The ability of KLK6 to promote survival of splenic T cells was also shown to be absent in cell preparations derived from PAR1 deficient mice.KLK6 promotes lymphocyte survival by a mechanism that depends in part on activation of PAR1. These findings point to a novel molecular mechanism regulating lymphocyte survival that is likely to have relevance to a range of immunological responses that depend on apoptosis for immune clearance and maintenance of homeostasis.

  12. Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy is Associated with Improved Survival for Patients with Resected Gallbladder Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kwon, Jeanny; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Kyubo; Kim, Young Hoon; Seo, Dong Wan; Narang, Amol K; Herman, Joseph M

    2017-10-27

    The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) on survival from gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) remains underexplored, with conflicting results reported. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to clarify the impact of ART in GBC. A systematic literature search of several databases was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, from inception to August 2016. Studies that reported survival outcomes for patients with or without ART after curative surgery were included. All the inclusion criteria was met by 14 retrospective studies including 9364 analyzable patients, but most of the studies had a moderate risk of bias. Generally, the ART group had more patients with unfavorable characteristics than the group that had surgery alone. Nevertheless, the pooled results showed that ART significantly reduced the risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.67; p < 0.001) and recurrence (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-0.98; p = 0.04) of GBC compared with surgery alone. Exploratory analyses demonstrated a survival benefit from ART for a subgroup of patients with lymph node-positive diseases (HR 0.61; p < 0.001) and R1 resections (HR 0.55; p < 0.001), but not for patients with lymph node-negative disease (HR 1.06; p = 0.78). No evidence of publication bias was found (p = 0.663). This study is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the role of ART and to provide supporting evidence that ART may offer survival benefits, especially for high-risk patients. However, further confirmation with a randomized prospective study is needed to clarify the subgroup of GBC patients who would benefit most from ART.

  13. DMPD: Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12106784 Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Carof...html) (.csml) Show Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. PubmedID 12106784 Ti...tle Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Authors

  14. A hybrid approach of gene sets and single genes for the prediction of survival risks with gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Junhee; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated biological knowledge is often encoded as gene sets, collections of genes associated with similar biological functions or pathways. The use of gene sets in the analyses of high-throughput gene expression data has been intensively studied and applied in clinical research. However, the main interest remains in finding modules of biological knowledge, or corresponding gene sets, significantly associated with disease conditions. Risk prediction from censored survival times using gene sets hasn't been well studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid method that uses both single gene and gene set information together to predict patient survival risks from gene expression profiles. In the proposed method, gene sets provide context-level information that is poorly reflected by single genes. Complementarily, single genes help to supplement incomplete information of gene sets due to our imperfect biomedical knowledge. Through the tests over multiple data sets of cancer and trauma injury, the proposed method showed robust and improved performance compared with the conventional approaches with only single genes or gene sets solely. Additionally, we examined the prediction result in the trauma injury data, and showed that the modules of biological knowledge used in the prediction by the proposed method were highly interpretable in biology. A wide range of survival prediction problems in clinical genomics is expected to benefit from the use of biological knowledge.

  15. Regional Variation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survival in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotra, Saket; van Diepen, Sean; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Carrel, Margaret; Vellano, Kimberly; Anderson, Monique L.; McNally, Bryan; Abella, Benjamin; Sasson, Comilla; Chan, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have shown marked variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival across U.S. regions, factors underlying this survival variation remain incompletely explained. Methods and Results Using data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, we identified 96,662 adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac in 132 U.S. counties. We used hierarchical regression models to examine county-level variation in rates of survival and survival with functional recovery (defined as Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 or 2) and examined the contribution of demographics, cardiac arrest characteristics, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), automated external defibrillator (AED) use, and county-level socio-demographic factors in survival variation across counties. A total of 9317 (9.6%) patients survived to discharge, and 7176 (7.4%) achieved functional recovery. At a county-level, there was marked variation in rates of survival to discharge (range: 3.4%-22.0%, median odds ratio [MOR] 1.40, 95% CI 1.32-1.46) and survival with functional recovery (range: 0.8%-21.0%, MOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.43-1.62). County-level rates of bystander CPR and AED use were positively correlated with both outcomes (Pcardiac arrest characteristics explained 4.8% and 27.7% of the county-level variation in survival, respectively. Additional adjustment of bystander CPR and AED explained 41% of the survival variation, and this increased to 50.4% after adjustment of county-level socio-demographic factors. Similar findings were noted in analyses of survival with functional recovery. Conclusions Although out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival varies significantly across U.S. counties, a substantial proportion of the variation is due to differences in bystander response across communities. PMID:27081119

  16. Association of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with breast cancer survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechanic Leah E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene, C677T and A1298C, lead to decreased enzyme activity and affect chemosensitivity of tumor cells. We investigated whether these MTHFR SNPs were associated with breast cancer survival in African-American and Caucasian women. Methods African-American (n = 143 and Caucasian (n = 105 women, who had incident breast cancer with surgery, were recruited between 1993 and 2003 from the greater Baltimore area, Maryland, USA. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between MTHFR SNPs and disease-specific survival. Results We observed opposite effects of the MTHFR polymorphisms A1298C and C677T on breast cancer survival. Carriers of the variant allele at codon 1298 (A/C or C/C had reduced survival when compared to homozygous carriers of the common A allele [Hazard ratio (HR = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.05–4.00]. In contrast, breast cancer patients with the variant allele at codon 677 (C/T or T/T had improved survival, albeit not statistically significant, when compared to individuals with the common C/C genotype (HR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.31–1.35. The effects were stronger in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (HR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.17–6.23 for A/C or C/C versus A/A at codon 1298; HR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.12–1.04 for C/T or T/T versus C/C at codon 677. Interactions between the two MTHFR genotypes and race/ethnicity on breast cancer survival were also observed (A1298C, pinteraction = 0.088; C677T, pinteraction = 0.026. Conclusion We found that the MTHFR SNPs, C677T and A1298C, were associated with breast cancer survival. The variant alleles had opposite effects on disease outcome in the study population. Race/ethnicity modified the association between the two SNPs and breast cancer survival.

