WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveys prism spectroscopy

  1. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA of 5.8 × 10−8 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  2. PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    societal issues , given countervailing moral , legal, and ethical interpretations, as well as suspicions PRISM 7, NO. 2 FEATURES | 13 COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL...to tell our story. Additionally, U.S. practi- tioners are bound by asymmetric legal, moral , and ethical constraints that often keep them from being...the founder of SpaceX and Tesla, withdrew from two business councils providing advice to the administration on economic issues . Further driving

  3. The clustering of quasars from an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    The positions and redshifts of 108 quasars from the Cerro Tololo objective-prism survey are subjected to Fourier Power Spectrum Analysis in a search for clustering in their spatial distribution. It is found that, on the whole, these quasars are not clustered but are scattered in space independently at random. The sole exception is a group of four quasars at z = 0.37 which has a low probability of being a chance event and which, with a size of about 100 Mpc, may therefore be the largest known structure in the Universe. The conclusions disagree with Arp's analysis of this catalogue: his 'clouds of quasars' ejected by certain low-redshift galaxies, for example, are attributable to sensitivity variations among the different plates of the survey. It is shown that analysis of deeper surveys is likely to show up quasar clusters even at high redshift, and could therefore provide a useful new cosmological probe. (author)

  4. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    André, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bielewicz, Pawel [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Banday, Anthony [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Barbosa, Domingos [Grupo de Radio Astronomia Basic Sciences and Enabling Technologies Instituto de Telecomunicações, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barreiro, Belen [Instituto de Fìsica de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria) Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Bartlett, James [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris, Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bartolo, Nicola [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei" , Università degli studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Battistelli, Elia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Battye, Richard; Bonaldi, Anna [Jordell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bendo, George [U.K. ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Benoȋt, Alain [Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Bersanelli, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, Milano (Italy); Béthermin, Matthieu, E-mail: naselsky@nbi.dk [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The data obtained will allow us to precisely measure the absolute sky brightness and polarization of all the components of the sky emission in the observed frequency range, separating the primordial and extragalactic components cleanly from the galactic and zodiacal light emissions. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM, which include: (1) the ultimate galaxy cluster survey using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, detecting approximately 10{sup 6} clusters extending to large redshift, including a characterization of the gas temperature of the brightest ones (through the relativistic corrections to the classic SZ template) as well as a peculiar velocity survey using the kinetic SZ effect that comprises our entire Hubble volume; (2) a detailed characterization of the properties and evolution of dusty galaxies, where the most of the star formation in the universe took place, the faintest population of which constitute the diffuse CIB (Cosmic Infrared Background); (3) a characterization of the B modes from primordial gravity waves generated during

  5. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, Philippe; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoît, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J. A. P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford

    2014-01-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations

  6. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence spectroscopy of 3D-triangular GaN nano prism islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, S K; Shibin Krishna, T C; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Kumar, Pawan; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Gupta, Govind

    2014-08-21

    We report a strategy for fabrication of 3D triangular GaN nano prism islands (TGNPI) grown on Ga/Si(553) substrate at low temperature by N2(+) ions implantation using a sputtering gun technique. The annealing of Ga/Si(553) (600 °C) followed by nitridation (2 keV) shows the formation of high quality GaN TGNPI cross-section. TGNPI morphology has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, these nano prism islands exhibit prominent ultra-violet luminescence peaking at 366 nm upon 325 nm excitation wavelength along with a low intensity yellow luminescence broad peak at 545 nm which characterizes low defects density TGNPI. Furthermore, the time-resolved spectroscopy of luminescent TGNPI in nanoseconds holds promise for its futuristic application in next generation UV-based sensors as well as many portable optoelectronic devices.

  7. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Z.; Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A.; Girard, H. A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000-1500 cm-1 spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  8. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  9. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  10. THE PRISM MULTI-OBJECT SURVEY (PRIMUS). II. DATA REDUCTION AND REDSHIFT FITTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard J. [MMT Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics, Siena College, 515 Loudon Rd., Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Burles, Scott M. [D.E. Shaw and Co. L.P, 20400 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 850, Cupertino, CA 95014 (United States); Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Mendez, Alexander J. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhu, Guangtun [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bernstein, Rebecca A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCA/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bolton, Adam S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    The PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) is a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey to z {approx} 1 completed with a low-dispersion prism and slitmasks allowing for simultaneous observations of {approx}2500 objects over 0.18 deg{sup 2}. The final PRIMUS catalog includes {approx}130,000 robust redshifts over 9.1 deg{sup 2}. In this paper, we summarize the PRIMUS observational strategy and present the data reduction details used to measure redshifts, redshift precision, and survey completeness. The survey motivation, observational techniques, fields, target selection, slitmask design, and observations are presented in Coil et al. Comparisons to existing higher-resolution spectroscopic measurements show a typical precision of {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.005. PRIMUS, both in area and number of redshifts, is the largest faint galaxy redshift survey completed to date and is allowing for precise measurements of the relationship between active galactic nuclei and their hosts, the effects of environment on galaxy evolution, and the build up of galactic systems over the latter half of cosmic history.

  11. Accelerated Determination of ASR Susceptibility during Concrete Prism Testing through Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasonic Spectroscopy : TechBrief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The research has been conducted on laboratory-cast concrete prism specimens containing both fine and coarse aggregates obtained from different sources to provide a spectrum of reactivity for assessment through the developed NIRAS technique. The NIRAS...

  12. Emission-line galaxies and quasars in the southern hemisphere. I. Description and applications of an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    A selection of objects from the first plates of a low-dispersion, objective-prism survey for emission-line galaxies and quasars is used to illustrate the application of the survey to the following lines of research in extragalactic astronomy: quasi-stellar objects, Seyfert galaxies, instabilities in galaxies produced by tidal interaction or explosive events, and rates of star formation and the general chemical evolution of galaxies. Included in the discussion is a description of how the survey provides a new, purely optical, color-independent method for the direct isolation of bright, high-redshift QSOs with strong emission lines (Lα is often directly visible on the Schmidt-survey plates). The newly discovered objects used for illustration are a radio-quiet QSO of redshift 2.07, a luminous, class 2 Seyfert galaxy, a compact blue emission-line galaxy with a jet or streamer, yet with no obvious interacting companion, and a blue galaxy with Hβ flux 50 times that of 30 Doradus, and low metal abundances, which is undergoing a very intense burst of star formation. These objects are to be discussed in greater detail in subsequent papers in this series

  13. Historical survey of resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1984-04-01

    We have recently celebrated the 10th birthday of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS), and this seems an appropriate time to review the history of its development. Basically, RIS is a photophysics process in which tunable light sources are used to remove a valence electron from an atom of selected atomic number, Z. If appropriate lasers are used as the light source, one electron can be removed from each atom of the selected Z in the laser pulse. This implies that RIS can be a very efficient, as well as selective, ionization process. In what we normally call RIS, laser schemes are employed which preserve both of these features. In contrast, multiphoton ionization (MPI) is more general, although not necessarily Z selective or very efficient because resonances are often not used. Early research completed in the USSR and described as selective two-step photoionization, employed resonances to ionize the rubidium atom and served to guide work on laser isotope separation. 29 references, 8 figures

  14. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  15. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  16. Spectroscopy of radio sources from the Parkes 2700 MHz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.J.; Djorgovski, S.; De Carvalho, R.

    1990-01-01

    The results of long-slit CCD spectroscopy on 37 objects from the Parkes 2700 MHz survey are presented, with data for an additional two companion objects. Eight of the objects are quasars, six more are AGNs, and five more are radio galaxies. Seventeen of the objects observed are stars and, thus, probable misidentifications. Three objects show featureless spectra and are identified as possible BL Lac objects. Spectra are presented for a total of 20 objects. 20 refs

  17. The Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission

    CERN Document Server

    André, Philippe; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoȋt, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J.A.P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford; Cabrera, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM

  18. A controllable spin prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakioglu, T

    2009-01-01

    Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.

  19. Objective-prism spectrophotometry of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is derived for obtaining low-resolution spectrophotometry of quasars directly from the objective-prism plates on which they were discovered. Measurements with a PDS microdensitometer of approximately 130 quasar candidates in approximately the central 19 square degrees of the UK Schmidt prism plate UJ3682P were used in the application of the procedure. The success of the objective-prism spectrophotometry is demonstrated in a comparison with 12 slit spectra. Redshifts and equivalent widths can be determined with typical discrepancies of 1% and 40% respectively. This work on objective-prism spectrophotometry leads to a quantification of the selection effects that operate in the searches for emission-line objects on objective-prism plates. The quantification successfully explains an apparent discrepancy in the detection efficiencies of the CTIO-4m and Curtis Schmidt surveys for quasars. Spectra of quasars that were observed with the Image Photon Counting System on the Anglo-Australian Telescope are presented. The observations of quasars with broad absorption troughs indicate the ejection of matter with velocities up to approximately 22000kms -1 and with velocity dispersions up to approximately 11000kms -1 . Data on the wavelength dependences of the contrast γ and the grain response function g of the Kodak emulsion IIIaJ are presented. (author)

  20. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  1. The PRISM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilyardi, E.

    2003-04-01

    The European Union's PRISM infrastructure project (PRogram for Integrated earth System Modelling) aims at designing a flexible environment to easily assemble and run Earth System Models (http://prism.enes.org). Europe's widely distributed modelling expertise is both a strength and a challenge. Recognizing this, the PRISM project aims at developing an efficient shared modelling software infrastructure for climate scientists, providing them with an opportunity for greater focus on scientific issues, including the necessary scientific diversity (models and approaches). The proposed PRISM system includes 1) the use - or definition - and promotion of scientific and technical standards to increase component modularity, 2) an end-to-end software environment (coupler, user interface, diagnostics) to launch, monitor and analyze complex Earth System Models built around the existing and future community models, 3) testing and quality standards to ensure HPC performance on a variety of platforms and 4) community wide inputs and requirements capture in all stages of system specifications and design through user/developers meetings, workshops and thematic schools. This science driven project, led by 22 institutes* and started December 1st 2001, benefits from a unique gathering of scientific and technical expertise. More than 30 models (both global and regional) have expressed interest to be part of the PRISM system and 6 types of components have been identified: atmosphere, atmosphere chemistry, land surface, ocean, sea ice and ocean biochemistry. Progress and overall architecture design will be presented. * MPI-Met (Coordinator), KNMI (co-coordinator), MPI-M&D, Met Office, University of Reading, IPSL, Meteo-France, CERFACS, DMI, SMHI, NERSC, ETH Zurich, INGV, MPI-BGC, PIK, ECMWF, UCL-ASTR, NEC, FECIT, SGI, SUN, CCRLE

  2. The Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, J.; Andres, B.; Brown, S.; Donaldson, G.; Harrington, B.; Johnston, V.; Jones, S.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Skagen, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). PRISM is being implemented by a Canada-United States Shorebird Monitoring and Assessment Committee formed in 2001 by the Canadian Shorebird Working Group and the U.S. Shorebird Council. PRISM provides a single blueprint for implementing the shorebird conservation plans recently completed in Canada and the United States. The goals of PRISM are to (1) estimate the size of breeding population of 74 shorebird taxa in North America; (2) describe the distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships for each of these taxa; (3) monitor trends in shorebird population size; (4) monitor shorebird numbers at stopover locations, and; (5) assist local managers in meeting their shorebird conservation goals. PRISM has four main components: arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding surveys, temperate non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys. Progress on, and action items for, each major component are described. The more important major tasks for immediate action are carrying out the northern surveys, conducting regional analyses to design the program of migration counts, and evaluating aerial photographic surveys for migration and winter counts.

  3. Calibration of the Wedge Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe

    1957-01-01

    Since the introduction of plotless cruising in this country by Grosenbaugh and the later suggestion of using a wedge prism as an angle gauge by Bruce this method of determining basal area has been widely adopted in the South. One of the factors contributing to the occasionally unsatisfactory results obtained is failure to calibrate the prism used. As noted by Bruce the...

  4. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , governs deflections produced by prisms of refractive index n. The refractive power, n − 1, of most materials is of the order of unity for visible light, which therefore gets deflected through several degrees by a prism. X-rays and neutrons however ...

  5. General survey of recent development of photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edamoto, Kazuyuki

    1994-01-01

    On the present state of the recent development of photoemission spectroscopy, by limiting the topics to the development of the spectroscopy proper and the development contributing to the progress of surface science, general explanation is made. As to the development that enabled to heighten spectrum resolution, surface core-level shift and the precise measurement of the Fermi surface of surface level are described, showing the example. Also a number of the developments which enabled the utilization of the light source, of which the wavelength is variable, and which was brought about by synchrotron radiation beam, were mentioned. Besides, spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of photoelectron microscope and others are outlined. Photoemission spectroscopy is very useful for analyzing the electron condition of solid surfaces. There are two factors in heightening core level spectrum resolution, namely, heightening the resolution of an electron energy analyzer proper and the utilization of synchrotron radiation as a light source. High resolution core-level spectra, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and as the light source of which the wavelength is variable, resonance photoemission spectroscopy, constant initial state spectroscopy and soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and as the recently developed spectroscopy, spin polarized photoemission spectroscopy, Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy and photoelectron microscope are explained. (K.I.)

  6. Simple Tidal Prism Models Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketina, D.

    1998-01-01

    Simple tidal prism models for well-mixed estuaries have been in use for some time and are discussed in most text books on estuaries. The appeal of this model is its simplicity. However, there are several flaws in the logic behind the model. These flaws are pointed out and a more theoretically correct simple tidal prism model is derived. In doing so, it is made clear which effects can, in theory, be neglected and which can not.

  7. The PRISM concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circeo, L.J. Jr.; Camacho, S.L.; Tixier, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated soils and buried wastes represent one of the most widespread and costly remediation problems in the United States and other developed countries around the world. This concept of in situ remediation using a plasma arc torch should be directly applicable to many of the contaminated soil remediation needs described the DOE, EPA, and DoD. Plasma Remediation of In Situ Materials (PRISM) could provide a highly efficient, cost-effective, reliable and controllable technique to selectively melt and vitrify any contaminated/buried volume of soils, materials, or objects at any depth underground. If necessary, it could pinpoint underground objects such as buried drums for selective remediation. Plasma arc technology was developed over 30 years ago by NASA for the US space program to simulate reentry temperatures on heat shields. Only recently has this technology begun to emerge as a commercial tool in several industries such as steelmaking, metallurgy, precious metal recovery, and waste disposal. Conceptually, a plasma torch could be used on the ground surface or lowered to the bottom of a small diameter, cased borehole. By raising and operating the torch at progressively higher levels a column of contaminated material would be vitrified and converted into an environmentally safe, glassy residue, highly resistant to leaching. With proper borehole spacing the vitrified columns could be coalesced together to form a contiguous, homogeneous mass of vitrified material which is environmentally safe and highly resistant to leaching

  8. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  9. PRISMES. The INES microgrid platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barruel, F.; Vervaart, M.; Merten, J. [INES, 73 - Le Bourget-du-lac (FR). Lab. for Solar Systems (L2S)

    2010-07-01

    The massive penetration of fluctuating renewable energies will challenge the low voltage grids. Innovative solutions to address this issue need to be developed and tested. They may consist of intelligent energy management systems and the use of storage systems. For this purpose the PRISMES platform has been designed and implemented at the INES headquarter in Chambery. It is a universal test and development tool, such as stand alone hybrid systems and grid connected PV systems combined with a storage system and loads. This paper describes the PRISMES facility which will start operation in autumn 2008. (orig.)

  10. 21 CFR 886.1660 - Gonioscopic prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1660 Gonioscopic prism. (a) Identification. A gonioscopic prism is a device that is a prism intended to be placed on the eye to study the anterior chamber. The device may have angled mirrors to facilitate visualization of anatomical features. (b...

  11. Mercury pollution surveys in Riga by Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavare, Z.; Bogans, E.; Svagere, A.

    2008-01-01

    Practical sessions of mercury pollution measurements in Riga (Latvia) have been performed in several districts using an RA-915+ Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer coupled with a global positioning system (GPS). The measurements were taken from a driving car and in different days at one particular location (the Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy) for monitoring the changes in atmospheric mercury concentration. GPS was used to relate the measurement results to particular places, which made it possible to create a digitalized database of pollution for different geographic coordinates in different time spans. The measurements have shown that the background level of mercury concentration in Riga does not exceed 5 ng/m 3 , although there are several areas of elevated mercury pollution that need particular attention. (Authors)

  12. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of 170 Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements

  13. PPAK integral field spectroscopy survey of the Orion nebula. Data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Cardiel, N.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Martín-Gordón, D.; Vilchez, J. M.; Alves, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims:We present a low-resolution spectroscopic survey of the Orion nebula. The data are released for public use. We show the possible applications of this dataset analyzing some of the main properties of the nebula. Methods: We perform an integral field spectroscopy mosaic of an area of ~5 arcmin× 6

  14. PRISM software—Processing and review interface for strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-11-28

    Rapidly available and accurate ground-motion acceleration time series (seismic recordings) and derived data products are essential to quickly providing scientific and engineering analysis and advice after an earthquake. To meet this need, the U.S. Geological Survey National Strong Motion Project has developed a software package called PRISM (Processing and Review Interface for Strong-Motion data). PRISM automatically processes strong-motion acceleration records, producing compatible acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series; acceleration, velocity, and displacement response spectra; Fourier amplitude spectra; and standard earthquake-intensity measures. PRISM is intended to be used by strong-motion seismic networks, as well as by earthquake engineers and seismologists.

  15. Prism. Volume 1, Number 1, December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    strategy, regional security affairs, and global strategic problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM...suffer from illiteracy, poor health, and extreme poverty PRISM 1, no. 1 FRoM the FIeld | 89 The country’s maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates...problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM. Any copyrighted portions of this journal may not be

  16. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  17. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  18. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to ...

  19. Analysis of unscrammed events in PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The PRISM reactor is presently under pre-application licensing review by the NRC, with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) providing technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to review the current PRISM design and describe the results from the SSC Code calculations performed at BNL, for a series of unscrammed accidents. 3 refs., 5 figs

  20. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: A quality control program for radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, S.R.; Mount, M.E.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-09-01

    From 1979 to 1989, approximately 25,000 Post Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (PNMIRS) samples were collected, and over 71,400 radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed to establish the concentration of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 241 Am, and plutonium isotopes in soil, vegetation, fish, and animals in the Northern Marshall Islands. While the Low Level Gamma Counting Facility (B379) in the Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division accounted for over 80% of all gamma spectroscopy analyses, approximately 4889 radiochemical and 5437 gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed on 4784 samples of soil, vegetation, terrestrial animal, and marine organisms by outside laboratories. Four laboratories were used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform the radiochemical analyses: Thermo Analytical Norcal, Richmond, California (TMA); Nuclear Energy Services, North Carolina State University (NCSU); Laboratory of Radiation Ecology, University of Washington (LRE); and Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division, LLNL, Livermore, California. Additionally, LRE and NCSU were used to perform gamma spectroscopy analyses. The analytical precision and accuracy were monitored by including blind duplicates and natural matrix standards in each group of samples analyzed. On the basis of reported analytical values for duplicates and standards, 88% of the gamma and 87% of the radiochemical analyses in this survey were accepted. By laboratory, 93% of the radiochemical analyses by TMA; 88% of the gamma-ray spectrometry and 100% of the radiochemistry analyses by NCSU; 89% of the gamma spectroscopy and 87% of the radiochemistry analyses by LRE; and 90% of the radiochemistry analyses performed by HEA's radiochemistry department were accepted

  1. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  2. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  3. PRISM: Processing routines in IDL for spectroscopic measurements (installation manual and user's guide, version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes procedures for installing and using the U.S. Geological Survey Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM) software. PRISM provides a framework to conduct spectroscopic analysis of measurements made using laboratory, field, airborne, and space-based spectrometers. Using PRISM functions, the user can compare the spectra of materials of unknown composition with reference spectra of known materials. This spectroscopic analysis allows the composition of the material to be identified and characterized. Among its other functions, PRISM contains routines for the storage of spectra in database files, import/export of ENVI spectral libraries, importation of field spectra, correction of spectra to absolute reflectance, arithmetic operations on spectra, interactive continuum removal and comparison of spectral features, correction of imaging spectrometer data to ground-calibrated reflectance, and identification and mapping of materials using spectral feature-based analysis of reflectance data. This report provides step-by-step instructions for installing the PRISM software and running its functions.

  4. THE POTENTIAL OF γ-RAY SPECTROSCOPY FOR SOIL PROXIMAL SURVEY IN CLAYEY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Priori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray spectroscopy surveys the intensity and distribution of γ-rays emitted from radionuclides of soils and bedrocks. The most important radionuclides of soils and rocks are: 40K, 232Th, 238U and 137Cs, the latter due to Chernobyl burst or radioactive pollution. Distribution and quantity of these radionuclides into the soil is strictly linked to parent material mineralogy and soil cation exchange capacity. The aim of this work is to show the makings of γ-ray spectroscopy proximal survey within experimental fields with clayey soils in western Sicily.The γ-ray spectrometer used for the fieldwork was “The Mole”, made by “The Soil Company”, “Medusa system” and the University of Groningen, from The Netherlands. During the survey of eight experimental fields, 55 soil samples were collected for laboratory analysis of particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The results of the work showed the statistical correlations between soil features and γ-ray data. 

  5. First-Year Spectroscopy for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chen; Romani, Roger W.; Sako, Masao; Marriner, John; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Choi, Changsu; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Dilday, Ben; Doi, Mamoru; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Holtzman, Jon; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh; Kessler, Richard; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert

    2008-03-25

    This paper presents spectroscopy of supernovae discovered in the first season of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. This program searches for and measures multi-band light curves of supernovae in the redshift range z = 0.05-0.4, complementing existing surveys at lower and higher redshifts. Our goal is to better characterize the supernova population, with a particular focus on SNe Ia, improving their utility as cosmological distance indicators and as probes of dark energy. Our supernova spectroscopy program features rapid-response observations using telescopes of a range of apertures, and provides confirmation of the supernova and host-galaxy types as well as precise redshifts. We describe here the target identification and prioritization, data reduction, redshift measurement, and classification of 129 SNe Ia, 16 spectroscopically probable SNe Ia, 7 SNe Ib/c, and 11 SNe II from the first season. We also describe our efforts to measure and remove the substantial host galaxy contamination existing in the majority of our SN spectra.

  6. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  7. PRISM Software: Processing and Review Interface for Strong‐Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A continually increasing number of high‐quality digital strong‐motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey, as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, calls for automated processing of strong‐motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong‐motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch‐processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed‐source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a review tool, which is a graphical user interface for manual review, edit, and processing. To facilitate use by non‐NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand‐alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. All the computing features have been thoroughly tested.

  8. Behaviour and strength assessment of masonry prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study presenting the cracking behavior and assessment of the compressive strength of masonry prisms. The compressive strength of masonry was determined by performing laboratory tests on 192 masonry prism specimens corresponding to 3 specimens each in 64 groups. The variables considered in the experimental program are type of brick, strength of masonry and height-to-thickness (h/t ratio of the prism specimen. Pressed earth bricks and burnt clay bricks were used for the preparation of masonry prisms. A mathematical model is also proposed for the estimation of compressive strength of masonry prisms by performing a statistical multiple regression analysis on 232 data sets, which includes 64 test data from the present study and 168 test data published in the literature. The model was developed based on the regression analysis of test data of prisms made of a variety of masonry units namely clay bricks, pressed earth bricks, concrete blocks, calcium silicate bricks, stone blocks, perforated bricks and soft mud bricks. The proposed model not only accounts for the wide ranges of compressive strengths of masonry unit and mortar, but also accounts for the influence of volume fractions of masonry unit and mortar in addition to the height-to-thickness ratio. The predicted compressive strength of prisms using the proposed model is compared with 14 models available in published literature. The predicted strength was found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. Keywords: Prism strength, Stack bonded masonry, Running bonded masonry, Masonry unit strength, Cracking

  9. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... characterized by using phenotypic, API and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. One hundred and fifty-seven (157) strains were isolated from 13 cheese samples, and identification test was performed for 83 strains. At the end of the study, a total of 22 Lactococcus sp., 36 Enterecoccus ...

  10. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  11. Porro prism lasers: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Porro prism lasers are insensitive to misalignment caused by, for example, shock and temperature variation, making them useful in field applications, for example in target designation and range-finding systems. This property is a result of the property of Porro prisms that they return a reflected beam parallel to the incident beam, regardless of any tilt on the prism. These lasers are generally used in a marginally stable or unstable configuration for low divergence, but in the stable configuration some interesting kaleidoscope modes can be modelled. In previous work on Porro prism resonators we formulated an analytical method of determining which Porro angles resonate and result in petal output modes, as well as the corresponding number of petals. This work has been verified using a numerical model as well as experimentally. We have developed this work further and have investigated the losses associated with a range of Porro angles as well as the effects of these losses on the resulting modes. We conclude by summarizing the design considerations for Porro prism lasers.

  12. Transient performance of S-prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubberley, A.E.; Boardman, C.E.; Gamble, R.E.; Hiu, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated plant called SuperPRISM (S-PRISM). This paper presents the results of transient analyses performed to assess the ability of S-PRISM to accommodate severe accident initiator events. A unique safety capability of S-PRISM is accommodation of the ''higher probability'' accident initiators that led to core melt accidents in prior large LMRs. These events, the Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events, are thus the focus of passive safety confirmation analyses. The events included in this assessment are: Unprotected Loss of Flow, Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink, Unprotected Loss of Flow and Heat sink, Unprotected Transient Overpower and Unprotected Safe Shutdown Earthquake. (author)

  13. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments

  14. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  15. GE advanced liquid metal reactor S-PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation covers the following topics: Incentive for developing S-PRISM; Design and safety approach; Design description and competitive potential; Previous Licensing interactions; Planned approach to Licensing S-PRISM

  16. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  17. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  18. Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    for assessing its vulnerability and subsequent listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans (Donaldson et al. 2000, Brown et aL 2001). Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions (Bart et al. 2002). PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approaches to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic andboreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  19. Foreword: Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen; Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans. Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions. PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approached to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  20. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  1. An improved prism for use in laser resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J.

    1981-08-01

    The use of compound total internal reflection prisms rather than Porro prisms in polarisation coupled lasers is proposed. Performance advantages resulting from the use of these prisms include higher output without the need to bias the Pockels cell, ability to give a larger range of output coupling and independence of performance on the refractive index of the prism. In conventional Q-switched lasers the use of the prism at the Pockels cell end of the resonator instead of the usual 100% reflecting mirror also leads to some advantages including better hold-off, elimination of the need to bias the Pockels cell and insensitivity in one plane to angular misalignment.

  2. Processing and review interface for strong motion data (PRISM) software, version 1.0.0—Methodology and automated processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, call for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM version 1.0.0 is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine and a review tool that has a graphical user interface (GUI) to manually review, edit, and process records. To facilitate use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate new processing techniques. This report provides a thorough description and examples of the record processing features supported by PRISM. All the computing features of PRISM have been thoroughly tested.

  3. Multivariable control for the PRISM ALMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the application of state variable control design methods in the conceptual design of two key system level controllers in the PRISM ALMR. The PRISM plant concept consists of three power blocks, each made up of three identical reactors and steam generator modules connected to one turbine. Operation of these physically distributed systems is directed by a hierarchy of controllers at the system, power block, and plant levels. The system level controllers in this paper are the reactivity controllers for movement of the six control rods in each of the nine reactor modules, and the feedwater control of the three parallel steam generators in each of the three power blocks. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Automated analysis of objective-prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, P.C.; Irwin, M.J.; Bunclark, P.; Bridgeland, M.T.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Smith, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    A fully automated system for the location, measurement and analysis of large numbers of low-resolution objective-prism spectra is described. The system is based on the APM facility at the University of Cambridge, and allows processing of objective-prism, grens or grism data. Particular emphasis is placed on techniques to obtain the maximum signal-to-noise ratio from the data, both in the initial spectral estimation procedure and for subsequent feature identification. Comparison of a high-quality visual catalogue of faint quasar candidates with an equivalent automated sample demonstrates the ability of the APM system to identify all the visually selected quasar candidates. In addition, a large population of new, faint (msub(J)approx. 20) candidates is identified. (author)

  5. Prisms to Shift Pain Away: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Exploration of CRPS with Prism Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, Laure; Chabanat, Eric; Delporte, Ludovic; Revol, Patrice; Volckmann, Pierre; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated toward the pain, that is, neglect of the healthy side. Accordingly, prism adaptation has been successfully used to normalize this deviation. This study aimed at clarifying whether 7 CRPS patients exhibited neglect as well as exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms of this manifestation and of the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation. Pain and quality of life, egocentric reference frames (visual and proprioceptive straight-ahead), and neglect tests (line bisection, kinematic analyses of motor neglect and motor extinction) were repeatedly assessed prior to, during, and following a one-week intense prism adaptation intervention. First, our results provide no support for visual and motor neglect in CRPS. Second, reference frames for body representations were not systematically deviated. Third, intensive prism adaptation intervention durably ameliorated pain and quality of life. As for spatial neglect, understanding the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation deserves further investigations.

  6. Evaluations of 1990 PRISM design revisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Aronson, A.L.; Kennett, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    Analyses of the 1990 version of the PRISM Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design are presented and discussed. Most of the calculations were performed using BNL computer codes, particularly SSC and MINET. In many cases, independent BNL calculations were compared against analyses presented by General Electric when they submitted the PRISM design revisions for evaluation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The current PRISM design utilizes the metallic fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) which facilitates the passive/''inherent'' shutdown mechanism that acts to shut down reactor power production whenever the system overheats. There are a few vulnerabilities in the passive shutdown, with the most worrisome being the positive feedback from sodium density decreases or sodium voiding. Various postulated unscrammed events were examined by GE and/or BNL, and much of the analysis discussed in this report is focused on this category of events. For the most part, the BNL evaluations confirm the information submitted by General Electric. The principal areas of concern are related to the performance of the ternary metal fuel, and may be resolved as ANL continues with its fuel development and testing program

  7. PRISM reactor. An option for plutonium disposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlinger, Sebastian; Friess, Friederike; Kuett, Moritz [IANUS, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) is sodium cooled fast reactor model. The energy output depends on the core configuration, however with an energy output of approximately 300 MWe, the PRISM reactor belongs to the class of small modular reactors. Beside using the reactor as a breeder reactor or for the transmutation of nuclear waste, it might also be used as a burner reactor for separated plutonium. This includes for example U.S.-American excess weapon-grade plutonium as well as separated reactor-grade plutonium. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion in GB to use the PRISM reactor to dispose their excess civilian plutonium. Depending on the task, the core configuration varies slightly. We will present different layouts and the matching MCNP models, these models can then be used to conduct depletion calculations. From these results, analysis of the change in the plutonium isotopics in the spent fuel, the amount of fissioned plutonium, and the possible annual plutonium throughputs is possible.

  8. A Global Survey of Cloud Thermodynamic Phase using High Spatial Resolution VSWIR Spectroscopy, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Kahn, B. H.; Green, R. O.; Chien, S.; Middleton, E.; Tran, D. Q.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds' variable ice and liquid content significantly influences their optical properties, evolution, and radiative forcing potential (Tan and Storelvmo, J. Atmos. Sci, 73, 2016). However, most remote measurements of thermodynamic phase have spatial resolutions of 1 km or more and are insensitive to mixed phases. This under-constrains important processes, such as spatial partitioning within mixed phase clouds, that carry outsize radiative forcing impacts. These uncertainties could shift Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future warming by over 1 degree Celsius (Tan et al., Science 352:6282, 2016). Imaging spectroscopy of reflected solar energy from the 1.4 - 1.8 μm shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral range can address this observational gap. These observations can distinguish ice and water absorption, providing a robust and sensitive measurement of cloud top thermodynamic phase including mixed phases. Imaging spectrometers can resolve variations at scales of tens to hundreds of meters (Thompson et al., JGR-Atmospheres 121, 2016). We report the first such global high spatial resolution (30 m) survey, based on data from 2005-2015 acquired by the Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard NASA's EO-1 spacecraft (Pearlman et al., Proc. SPIE 4135, 2001). Estimated seasonal and latitudinal distributions of cloud thermodynamic phase generally agree with observations made by other satellites such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Variogram analyses reveal variability at different spatial scales. Our results corroborate previously observed zonal distributions, while adding insight into the spatial scales of processes governing cloud top thermodynamic phase. Figure: Thermodynamic phase retrievals. Top: Example of a cloud top thermodynamic phase map from the EO-1/Hyperion. Bottom: Latitudinal distributions of pure and mixed phase clouds, 2005-2015, showing Liquid Thickness Fraction (LTF). LTF=0 corresponds to pure ice absorption, while LTF=1 is pure liquid. The

  9. The Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS): survey design, data catalogue and GAMA/WiggleZ spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, John H. Y.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Pracy, Michael B.; Couch, Warrick J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jurek, Russell J.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS), a spectroscopic catalogue of radio sources designed to include the full range of radio AGN populations out to redshift z ˜ 0.8. The catalogue covers ˜800 deg2 of sky, and provides optical identifications for 19 179 radio sources from the 1.4 GHz Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey down to an optical magnitude limit of Imod point-like objects are included, and no colour cuts are applied. In collaboration with the WiggleZ and Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey teams, we have obtained new spectra for over 5000 objects in the LARGESS sample. Combining these new spectra with data from earlier surveys provides spectroscopic data for 12 329 radio sources in the survey area, of which 10 856 have reliable redshifts. 85 per cent of the LARGESS spectroscopic sample are radio AGN (median redshift z = 0.44), and 15 per cent are nearby star-forming galaxies (median z = 0.08). Low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) comprise the majority (83 per cent) of LARGESS radio AGN at z < 0.8, with 12 per cent being high-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs) and 5 per cent radio-loud QSOs. Unlike the more homogeneous LERG and QSO sub-populations, HERGs are a heterogeneous class of objects with relatively blue optical colours and a wide dispersion in mid-infrared colours. This is consistent with a picture in which most HERGs are hosted by galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation as well as a classical accretion disc.

  10. Modeling laser brightness from cross Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew; Burger, Liesl; Litvin, Igor Anatolievich

    2006-08-01

    Laser brightness is a parameter often used to compare high power laser beam delivery from various sources, and incorporates both the power contained in the particular mode, as well as the propagation of that mode through the beam quality factor, M2. In this study a cross Porro prism resonator is considered; crossed Porro prism resonators have been known for some time, but until recently have not been modeled as a complete physical optics system that allows the modal output to be determined as a function of the rotation angle of the prisms. In this paper we consider the diffraction losses as a function of the prism rotation angle relative to one another, and combine this with the propagation of the specific modes to determine the laser output brightness as a function of the prism orientation.

  11. A novel and compact spectral imaging system based on two curved prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Bin, Xiangli; Zhou, Jinsong; Li, Yang

    2013-09-01

    As a novel detection approach which simultaneously acquires two-dimensional visual picture and one-dimensional spectral information, spectral imaging offers promising applications on biomedical imaging, conservation and identification of artworks, surveillance of food safety, and so forth. A novel moderate-resolution spectral imaging system consisting of merely two optical elements is illustrated in this paper. It can realize the function of a relay imaging system as well as a 10nm spectral resolution spectroscopy. Compared to conventional prismatic imaging spectrometers, this design is compact and concise with only two special curved prisms by utilizing two reflective surfaces. In contrast to spectral imagers based on diffractive grating, the usage of compound-prism possesses characteristics of higher energy utilization and wider free spectral range. The seidel aberration theory and dispersive principle of this special prism are analyzed at first. According to the results, the optical system of this design is simulated, and the performance evaluation including spot diagram, MTF and distortion, is presented. In the end, considering the difficulty and particularity of manufacture and alignment, an available method for fabrication and measurement is proposed.

  12. CALIFA: a diameter-selected sample for an integral field spectroscopy galaxy survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walcher, C.J.; Wisotzki, L.; Bekeraite, S.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; del Olmo, A.; Garcia Lorenzo, B.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Jílková, J.; Kalinová, V.; Mast, D.; Marino, R.A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pasqual, A.; Sanchez, S.F.; Trager, S.; Zibetti, S.; Aguerri, J.A.L.; Alves, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boselli, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Fernandes, R.C.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gonzalez Delgado, R.; Jahnke, K.; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 569, September (2014), A1/1-A1/18 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : surveys * digital sky survey * active galactic nuclei Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  13. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  14. Distance 2-Domination in Prisms of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ferran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A set of vertices D of a graph G is a distance 2-dominating set of G if the distance between each vertex u ∊ (V (G − D and D is at most two. Let γ2(G denote the size of a smallest distance 2-dominating set of G. For any permutation π of the vertex set of G, the prism of G with respect to π is the graph πG obtained from G and a copy G′ of G by joining u ∊ V(G with v′ ∊ V(G′ if and only if v′ = π(u. If γ2(πG = γ2(G for any permutation π of V(G, then G is called a universal γ2-fixer. In this work we characterize the cycles and paths that are universal γ2-fixers.

  15. PENGUKURAN KINERJA UMKM MENGGUNAKAN PERFORMANCE PRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agelina Purnomo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available UMKM XYZ merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan keripik buah nangka. Pada proses observasi langsung di lapangan, perusahaan mempunyai masalah dalam melakukan pengukuran kinerja. Pengukuran kinerja yang dilakukan hanya berdasarkan Net Profit Margin (rasio laba bersih dibandingkan dengan pendapatan tiap tahunnya. Pengukuran yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan tidak cukup representatif menilai kinerja perusahaan secara keseluruhan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan alat ukur kinerja yang tepat dan fleksibel, yaitu dengan metode Performance Prism. Proses penentuan Key Performance Indicator (KPI kinerja berdasarkan persetujuan dari pihak manajer perusahaan. Dengan periode dasar (tahun 2015 didapatkan hasil bahwa terdapat 25 Key Performance Indicator yang terdiri dari: 2 KPI Investor, 8 KPI Konsumen, 4 KPI Suplier, 6 KPI Karyawan, dan 5 KPI Masyarakat Sekitar dengan nilai total kinerja keseluruhan sebagai pembanding dengan periode pengukuran adalah 2,232 (kategori cukup sehingga perlu ditingkatkan lagi pada periode selanjutnya berdasarkan saran-saran pada periode dasar.

  16. PRISM: Enmeshment of illness and self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Fiona; Sharpe, Louise; Schrieber, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) is a recently developed tool purported to assess burden of suffering due to illness. The nature of the PRISM task suggests a conceptual link to the illness self-schema construct hypothesised to be present in some individuals with chronic illness. This study investigates the relationship between PRISM and schema as measured by cognitive bias. 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) completed an information-processing task involving endorsement of positive and negative illness words as descriptors of themselves, followed by free recall of the words. The outcome measures were endorsement and recall bias for negative illness words. Patients also completed the PRISM task and were assessed on other physical and psychological variables. PRISM did not correlate significantly with age, depression, functional impairment or disease activity. In a multiple regression analysis, only recall bias made an independent contribution to PRISM. Illness self-schema appears to play a significant role in determining the way in which SLE patients complete the PRISM task. This is discussed in light of a schema enmeshment model recently proposed in the cognitive bias literature. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Scriven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  18. Accuracy assessment of ALOS optical instruments: PRISM and AVNIR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Iwata, Takanori; Takaku, Junichi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the updated results of calibration and validation to assess the accuracies for optical instruments onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was successfully launched on January 24th, 2006 and it is continuously operating very well. ALOS has an L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar called PALSAR and two optical instruments i.e. the Panchromatic Remotesensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). PRISM consists of three radiometers and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution that is an objective of the ALOS mission. Therefore, geometric calibration is important in generating a precise DSM with stereo pair images of PRISM. AVNIR-2 has four radiometric bands from blue to near infrared and uses for regional environment and disaster monitoring etc. The radiometric calibration and image quality evaluation are also important for AVNIR-2 as well as PRISM. This paper describes updated results of geometric calibration including geolocation determination accuracy evaluations of PRISM and AVNIR-2, image quality evaluation of PRISM, and validation of generated PRISM DSM. These works will be done during the ALOS mission life as an operational calibration to keep absolute accuracies of the standard products.

  19. Plant Reliability - an Integrated System for Management (PR-ISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aukeman, M.C.; Leininger, E.G.; Carr, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Toledo Edison Company, located in Toledo, Ohio, United States of America, recently implemented a comprehensive maintenance management information system for the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. The system is called PR-ISM, meaning Plant Reliability - An Integrated System for Management. PR-ISM provides the tools needed by station management to effectively plan and control maintenance and other plant activities. The PR-ISM system as it exists today consists of four integrated computer applications: equipment data base maintenance, maintenance work order control, administrative activity tracking, and technical specification compliance. PR-ISM is designed as an integrated on-line system and incorporates strong human factors features. PR-ISM provides each responsible person information to do his job on a daily basis and to look ahead towards future events. It goes beyond 'after the fact' reporting. In this respect, PR-ISM is an 'interactive' control system which: captures work requirements and commitments as they are identified, provides accurate and up-to-date status immediately to those who need it, simplifies paperwork and reduces the associated time delays, provides the information base for work management and reliability analysis, and improves productivity by replacing clerical tasks and consolidating maintenance activities. The functional and technical features of PR-ISM, the experience of Toledo Edison during the first year of operation, and the factors which led to the success of the development project are highlighted. (author)

  20. Dynamic changes in brain activity during prism adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves; Spiridon, Mona; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-07

    Prism adaptation does not only induce short-term sensorimotor plasticity, but also longer-term reorganization in the neural representation of space. We used event-related fMRI to study dynamic changes in brain activity during both early and prolonged exposure to visual prisms. Participants performed a pointing task before, during, and after prism exposure. Measures of trial-by-trial pointing errors and corrections allowed parametric analyses of brain activity as a function of performance. We show that during the earliest phase of prism exposure, anterior intraparietal sulcus was primarily implicated in error detection, whereas parieto-occipital sulcus was implicated in error correction. Cerebellum activity showed progressive increases during prism exposure, in accordance with a key role for spatial realignment. This time course further suggests that the cerebellum might promote neural changes in superior temporal cortex, which was selectively activated during the later phase of prism exposure and could mediate the effects of prism adaptation on cognitive spatial representations.