  17. Statistical Analyses of Digital Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Using statistical methods to analyse digital material for patterns makes it possible to detect patterns in big data that we would otherwise not be able to detect. This paper seeks to exemplify this fact by statistically analysing a large corpus of references in systematic reviews. The aim...... of the analysis is to study the phenomenon of non-citation: Situations where just one (or some) document(s) are cited from a pool of otherwise equally citable documents. The study is based on more than 120,000 cited studies, and a total number of non-cited studies of more than 1.6 million. The number of cited...... 10 years. After 10 years the cited and non-cited studies tend to be more similar in terms of age. Separating the data set into different sub-disciplines reveals that the sub-disciplines vary in terms of age of cited vs. non-cited references. Some fields may be expanding and the number of published...

  18. Cause-specific or relative survival setting to estimate population-based net survival from cancer? An empirical evaluation using women diagnosed with breast cancer in Geneva between 1981 and 1991 and followed for 20 years after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffar, Robin; Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Woods, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Both cause-specific and relative survival settings can be used to estimate net survival, the survival that would be observed if the only possible underlying cause of death was the disease under study. Both resulting net survival estimators are biased by informative censoring and prone to biases related to the data settings within which each is derived. We took into account informative censoring to derive theoretically unbiased estimators and examine which of the two data settings was the most robust against incorrect assumptions in the data. We identified 2489 women in the Geneva Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1981 and 1991, and estimated net survival up to 20-years using both cause-specific and relative survival settings, by tackling the informative censoring with weights. To understand the possible origins of differences between the survival estimates, we performed sensitivity analyses within each setting. We evaluated the impact of misclassification of cause of death and of using inappropriate life tables on survival estimates. Net survival was highest using the cause-specific setting, by 1% at one year and by up to around 11% twenty years after diagnosis. Differences between both sets of net survival estimates were eliminated after recoding between 15% and 20% of the non-specific deaths as breast cancer deaths. By contrast, a dramatic increase in the general population mortality rates was needed to see the survival estimates based on relative survival setting become closer to those derived from cause-specific setting. Net survival estimates derived using the cause-specific setting are very sensitive to misclassification of cause of death. Net survival estimates derived using the relative-survival setting were robust to large changes in expected mortality. The relative survival setting is recommended for estimation of long-term net survival among patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Yaicha D.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  20. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum

  1. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  2. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  3. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry...

  4. 46 CFR 133.105 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 133.105 Section 133.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.105 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as...

  5. 46 CFR 199.201 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.201 Section 199.201 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.201 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as follows: (1) Each lifeboat must be...

  6. 46 CFR 199.261 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.261 Section 199.261 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.261 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as follows: (1) Each lifeboat must be a totally...

  7. 46 CFR 28.120 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 28.120 Section 28.120 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.120 Survival craft. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (h) of this section and 28.305, each vessel must carry the survival craft specified in Table 28...

  8. 46 CFR 174.320 - Damage survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage survival. 174.320 Section 174.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO... survival. A hopper dredge survives assumed damage if it meets the following conditions: (a) The maximum...

  9. Surviving the crash: T-cell homeostasis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOSHIBA

    Spatial and temporal elements. – Cellular sites for the integration of cell death and survival cues. – Spatial regulation of Notch activity for cell survival. Page 4. Cell survival is determined by the availability and uptake of nutrients live dead. Activated T-cells. T-cells. Page 5. dead wildtype. Bax active -6A7. Nucleus – H33342.

  10. Sex Disparity in Survival of Patients With Uveal Melanoma: Better Survival Rates in Women Than in Men in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, San Jun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Yeon, Bora; Cho, Hyunsoon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with uveal melanoma and sex disparity in this rate in South Korea. We extracted incident uveal melanoma patients using the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database, which covered the entire population from 1999 to 2012 in South Korea. We estimated all-cause survival probabilities and cancer-specific survival probabilities of patients with uveal melanoma and compared these probabilities between subgroups (sex, tumor site, age at diagnosis, etc.) using Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank tests. We fitted the Cox-proportional hazards models for all-cause death and cancer death to determine sex disparities in survival. A total of 344 uveal melanoma patients (175 women, 51%) were ascertained. They comprised 283 patients with choroidal melanoma (82%) and 61 patients with ciliary body/iris melanoma (18%). The observed 5-year survival probability from all-cause death was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%-79%); women with uveal melanoma showed higher survival probability (83% [95% CI: 76%-89%]) compared with men (66% [95% CI: 58%-73%], P Korea, which requires further investigation of mechanism of the sex disparity in uveal melanoma.

  11. Synchronization and survival of connected bacterial populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shreyas; Conwill, Arolyn; Ranjan, Tanvi; Gore, Jeff

    Migration plays a vital role in controlling population dynamics of species occupying distinct habitat patches. While local populations are vulnerable to extinction due to demographic or environmental stochasticity, migration from neighboring habitat patches can rescue these populations through colonization of uninhabited regions. However, a large migratory flux can synchronize the population dynamics in connected patches, thereby enhancing the risk of global extinction during periods of depression in population size. Here, we investigate this trade-off between local rescue and global extinction experimentally using laboratory populations of E. coli bacteria. Our model system consists of co-cultures of ampicillin resistant and chloramphenicol resistant strains that form a cross-protection mutualism and exhibit period-3 oscillations in the relative population density in the presence of both antibiotics. We quantify the onset of synchronization of oscillations in a pair of co-cultures connected by migration and demonstrate that period-3 oscillations can be disturbed for moderate rates of migration. These features are consistent with simulations of a mechanistic model of antibiotic deactivation in our system. The simulations further predict that the probability of survival of connected populations in high concentrations of antibiotics is maximized at intermediate migration rates. We verify this prediction experimentally and show that survival is enhanced through a combination of disturbance of period-3 oscillations and stochastic re-colonization events.

  12. The influence of sarcopenia on survival and surgical complications in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary debulking surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, I J G; Ubachs, J; Kruitwagen, R F P M; van Dijk, D P J; Beets-Tan, R G H; Massuger, L F A G; Olde Damink, S W M; Van Gorp, T