  1. OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: first-year operation and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Fang; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Childress, M.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carollo, D.; Castander, F. J.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Diehl, H. T.; Cunha, C. E.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Glazebrook, K.; Gschwend, J.; Hinton, S.; Jouvel, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A. G.; King, A. L.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lewis, G. F.; Lin, H.; Martini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Mould, J.; Nichol, R. C.; Norris, R. P.; O' Neill, C. R.; Ostrovski, F.; Papadopoulos, A.; Parkinson, D.; Reed, S.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Scalzo, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Scolnic, D.; Seymour, N.; Sharp, R.; Sobreira, F.; Sullivan, M.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Wilcox, H.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T.; Allam, S.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-L?vy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Covarrubias, R.; Crocce, M.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Walker, A. R.

    2015-07-29

    We present results for the first three years of OzDES, a six-year program to obtain redshifts for objects in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields using the 2dF fibre positioner and AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. OzDES is a multi-object spectroscopic survey targeting multiple types of targets at multiple epochs over a multi-year baseline, and is one of the first multi-object spectroscopic surveys to dynamically include transients into the target list soon after their discovery. At the end of three years, OzDES has spectroscopically confirmed almost 100 supernovae, and has measured redshifts for 17,000 objects, including the redshifts of 2,566 supernova hosts. We examine how our ability to measure redshifts for targets of various types depends on signal-to-noise, magnitude, and exposure time, finding that our redshift success rate increases significantly at a signal-to-noise of 2 to 3 per 1-A° ngstrom bin. We also find that the change in signal-to-noise with exposure time closely matches the Poisson limit for stacked exposures as long as 10 hours.We use these results to predict the redshift yield of the full OzDES survey, as well as the potential yields of future surveys on other facilities such as 4MOST, PFS, and MSE. This work marks the first OzDES data release, comprising 15,327 redshifts. OzDES is on target to obtain over 30,000 redshifts over the six-year duration of the survey, including a yield of approximately 5,700 supernova host-galaxy redshifts.

  2. Feasibility Study of Soil Quality Survey using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Rice Paddy Fields in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey and monitoring of soil quality are needed to prevent soil degradation and are important for sustainable farming and food production. Conventional soil survey involves intensive soil sampling and laboratory analysis, which are time consuming and expensive. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy of soil has proved to be accurate, cheap and robust and has huge potential for survey of soil quality. To test its potential, 327 soil samples were taken from long-term paddy rice fields in four provinces in south of China and covered a wide range of soil types and texture. The samples were air-dried, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. They were then scanned by an ASD vis–NIR spectrometer with wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm. Organic matter (OM, pH, total nitrogen (TN and available nitrogen (N_av were also measured on soil samples to build calibration models and also to validate the models’ accuracy. On the basis of the ratio of prediction deviation (RPD, which is standard deviation (SD of prediction divided by the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, the accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation of soil N_av model was classified very good (RPD=1.96 and soil OM and TN was good (RPD=1.78 and RPD=1.81, respectively. However, the model accuracy of pH was poor due to non-direct soil spectral response for soil pH in vis–NIR spectroscopy. The independent validation results showed excellent accuracy for soil N_av (RPD=3.26, good accuracy for OM and TN (RPD=1.76 and RPD=1.78 and relative poor accuracy for soil pH (RPD=1.27. This feasibility study is encouraging for the application of vis–NIR surveys of soil quality accuracy at regional and national scales; it found good to excellent accuracy for some important soil properties in quality survey.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RMS survey: NIR spectroscopy of massive YSOs (Cooper+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. D. B.; Lumsden, S. L.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Hoare, M. G.; Clarke, A. J.; Urquhart, J. S.; Mottram, J. C.; Moore, T. J. T.; Davies, B.

    2014-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the YSO candidates were made using the UIST instrument at the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) observatory from 2002 to 2008. 247 objects were successfully observed over 84 nights. Sources were selected from the ~2000 candidate MYSOs found using the MSX catalogue in the preceding stages of the RMS survey. (6 data files).

  4. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  5. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  6. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  7. MEGARA Optics: stain removal in PBM2Y prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, D; Izazaga-Pérez, R; Carrasco, E; Villalobos-Mendoza, B; De Paz, A Gil; Gallego, J; Iglesias, J

    2017-01-01

    MEGARA is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the GTC. For medium and high resolution, the dispersive elements are volume phase holographic gratings, sandwiched between two flat windows and two prisms of high optical precision. The prisms are made of Ohara PBM2Y optical glass. After the prisms polishing process, some stains appeared on the surfaces. For this, in this work is shown the comparative study of five different products (muriatic acid, paint remover, sodium hydroxide, aqua regia and rare earth liquid polish) used for trying to eliminate the stains of the HR MEGARA prisms. It was found that by polishing with the hands the affected area, and using a towel like a kind of pad, and polish during five minutes using rare earth, the stains disappear completely affecting only a 5% the rms of the surface quality. Not so the use of the other products that did not show any apparent result. (paper)

  8. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Igor A.; Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    A model to describe the transverse field distribution of the output beam from porro prism resonators is proposed. The model allows the prediction of the output transverse field distribution by assuming that the main areas of loss are located at the apexes of the porro prisms. Experimental work on a particular system showed some interested correlations between the time domain behavior of the resonator and the transverse field output. These findings are presented and discussed.

  9. Beam pointing direction changes in a misaligned Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jyh-Fa; Leung, Chung-Yee

    1988-07-01

    The relative change of the beam pointing direction for a misaligned Porro prism resonator has been analyzed, using an oscillation axis concept for the Porro prism resonator to find the beam direction. Expressions for the beam tilting angles are presented which show that the angular misalignment in the horizontal direction will result in beam tilting in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is found.

  10. Spectroscopy of QSO candidates from the Jodrell Bank 966 MHz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.; Wills, B.J.; Wills, D.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-two QSO candidates from the Jodrell Bank 966 MHz survey have been observed spectroscopically at McDonald Observatory. Twenty-five are confirmed as QSOs, and redshifts are given for 19 of them. Two objects are compact galaxies, and another probably is; redshifts are given for these. Seven objects are stars. Of the remaining seven objects, six are probably QSOs and one is probably a star. (author)

  11. The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile material than it consumes. It is also unique in that it has the capability to utilize as fuel the long-life radioactive actinides (primarily plutonium, and the minor actinides, neptunium, americium, and curium) present as waste in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels. This capability provides a means for converting long-life actinide radioactive wastes to elements whose lifetimes and thus storage needs are much shorter, namely, hundreds of years. This could clearly focus and potentially alleviate a controversial aspect (waste disposal) of the nuclear option. While it does not change the need for, or timing of, an initial high-level waste (HLW) repository, the conversion of actinides could change in a dramatic way the time period required for safe storage of nuclear waste and potentially the number and criteria for future repositories. This work considers the potential for utilizing LWR actinides in the ALMR fuel cycle

  12. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Meuleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB by using the Control Test Master (CTM, the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC, quality flagging (QF and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF, and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b helping the understanding of the Earth’s complex mechanisms.

  13. THE TEAM KECK REDSHIFT SURVEY 2: MOSFIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GOODS-NORTH FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Gregory D.; Kassis, Marc; Lyke, Jim; Rizzi, Luca; Campbell, Randy; Goodrich, Robert W. [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Liu, Fengshan; Faber, S. M., E-mail: gregory.wirth@gmail.com [University of California Observatories, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present the Team Keck Redshift Survey 2 (TKRS2), a near-infrared spectral observing program targeting selected galaxies within the CANDELS subsection of the GOODS-North Field. The TKRS2 program exploits the unique capabilities of the Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE), which entered service on the Keck I telescope in 2012 and contributes substantially to the study of galaxy spectral features at redshifts inaccessible to optical spectrographs. The TKRS2 project targets 97 galaxies drawn from samples that include z ≈ 2 emission-line galaxies with features observable in the JHK bands as well as lower-redshift targets with features in the Y band. We present a detailed measurement of MOSFIRE’s sensitivity as a function of wavelength, including the effects of telluric features across the YJHK filters. The largest utility of our survey is in providing rest-frame-optical emission lines for z > 1 galaxies, and we demonstrate that the ratios of strong, optical emission lines of z ≈ 2 galaxies suggest the presence of either higher N/O abundances than are found in z ≈ 0 galaxies or low-metallicity gas ionized by an active galactic nucleus. We have released all TKRS2 data products into the public domain to allow researchers access to representative raw and reduced MOSFIRE spectra.

  14. The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey: A High-Resolution Spectroscopy Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Daniel A.; SINGS Team

    2009-05-01

    Results from high resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy are presented for 155 nuclear and extranuclear regions from SINGS. The SINGS sample shows a wide range in the ratio of [SIII]18.71/[SIII]33.48, but the average ratio of the ensemble indicates a typical interstellar electron density of 300--400 cm-3 on 23"x15" scales and 500--600 cm-3 using 11"x9" apertures, independent of whether the region probed is a star-forming nuclear, a star-forming extranuclear, or an AGN environment. Evidence is provided that variations in gas-phase metallicity play an important role in driving variations in radiation field hardness, as indicated by [NeIII]15.56/[NeII]12.81, for regions powered by star formation. Conversely, the radiation hardness for galaxy nuclei powered by accretion around a massive black hole is independent of metal abundance. Furthermore, for metal-rich environments AGN are distinguishable from star-forming regions by significantly larger [NeIII]15.56/[NeII]12.81 ratios. Finally, [FeII]25.99/[NeII]12.81 versus [SiII]34.82/[SIII]33.48 also provides an empirical method for discerning AGN from normal star-forming sources. However, similar to [NeIII]15.56/[NeII]12.81, these mid-infrared line ratios lose their AGN/star-formation diagnostic powers for very low metallicity star-forming systems with hard radiation fields.

  15. The response to prism deviations in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E

    1999-09-23

    Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Use in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskote, Aparna U; Tume, Lyvonne N; Trieschmann, Uwe; Menzel, Christoph; Cogo, Paola; Brown, Katherine L; Broadhead, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of near-infrared spectroscopy across pediatric cardiac ICUs, there is significant variability and equipoise with no universally accepted management algorithms. We aimed to explore the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany. A cross-sectional multicenter, multinational electronic survey of one consultant in each pediatric cardiac ICU. Pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n = 13), Italy (n = 12), and Germany (n = 33). Questionnaire targeted to establish use, targets, protocols/thresholds for intervention, and perceived usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Overall, 42 of 58 pediatric cardiac ICUs (72%) responded: United Kingdom and Ireland, 11 of 13 (84.6%); Italy, 12 of 12 (100%); and Germany, 19 of 33 (57%, included all major centers). Near-infrared spectroscopy usage varied with 35% (15/42) reporting that near-infrared spectroscopy was not used at all (7/42) or occasionally (8/42); near-infrared spectroscopy use was much less common in the United Kingdom (46%) when compared with 78% in Germany and all (100%) in Italy. Only four units had a near-infrared spectroscopy protocol, and 18 specifically used near-infrared spectroscopy in high-risk patients; 37 respondents believed that near-infrared spectroscopy added value to standard monitoring and 23 believed that it gave an earlier indication of deterioration, but only 19 would respond based on near-infrared spectroscopy data alone. Targets for absolute values and critical thresholds for intervention varied widely between units. The reasons cited for not or occasionally using near-infrared spectroscopy were expense (n = 6), limited evidence and uncertainty on how it guides management (n = 4), difficulty in interpretation, and unreliability of data (n = 3). Amongst the regular or occasional near-infrared spectroscopy users (n = 35), 28 (66%) agreed that a multicenter study is warranted

  17. Simulated Prism Therapy in Virtual Reality produces larger after-effects than standard prism exposure in normal healthy subject - Implications for Neglect Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... training for rehabilitation of hemi spatial attentional deficits such as visual neglect....

  18. THE SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY: A HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY ANTHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Schlawin, E. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Staudaher, S.; Smith, J. D. T.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Jarrett, T. H.; Murphy, E. J.; Sheth, K.; Buckalew, B. A.; Moustakas, J.; Roussel, H.; Bot, C.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution mid-infrared spectra are presented for 155 nuclear and extranuclear regions from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The fluxes for nine atomic forbidden and three molecular hydrogen mid-infrared emission lines are also provided, along with upper limits in key lines for infrared-faint targets. The SINGS sample shows a wide range in the ratio of [S III] 18.71 μm/[S III] 33.48 μm, but the average ratio of the ensemble indicates a typical interstellar electron density of 300-400 cm -3 on ∼23'' x 15'' scales and 500-600 cm -3 using ∼11'' x 9'' apertures, independent of whether the region probed is a star-forming nuclear, a star-forming extranuclear, or an active galactic nuclei (AGN) environment. Evidence is provided that variations in gas-phase metallicity play an important role in driving variations in radiation field hardness, as indicated by [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm, for regions powered by star formation. Conversely, the radiation hardness for galaxy nuclei powered by accretion around a massive black hole is independent of metal abundance. Furthermore, for metal-rich environments AGN are distinguishable from star-forming regions by significantly larger [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm ratios. Finally, [Fe II] 25.99 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm versus [Si II] 34.82 μm/[S III] 33.48 μm also provides an empirical method for discerning AGN from normal star-forming sources. However, similar to [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm, these mid-infrared line ratios lose their AGN/star-formation diagnostic powers for very low metallicity star-forming systems with hard radiation fields.

  19. Containment performance of S-prism under severe BDB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.E.; Dubberley, A.E.; Hui, M.; Iwashige, K.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated modular Fast Reactor called Super PRISM (S-PRISM). S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. An additional feature of S-PRISM involves the use an innovative containment system that reduces the required design basis containment pressure by a factor of two through the use of a controlled venting system. The performance of this innovative containment system is evaluated and described in this paper. (author)

  20. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  1. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  2. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  3. PRISM: An innovative liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, G.B.; Boardman, C.E.; Olich, E.E.; Switick, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative sodium-cooled reactor concept employing small certified reactor modules coupled with a standardized steam generator system. The total plant employs nine PRISM reactors (power reactor inherently safe module) in three 415 MWe power blocks. The PRISM design concept utilizes inherent safety characteristics and modularity to improve licensability, reduce owner's risk, and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module facilitates the use of passive, inherent self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. It is proposed that a single PRISM module be used in a full-scale integrated reactor safety test. Results from the test would be used to obtain NRC certification of the standard design

  4. Intricacies of Feedback in Computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method for treatment of attentional disorders, such as neglect e.g. 1,2. The method involves repeated pointing at specified targets with or without prism glasses using a specifically designed wooden box. The aim of this study was to ascertain...... whether the PAT method can be executed with similar effect using a computer with a touch screen.   62 healthy subjects were subjected to two experimental conditions: 1) pointing out at targets using the original box, 2) pointing out at targets on a computer attached touch screen. In both conditions......, the subjects performed a pre-test consisting of 30 targets without feedback, then an exposure-test of 90 targets with prism glasses and feedback, and finally a post-test of 60 targets, with no glasses and no feedback. Two experiments were carried out, 1) the feedback was provided by showing a cross...

  5. Cerebellar inactivation impairs memory of learned prism gaze-reach calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Hathaway, Emily N; Taylor, Jordan A; Thach, W Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys exhibited an aftereffect, such that the widened gaze-reach angle persisted and touches missed the target in the direction opposite that of initial prism-induced error. After 20-30 days of training, monkeys showed long-term learning and storage of the prism gaze-reach calibration: they switched between prism and no-prism and touched the target on the first trials without adaptation or aftereffect. Injections of lidocaine into posterolateral cerebellar cortex or muscimol or lidocaine into dentate nucleus temporarily inactivated these structures. Immediately after injections into cortex or dentate, reaches were displaced in the direction of prism-displaced gaze, but no-prism reaches were relatively unimpaired. There was little or no adaptation on the day of injection. On days after injection, there was no adaptation and both prism and no-prism reaches were horizontally, and often vertically, displaced. A single permanent lesion (kainic acid) in the lateral dentate nucleus of one monkey immediately impaired only the learned prism gaze-reach calibration and in subsequent days disrupted both learning and performance. This effect persisted for the 18 days of observation, with little or no adaptation.

  6. Modeling laser brightness from cross porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available , independent of the angle of incidence. Thus an initial planar wavefront remains planar after reflection. This property was initially exploited in Michelson interferometers to relax the tolerances on mis-alignment, and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al1... 20 25 30 35 0 20 40 60 80 100 Prism Angle (Degrees) Nu mb er o f P et als divisions. These relationships lead to the following equation for the allowed angles of rotation of the prism edges relative to one another for repeatability...

  7. Petal–like modes in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available , and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al [1] as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry–Perot cavities by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over... of America OCIS codes: (140.4780) Optical resonators; (260.0260) Physical optics; (140.3410) Laser resonators; (230.5480) Prisms; (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics References and links 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz, “Crossed Roof...

  8. Assessment of prism responses to loss of flow events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Sands, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), with Brookhaven national Laboratory providing technical support, is continuing a preapplication review of the 471 MWt, advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), PRISM by General Electric. The revised design has been evaluated using the SSC code, for a series of loss of flow events (LOF) with and without gas expansion modules (GEMs). These devices have a net worth of 69 cents and have reduced the seriousness of the LOF in PRISM. However, it was found that the extremely low probability case of an instantaneous loss of 4 EM pumps without scram could lead to sodium boiling even with the GEMs

  9. Anomalous refraction of light colors by a metamaterial prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mário G

    2009-05-15

    A prism of glass separates white light into its spectral components in such a manner that colors associated with shorter wavelengths are more refracted than the colors associated with longer wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate that this property is not universal, and that a lossless metamaterial prism with a suitable microstructure may enable a broadband regime of anomalous dispersion, where the spectral components of light are separated in an unconventional way, so that "violet light" is less refracted than "red light." This phenomenon is fundamentally different from conventional anomalous dispersion effects, which are invariably accompanied by significant loss and are typically very narrow band.

  10. Characteristics of Fluid Force Reduction for Two Different Square Prisms in a Tandem Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Ki Deok; Kang, Chang Whan; Park, Kwon Ho [Gyeongsang Nat’l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The Characteristics of the flow fields of a square prism having a small square prism were investigated by measuring of lift and drag on the square prism and visualizing the flow field using PIV. The experimental parameters were the width ratios(H/B=0.2~0.6) of small square prisms to the prism width and the gap ratios (G/B=0~3) between the prism and the small square prism. The drag reduction rate of the square prism initially increased and then decreased with the G/B ratio for the same H/B ratio, and increased with the H/B ratio for the same G/B ratio. The maximum drag reduction rate of 98.0% was observed at H/B=0.6 and G/B=1.0. The lift reduction rate of the square prism was not affected by the width and gap ratios; the total average value was approximately 66.5%. In case of a square prism having a small square prism, the stagnation regions were represented in the upstream and downstream sides of the square prism.

  11. An assessment of the Crossed Porro Prism Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, B. A.; Fueloep, K.; Seymour, R.

    1980-08-01

    Lasers with crossed porro prism resonators for military laser rangefinder and designator applications are studied. Properties of these devices are reviewed and advantages over normal mirror resonators are examined. The theory of operating is treated and the mechanical stability and other features of the laser are examined and compared to standard mirror resonators.

  12. Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agan, S.; Ay, F.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    Due to the increasingly important role of some polymers in optical waveguide technologies, precise measurement of their optical properties has become important. Typically, prism coupling to slab waveguides made of materials of interest is used to measure the relevant optical parameters. However,

  13. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  14. A new ASE filter: the 20-fold prism monochromator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Freriks, J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    1999-01-01

    A new ASE filter is presented, consisting of 20 dispersion prisms and two spatial filters. The transmission of the filter is measured with a ring-dye laser. The 1 width of the filter is 0.23 nm. The transmission is approximately 80% for the transmitted wavelengths. The rejection is in the order of .