    2017-04-01

    Sarcopenia, severe skeletal muscle loss, has been identified as a prognostic factor in various malignancies. This study aims to investigate whether sarcopenia is associated with overall survival (OS) and surgical complications in patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing primary debulking surgery (PDS). Ovarian cancer patients (n = 216) treated with PDS were enrolled retrospectively. Total skeletal muscle surface area was measured on axial computed tomography at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. Optimum stratification was used to find the optimal skeletal muscle index cut-off to define sarcopenia (≤38.73 cm 2 /m 2 ). Cox-regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to analyse the relationship between sarcopenia and OS. The effect of sarcopenia on the development of major surgical complications was studied with logistic regression. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant survival disadvantage for patients with sarcopenia compared to patients without sarcopenia (p = 0.010). Sarcopenia univariably predicted OS (HR 1.536 (95% CI 1.105-2.134), p = 0.011) but was not significant in multivariable Cox-regression analysis (HR 1.362 (95% CI 0.968-1.916), p = 0.076). Significant predictors for OS in multivariable Cox-regression analysis were complete PDS, treatment in a specialised centre and the development of major complications. Sarcopenia was not predictive of major complications. Sarcopenia was not predictive of OS or major complications in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary debulking surgery. However a strong trend towards a survival disadvantage for patients with sarcopenia was seen. Future prospective studies should focus on interventions to prevent or reverse sarcopenia and possibly increase ovarian cancer survival. Complete cytoreduction remains the strongest predictor of ovarian cancer survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights

  13. Toxigenic potential and heat survival of spore-forming bacteria isolated from bread and ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Palmira; Minervini, Fiorenza; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Valerio, Francesca; Lavermicocca, Paola; Sisto, Angelo

    2015-03-16

    Fifty-four spore-forming bacterial strains isolated from bread ingredients and bread, mainly belonging to the genus Bacillus (including Bacillus cereus), together with 11 reference strains were investigated to evaluate their cytotoxic potential and heat survival in order to ascertain if they could represent a risk for consumer health. Therefore, we performed a screening test of cytotoxic activity on HT-29 cells using bacterial culture filtrates after growing bacterial cells in Brain Heart Infusion medium and in the bread-based medium Bread Extract Broth (BEB). Moreover, immunoassays and PCR analyses, specifically targeting already known toxins and related genes of B. cereus, as well as a heat spore inactivation assay were carried out. Despite of strain variability, the results clearly demonstrated a high cytotoxic activity of B. cereus strains, even if for most of them it was significantly lower in BEB medium. Cytotoxic activity was also detected in 30% of strains belonging to species different from B. cereus, although, with a few exceptions (e.g. Bacillus simplex N58.2), it was low or very low. PCR analyses detected the presence of genes involved in the production of NHE, HBL or CytK toxins in B. cereus strains, while genes responsible for cereulide production were not detected. Production of NHE and HBL toxins was also confirmed by specific immunoassays only for B. cereus strains even if PCR analyses revealed the presence of related toxin genes also in some strains of other species. Viable spore count was ascertained after a heat treatment simulating the bread cooking process. Results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens strains almost completely survived the heat treatment showing less than 2 log-cycle reductions similarly to two strains of B. cereus group III and single strains belonging to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mojavensis and Paenibacillus spp. Importantly, spores from strains of the B. cereus group IV exhibited a thermal resistance markedly lower than B

  14. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Survival Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Aly-Khan A; McKay, Rana R; Lin, Xun; Simantov, Ronit; Kaymakcalan, Marina D; Choueiri, Toni K

    2017-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion and can affect the optimal absorption of concomitant oral medications, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of PPI use on survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients treated in the targeted therapy era. We conducted a pooled analysis of mRCC patients treated in phase II and III clinical trials. Statistical analyses were performed using Cox regression adjusted for several risk factors and the Kaplan-Meier method. We identified 2188 patients treated with sunitinib (n = 952), axitinib (n = 626) or sorafenib (n = 610), of whom 120 were PPI users. Overall, PPI users showed similar overall survival compared with non-PPI users (hazard ratio [HR], 1.051; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.769-1.438; P = .754; median, 24.1 vs. 21.3 months). Similarly, progression-free survival (HR, 1.016; 95% CI, 0.793-1.301; P = .902; median, 5.5 vs. 8.0 months) and objective response rates (23.3% vs. 27.4%; P = .344) were not different between PPI users and nonusers. These findings were consistent across International mRCC Database Consortium risk groups and according to line of therapy. Adverse events were similar between PPI users and nonusers. We showed that PPI use does not appear to negatively affect the efficacy and safety of select VEGF-TKIs in patients with mRCC. Documentation of concomitant medications and patient education on potential drug interactions are critical for optimizing the use of oral cancer-targeting therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giavi

    Full Text Available Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  16. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  17. Colorectal cancer survival by stage of cases diagnosed in Mallorca, Spain, between 2006 and 2011 and factors associated with survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M; Montaño, J; Esteva, M; Barceló, A; Franch, P

    2016-04-01

    To establish cause-specific survival by stage of colorectal cancer up to 8 years from diagnosis, and to identify factors which explain and predict the likelihood of survival. Retrospective follow-up study of people diagnosed with invasive colorectal cancer during 2006-2011, identified through the Mallorca Cancer Registry. DCO and lymphomas were excluded. Sex, age, diagnostic method, site, histology, T, N, M, and stage, date of diagnosis, date of follow-up or death, and cause of death were collected. End point of follow-up was 31st December 2013. Multiple imputation (MI) method was performed to obtain stage when unknown. Actuarial and Kaplan-Meier methods were used for survival analysis. Extended Cox models were built to identify factors that explain and predict survival. 2889 cases were identified, 41.7% in women and 58.3% in men, with a mean age of 70.5 years. Unknown stage represented 15.3% of cases. After MI, 15% were in stage I, 26.7% were in II, 32.7% in III, and 25.6% in IV. Survival was 56% at the end of the 5th year. Survival by stage changed significantly after MI and was estimated to 83% at stage I, 73% at II, 62% at III, and 16% at IV. Extended Cox model showed that survival worsened with age, mucinous histology, and stage. Risk of dying was 17.0 times higher in stage IV compared to stage I, 3.7 times in stage III, and 1.6 times in stage II. More than half of colorectal cancer patients will survive 5 years after diagnosis, but only if diagnosed in stages I-III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Natalia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available English as a second language (ESL teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary school students need to know in terms of language to process academic textbooks cannot avoiding deal with a dilemma. It needs to be decided which way it is most appropriate to analyse the texts in question. Handbooks of English applied linguistics are not immensely helpful with regard to this problem as they tend not to give recommendation as to which major text analytical approaches are advisable to follow in a pre-college setting. The present theoretical research aims to address this lacuna. Respectively, the purpose of this pedagogically motivated theoretical paper is to investigate two major approaches of ESP text analysis, the register and the genre analysis, in order to find the more suitable one for exploring the language use of secondary school subject texts from the point of view of an English as a second language teacher. Comparing and contrasting the merits and limitations of the two contrastive approaches allows for a better understanding of the nature of the two different perspectives of text analysis. The study examines the goals, the scope of analysis, and the achievements of the register perspective and those of the genre approach alike. The paper also investigates and reviews in detail the starkly different methods of ESP text analysis applied by the two perspectives. Discovering text analysis from a theoretical and methodological angle supports a practical aspect of English teaching, namely making an informed choice when setting out to analyse