  15. Prism adaptation for spatial neglect after stroke: translational practice gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A M; Goedert, Kelly M; Basso, Julia C

    2012-10-01

    Spatial neglect increases hospital morbidity and costs in around 50% of the 795,000 people per year in the USA who survive stroke, and an urgent need exists to reduce the care burden of this condition. However, effective acute treatment for neglect has been elusive. In this article, we review 48 studies of a treatment of intense neuroscience interest: prism adaptation training. Due to its effects on spatial motor 'aiming', prism adaptation training may act to reduce neglect-related disability. However, research failed, first, to suggest methods to identify the 50-75% of patients who respond to treatment; second, to measure short-term and long-term outcomes in both mechanism-specific and functionally valid ways; third, to confirm treatment utility during the critical first 8 weeks poststroke; and last, to base treatment protocols on systematic dose-response data. Thus, considerable investment in prism adaptation research has not yet touched the fundamentals needed for clinical implementation. We suggest improved standards and better spatial motor models for further research, so as to clarify when, how and for whom prism adaptation should be applied.

  16. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean

  17. THz Photonic Band-Gap Prisms Fabricated by Fiber Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Xu, Lipeng; Stecher, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a novel form of polymeric based 3D photonic crystal prisms for THz frequencies which could be fabricated using a standard fiber drawing technique. The structures are modeled and designed using a finite element analyzing technique. Using this simulation software we theoretically study...

  18. Design of airborne imaging spectrometer based on curved prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Xiangli, Bin; Zhou, Jinsong; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2011-11-01

    A novel moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer spreading from visible wavelength to near infrared wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, which combines curved prisms with the Offner configuration, is introduced. Compared to conventional imaging spectrometers based on dispersive prism or diffractive grating, this design possesses characteristics of small size, compact structure, low mass as well as little spectral line curve (smile) and spectral band curve (keystone or frown). Besides, the usage of compound curved prisms with two or more different materials can greatly reduce the nonlinearity inevitably brought by prismatic dispersion. The utilization ratio of light radiation is much higher than imaging spectrometer of the same type based on combination of diffractive grating and concentric optics. In this paper, the Seidel aberration theory of curved prism and the optical principles of Offner configuration are illuminated firstly. Then the optical design layout of the spectrometer is presented, and the performance evaluation of this design, including spot diagram and MTF, is analyzed. To step further, several types of telescope matching this system are provided. This work provides an innovational perspective upon optical system design of airborne spectral imagers; therefore, it can offer theoretic guide for imaging spectrometer of the same kind.

  19. FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF FIVE LATE-TYPE T DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, James M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Looper, Dagny L.; Tinney, Christopher; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of five late-type T dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan Folded-port InfraRed Echellette reveal strong H 2 O and CH 4 absorption in all five sources, and spectral indices and comparison to spectral templates indicate classifications ranging from T5.5 to T8.5:. The spectrum of the latest-type source, WISE J1812+2721, is an excellent match to that of the T8.5 companion brown dwarf Wolf 940B. WISE-based spectrophotometric distance estimates place these T dwarfs at 12-13 pc from the Sun, assuming they are single. Preliminary fits of the spectral data to the atmosphere models of Saumon and Marley indicate effective temperatures ranging from 600 K to 930 K, both cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres, and a broad range of ages and masses. In particular, two sources show evidence of both low surface gravity and cloudy atmospheres, tentatively supporting a trend noted in other young brown dwarfs and exoplanets. In contrast, the high proper motion T dwarf WISE J2018-7423 exhibits a suppressed K-band peak and blue spectrophotometric J - K colors indicative of an old, massive brown dwarf; however, it lacks the broadened Y-band peak seen in metal-poor counterparts. These results illustrate the broad diversity of low-temperature brown dwarfs that will be uncovered with WISE.

  20. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F., E-mail: fankli@indiana.edu; Parnell, S. R.; Wang, T.; Baxter, D. V. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Hamilton, W. A. [Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Maranville, B. B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Semerad, R. [Ceraco Ceramic Coating GmbH, Ismaning 85737 (Germany); Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi Technology Inc., Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Pynn, R. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ∼30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ∼98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  1. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Parnell, S. R.; Hamilton, W. A.; Maranville, B. B.; Wang, T.; Semerad, R.; Baxter, D. V.; Cremer, J. T.; Pynn, R.

    2014-05-01

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ˜30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ˜98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  2. The effect of compliant prisms on subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Dunham, Eric M.; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Tobin, Harold J.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes generate tsunamis by coseismically deforming the seafloor, and that deformation is largely controlled by the shallow rupture process. Therefore, in order to better understand how earthquakes generate tsunamis, one must consider the material structure and frictional properties of the shallowest part of the subduction zone, where ruptures often encounter compliant sedimentary prisms. Compliant prisms have been associated with enhanced shallow slip, seafloor deformation, and tsunami heights, particularly in the context of tsunami earthquakes. To rigorously quantify the role compliant prisms play in generating tsunamis, we perform a series of numerical simulations that directly couple dynamic rupture on a dipping thrust fault to the elastodynamic response of the Earth and the acoustic response of the ocean. Gravity is included in our simulations in the context of a linearized Eulerian description of the ocean, which allows us to model tsunami generation and propagation, including dispersion and related nonhydrostatic effects. Our simulations span a three-dimensional parameter space of prism size, prism compliance, and sub-prism friction - specifically, the rate-and-state parameter b - a that determines velocity-weakening or velocity-strengthening behavior. We find that compliant prisms generally slow rupture velocity and, for larger prisms, generate tsunamis more efficiently than subduction zones without prisms. In most but not all cases, larger, more compliant prisms cause greater amounts of shallow slip and larger tsunamis. Furthermore, shallow friction is also quite important in determining overall slip; increasing sub-prism b - a enhances slip everywhere along the fault. Counterintuitively, we find that in simulations with large prisms and velocity-strengthening friction at the base of the prism, increasing prism compliance reduces rather than enhances shallow slip and tsunami wave height.

  3. Suffering Quantified? Feasibility and Psychometric Characteristics of 2 Revised Versions of the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets; PhD Marjet G.B.G. Blokhorst; MSc Jolene L.M. Reimus; MSc Annemieke M.A. van Nunen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2008-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) assesses suffering. In this article, the authors explored the feasibility and psychometric qualities of 2 revised versions of the PRISM-PRISM-R1 and PRISM-R2-that they used in 3 studies of participants with different medical problems.

  4. Characteristic analysis of a polarization output coupling Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    An Electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with a crossed misalignment Porro prism resonator for space applications has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The phase shift induced by the combination of different wave plates and Porro prism azimuth angles have been studied for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching. The relationship of the effective output coupling reflectivity and the employed Q-switch driving voltage is explored by using Jones matrix optics. In the experiment, the maximum output pulse energy of 93 mJ with 14-ns pulse duration is obtained at the repetition rate of 20 Hz and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 16.8%. The beam quality factors are M 2 x = 2.5 and M 2y = 2.2, respectively.

  5. Train integrity detection risk analysis based on PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuan

    2018-04-01

    GNSS based Train Integrity Monitoring System (TIMS) is an effective and low-cost detection scheme for train integrity detection. However, as an external auxiliary system of CTCS, GNSS may be influenced by external environments, such as uncertainty of wireless communication channels, which may lead to the failure of communication and positioning. In order to guarantee the reliability and safety of train operation, a risk analysis method of train integrity detection based on PRISM is proposed in this article. First, we analyze the risk factors (in GNSS communication process and the on-board communication process) and model them. Then, we evaluate the performance of the model in PRISM based on the field data. Finally, we discuss how these risk factors influence the train integrity detection process.

  6. Transient safety performance of the PRISM innovative liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Rhow, S.K.; Wu, T.

    1988-01-01

    The PRISM sodium-cooled reactor concept utilizes passive safety characteristics and modularity to increase performance margins, improve licensability, reduce owner's risk and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module (471 MWt) facilitates the use of passive self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. Key to the transient performance is the inherent negative reactivity feedback characteristics of the core design resulting from the use of metal (U-Pu-Zr) swing, and very low control rod runout worth. Selected beyond design basis events relying only on these core design features are analyzed and the design margins summarized to demonstrate the advancement in reactor safety achieved with the PRISM design concept

  7. Optofluidic laser scanner based on a rotating liquid prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Daniel; Lehmann, Lukas; Zappe, Hans

    2016-03-20

    We demonstrate an electrowetting-actuated optofluidic system based on a rotatable liquid prism implemented as a two-dimensional laser scanner. The system is fabricated through a novel technology using a patterned flexible polymeric foil on which a high density of electrodes is structured and which is subsequently inserted into a cylindrical housing. The resulting radial electrode array is used for electrowetting actuation of two fluids filled into the cylinder, which allows a controllable tilt and orientation of the planar liquid interface and thus represents a tunable rotating prism. Finite element simulations and subsequent experimental verification show that this highly planar and precisely positionable liquid/liquid interface may be actuated to a deflection angle of ±6.4°, with a standard deviation of ±0.18°, and rotated 360° about the vertical axis. Power consumption is limited to several microwatts, and switching times of several hundred milliseconds were determined.

  8. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  9. Hyperbolic prisms and foams in Hele-Shaw cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tufaile, A.P.B. [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-03

    The propagation of light in foams creates patterns which are generated due to the reflection and refraction of light. One of these patterns is observed by the formation of multiple mirror images inside liquid bridges in a layer of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. We are presenting the existence of these patterns in foams and their relation with hyperbolic geometry and Sierpinski gaskets using the Poincare disk model. The images obtained from the experiment in foams are compared to the case of hyperbolic optical elements. -- Highlights: → The chaotic scattering of light in foams generating deltoid patterns is based on hyperbolic geometry. → The deltoid patterns are obtained through the Plateau borders in a Hele-Shaw cell. → The Plateau borders act like hyperbolic prism. → Some effects of the refraction and reflection of the light rays were studied using a hyperbolic prism.

  10. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment. METHODS: Twelve patients with acquired, documented HVFD were eligible to be included. All patients underwent specific vision-targeted, health-related QOL questionnaire and monocular and binocular Goldmann perimetry before commencing prism therapy. Patients were fitted with monocular prisms on the side of the HVFD with the base-in the direction of the field defect creating a peripheral optical exotropia and field expansion. After the treatment period, QOL questionnaires and perimetry were repeated. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included in the treatment group, 10 of whom were included in data analysis. Overall, there was significant improvement within multiple vision-related, QOL functioning parameters, specifically within the domains of general health (p < 0.01), general vision (p < 0.05), distance vision (p < 0.01), peripheral vision (p < 0.05), role difficulties (p < 0.05), dependency (p < 0.05), and social functioning (p < 0.05). Visual field expansion was shown when measured monocularly and binocularly during the study period in comparison with pretreatment baselines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HVFD demonstrate decreased QOL. Monocular sector prisms can improve the QOL and expand the visual field in these patients.

  11. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2011-02-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment.

  12. Innovative Solar Tracking Concept by Rotating Prism Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become one of the most promising renewable energies and is the most widely used nowadays. In order to achieve an optimum performance, both photovoltaic and solar thermal applications are required to track the position of the sun throughout the day and year in the most effective way possible to avoid a high negative impact on the system efficiency. The present paper attempts to describe a novel semipassive solar tracking concentrator (SPSTC in which, in order to track the sun, two independent arrays of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA prisms are implemented to refract sunlight by rotating said prisms, thus being able to redirect solar radiation as desired. The first set is responsible for eliminating one of the directional components of the solar radiation; the task is achieved by rotating the prisms within the array at a specific angle. The second set deals with another of the sunlight’s directional components, transforming its direction into a completely perpendicular pattern to the array. Having downward vertical radiation makes it possible to implement a stationary Fresnel lens to concentrate the solar radiation for any application desired. The system is designed and validated using simulation software to prove the feasibility of the concept.

  13. Tectonic and Sedimentation Interactions in the East Caribbean Subduction Zone: AN Overview from the Orinoco Delta to the Barbados Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E.

    2011-12-01

    . Piston-core surveys have demonstrated that turbidite sediments above the accretionary prism and in the abyssal plain are mostly coarse sandy deposits covered by recent pelagic planktonic-rich sediments, which indicate that sand deposition has slow down during the post-glacial sea level rise. Numerical stratigraphic modeling suggests that during the last glacial event, the main depocenters were located above the tectonic prism and in the abyssal plain, at the front of the prism and that, during the Holocene eustatic rise, a large accommodation space formed on the shelf confining sedimentation mostly on the Orinoco deltaic platform and producing a starvation downstream in the turbidite system. This is in good agreement with the piston coring results which show low deep turbidite sedimentation rates during recent times.

  14. Local Seismicity Recorded by ChilePEPPER: Implications for Dynamic Accretionary Prism Response and Long-term Prism Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, A.; Trehu, A. M.; Tryon, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the dynamic response of the outer accretionary wedge updip from the patch of greatest slip during the Mw8.8 2010 Maule earthquake, 10 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) were deployed from May 2012 to March 2013 in a small array with an inter-instrument spacing of ~12 km . Nine instruments were recovered, with 4 recording data on 3 intermediate-band 3-component seismometers and a differential pressure gauge and 5 recording data from absolute pressure gauges. [note: All instruments were also equipped with a fluid flow meter sensitive to flow rates as low as 0.0001 cm/yr in or out of the sediments. However, no flow signal was detected.] Here we present hypocenters for 569 local events that have S-P times less than 17 seconds (i.e. within ~125 km of the array) using hand-picked arrival times and a 1D velocity model derived from a 2D seismic refraction profile through the region (Moscoso et al 2011, EPSL). We analyze the distribution of seismicity in the context of published slip models, ChilePEPPER high-resolution seismic reflection data, critical taper analysis done by Cubas et al 2013 (EPSL), and offshore gravity data. The data show distinct segmentation within the outer prism. The northern section of the study area is characterized by a lack of seismicity, accretion of nearly all incoming sediment and a prism at critical taper. In contrast, abundant seismicity, significant sediment underthrusting at the deformation front and a prism below critical taper angle characterize the southern part of the study area. Both coseismic slip and post-rupture local seismicity can be related to density anomalies within the upper plate as revealed by free air gravity data corrected for the effects of bathymetry and the subducting plate. [ChilePEPPER - Project Evaluating Prism Post-Earthquake Response

  15. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.C.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Applications of photoelectron spectroscopy to studies of atomic electronic configurations are discussed, including photoelectron spectra of hydrides isoelectronic with the inert gases; photoelectron spectra of the halogen derivatives of methane; photoelectron spectra of multiple bonded diatomic molecules; spectra and structure of some multiple bonded polyatomic molecules; spectra and structure of triatomic molecules; and methods of orbital assignment of bands in photoelectron spectra. Physical aspects are considered, including intensities; selection rules; dependence of cross section on photoelectron energy; autoionization; angular distribution of photoelectrons; electron-molecule interactions; and transient species. (26 figures, 54 references) (U.S.)

  16. [Dental enamel prisms of Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839, compared with recent cercopithecids (Primates: Cercopithecidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, A; Zapfe, H

    1986-01-01

    The dental enamel prisms of Cercopithecidae were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The main task of this study was to show the prism morphology representatives of different genera as well as their comparison with the fossil Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839. The method used to show the enamel prisms was to etch the tooth surface with hydrochloric acid. In this way the outlines of the prisms were better contrasted for the descriptive morphology of the prisms than in etching with phosphoric acid. Two types were determined, in accord with the systematic division into subfamilies. In the subfamily Cercopithecinae elongated slender prisms were dominating, some with pointed, others with truncated tops. Most characteristic of this type were Macaca and Cercopithecus. An exception was Papio hamadryas which had broader, rounded prisms. In this way it differed largely from P. anubis whose prisms were short and mostly triangular. A very interesting fact was that very different patterns were found in P. anubis and P. hamadryas, although these two species are regarded as only one species by many authors. The second subfamily, the Colobinae, was characterized by broader prisms with a rounded shape, nearly as long as wide. Exceptions of the 'Colobine type' were at first Colobus with prisms little longer than wide and secondly Nasalis, with mostly parallel sides and truncated tops of the prisms. The prism outlines of Mesopithecus showed the greatest similarity to those of Presbytis which represents the characteristic 'Colobine type'. This fact confirmed the actual systematic position of the fossil Mesopithecus within the subfamily Colobinae. In addition to previously known primitive features of Mesopithecus within the subfamily of Colobinae, we present here a further concrete, common feature with asiatic Colobines.

  17. 3D Printed Prisms with Tunable Dispersion for the THz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a 3D printed prism for THz waves made out of an artificial dielectric material in which the dispersion can be tuned by external compression. The artificial material consists of thin dielectric layers with variable air spacings which has been produced using a fused deposition molding process. The material properties are carefully characterized and the functionality of the prisms is in a good agreement with the underlying theory. These prisms are durable, lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to produce.

  18. 3D Printed Prisms with Tunable Dispersion for the THz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Here, we present a 3D printed prism for THz waves made out of an artificial dielectric material in which the dispersion can be tuned by external compression. The artificial material consists of thin dielectric layers with variable air spacings which has been produced using a fused deposition molding process. The material properties are carefully characterized and the functionality of the prisms is in a good agreement with the underlying theory. These prisms are durable, lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to produce.

  19. PRISM -- A tool for modelling proton energy deposition in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, M.K.; Underwood, C.I.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a description of, and test results from, a new PC based software simulation tool PRISM (Protons in Semiconductor Materials). The model describes proton energy deposition in complex 3D sensitive volumes of semiconductor materials. PRISM is suitable for simulating energy deposition in surface-barrier detectors and semiconductor memory devices, the latter being susceptible to Single-Event Upset (SEU) and Multiple-Bit Upset (MBU). The design methodology on which PRISM is based, together with the techniques used to simulate ion transport and energy deposition, are described. Preliminary test results used to analyze the PRISM model are presented

  20. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...... is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non...

  1. Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1959-07-15

    A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)

  2. Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1959-07-01

    A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)

  3. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available in 1962 by Gould et al1 as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry-Perot cavities, by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over the years2... Optronics for the use of their laser and for making experimental data available to us. We would also like to thank Dr Dieter Preussler and Mr Daniel Esser for useful discussions. REFERENCES 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz...

  4. Prism reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-08-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristic and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs

  5. PRISM reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristic and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. (author)

  6. Design of a fast runback feature for PRISM control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.K.; Rhow, S.K.; Daniel, W.R.; Dayal, Y.; Gaubatz, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The nine power reactor inherently safe modules (PRISM) are controlled and their operation coordinated by a hierarchical, distributed, digital plant control system (PCS). This paper describes the fast runback features of the PCS. Fast runback consists of PCS directed reactor module shutdown with accompanying reductions of coolant flows. Analyses have shown that the PCS fast runback adequately terminates duty cycle events initiated in the balance of plant and the steam generating system, results in lower thermal shock to the reactor than scram, and reduces the number of scrams by approximately a factor of five

  7. PRISM reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Rosztoczy, Z.; Lane, J.

    1991-01-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristics and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs

  8. Performance of the prism reactor's passive decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Hunsbedt, A.

    1989-01-01

    The PRISM modular reactor concept has a totally passive safety-grade decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection of air. The system is inherently reliable and is not subject to the failure modes commonly associated with active cooling systems. The thermal performance of RVACS exceeds requirements and significant thermal margins exist. RVACS has been shown to perform its function under many postulated accident conditions. The PRISM power plant is equipped with three methods for shutdown: condenser cooling in conjunction with intermediate sodium and steam generator systems, and auxiliary cooling system (ACS) which removes heat from the steam generator by natural convection of air and transport of heat from the core by natural convection in the primary and intermediate systems, and a safety- grade reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) which removes heat passively from the reactor containment vessel by natural convection of air. The combination of one active and two passive systems provides a highly reliable and economical shutdown heat removal system. This paper provides a summary of the RVACS thermal performance for expected operating conditions and postulated accident events. The supporting experimental work, which substantiates the performance predictions, is also summarized

  9. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  10. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael, E-mail: gorazd.planinsic@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19 (Slovenia)

    2011-03-15

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  11. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd"2"+ doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m"2 g"−"1, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  12. Physical optics modeling of modal patterns in a crossed porro prism resonator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A physical optics model is proposed to describe the transverse modal patterns in crossed Porro prism resonators. The model departs from earlier attempts in that the prisms are modeled as non-classical rotating elements with amplitude and phase...

  13. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  14. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun, E-mail: hanxiaojun@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd{sup 2+} doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  15. ePRISM: A case study in multiple proxy and mixed temporal resolution integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project, we present the ePRISM experiment designed I) to provide climate modelers with a reconstruction of an early Pliocene warm period that was warmer than the PRISM interval (similar to 3.3 to 3.0 Ma), yet still similar in many ways to modern conditions and 2) to provide an example of how best to integrate multiple-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) data from time series with varying degrees of temporal resolution and age control as we begin to build the next generation of PRISM, the PRISM4 reconstruction, spanning a constricted time interval. While it is possible to tie individual SST estimates to a single light (warm) oxygen isotope event, we find that the warm peak average of SST estimates over a narrowed time interval is preferential for paleoclimate reconstruction as it allows for the inclusion of more records of multiple paleotemperature proxies.