  19. The Comparison Between Chinese Puppet Show and Chinese-Javanese Blend Puppet Show in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Sufianto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since some centuries ago, Indonesia has been one of the destinations for immigrating Chinese. When the Chinese came to Indonesia, they also brought their cultures and customs. Some of them have a cultural-cross marriage with local Indonesian and brought their cultures to be introduced to local Indonesian. When the relationship between Chinese and Indonesian became stronger in some fields such as trade, education and politic, some of Chinese cultures has been adapted by local Indonesian or has been assimilated with local cultures. This adaption process was hindered when the New Order of Soeharto government had banned all Chinese culture, including anything closely related. So, the Chinese-Javanese blend puppet show that also brings Chinese culture couldn’t get any supports and its development faces difficulties. The writer using a qualitative methodology interviewed some of Chinese-Javanese puppet show artist and observation of the puppet show performance to make a comparison between Chinese puppet show and Chinese-Javanese blend puppet show in Indonesia. Chinese-Javanese puppet show or usually can be determined as Indonesian potehi puppet Show has some differences from Chinese puppet show. The differences can be found in the making of puppet, puppet profiles, performance way and stories. 

  20. Improved Survival in Patients with Recurrent Wilms Tumor: the Experience of the Seoul National University Children's Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun Sil; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2006-01-01

    The survival in cases with relapsed Wilms tumor is dismal. Recently, however the introduction of new therapeutic agents and experimental strategies has improved the survival. We analysed the survival of patients with relapsed Wilms tumor according to the treatment period. During the early period 1983-1993, patients who had received two drugs were treated with doxorubicin and the others were treated with cisplatin and etoposide, whereas during the late period 1994-2004, patients were treated w...

  1. HGCal Simulation Analyses for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Sarah Marie

    2015-01-01

    This summer, I approached the topic of fast-timing detection of photons from Higgs decays via simulation analyses, working under the supervision of Dr. Adolf Bornheim of the California Institute of Technology. My specific project focused on simulating the high granularity calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS detects particles using calorimeters. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal) is arranged cylindrically to form a barrel section and two “endcaps.” Previously, both the barrel and endcap have employed lead tungstate crystal detectors, known as the “shashlik” design. The crystal detectors, however, rapidly degrade from exposure to radiation. This effect is most pronounced in the endcaps. To avoid the high expense of frequently replacing degraded detectors, it was recently decided to eliminate the endcap crystals in favor of an arrangement of silicon detectors known as the “High Granularity Calorimeter” (HGCal), while leaving the barrel detector technology unchanged. T...

  2. Analysing performance through value creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TRIFAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a parallel between measuring financial performance in 2 variants: the first one using data offered by accounting, which lays emphasis on maximizing profit, and the second one which aims to create value. The traditional approach to performance is based on some indicators from accounting data: ROI, ROE, EPS. The traditional management, based on analysing the data from accounting, has shown its limits, and a new approach is needed, based on creating value. The evaluation of value based performance tries to avoid the errors due to accounting data, by using other specific indicators: EVA, MVA, TSR, CVA. The main objective is shifted from maximizing the income to maximizing the value created for shareholders. The theoretical part is accompanied by a practical analysis regarding the creation of value and an analysis of the main indicators which evaluate this concept.

  3. Retorisk analyse af historiske tekster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    scholars who identify themselves as rhetoricians tend to define and conduct such an analysis. It is argued that while rhetoricians would sympathize with Skinner’s adoption of speech act theory in his reading of historical documents, they would generally extend their rhetorical readings of such documents......In recent years, rhetoric and the rhetorical tradition has attracted increasing interest from historians, such as, e.g., Quentin Skinner. The paper aims to explain and illustrate what may be understood by a rhetorical analysis (or “rhetorical criticism”) of historical documents, i.e., how those...... to many more features than just the key concepts invoked in them. The paper discusses examples of rhetorical analyses done by prominent contemporary rhetoricians, including Edwin Black, Kenneth Burke, Maurice Charland, and Michael Leff. It relates its view of rhetorical documents to trends in current...

  4. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...... reasons why those competing views fail provide important insights into the ethics of killing....

  5. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  6. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  7. Prognostic and survival analysis of presbyopia: The healthy twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Adiyani; Sung, Joohon

    2015-12-01

    Presbyopia, a vision condition in which the eye loses its flexibility to focus on near objects, is part of ageing process which mostly perceptible in the early or mid 40s. It is well known that age is its major risk factor, while sex, alcohol, poor nutrition, ocular and systemic diseases are known as common risk factors. However, many other variables might influence the prognosis. Therefore in this paper we developed a prognostic model to estimate survival from presbyopia. 1645 participants which part of the Healthy Twin Study, a prospective cohort study that has recruited Korean adult twins and their family members based on a nation-wide registry at public health agencies since 2005, were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis as well as Cox proportional hazard model to reveal the prognostic factors for presbyopia while survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Besides age, sex, diabetes, and myopia; the proposed model shows that education level (especially engineering program) also contribute to the occurrence of presbyopia as well. Generally, at 47 years old, the chance of getting presbyopia becomes higher with the survival probability is less than 50%. Furthermore, our study shows that by stratifying the survival curve, MZ has shorter survival with average onset time about 45.8 compare to DZ and siblings with 47.5 years old. By providing factors that have more effects and mainly associate with presbyopia, we expect that we could help to design an intervention to control or delay its onset time.

  8. Analysing human genomes at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Siyang

    genotypes in the Danish Genetics of Overweight Young Adults (GOYA) obesity cohort and prove the clinical usage of the Danish reference panel in genomewide association studies. In the second project, we have collected ultra-low depth sequencing data of more than 140, 000 Chinese pregnant women. We developed...... and applied novel methods to analysing the data that are accumulating rapidly and now reach millions of sample scale. We show that we are able to discover mutations with allele frequencies down to around 0.2% and to explore fine-scale population structure and ancestry across the 31 administrative divisions...