  16. Asymmetric transmission in prisms using structures and materials with isotropic-type dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Funda Tamara; Serebryannikov, Andriy E; Cakmak, A Ozgur; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2015-09-21

    It is demonstrated that strong asymmetry in transmission can be obtained at the Gaussian beam illumination for a single prism based on a photonic crystal (PhC) with isotropic-type dispersion, as well as for its analog made of a homogeneous material. Asymmetric transmission can be realized with the aid of refraction at a proper orientation of the interfaces and wedges of the prism, whereas neither contribution of higher diffraction orders nor anisotropic-type dispersion is required. Furthermore, incidence toward a prism wedge can be used for one of two opposite directions in order to obtain asymmetry. Thus, asymmetric transmission is a general property of the prism configurations, which can be obtained by using simple geometries and quite conventional materials. The obtained results show that strong asymmetry can be achieved in PhC prisms with (nearly) circular shape of equifrequency dispersion contours, in both cases associated with the index of refraction 01. For the comparison purposes, results are also presented for solid uniform non-magnetic prisms made of a material with the same value of n. It is shown in zero-loss approximation that the PhC prism and the ultralow-index material prism (01. Possible contributions of scattering on the individual rods and diffraction on the wedge to the resulting mechanism are discussed. Analogs of unidirectional splitting and unidirectional deflection regimes, which are known from the studies of PhC gratings, are obtained in PhC prisms and solid uniform prisms, i.e. without higher diffraction orders.

  17. A VUV prism spectrometer for RICH radiator refractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Moyssides, P G; Fokitis, E

    2000-01-01

    A prism spectrometer has been developed to operate in the VUV wavelength range from 120 to 200 nm. It can be used as a pre- disperser in conjunction with a Fabry-Perot based gas refractometer. This instrument has also been used to measure the refractive index of the liquid radiator C/sub 6/F/sub 14/ in various spectral lines. This radiator is used in the RICH detectors of the DELPHI experiment and has been proposed for ALICE, and LHCb experiments. The spectral resolution of the system is improved as the wavelength decreases and the data are consistent with a wavelength accuracy about 0.4 nm at 140 nm. The results for the dispersion curve of the above liquid are presented. (17 refs).

  18. R&D proposal the prism plastic calorimeter:PPC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Marchand, P; Nédélec, P; Salin, P; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: First Goal_Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC) towers with a new "liquid crystal" type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. Second Goal_ Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector,and list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum amount of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronics being outside the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. The R&D program we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  19. Safety and licensing analysis of 471 MWt PRISM reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Independent analyses of unscrammed events postulated for the 471 MW t PRISM reactor module, as performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are discussed. Peak fuel, cladding, and sodium temperatures for several postulated events were compared against reference temperatures. In general, BNL could essentially duplicate GE's analytical results, by making GE's assumptions. For the postulated unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) events, the newly added Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), have improved the passive shutdown response. With respect to the unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS) event, there was little impact expected from the latest revisions, and little was found. For the unscrammed transient over-power (UTOP) events, uncertainties with respect to the behavior of ternary metal fuel leave unresolved the issue of how large a UTOP initiator (between 20 and 40 cents) may be acceptable. (author)

  20. FDS5 Simulation of PRISME INTEGRAL Test, PRSINT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Seok

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on fire modeling has playing a key role in the risk-informed and performance-based fire protection field. The ability to accurately predict fire behavior using the fire models is of high utility for hazard assessment, investigations and performance based design. Validation is the process of determining the degree of agreement between fire model outputs and real world events for one or more results of interest. The goal of validation is to quantify confidence in the predictive capability of the model. Validation in NUREG-1824 entails comparing the model prediction with full-scale fire experiments and quantifying the results. The objectives of this study, focused on the fire model validation, are to compare the FDS5 prediction results with the PRISME INTEGRAL test data and to validate FDS5 model

  1. Stakeholder theory and reporting information The case of performance prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Nita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explain the stakeholder theory in the context of performance measurement in integrated reporting. Main research methods used in the article include logical reasoning, critical analysis of academic literature, and observation. The principal result of the discussion is included in the statement that the stakeholder theory in the field of accounting is reflected in the so-called integrated reporting. Moreover, among the large variety of performance measurement methods, such as balanced scorecard and others, the concept of performance prism can be considered as the only method that fully takes into account the wide range of stakeholders. The analysis performed leads to the conclusion that development in accounting research takes into account the objectives of an organization in the context of the so-called corporate social responsibility as well as performance reporting oriented towards the communication of the company with its environment and the various stakeholder groups.

  2. The TESS-HERMES survey data release 1: high-resolution spectroscopy of the TESS southern continuous viewing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Stello, Dennis; Buder, Sven; Kos, Janez; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Asplund, Martin; Duong, Ly; Lin, Jane; Lind, Karin; Ness, Melissa; Huber, Daniel; Zwitter, Tomaz; Traven, Gregor; Hon, Marc; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Khanna, Shourya; Saddon, Hafiz; Anguiano, Borja; Casey, Andrew R.; Freeman, Ken; Martell, Sarah; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Wittenmyer, Rob A.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will provide high-precision time series photometry for millions of stars with at least a half-hour cadence. Of particular interest are the circular regions of 12° radius centred around the ecliptic poles that will be observed continuously for a full year. Spectroscopic stellar parameters are desirable to characterize and select suitable targets for TESS, whether they are focused on exploring exoplanets, stellar astrophysics or Galactic archaeology. Here, we present spectroscopic stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], v sin i, vmicro) for about 16 000 dwarf and subgiant stars in TESS' southern continuous viewing zone. For almost all the stars, we also present Bayesian estimates of stellar properties including distance, extinction, mass, radius and age using theoretical isochrones. Stellar surface gravity and radius are made available for an additional set of roughly 8500 red giants. All our target stars are in the range 10 using the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph (HERMES; R ∼ 28 000) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope as part of the TESS-HERMES survey. Comparing our results with the TESS Input Catalogue (TIC) shows that the TIC is generally efficient in separating dwarfs and giants, but it has flagged more than 100 cool dwarfs (Teff < 4800 K) as giants, which ought to be high-priority targets for the exoplanet search. The catalogue can be accessed via http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/tess-hermes/, or at Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  3. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  4. Jones matrix formulation of a Porro prism laser resonator with waveplates: theoretical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, L.; Bhardwaj, A.; Pal, S.; Kumar, A.

    2007-11-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed theoretical and experimental analysis carried out on a folded Z-shaped polarization coupled, electro-optically Q-switched laser resonator with Porro prisms and waveplates. The advantages of adding waveplates in a Porro prism resonator have been explored for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching and obtaining variable reflectivity with fixed orientation of Porro prism. Generalized expressions have been derived in terms of azimuth angles and phase shifts introduced by the polarizing elements. These expressions corroborate with known reported results under appropriate substitutions. A specific case of a crossed Porro prism diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In the feedback arm, a 0.57λ waveplate oriented at 135° completely compensates the phase shift of a fused silica Porro prism and provides better tolerances than a BK-7 prism/0.60λ waveplate combination to stop prelasing. The fused silica prism/0.57λ combination with waveplate at 112° acts like a 100% mirror and was utilized for optimization of free running performance. The effective reflectivity was determined for various orientations of the quarter waveplate in the gain arm to numerically estimate the Q-switched laser pulse parameters through rate equation analysis. Experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis.

  5. Multi-energy CT based on a prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hao; Osher, Stanley; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compressive sensing approach for multi-energy computed tomography (CT), namely the prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM). To further compress the multi-energy image for allowing the reconstruction with fewer CT data and less radiation dose, the PRISM models a multi-energy image as the superposition of a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix (with row dimension in space and column dimension in energy), where the low-rank matrix corresponds to the stationary background over energy that has a low matrix rank, and the sparse matrix represents the rest of distinct spectral features that are often sparse. Distinct from previous methods, the PRISM utilizes the generalized rank, e.g., the matrix rank of tight-frame transform of a multi-energy image, which offers a way to characterize the multi-level and multi-filtered image coherence across the energy spectrum. Besides, the energy-dependent intensity information can be incorporated into the PRISM in terms of the spectral curves for base materials, with which the restoration of the multi-energy image becomes the reconstruction of the energy-independent material composition matrix. In other words, the PRISM utilizes prior knowledge on the generalized rank and sparsity of a multi-energy image, and intensity/spectral characteristics of base materials. Furthermore, we develop an accurate and fast split Bregman method for the PRISM and demonstrate the superior performance of the PRISM relative to several competing methods in simulations. (papers)

  6. The HETDEX pilot survey. V. The physical origin of Lyα emitters probed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Chonis, Taylor; Jogee, Shardha; Livermore, Rachael [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bridge, Joanna; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fabricius, Maximilian; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Salmon, Brett, E-mail: mmsong@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    We present the results from a Very Large Telescope/SINFONI and Keck/NIRSPEC near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 16 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.1-2.5 in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields discovered from the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Pilot Survey. We detect rest-frame optical nebular lines (Hα and/or [O III] λ5007) for 10 of the LAEs and measure physical properties, including the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity, gas mass fraction, and Lyα velocity offset. We find that LAEs may lie below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift. The LAEs all show velocity shifts of Lyα relative to the systemic redshift ranging between +85 and +296 km s{sup –1} with a mean of +180 km s{sup –1}. This value is smaller than measured for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The Lyα velocity offsets show a moderate correlation with the measured SFR (2.5σ), but no significant correlations are seen with the SFR surface density, specific SFR, stellar mass, or dynamical mass (≲1.5σ). Exploring the role of dust, kinematics of the interstellar medium (ISM), and geometry on the escape of Lyα photons, we find no signature of selective quenching of resonantly scattered Lyα photons. However, we also find no evidence that a clumpy ISM is enhancing the Lyα equivalent width. Our results suggest that the low metallicity in LAEs may be responsible for yielding an environment with a low neutral hydrogen column density and less dust, easing the escape of Lyα photons over that in continuum-selected star-forming galaxies.

  7. The HETDEX pilot survey. V. The physical origin of Lyα emitters probed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Chonis, Taylor; Jogee, Shardha; Livermore, Rachael; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bridge, Joanna; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Fabricius, Maximilian; Gawiser, Eric; Salmon, Brett

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from a Very Large Telescope/SINFONI and Keck/NIRSPEC near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 16 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.1-2.5 in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields discovered from the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Pilot Survey. We detect rest-frame optical nebular lines (Hα and/or [O III] λ5007) for 10 of the LAEs and measure physical properties, including the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity, gas mass fraction, and Lyα velocity offset. We find that LAEs may lie below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift. The LAEs all show velocity shifts of Lyα relative to the systemic redshift ranging between +85 and +296 km s –1 with a mean of +180 km s –1 . This value is smaller than measured for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The Lyα velocity offsets show a moderate correlation with the measured SFR (2.5σ), but no significant correlations are seen with the SFR surface density, specific SFR, stellar mass, or dynamical mass (≲1.5σ). Exploring the role of dust, kinematics of the interstellar medium (ISM), and geometry on the escape of Lyα photons, we find no signature of selective quenching of resonantly scattered Lyα photons. However, we also find no evidence that a clumpy ISM is enhancing the Lyα equivalent width. Our results suggest that the low metallicity in LAEs may be responsible for yielding an environment with a low neutral hydrogen column density and less dust, easing the escape of Lyα photons over that in continuum-selected star-forming galaxies.

  8. Effects of Accretionary Prisms on 3-D Long-Period Ground Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2014-12-01

    The accretionary prism along the subduction zones such as the Middle America trench or the Nankai trough is considered as an important factor affecting the generation and propagation of long-period ground motions. In Japan, the great earthquake along the Nankai subduction zone which is expected to occur in the near future can generate large long-period ground motions in the metropolitan areas such as Osaka, Nagoya and Tokyo. To investigate the effect of accretionary prism on long-period ground motions, we performed simulations of long-period ground motions for the event (Mw 7.1) that occurred off the Kii peninsula, Japan, at 10:07 on 5 September 2004 (UTC). Our simulation model ranged from the Kinki region to the Kanto region, and included the Osaka, Nobi and Kanto basin. We calculated long-period ground motions for four types of 3-D velocity structure models: (a) model with the accretionary prism (reference model), (b) model where accretionary prism has different 3-D geometry from the reference model, (c) model with the accretionary prism whose velocity, density and Q-value are shifted, (d) model without the accretionary prism. We compared the waveforms calculated for these models and concluded that the accretionary prism along the Nankai subduction zone plays roles in reducing the amplitude of direct waves and extending the duration of coda waves. This is attributed to the trap effect of accretionary prism. Our simulation also suggested that, the edge geometry along the landward side of accretionary prism has major effects on the processes of generation and propagation of long-period ground motions.

  9. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Wan Maisarah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP. This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI, namely n=1.51(type BK7 and n=1.77(type SF11. Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape as light couplers.

  10. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisarah Mukhtar, Wan; Halim, Razman Mohd; Hassan, Hazirah

    2017-11-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI), namely n=1.51(type BK7) and n=1.77(type SF11). Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical) able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape) as light couplers.

  11. Fabrication of diamond-coated germanium ATR prisms for IR-spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babchenko, Oleg; Kozak, Halyna; Ižák, Tibor; Stuchlík, Jiří; Remeš, Zdeněk; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 87, May (2016), 67-73 ISSN 0924-2031 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond * low temperature growth * linear antenna microwave plasma * germanium * SEM * FTIR Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2016

  12. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Kozak, Halyna; Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Babchenko, Oleg; Kromka, Alexander; Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 270, APR (2013), s. 411-417 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GPP205/12/P331; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ATR FTIR * CVD * hydrogenation * microwave * nanocrystalline diamond * nanopowder Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  13. Accelerated determination of ASR susceptibility during concrete prism testing through nonlinear impact resonance ultrasonic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    "Accurate, reliable, and timely laboratory assessment of concrete mixturesaggregates combined with : cementitious materialsis a critical component in ensuring the durability of concrete infrastructure from the : adverse effects of the alkali-si...

  14. Fault structure, properties and activity of the Makran Accretionary Prism and implications for seismogenic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; McNeill, L. C.; Henstock, T.; Bull, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone is the widest accretionary prism in the world (~400km), generated by convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. It represents a global end-member, with a 7km thick incoming sediment section. Accretionary prisms have traditionally been thought to be aseismic due to the presence of unconsolidated sediment and elevated basal pore pressures. The seismogenic potential of the Makran subduction zone is unclear, despite a Mw 8.1 earthquake in 1945 that may have been located on the plate boundary beneath the prism. In this study, a series of imbricate landward dipping (seaward verging) thrust faults have been interpreted across the submarine prism (outer 70 km) using over 6000km of industry multichannel seismic data and bathymetric data. A strong BSR (bottom simulating reflector) is present throughout the prism (excluding the far east). An unreflective décollement is interpreted from the geometry of the prism thrusts. Two major sedimentary units are identified in the input section, the lower of which contains the extension of the unreflective décollement surface. Between 60%-100% of the input section is currently being accreted. The geometry of piggy-back basin stratigraphy shows that the majority of thrusts, including those over 50km from the trench, are recently active. Landward thrusts show evidence for reactivation after periods of quiescence. Negative polarity fault plane reflectors are common in the frontal thrusts and in the eastern prism, where they may be related to increased fault activity and fluid expulsion, and are rarer in older landward thrusts. Significant NE-SW trending basement structures (The Murray Ridge and Little Murray Ridge) on the Arabian plate intersect the deformation front and affect sediment input to the subduction zone. Prism taper and structure are apparently primarily controlled by sediment supply and the secondary influence of subducting basement ridges. The thick, likely distal, sediment

  15. In vivo intervertebral disc characterization using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T1ρ imaging: association with discography and Oswestry Disability Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jin; Joseph, Gabby B; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M; Hu, Serena S; Berven, Sigurd H; Kurhanewitz, John; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-02-01

    An in vivo study of intervertebral disc degeneration by using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). To quantify water and proteoglycan (PG) content in the intervertebral disc by using in vivo MRS and to evaluate the relationship between MRS-quantified water/PG content, T1ρ, Pfirrmann score, clinical self-assessment, and discography. Previous in vitro studies have investigated the relationship between MRS-quantified water/PG content and degenerative grade by using cadaveric intervertebral discs. T1ρ has been shown to relate to Pfirrmann grade and clinical self-assessment. However, the associations between MRS-quantified water/PG content, MRI-based T1ρ, self-assessment of health status, and clinical response to discography have not been studied in vivo. MRS and MRI were performed in 26 patients (70 discs) with symptomatic intervertebral degenerative disc (IVDD) and 23 controls (41 discs). Patients underwent evaluation of intervertebral discs with provocative discography. All subjects completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey and Oswestry Disability Index questionnaires. The water/PG peak area ratio was significantly elevated in (a) patients (compared with controls) and in (b) discs with positive discography (compared with negative discography). Magnetic resonance (MR) T1ρ exhibited similar trends. A significant association was found between T1ρ and normalized PG content (R = 0.61, P 0.05). The water/PG peak area ratio, normalized water, normalized PG, and Pfirrmann grade were significantly associated with patient self-assessment of disability and physical composite score, while disc height was not. This study demonstrated a relationship between in vivo MRS spectroscopy (water content and PG content), imaging parameters (T1ρ and Pfirrmann grade), discography results, and clinical self-assessment, suggesting that MRS-quantified water, PG, and MR T1ρ relaxation time may potentially serve as biomarkers of

  16. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass Reconstruction of the Lensing Cluster Abell 2744 from Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  17. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). IV. MASS RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LENSING CLUSTER ABELL 2744 FROM FRONTIER FIELD IMAGING AND GLASS SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Jones, T. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Bradac, M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Brammer, G. B.; Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Trenti, M., E-mail: xinwang@physics.ucsb.edu [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2015-09-20

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  18. Forward and inverse solutions for Risley prism based on the Denavit-Hartenberg methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Gonzalez, A.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Strojnik, M.; Flores, J. L.; Garcia-Luna, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work forward and inverse solutions for two-element Risley prism for pointing and scanning beam systems are developed. A more efficient and faster algorithm is proposed to make an analogy of the Risley prism system compared with a robotic system with two degrees of freedom. This system of equations controls each Risley prism individually as a planar manipulator arm of two links. In order to evaluate the algorithm we implement it in a pointing system. We perform popular routines such as the linear, spiral and loops traces. Using forward and inverse solutions for two-element Risley prism it is also possible to point at coordinates specified by the user, provided they are within the pointer area of work area. Experimental results are showed as a validation of our proposal.

  19. Accurate geometrical optics model for single-lens stereovision system using a prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Lim, Kah Bin; Guo, Qiyong; Wang, DaoLei

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new method for analyzing the image formation of a prism. The prism was considered as a single optical system composed of some planes. By analyzing each plane individually and then combining them together, we derived a transformation matrix which can express the relationship between an object point and its image by the refraction of a prism. We also explained how to use this matrix for epipolar geometry and three-dimensional point reconstruction. Our method is based on optical geometry and could be used in a multiocular prism. Experimentation results are presented to prove the accuracy of our method is better than former researchers' and is comparable with that of the multicamera stereovision system.

  20. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Rode

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.

  1. Design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel for enhancing solar energy collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Jiang, Dongyue; Park, Sung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an arrayed tunable prism panel enabling wide tracking and high solar concentration. • A microfluidic technology allows a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system. • Our prism panel enables high solar concentration up to 2032× factor. • Various liquid prism configurations (stacked prism arrays) and optical materials are considered. • Their impacts on solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration are studied. - Abstract: We present the design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel that enables wide solar tracking and high solar concentration while minimizing energy loss. Each of the liquid prism modules is implemented by a microfluidic (i.e. non-mechanical) technology based on electrowetting for adaptive solar beam steering. Therefore the proposed platform offers a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system while obviating the need for bulky and heavy mechanical moving parts essentially required for a conventional motor-driven solar tracker. In this paper, various liquid prism configurations in terms of design (single, double, triple and quad-stacked prism arrays) as well as optical materials are considered and their impact on optical performance aspects such as solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration is studied. Our system is able to achieve a wide solar tracking covering the whole-day movement of the Sun and a reflection loss below 4.4% with a Rayleigh’s film for a quad-stacked prism configuration. Furthermore, an arrayed prism panel is proposed to increase the aperture area and thus allows for the collection of large amounts of sunlight. Our simulation study based on the optical design software, ZEMAX, indicates that the prism panel is capable of high solar concentration up to 2032× factor even without conventional solar tracking devices. We also deal with dispersion characteristics of the materials and their corresponding effect on

  2. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  3. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Transit Spectroscopy of Anticipated TESS Planets Compared to Select Discoveries from Space-Based and Ground-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana; Deming, Drake; Albert, Loic; Bouma, Luke; Bean, Jacob; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will embark in 2018 on a 2-year wide-field survey mission of most of the celestial sky, discovering over a thousand super-Earth and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets potentially suitable for follow-up observations using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Bouma et al. (2017) and Sullivan et al. (2015) used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the properties of the planetary systems that TESS is likely to detect, basing their simulations upon Kepler-derived planet occurrence rates and photometric performance models for the TESS cameras. We employed a JWST Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) simulation tool to estimate the signal-to-noise (S/N) that JWST/NIRISS will attain in transmission spectroscopy of these anticipated TESS discoveries, and we then compared the S/N for anticipated TESS discoveries to our estimates of S/N for 18 known exoplanets. We analyzed the sensitivity of our results to planetary composition, cloud cover, and presence of an observational noise floor. We find that only a few anticipated TESS discoveries in the terrestrial planet regime will result in better JWST/NIRISS S/N than currently known exoplanets, such as the TRAPPIST-1 planets, GJ1132b, or LHS1140b. However, we emphasize that this outcome is based upon Kepler-derived occurrence rates, and that co-planar compact systems (e.g. TRAPPIST-1) were not included in predicting the anticipated TESS planet yield. Furthermore, our results show that several hundred anticipated TESS discoveries in the super-Earth and sub-Neptune regime will produce S/N higher than currently known exoplanets such as K2-3b or K2-3c. We apply our results to estimate the scope of a JWST follow-up observation program devoted to mapping the transition region between high molecular weight and primordial planetary atmospheres.

  4. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X)

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Vanany; Dian Tanukhidah

    2004-01-01

    This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder...

  5. Characterizing structures on borehole images and logging data of the Nankai trough accretionary prism: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose

    2016-04-01

    IODP has extensively used the D/V Chikyu to drill the Kumano portion of the Nankai Trough, including two well sites within the Kumano Basin. IODP Expeditions 338 and 348 drilled deep into the inner accretionary prism south of the Kii Peninsula collecting a suite of LWD data, including natural gamma ray, electrical resistivity logs and borehole images, suitable to characterize structures (fractures and faults) inside the accretionary prism. Structural interpretation and analysis of logging-while-drilling data in the deep inner prism revealed intense deformation of a generally homogenous lithology characterized by bedding that dips steeply (60-90°) to the NW, intersected by faults and fractures. Multiple phases of deformation are characterized. IODP Expedition borehole images and LWD data acquired in the last decade in previous and results of NantroSEIZE IODP Expeditions (314, 319) were also analyzed to investigate the internal geometries and structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. This study focused mainly on the characterization of the different types of structures and their specific position within the accretionary prism structures. New structural constraints and methodologies as well as a new approach to the characterization of study of active structures inside the prism will be presented.

  6. A study on suppressing transmittance fluctuations for air-gapped Glan-type polarizing prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanfa; Li, Dailin; Zhu, Huafeng; Li, Chuanzhi; Jiao, Zhiyong; Wang, Ning; Xu, Zhaopeng; Wang, Xiumin; Song, Lianke

    2018-05-01

    Light intensity transmittance is a key parameter for the design of polarizing prisms, while sometimes its experimental curves based on spatial incident angle presents periodical fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel method for completely suppressing these fluctuations via setting a glued error angle in the air gap of Glan-Taylor prisms. The proposal consists of: an accurate formula of the intensity transmittance for Glan-Taylor prisms, a numerical simulation and a contrast experiment of Glan-Taylor prisms for analyzing the causes of the fluctuations, and a simple method for accurately measuring the glued error angle. The result indicates that when the setting glued error angle is larger than the critical angle for a certain polarizing prism, the fluctuations can be completely suppressed, and a smooth intensity transmittance curve can be obtained. Besides, the critical angle in the air gap for suppressing the fluctuations is decreased with the increase of beam spot size. This method has the advantage of having less demand for the prism position in optical systems.

  7. Use of yoked prisms in patients with acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Surbhi; Han, Esther; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical practices for prescribing yoked prisms, as well as to assess related patient responses, in a sample of visually-symptomatic patients having acquired brain injury (ABI). The clinical records of individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) that were assessed for yoked prisms were reviewed retrospectively. This query resulted in 60 patient records for analysis between January 2011 and December 2012. The following diagnostic groups were analysed: homonymous hemianopsia (HH)/homonymous quadranopsia, abnormal egocentric localization (AEL) and visual neglect. HH/homonymous quadranopsia (58.3%) was the primary indication to prescribe yoked prisms, followed by visual neglect/unilateral spatial inattention (USI) (40.0%) and AEL (11.7%). The most common favourable patient responses were increased awareness of their blind visual field and improved gait, mobility and balance. The magnitude and direction of prisms prescribed were dependent upon the subjective responses in patients manifesting AEL. In contrast, base direction was dependent upon the direction of visual field loss in patients with HH/homonymous quadranopsia and visual neglect. Two-thirds of the present sample population responded favourably to the yoked prisms. The results of the present study should prove useful to clinicians for the successful prescription of yoked prisms as a treatment modality in patients presenting with the above three diagnoses.

  8. Asymmetrical effects of adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms depends on pre-existing attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, Kelly M; Leblanc, Andrew; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Barrett, Anna M

    2010-09-01

    Proposals that adaptation with left-shifting prisms induces neglect-like symptoms in normal individuals rely on a dissociation between the postadaptation performance of individuals trained with left- versus right-shifting prisms (e.g., Colent, Pisella, & Rossetti, 2000). A potential problem with this evidence is that normal young adults have an a priori leftward bias (e.g., Jewell & McCourt, 2000). In Experiment 1, we compared the line bisection performance of young adults to that of aged adults, who as a group may lack a leftward bias in line bisection. Participants trained with both left- and right-shifting prisms. Consistent with our hypothesis, while young adults demonstrated aftereffects for left, but not right prisms, aged adults demonstrated reliable aftereffects for both prisms. In Experiment 2, we recruited a larger sample of young adults, some of whom were right-biased at baseline. We observed an interaction between baseline bias and prism-shift, consistent with the results of Experiment 1: Left-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with right-shifting prisms and right-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with left-shifting prisms. These results suggest that previous failures to find generalizable aftereffects with right-shifting prisms may be driven by participants' baseline biases rather than specific effects of the prism itself.

  9. Effect of prism adaptation on left dichotic listening deficit in neglect patients: glasses to hear better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin-Courtois, S; Rode, G; Pavani, F; O'Shea, J; Giard, M H; Boisson, D; Rossetti, Y

    2010-03-01

    Unilateral neglect is a disabling syndrome frequently observed following right hemisphere brain damage. Symptoms range from visuo-motor impairments through to deficient visuo-spatial imagery, but impairment can also affect the auditory modality. A short period of adaptation to a rightward prismatic shift of the visual field is known to improve a wide range of hemispatial neglect symptoms, including visuo-manual tasks, mental imagery, postural imbalance, visuo-verbal measures and number bisection. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the beneficial effects of prism adaptation may generalize to auditory manifestations of neglect. Auditory extinction, whose clinical manifestations are independent of the sensory modalities engaged in visuo-manual adaptation, was examined in neglect patients before and after prism adaptation. Two separate groups of neglect patients (all of whom exhibited left auditory extinction) underwent prism adaptation: one group (n = 6) received a classical prism treatment ('Prism' group), the other group (n = 6) was submitted to the same procedure, but wore neutral glasses creating no optical shift (placebo 'Control' group). Auditory extinction was assessed by means of a dichotic listening task performed three times: prior to prism exposure (pre-test), upon prism removal (0 h post-test) and 2 h later (2 h post-test). The total number of correct responses, the lateralization index (detection asymmetry between the two ears) and the number of left-right fusion errors were analysed. Our results demonstrate that prism adaptation can improve left auditory extinction, thus revealing transfer of benefit to a sensory modality that is orthogonal to the visual, proprioceptive and motor modalities directly implicated in the visuo-motor adaptive process. The observed benefit was specific to the detection asymmetry between the two ears and did not affect the total number of responses. This indicates a specific effect of prism adaptation on

  10. Gamma Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Butz, Tilman; Ertl, G.; Knözinger, H.; Schüth, F.

    2008-01-01

    No abstract. The sections in this article are 1 Introduction 2 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 3 Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) 4 Conclusions and Outlook Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; gamma spectroscopy; perturbed angular correlation; TDPAC

  11. Selected-area diffraction and spectroscopy in LEEM and PEEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of spherical and chromatic aberration of the objective lens, as well as chromatic dispersion of magnetic prism arrays, on the ability to perform selected area Low Energy Electron Diffraction, as well as (Angle Resolved) Photo Electron Spectroscopy experiments in today's advanced cathode lens microscopy instruments. -- Highlights: ► Aberrations of the cathode lens affect SA diffraction and spectroscopy experiments in LEEM/PEEM. ► In LEEM the problem can be overcome by inserting the SA aperture in the illuminating path. ► In PEEM for selected areas smaller than 2–4 μm aberration correction becomes a necessity. ► Chromatic dispersion in the magnetic prism array commonly can be neglected in most cases.

  12. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 4 , but low SO 4 and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions (δ 18 O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH 4 and CO 2 , where the CH 4 -C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of δ 13 C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region

  13. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    by use of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings and is highly nonlinear.

  14. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benerji, N. S., E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra, E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in [Excimer Laser Section, LMPD, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  15. Prism adaptation does not alter object-based attention in healthy participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultitude, Janet H.

    2013-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’) is a disabling condition that can follow damage to the right side of the brain, in which patients show difficulty in responding to or orienting towards objects and events that occur on the left side of space. Symptoms of neglect can manifest in both space- and object-based frames of reference. Although patients can show a combination of these two forms of neglect, they are considered separable and have distinct neurological bases. In recent years considerable evidence has emerged to demonstrate that spatial symptoms of neglect can be reduced by an intervention called prism adaptation. Patients point towards objects viewed through prismatic lenses that shift the visual image to the right. Approximately five minutes of repeated pointing results in a leftward recalibration of pointing and improved performance on standard clinical tests for neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Here we examined the effect of prism adaptation on the performance of healthy participants who completed a computerised test of space- and object-based attention. Participants underwent adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms, or performed neutral pointing according to a between-groups design. Significant pointing after-effects were found for both prism groups, indicating successful adaptation. In addition, the results of the computerised test revealed larger reaction-time costs associated with shifts of attention between two objects compared to shifts of attention within the same object, replicating previous work. However there were no differences in the performance of the three groups, indicating that prism adaptation did not influence space- or object-based attention for this task. When combined with existing literature, the results are consistent with the proposal that prism

  16. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from a geochemical survey of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, soils were collected at 220 sites along two transects across the USA and Canada as a pilot study for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). The objective of the current study was to examine the potential of diffuse reflectance (DR) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy to reduce the need for conventional analysis for the determination of major and trace elements in such continental-scale surveys. Soil samples (n = 720) were collected from two transects (east-west across the USA, and north-south from Manitoba, Canada to El Paso, Texas (USA), n = 453 and 267, respectively). The samples came from 19 USA states and the province of Manitoba in Canada. They represented 31 types of land use (e.g., national forest, rangeland, etc.), and 123 different land covers (e.g., soybeans, oak forest, etc.). The samples represented a combination of depth-based sampling (0-5 cm) and horizon-based sampling (O, A and C horizons) with 123 different depths identified. The set was very diverse with few samples similar in land use, land cover, etc. All samples were analyzed by conventional means for the near-total concentration of 49 analytes (Ctotal, Ccarbonate and Corganic, and 46 major and trace elements). Spectra were obtained using dried, ground samples using a Digilab FTS-7000 FT spectrometer in the mid- (4000-400 cm-1) and near-infrared (10,000-4000 cm-1) at 4 cm-1 resolution (64 co-added scans per spectrum) using a Pike AutoDIFF DR autosampler. Partial least squares calibrations were develop using: (1) all samples as a calibration set; (2) samples evenly divided into calibration and validation sets based on spectral diversity; and (3) samples divided to have matching analyte concentrations in calibration and validation sets. In general, results supported the conclusion that neither mid-IR nor NIRS would be particularly useful in reducing the need for conventional

  17. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Transit Spectroscopy of Anticipated Tess Planets Compared to Select Discoveries from Space-based and Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana R.; Deming, Drake; Albert, Loic; Bouma, L. G.; Bean, Jacob; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2018-04-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will embark in 2018 on a 2 year wide-field survey mission, discovering over a thousand terrestrial, super-Earth and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets ({R}pl}≤slant 4 {R}\\oplus ) potentially suitable for follow-up observations using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This work aims to understand the suitability of anticipated TESS planet discoveries for atmospheric characterization by JWST’s Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) by employing a simulation tool to estimate the signal-to-noise (S/N) achievable in transmission spectroscopy. We applied this tool to Monte Carlo predictions of the TESS expected planet yield and then compared the S/N for anticipated TESS discoveries to our estimates of S/N for 18 known exoplanets. We analyzed the sensitivity of our results to planetary composition, cloud cover, and presence of an observational noise floor. We find that several hundred anticipated TESS discoveries with radii 1.5 {R}\\oplus R}pl}≤slant 2.5 {R}\\oplus will produce S/N higher than currently known exoplanets in this radius regime, such as K2-3b or K2-3c. In the terrestrial planet regime, we find that only a few anticipated TESS discoveries will result in higher S/N than currently known exoplanets, such as the TRAPPIST-1 planets, GJ1132b, and LHS1140b. However, we emphasize that this outcome is based upon Kepler-derived occurrence rates, and that co-planar compact multi-planet systems (e.g., TRAPPIST-1) may be under-represented in the predicted TESS planet yield. Finally, we apply our calculations to estimate the required magnitude of a JWST follow-up program devoted to mapping the transition region between hydrogen-dominated and high molecular weight atmospheres. We find that a modest observing program of between 60 and 100 hr of charged JWST time can define the nature of that transition (e.g., step function versus a power law).

  18. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM): A novel visual instrument to measure quality of life in dermatological inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Beda; Büchi, Stefan; Schmidhauser, Simone; Jenewein, Josef; French, Lars E; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2009-07-01

    To validate the PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) tool, a novel visual instrument, for the assessment of health-related quality of life in dermatological inpatients compared with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the Skindex-29 questionnaires and to report qualitative information on PRISM. In an open longitudinal study, PRISM and Skindex-29 and DLQI questionnaires were completed and HRQOL measurements compared. Academic dermatological inpatient ward. The study population comprised 227 sequential dermatological inpatients on admission. Patients completed the PRISM tool and the Skindex-29 and DLQI questionnaires at admission and discharge. PRISM Self-Illness Separation (SIS) score; Skindex-29 and DLQI scores; and qualitative PRISM information by Mayring inductive qualitative context analysis. The PRISM scores correlated well with those from the Skindex-29 (rho = 0.426; P quality of life questionnaires to assess changes in the burden of suffering during hospitalization. Inductive qualitative context analysis revealed impairment of adjustment and self-image as major aspects. Patients overall expected symptomatic and functional improvement. In patients with psoriasis and leg ulcers, many expected no treatment benefit. The PRISM tool proved to be convenient and reliable for health-related quality of life assessment, applicable for a wide range of skin diseases, and correlated with DLQI and Skindex-29 scores. With the PRISM tool, free-text answers allow for the assessment of individual information and potentially customized therapeutic approaches.

  19. Beyond the sensorimotor plasticity: cognitive expansion of prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eMICHEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti and his colleagues in 1998. Mirror effects, i.e. simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent and collaborators in 2000. The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes.

  20. Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms for high performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianbo; Li, Man; Li, Junru; Wei, Chengzhen; He, Yuyue; Huang, Yixuan; Li, Qiaoling

    2017-12-01

    Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have been successfully synthesized via a facile route. The process involves the preparation of nickel-cobalt-manganese acetate hydroxide by a simple co-precipitation method and subsequently the thermal treatment. The as-synthesized Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms had a large surface area (96.53 m2 g-1) and porous structure. As electrode materials for supercapacitors, porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms showed a high specific capacitance of 1623.5 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1. Moreover, the porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms were also employed as positive electrode materials to assemble flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The resulting flexible device had a maximum volumetric energy density (0.885 mW h cm-3) and power density (48.9 mW cm-3). Encouragingly, the flexible device exhibited good cycling stability with only about 2.2% loss after 5000 charge-discharge cycles and excellent mechanical stability. These results indicate that porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have the promising application in high performance electrochemical energy storage.

  1. Fusional Vergence Detected by Prism Bar and Synoptophore in Chinese Childhood Intermittent Exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the changes in fusional vergence in Chinese children with intermittent exotropia (IXT and the association with the control of IXT. Methods. Ninety-two patients with IXT (8–15 years old were compared with 86 controls. Exodeviation control was evaluated using the Revised Newcastle Control Score. Angle of deviation was measured using prism and alternate cover testing at distance and near. Fusional vergence was measured using prism bar and synoptophore. This study was registered with ChiCTR-RCC-13003920. Results. Using prism bar, convergence break points were lower whereas divergence break points were higher in children with IXT at distance (P<0.001 and near (P<0.001 compared with controls. There was no significant difference in mean divergence amplitudes between the two groups when testing using a synoptophore (P=0.53. In children with IXT, the distance between recovery point and break point in both convergence (distance: P=0.02; near: P=0.02 and divergence (distance: P<0.001; near: P<0.001 was larger than controls when detected by prism bar and synoptophore (convergence: P=0.005; divergence: P=0.006. Conclusions. Children with IXT have reduced convergence amplitudes as detected by both prism bar and synoptophore.

  2. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  3. Does the Underground Sidewall Station Survey Method Meet MHSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grobler, Hendrik

    The underground survey network in a deep level platinum mine in ... The time duration for peg installation during the initial phase of learning the method was ..... changes to the survey “hardware” including prisms, stems and attachment points ...

  4. Single-Frequency Nd:YAG Ring Lasers with Corner Cube Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Ying; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2000-10-01

    We put forward another form of the non-planar ring lasers, in which the corner cube prism is the key element and the Nd:YAG crystal is used as a Porro prism to enclose the ring resonator. The phase shift due to the total internal reflections of the three differently orientated reflection planes of the corner cube prism, Faraday rotation in the Nd:YAG crystal placed in a magnetic field and the different output coupling in S and P polarization form an optical diode and enforce the single-frequency generating power. A round trip analysis of the polarization properties of the resonator is made by the evaluation of Jones matrix.

  5. Laser Oscillator Incorporating a Wedged Polarization Rotator and a Porro Prism as Cavity Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A laser cavity was designed and implemented by using a wedged polarization rotator and a Porro prism in order to reduce the parts count, and to improve the laser reliability. In this invention, a z-cut quartz polarization rotator is used to compensate the wavelength retardance introduced by the Porro prism. The polarization rotator rotates the polarization of the linear polarized beam with a designed angle that is independent of the orientation of the rotator. This unique property was used to combine the retardance compensation and a Risley prism to a single optical component: a wedged polarization rotator. This greatly simplifies the laser alignment procedure and reduces the number of the laser optical components.

  6. Numerical and experimental evaluation of masonry prisms by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.R. SANTOS

    Full Text Available Abstract This work developed experimental tests and numerical models able to represent the mechanical behavior of prisms made of ordinary and high strength concrete blocks. Experimental tests of prisms were performed and a detailed micro-modeling strategy was adopted for numerical analysis. In this modeling technique, each material (block and mortar was represented by its own mechanical properties. The validation of numerical models was based on experimental results. It was found that the obtained numerical values of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity differ by 5% from the experimentally observed values. Moreover, mechanisms responsible for the rupture of the prisms were evaluated and compared to the behaviors observed in the tests and those described in the literature. Through experimental results it is possible to conclude that the numerical models have been able to represent both the mechanical properties and the mechanisms responsible for failure.

  7. Os experimentos prismáticos de Goethe Goethe's prismatic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Jordan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio pretende estimular a realização de experimentos prismáticos com recursos muito simples e, com isso, facilitar o acesso aos fundamentais estudos de Goethe sobre cor, a "Farbenlehre". O encarte anexo contém fotos de um processo prismático complementar, produzido por Imagens-Modelo em Claro-Escuro neutro. Contém ainda fotos de imagens prismáticas produzidas por Imagens-Modelo em cores.The essay intends to stimulate the carrying out of prismatic experiments with very simple resources and, therewith, ease the access to Goethe's fundamental color studies, the "Farbenlehre". The included folder contains photographs of a complementary prismatic process produced by neutral bright-dark Model-Images. It also contains photographs of prismatic images produced by colored Model-Images.