  9. Natural variation of macrophage activation as disease-relevant phenotype predictive of inflammation and cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, Konrad; Ehinger, Erik; Gupta, Pritha; Pramod, Akula Bala; Wolf, Dennis; Tweet, George; Pan, Calvin; Mills, Charles D; Lusis, Aldons J; Ley, Klaus

    2017-07-24

    Although mouse models exist for many immune-based diseases, the clinical translation remains challenging. Most basic and translational studies utilize only a single inbred mouse strain. However, basal and diseased immune states in humans show vast inter-individual variability. Here, focusing on macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we use the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) of 83 inbred strains as a surrogate for human natural immune variation. Since conventional bioinformatics fail to analyse a population spectrum, we highlight how gene signatures for LPS responsiveness can be derived based on an Interleukin-12β and arginase expression ratio. Compared to published signatures, these gene markers are more robust to identify susceptibility or resilience to several macrophage-related disorders in humans, including survival prediction across many tumours. This study highlights natural activation diversity as a disease-relevant dimension in macrophage biology, and suggests the HMDP as a viable tool to increase translatability of mouse data to clinical settings.

  10. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Samara, Marilia; Hancock, Barry; Wicks, Robert; Moore, Tom; Rust, Duncan; Jones, Jonathan; Saito, Yoshifumi; Pollock, Craig; Owen, Chris; Rae, Jonny

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves). A novel capability to time tag individual electron events during short intervals for the purposes of ground analysis of wave-particle interactions is also planned.

  11. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  12. Graphene Films Show Stable Cell Attachment and Biocompatibility with Electrogenic Primary Cardiac Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taeyong; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Kwanghee; Kim, Do Han

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has attracted substantial attention due to its advantageous materialistic applicability. In the present study, we tested the biocompatibility of graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition with electrogenic primary adult cardiac cells (cardiomyocytes) by measuring the cell properties such as cell attachment, survival, contractility and calcium transients. The results show that the graphene films showed stable cell attachment and excellent biocompatibility with the electro...

  13. Systematic review of actual 10-year survival following resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluer, Annelise M; Cocco, Nicholas; Laurence, Jerome M; Johnston, Emma S; Hollands, Michael J; Pleass, Henry C C; Richardson, Arthur J; Lam, Vincent W T

    2012-05-01

    Hepatic resection is a potentially curative therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but recurrence of disease is very common. Few studies have reported 10-year actual survival rates following hepatic resection; instead, most have used actuarial measures based on the Kaplan-Meier method. This systematic review aims to document 10-year actual survival rates and to identify factors significant in determining prognosis. A comprehensive search was undertaken of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Only studies reporting the absolute number of patients alive at 10 years after first resection for HCC were included; these figures were used to calculate the actual 10-year survival rate. A qualitative review and analysis of the prognostic factors identified in the included studies were performed. Fourteen studies, all of which were retrospective case series, including data on 4197 patients with HCC were analysed. Ten years following resection, 303 of these patients were alive. The 10-year actual survival rate was 7.2%, whereas the actuarial survival quoted from the same studies was 26.8%. Positive prognostic factors included better hepatic function, a wider surgical margin and the absence of satellite lesions. The actual long-term survival rate after resection of HCC is significantly inferior to reported actuarial survival rates. The Kaplan-Meier method of actuarial survival analysis tends to overestimate survival outcomes as a result of censorship of data and subgroup analysis. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  14. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  15. Breast cancer in young Asian women: study on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Chek Siang; Su, David; Chong, Chee Keong; Chng, Hong Chee; Tay, Khoon Hean; Low, Sze Chuan; Tan, Su Ming

    2005-07-01

    Breast cancer in young patients is often associated with a poorer prognosis, but there has been a paucity of published data in an Asian population. One hundred and six patients (12.6%) under the age of 40 years with breast cancer (group V) were compared with 737 patients with breast cancer aged 40 years or more (group W). Demographics, presentations, pathological profiles, treatment and survival measures were analysed. Median tumour size was similar in both groups. Group V had more patients with grade 3 tumours and nodal involvement compared to group W (51.5% vs 38.1%, P = 0.012 and 52.5% vs 41.8%, P = 0.045). The mean Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) score was significantly higher in group V compared to group W (4.75 vs 4.26, P < 0.001). The incidences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in group V were higher than group W (69.2% vs 35.2%, P < 0.001 and 41.1% vs 24.4%, P = 0.002). There were no differences in overall survival and disease-free survival (local recurrence). Patients below 40 years with breast cancer have tumours with a poorer prognostic profile. However, this did not translate into a poorer overall survival, and this might be attributable to more aggressive adjuvant treatment of younger patients.

  16. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmekel, Birgitta [Division of of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden); Clinical Physiology, Department of Medicine and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Winquist, Fredrik, E-mail: frw@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Vikström, Anders [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University hospital of Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-20

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown.

  17. Caries risk and number of restored surfaces have impact on the survival of posterior composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balevi, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Cochrane Library, PubMed, the Web of Science (ISI) and Scopus. Longitudinal studies of direct class II or classes I and II restorations in permanent dentition of at least five years duration, a minimum of 20 restorations at final recall and the original datasets available were considered. Only English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened titles independently. Multivariate Cox regression method to analyse the variables of interest and hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined. The annual failure rate (AFR) of the investigated restorations and subgroups was calculated. Twelve studies, nine prospective and three retrospective were included. A total of 2,816 restorations (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I restorations) were included in the analysis. Five hundred and sixty-nine restorations failed during the observation period, and the main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. Regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. The overall annual failure rate at five years and ten years was 1.8% and 2.4% respectively. The rates were higher in high-caries-rate individuals at 3.2% and 4.6% respectively. The conclusion of the present meta-analysis of 12 clinical studies based on raw data is that caries risk and number of restored surfaces play a significant role in restoration survival, and that, on average, posterior resin composite restorations show a good survival, with annual failure rates of 1.8% at five years and 2.4% after ten years of service.

  18. Nissan at 33rd Tokyo Motor Show; Dai 33 kai Tokyo Motor show

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The Tokyo Motor Show is one of the leading exhibition opportunities for automobile companies world wide in terms of both scale and features, including the number of visitors as well as the devotion of each participant. For many years, we have worked hard to excell at each session of this show, (through the display of concept cars and Nissan Motor's technological developments), the show has played an increasing role in enhancing Nissan's brand image. At the 33rd Tokyo Motor Show in October 1999 was held at a time when Nissan had drawn the attention of the market because of its tic-up with Renault. Nissan demonstrated a revolutionary change through the introduction of concept cars, environmental technology, safety technology, new models, and so on. (author)

  19. The outcome and survival of palliative surgery in thoraco-lumbar spinal metastases: contemporary retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemelc, R.M.; Stadhouder, A.; van Royen, B.J.; Jiya, T.U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate outcome and survival and to identify prognostic variables for patients surgically treated for spinal metastases. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 86 patients, surgically treated for spinal metastases. Preoperative analyses of the ASIA and spinal instability

  20. Universal doomsday: analyzing our prospects for survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerig, Austin [CABDyN Complexity Centre, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: austin.gerig@sbs.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: kdo@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford MA 02155 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Given a sufficiently large universe, numerous civilizations almost surely exist. Some of these civilizations will be short-lived and die out relatively early in their development, i.e., before having the chance to spread to other planets. Others will be long-lived, potentially colonizing their galaxy and becoming enormous in size. What fraction of civilizations in the universe are long-lived? The ''universal doomsday'' argument states that long-lived civilizations must be rare because if they were not, we should find ourselves living in one. Furthermore, because long-lived civilizations are rare, our civilization's prospects for long-term survival are poor. Here, we develop the formalism required for universal doomsday calculations and show that while the argument has some force, our future is not as gloomy as the traditional doomsday argument would suggest, at least when the number of early existential threats is small.

  1. Childhood cancer survival rates in two South African units | Stones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cancers were leukaemia (25.0%), brain tumours (19.5%), lymphoma (13.0%) and nephroblastoma (10.0%). ... A comparison between ethnic groups showed white children to have the highest survival rate (62.8%); the rate for children of mixed racial origin was 53.8% and that for black children 48.5%.

  2. Relative survival of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James G; Wehberg, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies consistently show an initial survival advantage for PD patients compared to HD. It has recently been suggested that this is due to the fact that many HD patients are referred late, and start dialysis on an acute, in-patient basis. The present study was perfor...

  3. Effect of severity of disability on survival in north east England cerebral palsy cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, J; Colver, A; Mackie, P; ROSENBLOOM, L.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the effect of motor and cognitive disabilities on the survival of people on the North of England Collaborative Cerebral Palsy Survey, and compare this with other published results.
METHODS—The cerebral palsy cohort consists of 1960-1990 births in Northumberland, Newcastle, and North Tyneside health districts. Survival and cause of death were analysed in relation to data on birth, disabilities, and a unique measure of the impact of disability.
RESULTS—D...

  4. Impact of modern chemotherapy on the survival of women presenting with de novo metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pal Sumanta K; Dehaven Mary; Nelson Rebecca A; Onami Susan; Hsu JoAnn; Waliany Sarah; Kruper Laura; Mortimer Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Data that directly associate utilization of novel systemic therapies with survival trends in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are limited. In the setting of de novo MBC, large registry analyses cite positive temporal trends in survival, but the extent to which advances in systemic therapy have contributed to these gains is not clear. Methods The City of Hope Cancer Registry was used to identify a consecutive series of patients with de novo MBC who received their first line o...

  5. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...... the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... rate in the 1st year of life and a much lower rate in the first 3 months of life. Furthermore, the analyses indicated that survival was lower in the winter months for ringing data during 1920–2002 but not for radiotagged owls during 2005–2008 that experienced the highest mortality rates during...

  6. Recurrence and survival after neck dissections in cutaneous head and neck melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Stemann; Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Thamsborg, Andreas Key Milan

    2014-01-01

    if there is a difference in nodal recurrence and survival after radical, modified or selective neck dissection. METHODS: A total of 57 patients treated for regional meta-stases of head and neck melanoma were analysed retrospectively with respect to type of neck dissection, use of sentinel node biopsy, nodal recurrence...... deposits in sentinel nodes had a better survival than patients with clinically palpable nodes (five-year survival rate: 70% versus 36%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The extent of neck dissection does not significantly influence the rate of recurrence or survival. This study indicates that there is a survival...... benefit for patients who undergo completion lymph node dissection following a positive sentinel node biopsy. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  7. Lifestyle habits as prognostic factors in survival of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer: a multicentric European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rajesh P; Boffetta, Paolo; Bouchardy, Christine; Merletti, Franco; Crosignani, Paolo; Cuchi, Teresa; Ardanaz, Eva; Brennan, Paul

    2005-12-20

    Little information is available on the role of tobacco, alcohol and diet in the survival of upper aero digestive cancers. Our study analysed the survival of 931 laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer patients, enrolled in a population based case-control study conducted at 5 centres in southeast Europe during 1979-1982. Age at the time of diagnosis and site of origin of tumour were observed to be predictors of the survival. Cigarette smoking, and to a limited extent alcohol drinking, before the diagnosis of tumour seem to influence the overall survival whereas high intakes of vegetables and vitamin C were observed to favourably affect the prognosis. For mortality from upper aerodigestive cancer protective effects of high intakes of vegetables, fibres and vitamin C were observed. Our results support the hypothesis that there is a role for dietary intervention to improve survival of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer patients. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  8. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared with conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy: A 10-year experience with a large cohort and long follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Xia; Li, Jing; Shen, Guo-Ping; Zou, Xiong; Xu, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Rou; You, Rui; Hua, Yi-Jun; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun; Hong, Ming-Huang; Chen, Ming-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the survival benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-CRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using a large cohort with long follow-up. We retrospectively analysed 7081 non-metastatic NPC patients who received curative IMRT or 2D-CRT from February 2002 to December 2011. Of the 7081 patients, 2245 (31.7%) were administered IMRT, while 4836 (68.3%) were administered 2D-CRT. At 5 years, the patients administered IMRT had significantly higher local relapse-free survival (LRFS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (95.6%, 92.5%, 82.1% and 87.4%, respectively) than those administered 2D-CRT (90.8%, 88.5%, 76.7% and 84.5%, respectively; p<0.001). The distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was higher for IMRT than 2D-CRT, with borderline significance (87.6% and 85.7%, respectively; p=0.056). However, no difference was observed between IMRT and 2D-CRT in nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS; 96.3% and 97.4%, respectively; p=0.217). Multivariate analyses showed that IMRT was an independent protective prognostic factor for LRFS, LRRFS and PFS, but not NRFS, DMFS or OS. IMRT provided an improved LRFS, LRRFS and PFS in both the early and advanced T classifications and overall stage for non-disseminated NPC compared with 2D-CRT. However, no significant advantage was observed in NRFS, DMFS or OS when IMRT was used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Materials for Ground Platform Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    S-2 Glass – Carbon – Para-Aramid Synthetics • Ex. Kevlar – Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene • Ex. Dyneema / Spectra Shield UNCLASSIFIED... Manufacturability • Attachment design• Shock transmission• Affordability• RAM Trades analyses • Performance•Weight• Cost UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public