  8. Spherical Lenses and Prisms Lead to Postural Instability in Both Dyslexic and Non Dyslexic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoi; Gaertner, Chrystal; Matheron, Eric

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13–17 years-old) and 11 non dyslexics (13–16 years-old) participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of −1 diopter (ACCOM1) over each eye; viewing with −3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3); viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the −1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the −3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain) revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum), was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  9. Spherical lenses and prisms lead to postural instability in both dyslexic and non dyslexic adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Kapoula

    Full Text Available There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13-17 years-old and 11 non dyslexics (13-16 years-old participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of -1 diopter (ACCOM1 over each eye; viewing with -3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3; viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the -1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the -3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum, was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  10. Strategic Planning for Chronic Disease Prevention in Rural America: Looking Through a PRISM Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Amanda A; Wile, Kristina; Dove, Cassandra; Hawkins, Jackie; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Community-level strategic planning for chronic disease prevention. To share the outcomes of the strategic planning process used by Mississippi Delta stakeholders to prevent and reduce the negative impacts of chronic disease in their communities. A key component of strategic planning was participants' use of the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) to project the reduction, compared with the status quo, in deaths and costs from implementing interventions in Mississippi Delta communities. Participants in Mississippi Delta strategic planning meetings used PRISM, a user-friendly, evidence-based simulation tool that includes 22 categories of policy, systems, and environmental change interventions, to pose what-if questions that explore the likely short- and long-term effects of an intervention or any desired combination of the 22 categories of chronic disease intervention programs and policies captured in PRISM. These categories address smoking, air pollution, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity. Strategic planning participants used PRISM outputs to inform their decisions and actions to implement interventions. Rural communities in the Mississippi Delta. A diverse group of 29 to 34 local chronic disease prevention stakeholders, known as the Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance. Community plans and actions that were developed and implemented as a result of local strategic planning. Existing strategic planning efforts were complemented by the use of PRISM. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance decided to implement new interventions to improve air quality and transportation and to expand existing interventions to reduce tobacco use and increase access to healthy foods. They also collaborated with the Department of Transportation to raise awareness and use of the current transportation network. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance strategic planning process was complemented by the use of PRISM as a tool for strategic planning, which led to the

  11. Instantaneous flow field above the free end of finite-height cylinders and prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostamy, N.; Sumner, D.; Bergstrom, D.J.; Bugg, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PIV measurements of the flow above the free end of finite-height bodies. • Effect of cross-sectional shape of the models on the instantaneous flow. • Small-scale structures generated by the separated shear layer were revealed. • Effect of aspect ratio on the reattachment of the separated flow on the free end. -- Abstract: The flow above the free ends of surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinders and square prisms was studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Cylinders and prisms with aspect ratios of AR = 9, 7, 5, and 3 were tested at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.2 × 10 4 . The bodies were mounted normal to a ground plane and were partially immersed in a turbulent zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer, where the boundary layer thickness relative to the body width was δ/D = 1.6. PIV measurements were made above the free ends of the bodies in a vertical plane aligned with the flow centreline. The present PIV results provide insight into the effects of aspect ratio and body shape on the instantaneous flow field. The recirculation zone under the separated shear layer is larger for the square prism of AR = 3 compared to the more slender prism of AR = 9. Also, for a square prism with low aspect ratio (AR = 3), the influence of the reverse flow over the free end surface becomes more significant compared to that for a higher aspect ratio (AR = 9). For the circular cylinder, a cross-stream vortex forms within the recirculation zone. As the aspect ratio of the cylinder decreases, the reattachment point of the separated flow on the free end surface moves closer to the trailing edge. For both the square prism and circular cylinder cases, the instantaneous velocity vector field and associated in-plane vorticity field revealed small-scale structures mostly generated by the separated shear layer

  12. Next Generation Virgo Survey Photometry and Keck/DEIMOS Spectroscopy of Globular Cluster Satellites of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Toloba, Elisa; Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Chen, Stephanie; Yagati, Samyukta; Muller, Meredith; Next Generation Virgo Survey Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing study of globular cluster (GC) satellites of low-luminosity dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Our 21 dE targets and candidate GC satellites around them in the apparent magnitude range g ~ 20-24 were selected from the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) and followed up with medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy (resolving power: R ~ 2000; wavelength coverage: 4800-9500 Angstrom). In addition, the remaining space available on the nine DEIMOS multi-slit masks were populated with "filler" targets in the form of distant Milky Way halo star candidates in a comparable apparent magnitude range. A combination of radial velocity information (measured from the Keck/DEIMOS spectra), color-color information (from four-band NGVS photometry), and sky position information was used to sort the sample into the following categories: (1) GC satellites of dEs, (2) other non-satellite GCs in the Virgo cluster (we dub them "orphan" GCs), (3) foreground Milky Way stars that are members of the Sagittarius stream, the Virgo overdensity, or the field halo population, and (4) distant background galaxies. We stack the GC satellite population across all 21 host dEs and carry out dynamical modeling of the stacked sample in order to constrain the average mass of dark matter halos that these dEs are embedded in. We study rotation in the system of GC satellites of dEs in the handful of more populated systems in our sample - i.e., those that contain 10 or more GC satellites per dE. A companion AAS poster presented at this meeting (Chu, J. et al. 2015) presents chemical composition and age constraints for these GC satellites relative to the nuclei of the host dEs based on absorption line strengths in co-added spectra. The orphan GCs are likely to be intergalactic GCs within the Virgo cluster (or, equivalently, GCs in the remote outer envelope of the cluster's central galaxy, the giant elliptical M87).This project is funded in part by the

  13. The application of the right rectangular prism in the process determining the value of terrain correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Oleg R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topographic masses on gravity were determined for the territory of Serbia by using the digital terrain model with resolution of 1 arch second in both directions. For the effect of distant masses, i.e. masses that are out of the territory of Serbia, a global digital model SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was used. All the topography masses were divided by using a right rectangle prism and classic terrain corrections was applied. Special attention was dedicated to the curvatures of the Earth surface and singularity points, where equations for first partial derivatives of prism gravity potential are not defined.

  14. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework: evidence from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqil Anwer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS. In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Methods Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Results Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance

  15. On improvement of the series convergence in the problem of the vibrations of orhotropic rectangular prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashko, A. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new analytical presentation of the solution for steady-state oscillations of orthotopic rectangular prism is found. The corresponding infinite system of linear algebraic equations has been deduced by the superposition method. A countable set of precise eigenfrequencies and elementary eigenforms is found. The identities are found which make it possible to improve the convergence of all the infinite series in the solution of the problem. All the infinite series in presentation of solution are analytically summed up. Numerical calculations of stresses in the rectangular orthotropic prism with a uniform along the border and harmonic in time load on two opposite faces have been performed.

  16. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielissen, M.F.M.; Prins, J.B.; Knoop, H.; Verhagen, S.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue.

  17. PRISM, a Novel Visual Metaphor Measuring Personally Salient Appraisals, Attitudes and Decision-Making: Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sensky

    Full Text Available PRISM (the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure is a novel, simple visual instrument. Its utility was initially discovered serendipitously, but has been validated as a quantitative measure of suffering. Recently, new applications for different purposes, even in non-health settings, have encouraged further exploration of how PRISM works, and how it might be applied. This review will summarise the results to date from applications of PRISM and propose a generic conceptualisation of how PRISM works which is consistent with all these applications.A systematic review, in the form of a qualitative evidence synthesis, was carried out of all available published data on PRISM.Fifty-two publications were identified, with a total of 8254 participants. Facilitated by simple instructions, PRISM has been used with patient groups in a variety of settings and cultures. As a measure of suffering, PRISM has, with few exceptions, behaved as expected according to Eric Cassell's seminal conceptualisation of suffering. PRISM has also been used to assess beliefs about or attitudes to stressful working conditions, interpersonal relations, alcohol consumption, and suicide, amongst others.This review supports PRISM behaving as a visual metaphor of the relationship of objects (eg 'my illness' to a subject (eg 'myself' in a defined context (eg 'my life at the moment'. As a visual metaphor, it is quick to complete and yields personally salient information. PRISM is likely to have wide applications in assessing beliefs, attitudes, and decision-making, because of its properties, and because it yields both quantitative and qualitative data. In medicine, it can serve as a generic patient-reported outcome measure. It can serve as a tool for representational guidance, can be applied to developing strategies visually, and is likely to have applications in coaching, psychological assessment and therapeutic interventions.

  18. Molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, Eh.; Zonntag, B.

    1981-01-01

    The latest investigation results on molecular spectroscopy with application of synchrotron radiation in the region of vacuum ultraviolet are generalized. Some results on investigation of excited, superexcited and ionized molecule states with the use of adsorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, by fluorescent and mass-spectrometric methods are considered [ru

  19. Atom spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodling, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on atom photoabsorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in the 10-1000 eV range are reviewed. Properties of the necessary synchrotron radiation and the experiment on absorption spectroscopy are briefly described. Comparison with other spectroscopy methods is conducted. Some data on measuring photoabsorption, photoelectron emission and atom mass spectra are presented [ru

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  1. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R and D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  2. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  3. Establishment and correction of an Echelle cross-prism spectrogram reduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Bayanheshig; Li, Xiaotian; Cui, Jicheng

    2017-11-01

    The accuracy of an echelle cross-prism spectrometer depends on the matching degree between the spectrum reduction model and the actual state of the spectrometer. However, the error of adjustment can change the actual state of the spectrometer and result in a reduction model that does not match. This produces an inaccurate wavelength calibration. Therefore, the calibration of a spectrogram reduction model is important for the analysis of any echelle cross-prism spectrometer. In this study, the spectrogram reduction model of an echelle cross-prism spectrometer was established. The image position laws of a spectrometer that varies with the system parameters were simulated to the influence of the changes in prism refractive index, focal length and so on, on the calculation results. The model was divided into different wavebands. The iterative method, least squares principle and element lamps with known characteristic wavelength were used to calibrate the spectral model in different wavebands to obtain the actual values of the system parameters. After correction, the deviation of actual x- and y-coordinates and the coordinates calculated by the model are less than one pixel. The model corrected by this method thus reflects the system parameters in the current spectrometer state and can assist in accurate wavelength extraction. The instrument installation and adjustment would be guided in model-repeated correction, reducing difficulty of equipment, respectively.

  4. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R and D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  5. The Behaviour of Palm Oil Fibre Block Masonry Prism under Eccentric Compressive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kolop, Roslan; Baizura Hamid, Nor; Kaamin, Masiri; Farhan Rosdi, Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Sahat, Suhaila

    2017-08-01

    Dry-stacked masonry offers great benefits in constructing masonry buildings. Several examples from previous research show that dry masonry is reasonable alternative to the traditional building system. By addition of fibre, the ductility and the propagation of cracking will be improved. This study investigates the dry stack oil palm fibre block prisms which were subjected to eccentricity compression loads. These concrete blocks were cast using a single mould with suitable fibre-cement composition namely 1:4 (cement: sand) and 0.40 water to the cement ratio based on cement weight. Prisms test using 400 (length) × 150 (width) × 510 (height) mm specimen was carried under eccentric load. There were forty eight (48) prisms built with different configurations based on their volume of fibre. In this study, one types of grout were used namely the fine grout of mix 1:3:2 (cement: sand: aggregate (5mm maximum). Based on the test performed, the failure mechanism and influencing parameters were discussed. From compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with the increase of fibre used. Although the control sample has the higher strength compared to concrete with EFB, it can be seen from mode failure of masonry prism that fibre could extend the cracking time. These results show that the oil palm fibre blocks can improve the failure behaviour and suitable to be used as load bearing wall construction in Malaysia.

  6. Direct AFM observation of an opening event of a DNA cuboid constructed via a prism structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-04-07

    A cuboid structure was constructed using a DNA origami design based on a square prism structure. The structure was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering. The real-time opening event of the cuboid was directly observed by high-speed AFM.

  7. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Ch.E.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  8. Analysis of unscrammed loss of flow and heat sink for PRISM with GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Kennett, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring an advanced liquid-metal reactor design by General Electric Company (GE) called PRISM. The intent is to design a reactor with passively safe responses to many operational and severe accidents. PRISM is under review at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for licensability with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical assistance. Recently, the PRISM design has been modified to include three gas expansion modules (GEMs) on its core periphery. The GEMs were added to quickly reduce the power (by inserting negative reactivity) during loss-of-flow events to curtail peak fuel and clad temperatures predicted in the previous design. The GEM prototypes have been tested at the Fast Flux Test Facility. The significance of the GEMs in PRISM is discussed in this paper through the evaluation of the unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and loss of heat sink using the SSC code. It has been demonstrated in the past that SSC predicts results similar to GE and other liquid-metal reactor codes

  9. Numerical simulation of blast wave propagation in vicinity of standalone prism on flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valger, Svetlana; Fedorova, Natalya; Fedorov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    In the paper, numerical simulation of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of a standalone prism and a prism with a cavity in front of it was carried out. The modeling was based on the solution of 3D Euler equations and Fluent software was used as a main computational tool. The algorithm for local dynamic mesh adaptation to high gradients of pressure was applied. The initial stage of the explosion of condensed explosive was described with the help of "Compressed balloon method". The research allowed describing the characteristic stages of the blast in a semi-closed space, the structure of secondary shock waves and their interaction with obstacles. The numerical approach in Fluent based on combining inviscid gas dynamics methods and "Compressed balloon method" was compared with the method which had been used by the authors earlier with the help of AUTODYN and which is based on the use of the hydrodynamic model of a material to describe state of detonation products. For the problem of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of standalone prism the comparison of the simulation results obtained using both the methods with the experimental data was performed on the dependence of static pressure and effective momentum on time for the characteristic points located on prism walls.

  10. A compact and lightweight off-axis lightguide prism in near to eye display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Qijia; Surman, Phil; Zheng, Yuanjin; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-06-01

    We propose a method to improve the design of an off-axis lightguide configuration for near to eye displays (NED) using freeform optics technology. The advantage of this modified optical system, which includes an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), a doublet lens, an imaging lightguide prism and a compensation prism, is that it increases optical length path, offers a smaller size, as well as avoids the obstructed views, and matches the user's head shape. In this system, the light emitted from the OLED passes through the doublet lens and is refracted/reflected by the imaging lightguide prism, which is used to magnify the image from the microdisplay, while the compensation prism is utilized to correct the light ray shift so that a low-distortion image can be observed in a real-world setting. A NED with a 4 mm diameter exit pupil, 21.5° diagonal full field of view (FoV), 23 mm eye relief, and a size of 33 mm by 9.3 mm by 16 mm is designed. The developed system is compact, lightweight and suitable for entertainment and education application.

  11. Nonlinear attractor dynamics in the fundamental and extended prism adaptation paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.; Blau, Julia J.C.; Turvey, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation and re-adaptation processes are studied in terms of dynamic attractors that evolve and devolve. In doing so, a theoretical account is given for the fundamental observation that adaptation and re-adaptation processes do not exhibit one-trial learning. Moreover, the emergence of the latent aftereffect in the extended prism paradigm is addressed

  12. Development and application of GIS-based PRISM integration through a plugin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Chun, Jong Ahn; Kang, Kwangmin

    2014-05-01

    A PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) QGIS-plugin was developed on Quantum GIS platform in this study. This Quantum GIS plugin system provides user-friendly graphic user interfaces (GUIs) so that users can obtain gridded meteorological data of high resolutions (1 km × 1 km). Also, this software is designed to run on a personal computer so that it does not require an internet access or a sophisticated computer system. This module is a user-friendly system that a user can generate PRISM data with ease. The proposed PRISM QGIS-plugin is a hybrid statistical-geographic model system that uses coarse resolution datasets (APHRODITE datasets in this study) with digital elevation data to generate the fine-resolution gridded precipitation. To validate the performance of the software, Prek Thnot River Basin in Kandal, Cambodia is selected for application. Overall statistical analysis shows promising outputs generated by the proposed plugin. Error measures such as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) were used to evaluate the performance of the developed PRISM QGIS-plugin. Evaluation results using RMSE and MAPE were 2.76 mm and 4.2%, respectively. This study suggested that the plugin can be used to generate high resolution precipitation datasets for hydrological and climatological studies at a watershed where observed weather datasets are limited.

  13. Corporate Privacy Policy Changes during PRISM and the Rise of Surveillance Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure of the NSA’s PRISM program demonstrated that Internet companies have become prime targets of government surveillance. But what role do companies themselves play in putting users’ privacy at risk? By comparing the changes in the privacy policies of ten companies—the nine in PRISM plus Twitter—I seek to understand how users’ privacy shifted. Specifically, I study how company practices surrounding the life cycle of user information (e.g. collection, use, sharing, and retention shifted between the times when companies joined PRISM and when PRISM news broke. A qualitative analysis of the changes in the privacy policies suggests that company disclosure of tracking for advertising purposes increased. I draw on business scholar Shoshana Zuboff’s conceptualization of “surveillance capitalism” and legal scholar Joel Reidenberg’s “transparent citizen” to explain the implications such changes hold for users’ privacy. These findings underscore why public debates about post-Snowden privacy rights cannot ignore the role that companies play in legitimizing surveillance activities under the auspices of creating market value.

  14. Propagation of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Haotong; Dong, Li; Ren, Ge; Qi, Bo; Tan, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Limited by the size and weight of prism and optical assembling, Rotational Risley-prism-array system is a simple but effective way to realize high power and superior beam quality of deflecting laser output. In this paper, the propagation of the rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array in atmospheric turbulence is studied in detail. An analytical expression for the average intensity distribution at the receiving plane is derived based on nonparaxial ray tracing method and extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Power in the diffraction-limited bucket is chosen to evaluate beam quality. The effect of deviation angle, propagation distance and intensity of turbulence on beam quality is studied in detail by quantitative simulation. It reveals that with the propagation distance increasing, the intensity distribution gradually evolves from multiple-petal-like shape into the pattern that contains one main-lobe in the center with multiple side-lobes in weak turbulence. The beam quality of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array with lower deviation angle is better than its counterpart with higher deviation angle when propagating in weak and medium turbulent (i.e. Cn2 beam quality of higher deviation angle arrays degrades faster as the intensity of turbulence gets stronger. In the case of propagating in strong turbulence, the long propagation distance (i.e. z > 10km ) and deviation angle have no influence on beam quality.

  15. Family Perspectives: Using a Cultural Prism to Understand Families from Asian Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hyang; Turnbull, Ann P.; Zan, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Educators can better serve students who come from diverse cultural backgrounds by understanding the differing cultural values of these students and their families. This article explores different cultural perspectives using a cultural prism approach, focused most specifically on the Korean and Chinese cultures. (Contains 2 tables.)

  16. Novel laterally pumped by prism laser configuration for compact solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalu, T; Salamu, G; Sandu, O; Voicu, F; Pavel, N

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new laser configuration in which the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through a prism. The laser medium is square shaped and the prism is attached on one of its lateral sides, near one of the crystal extremities. The diode-laser fiber end is placed close to the prism hypotenuse, the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through the opposite surface of the prism and propagates into the crystal through total internal reflections. This laser geometry is simple to align and permits the realization of compact diode-pumped laser systems, as well as power scaling. A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielding pulses of 2.1 mJ energy under a pump with pulses of 9.9 mJ is demonstrated. The laser slope efficiency is 0.22. Furthermore, this geometry enables one to obtain passively Q-switched lasers with the saturable absorber crystal placed between the resonator high-reflectivity mirror and the laser crystal. A Nd:YAG laser, passively Q-switched by a Cr 4+ :YAG crystal with initial transmission T 0 = 0.90, delivering laser output with a pulsed energy of 93 μJ, a duration of 26 ns and a pump threshold of 1.9 mJ, is realized in order to prove the concept. (letter)

  17. Perspectives in hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, J.M. [Universite Joseph Fourier-IN2P3-CNRS, Lab. de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    A brief survey is presented of selected recent results on hadron spectroscopy and related theoretical studies. Among the new hadron states, some of them are good candidates for exotic structures: chiral partners of ground-states, hybrid mesons (quark, antiquark and constituent gluon), four-quark states, or meson-meson molecules.

  18. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new...... activities that promise commercial potential for spectroscopic applications in the THz range. This will be illustrated with examples of spectroscopy of liquids inside their bottles as well as sensitive, quantitative spectroscopy in waveguides....

  19. Microwave combustion synthesis of hexagonal prism shaped ZnO nanoparticles and effect of Cr on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yathisha, R.O. [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577 451, Karnataka (India); Nayaka, Y. Arthoba, E-mail: drarthoba@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577 451, Karnataka (India); Vidyasagar, C.C. [Department of Chemistry, School of Basic Sciences, Ranichannamma University, Belgaum 591156, Karnataka (India)

    2016-09-15

    The synthesis and study of semiconducting nanostructure materials have become a considerable interdisciplinary area of research over the past few decades. The control of morphologies and effective doping by right dopant are the two tasks for the synthesis of semiconducting nanoparticles. The present work outlines the synthesis of ZnO and Cr-ZnO nanoparticles via microwave combustion method without using any fuel. The crystal morphology, optical and electrical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction study (XRD), UV–Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive analysis using X-rays (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Keithley source meter. The crystal size was determined from XRD, whose values were found to be decreased with increase in the concentration of Cr up to 2 wt% and further increase in the dopant concentration resulted the formation secondary phase (ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Scanning electron micrographs shows the hexagonal prism structure of ZnO and Cr-ZnO nanoparticles. EDAX shows the existence of Cr ion in the Cr-ZnO. The optical properties and bandgap studies were undertaken by UV–Visible spectroscopy. I-V characterization study was performed to determine the electrical property of ZnO and Cr-ZnO films. - Highlights: • The prism shaped Zn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) was prepared by microwave combustion method. • Effect of Cr on the properties of ZnO was reported. • Change in crystal size was explained by lattice strain and Zener-Pinning effect. • The optical measurements shows up to 8 wt% of Cr doping had more efficient. • Compared to ZnO, Cr doped ZnO enhance the photo voltaic activity.