  10. Direct Survival Analysis: a new stock assessment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrandis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new stock assessment method, Direct Survival Analysis, is proposed and described. The parameter estimation of the Weibull survival model proposed by Ferrandis (2007 is obtained using trawl survey data. This estimation is used to establish a baseline survival function, which is in turn used to estimate the specific survival functions in the different cohorts considered through an adaptation of the separable model of the fishing mortality rates introduced by Pope and Shepherd (1982. It is thus possible to test hypotheses on the evolution of survival during the period studied and to identify trends in recruitment. A link is established between the preceding analysis of trawl survey data and the commercial catch-at-age data that are generally obtained to evaluate the population using analytical models. The estimated baseline survival, with the proposed versions of the stock and catch equations and the adaptation of the Separable Model, may be applied to commercial catch-at-age data. This makes it possible to estimate the survival corresponding to the landing data, the initial size of the cohort and finally, an effective age of first capture, in order to complete the parameter model estimation and consequently the estimation of the whole survival and mortality, along with the reference parameters that are useful for management purposes. Alternatively, this estimation of an effective age of first capture may be obtained by adapting the demographic structure of trawl survey data to that of the commercial fleet through suitable selectivity models of the commercial gears. The complete model provides the evaluation of the stock at any age. The coherence (and hence the mutual “calibration” between the two kinds of information may be analysed and compared with results obtained by other methods, such as virtual population analysis (VPA, in order to improve the diagnosis of the state of exploitation of the population. The model may be

  11. Association Among Blood Transfusion, Sepsis, and Decreased Long-term Survival After Colon Cancer Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquina, Christopher T; Blumberg, Neil; Becerra, Adan Z; Boscoe, Francis P; Schymura, Maria J; Noyes, Katia; Monson, John R T; Fleming, Fergal J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the potential additive effects of blood transfusion and sepsis on colon cancer disease-specific survival, cardiovascular disease-specific survival, and overall survival after colon cancer surgery. Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with infectious complications and increased risk of cancer recurrence through systemic inflammatory effects. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested an association among sepsis, subsequent systemic inflammation, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, no study has investigated the association among transfusion, sepsis, and disease-specific survival in postoperative patients. The New York State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System were queried for stage I to III colon cancer resections from 2004 to 2011. Propensity-adjusted survival analyses assessed the association of perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, sepsis, and 5-year colon cancer disease-specific survival, cardiovascular disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Among 24,230 patients, 29% received a transfusion and 4% developed sepsis. After risk adjustment, transfusion and sepsis were associated with worse colon cancer disease-specific survival [(+)transfusion: hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.30; (+)sepsis: HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.44-2.35; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.87-2.76], cardiovascular disease-specific survival [(+)transfusion: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33; (+)sepsis: HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.31; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.58-2.63], and overall survival [(+)transfusion: HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29; (+)sepsis: HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.48-2.09; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.36, 95% CI 2.07-2.68] relative to (-)transfusion/(-)sepsis. Additional analyses suggested an additive effect with those who both received a blood transfusion and developed sepsis having even worse survival. Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with shorter survival

  12. Child survival gains in Tanzania: analysis of data from demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanja, Honorati; de Savigny, Don; Smithson, Paul; Schellenberg, Joanna; John, Theopista; Mbuya, Conrad; Upunda, Gabriel; Boerma, Ties; Victora, Cesar; Smith, Tom; Mshinda, Hassan

    2008-04-12

    A recent national survey in Tanzania reported that mortality in children younger than 5 years dropped by 24% over the 5 years between 2000 and 2004. We aimed to investigate yearly changes to identify what might have contributed to this reduction and to investigate the prospects for meeting the Millennium Development Goal for child survival (MDG 4). We analysed data from the four demographic and health surveys done in Tanzania since 1990 to generate estimates of mortality in children younger than 5 years for every 1-year period before each survey back to 1990. We estimated trends in mortality between 1990 and 2004 by fitting Lowess regression, and forecasted trends in mortality in 2005 to 2015. We aimed to investigate contextual factors, whether part of Tanzania's health system or not, that could have affected child mortality. Disaggregated estimates of mortality showed a sharp acceleration in the reduction in mortality in children younger than 5 years in Tanzania between 2000 and 2004. In 1990, the point estimate of mortality was 141.5 (95% CI 141.5-141.5) deaths per 1000 livebirths. This was reduced by 40%, to reach a point estimate of 83.2 (95% CI 70.1-96.3) deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2004. The change in absolute risk was 58.4 (95% CI 32.7-83.8; p<0.0001). Between 1999 and 2004 we noted important improvements in Tanzania's health system, including doubled public expenditure on health; decentralisation and sector-wide basket funding; and increased coverage of key child-survival interventions, such as integrated management of childhood illness, insecticide-treated nets, vitamin A supplementation, immunisation, and exclusive breastfeeding. Other determinants of child survival that are not related to the health system did not change between 1999 and 2004, except for a slow increase in the HIV/AIDS burden. Tanzania could attain MDG 4 if this trend of improved child survival were to be sustained. Investment in health systems and scaling up interventions can produce

  13. Survival paths through the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    when the information is high-dimensional e.g. when there are many thousands of genes or markers. In these situations machine learning methods such as the random forest can still be applied and provide reasonable prediction accuracy. The main focus in this talk is the performance of random forest...... in particular when the response is three-dimensional. In a diagnostic study of inflammatory bowel disease three classes of patients have to be diagnosed based on microarray gene-expression data. The performance of random forest is compared on a probability scale and on a classification scale to elastic net....... In survival analysis with competing risks I present an extension of random forest using time-dependent pseudo-values to build event risk prediction models. This approach is evaluated with data from Copenhagen stroke study. Further, I will explain how to use the R-package "pec" to evaluate random forests using...

  14. The effect of distant metastases sites on survival in de novo stage-IV breast cancer: A SEER database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San-Gang; Li, Hui; Tang, Li-Ying; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Feng-Yan; Chen, Yong-Xiong; He, Zhen-Yu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effect of distant metastases sites on survival in patients with de novo stage-IV breast cancer. From 2010 to 2013, patients with a diagnosis of de novo stage-IV breast cancer were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze the effect of distant metastases sites on breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. A total of 7575 patients were identified. The most common metastatic sites were bone, followed by lung, liver, and brain. Patients with hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- and hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ status were more prone to bone metastases. Lung and brain metastases were common in hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ and hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- subtypes, and patients with hormone receptor+/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ and hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ subtypes were more prone to liver metastases. Patients with liver and brain metastases had unfavorable prognosis for breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival, whereas bone and lung metastases had no effect on patient survival in multivariate analyses. The hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- subtype conferred a significantly poorer outcome in terms of breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ disease was associated with the best prognosis in terms of breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Patients with liver and brain metastases were more likely to experience poor prognosis for breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival by various breast cancer subtypes. Distant metastases sites have differential impact on clinical outcomes in stage-IV breast cancer. Follow-up screening for brain and

  15. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  16. Study of the cross-contamination and survival of Salmonella in fresh apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, F; Begum, M; Johannessen, G S

    2014-08-01

    The present work aimed at studying the cross contamination of apples by Salmonella during the processing of commercial fresh apples and its survival capacity on apple at room temperature. For the first study, the typical process of fresh apples was simulated at laboratory scale in which an apple that was artificially contaminated by Salmonella at different concentration levels (8, 6 and 5 log cfu/apple) was introduced in one batch and processed including a simulated transport/washing step and drying step using sponges to simulate the porous material used in the industry. Results indicated that at 8 log cfu/apple, 50% fresh apples were contaminated after processing, with all analysed environmental samples being positive for the pathogen, consisting of washing water and sponges. However, at lower inoculum levels (5-6 log cfu/apple) no cross contamination was detected in apples, and only environmental samples showed contamination by Salmonella after processing including both water and sponges. Experiments on the survival of Salmonella on apple showed that the pathogen was capable to survive for 12 days, only showing a significant drop at the end of the experiment. Finally, two-class attribute sampling plans were assessed as tool to detect Salmonella in different contamination scenarios in fresh apple. This analysis indicated that with the highest inoculum level, a total of 16 apples would be needed to reach 95% of detecting Salmonella (i.e. lot rejection). In turn, when low levels were assessed (5-6 log cfu/apple), a large number of apples (n=1021) would have to be sampled to obtain the same confidence level (95%). If the environment is sampled (i.e. water and sponges), a lower number of samples would be needed to detect the pathogen. However, the feasibility of environmental sampling has not been assessed from a practical point of view. Overall, the results in this study evidenced that cross contamination by Salmonella might occur during processing of fresh apples

  17. The Rarity of Survival to Old Age Does Not Drive the Evolution of Senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Wensink, Maarten Jan; Caswell, Hal; Baudisch, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of senescence is often explained by arguing that, in nature, few individuals survive to be old and hence it is evolutionarily unimportant what happens to organisms when they are old. A corollary to this idea is that extrinsically imposed mortality, because it reduces the chance of surviving to be old, favors the evolution of senescence. We show that these ideas, although widespread, are incorrect. Selection leading to senescence does not depend directly on survival to old age, b...

  18. Positioning Guests in a Maybrit Illner Talk Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Schmitt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze techniques applied by the producers of a talk show in order to position the talk show guests as relevant participants with respect to the subject of fiscal evasion by celebrities. We analyze how the producers succeed in positioning their guests right from the beginning as prototypical representatives. This positioning is achieved through the coordination of a voice from offstage and the management of the cameras when the guests first appear on screen. Two of five guest introductions are analyzed in detail. The two presented guests demonstrate a clearly antagonistic relationship and their introduction is immediately consecutive. We have reconstructed the introduction of all five guests in detail which resulted in the identification of a network of positions. Unfortunately we cannot present all of our analyses here due to the lack of space. At the positional network's center lies the thematic and personal "antagonism" which we reconstructed. At the periphery we have four representatives of societally relevant positions who contribute to the topic of the talk show. The four guests respectively represent jurisdiction, politics, and ethics via a lay perspective, psychology and theology. The analysis is theoretically framed by the multimodal notion of "positioning" and "recipient design", while the applied methodology is multimodal interaction analysis.

  19. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  20. MRI survival guide; MRT Basiskurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoza, J. [Alta Imaging Medical Group and Magnetic Imaging Affiliates, Berkeley, CA (United States); Herfkens, R.J. [eds.] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center

    1999-07-01

    The book is a German translation of an American textbook with the original title ''MRI Survival Guide'' and is intended to serve as an introductory guide for beginners or a reference book for quick information. Readers will find information on the fundamentals of the technology and methodology of MRI as well as all details of relevance to practice in a precise and easy-to-grasp arrangement, covering all anatomic areas of interest, illustrations and descriptions of characteristic signs of pathologic processes, high-quality and unusually large-sized diagnostic pictures, a modern didactic concept for quick orientiation, including surveys, tables, and reproductions for visualisation of contents. (orig./CB) [German] Praktisch jeder Mediziner wird im Laufe seiner Berufstaetigkeit mit der MRT konfrontiert - unabhaengig davon ob in der Radiologie, Orthopaedie, Gynaekologie, Chirurgie, Neurologie oder sonstigen Fachrichtung. Das Buch ist eine Uebersetzung eines amerikanischen Lehrbuches mit dem Originaltitel ''MRI Survival Guide'' und will eine wesentliche Erleichterung als 'Ueberlebenshandbuch fuer die MRT' bieten: - Darstellung aller relevanten Grundlagen zu Technik, verschiedenen Sequenzen und Methodik der MRT - knapp und mit maximalem Praxisbezug - Beruecksichtigung aller moeglichen Untersuchungsregionen und strukturierte Orientierung daran (Gehirn, Wirbelsaeule, Kopf/Nacken, Brustkorb, Bauch, Becken, Muskel-Skelett-Bereich) - Illustration und Beschreibung der charakteristischen Erscheinungsmerkmale aller haeufigen pathologischen Prozesse im MRT, inklusive direkt umsetzbarer differentialdiagnostischer Abgrenzungskriterien - hochwertiges und aussergewoehnlich gross dimensioniertes Bildmaterial - modernes, didaktisches Konzept fuer die rasche Orientierung mit vielen Uebersichten, Tabellen und Abbildungen zur Visualisierung der Inhalte, Praxistips und Aufzeigen von Fehlermoeglichkeiten - zum Einstieg, zur Rekapitulation