  20. Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model (PRISM) For Environmental Remediation and Waste Management - 12097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentz, David L.; Stoll, Ralph H.; Greeves, John T. [Predicus LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Miller, R. Ian [GoldSim Technology Group, LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Nutt, W. Mark [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The PRISM (Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model), a computer model was developed to support the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in its mission to clean up the environmental legacy from the Nation's nuclear weapons materials production complex. PRISM provides a comprehensive, fully integrated planning tool that can tie together DOE-EM's projects. It is designed to help DOE managers develop sound, risk-informed business practices and defend program decisions. It provides a better ability to understand and manage programmatic risks. The underlying concept for PRISM is that DOE-EM 'owns' a portfolio of environmental legacy obligations (ELOs), and that its mission is to transform the ELOs from their current conditions to acceptable conditions, in the most effective way possible. There are many types of ELOs - - contaminated soils and groundwater plumes, disused facilities awaiting D and D, and various types of wastes waiting for processing or disposal. For a given suite of planned activities, PRISM simulates the outcomes as they play out over time, allowing for all key identified uncertainties and risk factors. Each contaminated building, land area and waste stream is tracked from cradle to grave, and all of the linkages affecting different waste streams are captured. The progression of the activities is fully dynamic, reflecting DOE-EM's prioritization approaches, precedence requirements, available funding, and the consequences of risks and uncertainties. The top level of PRISM is the end-user interface that allows rapid evaluation of alternative scenarios and viewing the results in a variety of useful ways. PRISM is a fully probabilistic model, allowing the user to specify uncertainties in input data (such as the magnitude of an existing groundwater plume, or the total cost to complete a planned activity) as well as specific risk events that might occur. PRISM is based on the GoldSim software

  1. Illusory reversal of causality between touch and vision has no effect on prism adaptation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu eTanaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc. In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka, Homma & Imamizu (2011 Exp Brain Res demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal-order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  2. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A.

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC's ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC's preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant's research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified

  3. Illusory Reversal of Causality between Touch and Vision has No Effect on Prism Adaptation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is "to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc." In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka et al., 2011; Exp. Brain Res.) demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  4. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfer of memory trace of cerebellum-dependent motor learning in human prism adaptation: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Soichi; Honda, Takeru; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that the memory trace of ocular reflex adaptation is initially encoded in the cerebellar cortex, and later transferred to the cerebellar nuclei for consolidation through repetitions of training. However, the memory transfer is not well characterized in the learning of voluntary movement. Here, we implement our model of memory transfer to interpret the data of prism adaptation (Martin, Keating, Goodkin, Bastian, & Thach, 1996a, 1996b), assuming that the cerebellar nuclear memory formed by memory transfer is used for normal throwing. When the subject was trained to throw darts wearing prisms in 30-40 trials, the short-term memory for recalibrating the throwing direction by gaze would be formed in the cerebellar cortex, which was extinguished by throwing with normal vision in a similar number of trials. After weeks of repetitions of short-term prism adaptation, the long-term memory would be formed in the cerebellar nuclei through memory transfer, which enabled one to throw darts to the center wearing prisms without any training. These two long-term memories, one for throwing with normal vision and the other for throwing wearing prisms, are assumed to be utilized automatically under volitional control. Moreover, when the prisms were changed to new prisms, a new memory for adapting to the new prisms would be formed in the cerebellar cortex, just to counterbalance the nuclear memory of long-term adaptation to the original prisms in a similar number of trials. These results suggest that memory transfer may occur in the learning of voluntary movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eu3+-doped Y2O3 hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Errui; Li, Guangshe; Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Xinsong; Xu, Wen; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ . With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu 3+ concentration in Y 2 O 3 , an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y 2 O 3 is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) to Y 2 O 3 was discussed. • Aspect ratio of prisms was tailored by the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. • Luminescence properties were

  7. Modern spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hollas, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of this highly acclaimed title introduces the reader to a wide range of spectroscopies, and includes both the background theory and applications to structure determination and chemical analysis.  It covers rotational, vibrational, electronic, photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy, as well as EXAFs and the theory of lasers and laser spectroscopy. A  revised and updated edition of a successful, clearly written book Includes the latest developments in modern laser techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy and femtosecond lasers Provides numerous worked examples, calculations and questions at the end of chapters.

  8. "VALIDATION OF 13C-UREA BREATH TEST WITH NON DISPERSIVE ISOTOPE SELECTIVE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION: A SURVEY IN IRANIAN POPULATION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Davood Beiki

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The urea breath test (UBT which is carried out with 13C or 14C labeled urea is one of the most important non invasive methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. Application of 13C-UBT is becoming increasingly popular because of its non radioactive nature which makes it suitable for diagnostic purposes in children and women of child bearing ages. While isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS is generally used to detect 13C in expired breath, this instrument is expensive and recently non dispersive isotope selective infrared (NDIR spectroscopy which is a lower cost technique has been employed as a reliable counterpart for IRMS in small clinics. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of NDIR spectroscopy technique in Iranian population in comparison with histological examination, rapid urease test and 14C-urea breath test as gold standard. Seventy six patients with dyspepsia were underwent 13CUBT for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Good agreements were found between the 13C-UBT and gold standard methods. The 13C-UBT showed 100% sensitivity, 97.3% specificity, 97.56% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 98.65% accuracy. On the basis of these results it could be concluded that 13C-UBT performed with NDIR spectroscopy is a reliable, accurate and non invasive diagnostic tool for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the Iranian population.

  9. The Perception is a Prism: body, presence and technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from an interdisciplinary perspective of the concepts of body, perception, and technologies in the contemporary scene, this text will attempt to define the general aesthetic notion as bodyscape as an extension of the performer’s perception. Through a survey of some key practices from the contemporary scene such as choreographic compositions by Myriam Gourfink, Isabelle Choinière, and the project of motion signature by Martine Époque and Denis Poulin, the impact of technologies on redefining the process of the performer’s perception in the composition of the movement and the change of the notion of presence will be analysed. In this sense, a series of modifications that influence also the spectator’s perception is presented. Therefore, the notion of empathy is discussed, and an attempt to find out how this applies in the context of a digital image of the body is made.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed; Hendam, Ahmed; Fahmy, Ezzat; Abou Zeid, Mohamed; Haroun, Medhat

    2012-01-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  11. Moving forward with prisms: Sensory-motor adaptation improves gait initiation in Parkinson’s disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Helen Bultitude

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that the decreased walking speed; small, shuffling steps; and ‘freezing’ shown by patients with Parkinson’s disease could stem from an inability to tilt the body forward enough to provide sufficient forward propulsion. In two repeated-measures studies we examined whether adaptation to upward-shifting prisms, resulting in a downward after-effect, could improve gait initiation in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson’s disease. Faster forward stepping followed a brief (5 min exposure period for patients, and a longer (20 min exposure period for age-matched controls. Backward stepping was unchanged, and adaptation to downward-shifting prisms with control participants showed no effect on forward or backward stepping. These results suggest that adaptation of arm proprioception in the vertical plane may generalise to anterior-posterior postural control, presenting new possibilities for the treatment of gait disturbance in basal ganglia disorders.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  13. Using the accelerated Brazilian concrete prism test (ABCPT to evaluate alkali aggregate reaction (AAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanchez

    Full Text Available There are many test methods used in the laboratory to detect potential alkali-aggregate reactions (AAR. However, up to now, there is no consensus if they are reliable and efficient. This work presents the development of a new and accelerated concrete prism test called ABCPT (accelerate Brazilian concrete prism test as an attempt to create a reliable and fast test that can analyze and classify the potential reactivity of aggregates in the laboratory. For this research, six aggregates from different lithotypes were used. The methods CPT, ACPT and ABCPT were carried out with all the aggregates and a comparative analysis among all tests was performed. ABCPT seems to have a great potential to analyze and classify aggregates in the laboratory, although it needs further testing with other lithotypes to be confirmed as feasible.

  14. Progress on PRISM, an inherently safe, economic, and testable advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippets, F.E.; Salerno, L.N.; Boardman, C.E.; Kwant, W.; Murata, R.E.; Snyder, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports progress on the design of PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) under the DOE-sponsored innovative reactor program now in its third year at General Electric. The purpose of this program is to develop a design for an inherently safe, reliable, and marketable liquid metal fast reactor power plant. The PRISM design approach includes the following key elements: Compact sodium-cooled pool-type reactor modules that are sized to enable factory fabrication, economical shipment to inland as well as water-side sites, and economical full-scale prototype testing for design certification; Nuclear safety-related envelope limited to the reactor modules and their service systems; Inherent, passive shutdown heat removal for loss-of-cooling events; Inherent, passive reactivity shutdown for failure-to-scram events

  15. Analysis of the applicability of acceleration methods for a triangular prism geometry nodal diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Toichiro; Okumura, Keisuke

    2002-11-01

    A prototype version of a diffusion code has been developed to analyze the hexagonal core as reduced moderation reactor and the applicability of some acceleration methods have been investigated to accelerate the convergence of the iterative solution method. The hexagonal core is divided into regular triangular prisms in the three-dimensional code MOSRA-Prism and a polynomial expansion nodal method is applied to approximate the neutron flux distribution by a cubic polynomial. The multi-group diffusion equation is solved iteratively with ordinal inner and outer iterations and the effectiveness of acceleration methods is ascertained by applying an adaptive acceleration method and a neutron source extrapolation method, respectively. The formulation of the polynomial expansion nodal method is outlined in the report and the local and global effectiveness of the acceleration methods is discussed with various sample calculations. A new general expression of vacuum boundary condition, derived in the formulation is also described. (author)

  16. Watching Nanoscale Self-Assembly Kinetics of Gold Prisms in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Ou, Zihao; Jones, Matthew R.; Chen, Qian

    We use liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy to watch self-assembly of gold triangular prisms into polymer-like structures. The in situ dynamics monitoring enabled by liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy, single nanoparticle tracking, and the marked conceptual similarity between molecular reactions and nanoparticle self-assembly combined elucidate the following mechanistic understanding: a step-growth polymerization based assembly statistics, kinetic pathways sampling particle curvature dependent energy minima and their interconversions, and directed assembly into polymorphs (linear or cyclic chains) through in situ modulation of the prism bonding geometry. Our study bridges the constituent kinetics on the molecular and nanoparticle length scales, which enriches the design rules in directed self-assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles.

  17. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus di Plaza Hotel Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suliantoro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Selama ini Plaza hotel belum pernah melakukan pengukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi yang terdiri dari aspek finansial dan non finansial. Dilihat dari prosentase tingkat hunian yang tidak memenuhi target yang ditetapkan, maka pengukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi diharapkan mampu memberikan perbaikan kinerja yang diharapkan. Dengan menggunakan performance prism, dilakukan identifikasi kebutuhan dan kontribusi stakeholder secara keseluruhan sehingga didapat indikator kinerja dari kriteria strategi, proses dan kapabilitas yang dijadikan tolok ukur perbaikan kinerja.. tahap pengumpulan data dengan menyebarkan matriks perbandingan berpasangan sebagai dasar penyusunan bobot kepentingan pada AHP dan kuesioner target pencapaian kinerja sebagai dasar penetapan skor aktual pada OMAX. Dari analisis yang dilakukan setelah bobot kepentingan diperoleh dan perhitungan nilai performansi, dilakukan simulasi perbaikan satu-satuan nilai performansi agar didapat kriteria dan elemen apa saja yang mendapat prioritas perbaikan dan rekomendasi perbaikan yang perlu dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kinerja Plaza Hotel Semarang. Kata kunci : Performance Prism, AHP, OMAX, skor aktual

  18. The Refractive Index Measurement Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Film by the Coupling Prism Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, Anwar; Hariyanto, Sigit; Subarkah

    1996-01-01

    Refractive index of silicon dioxide thin film that doped with phosphor (SiO 2 :P) above the pure silicon dioxide substrate has been measured by light coupling prism method. The method principle is focusing the light on coupling prism base so that the light propagates into the waveguide layer while the reflected one forms a mode in the observation plane. The SiO 2 thin film as waveguide layer has a refractive index that give the thick and refractive index relation. The He-Ne laser as light source has the wavelength λ 0,6328 μm. The refractive index measurement of the thin film with the substrate refractive index n sb = 1,47 and the thin film thick d = 2μm gives n g = 1,5534 ± 0,01136. This method can distinguish the refractive index of thin film about 6% to the refractive index of substrate

  19. Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... in the aftereffect. The findings have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  20.   Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

      Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  1. HEATING OF BLANK IN FORM OF PRISM IN ACCORDANCE WITH TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kovalevsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on optimum heating control of a blank in the form of prism under complicated conditions of heat-transfer in accordance with criteria of gas consumption minimization, decarburized layer and scaling. Numerical algorithm of the problem solution and examples are given in the paper. A new technology of the flame furnace operation has been developed in the paper. 

  2. Bisecting real and fake body parts: effects of prism adaptation after right brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eBolognini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation of body parts holds a special status in the brain, due to their prototypical shape and the contribution of multisensory (visual and somatosensory-proprioceptive information. In a previous study (Sposito et al., 2010, we showed that patients with left unilateral spatial neglect exhibit a rightward bias in setting the mid-point of their left forearm, which becomes larger when bisecting a cylindrical object comparable in size. This body part advantage, found also in control participants, suggests partly different processes for computing the extent of body parts and objects. In this study we tested 16 right-brain-damaged patients, and 10 unimpaired participants, on a manual bisection task of their own (real left forearm, or a size-matched fake forearm. We then explored the effects of adaptation to rightward displacing prism exposure, which brings about leftward aftereffects. We found that all participants showed prism adaptation and aftereffects, with right-brain-damaged patients exhibiting a reduction of the rightward bias for both real and fake forearm, with no overall differences between them. Second, correlation analyses highlighted the role of visual and proprioceptive information for the metrics of body parts. Third, single-patient analyses showed dissociations between real and fake forearm bisections, and the effects of prism adaptation, as well as a more frequent impairment with fake body parts. In sum, the rightward bias shown by right-brain-damaged patients in bisecting body parts is reduced by prism exposure, as other components of the neglect syndrome; discrete spatial representations for real and fake body parts, for which visual and proprioceptive codes play different roles, are likely to exist. Multisensory information seems to render self bodily segments more resistant to the disruption brought about by right-hemisphere injury.

  3. PRISM [Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module] design concept enhances waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.; Berglund, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    PRISM, a modular advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), has been designed conceptually by GE under the US Department of Energy sponsorship. The concept design and analyses have been primarily focused on passive safety and improved construction and operating costs. Significantly, the unique design of multiple modules and features of PRISM enhance waste management over conventional reactor systems. This paper provides an overview of PRISM of these enhancements. Inherent to the ALMR's, the sodium coolant precludes crud buildup on reactor surfaces and in components and waste for disposal. Preliminary evaluations indicate this fundamental feature results in factors of 2-4 less waste volume and 2-3 orders of magnitude less curies per megawatt-electric for ultimate disposal. For example, the tap designed for sodium cleanup is expected to be exchanged only once every thirty years. Also, inherent to ALMR's, burning waste actinides and selected fission products to preclude their accumulation and burial is very attractive. The hard neutron spectrum of ALMR burns the actinides efficiently and is not poisoned by the actinides and fission products. The modular design of PRISM components (and the fuel cycle equipment) permit replacement without expensive and potentially hazardous volume reduction. For example, the functional components of the reference electromagnetic pump and IHK can be removed intact for waste disposal. Although development of the reference metal fuel is not completed, it is estimated that (low-level) waste from recycle of the fuel will result in significantly less volume than would be generated by aqueous recycle of oxide fuel. 6 refs., 10 figs

  4. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The PRISM reactor is presently under pre-application licensing review by the NRC, with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) providing technical assistance. In this paper, the authors describe the latest set of results from their SSC and MINET code calculations. Series of postulated events were analyzed, for the most current PRISM design, to evaluate the system performance under unscrammed conditions. The PRISM reactor utilizes a metal fuel composed of 27% Pu, 10% Zr, and 63% U, based on the fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory as part of the Integral Fast Reactor program. The fuel has a small power and temperature defect as a result of the high fuel thermal conductivity of metal and a hard neutron spectrum. The reactivity feedbacks of the core are designed to provide a negative response to off-normal, high temperature conditions, by invoking negative responses from the thermal expansion of the fuel, control rods, and core radial dimensions. The core restraint system incorporates the limited free bowing feature, which generates an outward bow of the in-core portion of the fuel assembly when a temperature gradient exits. The core also has three Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs) placed around the periphery, which will remove a combined worth of -69 cents of reactivity when the pumps are tripped from full power conditions. In evaluating this passive shutdown response, in which the PRISM reactor power should decrease significantly in response to overheated conditions, one considers three classes of unscrammed events. These include the unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF), loss of heat sink (ULOHS), and transient over power (UTOP) events

  5. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  6. Role of Prism Decussation on Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture of Human Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset Compact Tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Re...

  7. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  8. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates.

  9. Use of the Tax Prism Method When Forming Tax Part of the Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verovska Ludmila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax prism method is developed for the assessment of tax part of the budget as well as for forecasting the influence of tax optimisation on it. There are certain trends in global practice. Developing and transition economies are characterised by low tax burden. Economically developed countries with a high level of social security of population are characterised by high tax burden. The analytical and graphic-analytical research for the purpose of determination of optimum size of the taxation using the tax prism has been conducted. In addition to the concept of ‘tax prism’, concepts such as static and dynamic tax prisms have been introduced, allowing to consider changes in the part of the budget of interest in connection with a possibility of taxation subjects to reduce the size of a tax burden by various methods of tax optimisation, and also to consider the influence of other factors on it. The use of this approach helps effectively to enhance the tax legislation by modelling high-quality and quantitative consequences of one or another changes and innovations.

  10. The PRISM reactor as a possible option to deal with the british civilian plutonium stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtlscherer, Christopher [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); ISR, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Boku) (Austria)

    2017-07-01

    Dealing with stocks of separated weapon-usable plutonium is a big challenge for our modern society. This work focuses on the British civil plutonium stockpiles, which amount to 103.3 tons. One option is seen in irradiating the plutonium in a fast reactor under development, namely the GE PRISM reactor. The PRISM reactor is a small modular, fast reactor which has a thermal power of 840 MW and an electrical output of 311 MW. It is intended to use MOX fuel and proponents claim, that it thus would be possible to produce clean energy, while making the plutonium proliferation resistant. A MCNP model of the reactor is built and depletion calculations with different target burnups of the fuel were conducted to check whether the burned material would fulfil the Spent-Fuel Standard. Particularly it was checked whether the spent fuel is self protecting, meaning that the dose rate does not fall below a limit of 1 Sv/h in 1 meter distance after a cooling period of 30 years. Based on the reactor model calculations the irradiation time to fulfill this limit for the spent fuel is calculated. Based on the needed target burnup, it can be verified, whether it is possible for the PRISM reactor to render the civil plutonium proliferation resistant in only 20 years as is is claimed by its proponents.

  11. The PRISM concept for a safe, economic and testable liquid metal fast reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.C.; Salerno, L.N.; Tippets, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The PRISM project is underway at General Electric as part of an advanced reactor conceptual design program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The PRISM concept emphasizes inherent safety, modular construction, and factory fabrication. These features are intended to improve the basis for public acceptance, reduce cost,improve licensability, and reduce the risk of schedule delays and cost increases during construction. A PRISM power plant comprises a number of reactor modules. The relatively small size of the reactor module facilitates the use of passive, inherent self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features for safe accommodation of accidents. These inherent safety features permit simplification and reduction of conventional safety-related systems in the plant. Testing of a full-size prototype reactor module is planned in the late 1990's to demonstrate these inherent safety characteristics. It is intended that the results of the test be used to obtain certification of the design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission preparatory to use of reactor modules built to this standard design in licensed commercial plants

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying spatial realignment during adaptation to optical wedge prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Heidi L; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Gavrilescu, Maria; Strudwick, Mark W; Loftus, Andrea; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-07-01

    Visuomotor adaptation to a shift in visual input produced by prismatic lenses is an example of dynamic sensory-motor plasticity within the brain. Prism adaptation is readily induced in healthy individuals, and is thought to reflect the brain's ability to compensate for drifts in spatial calibration between different sensory systems. The neural correlate of this form of functional plasticity is largely unknown, although current models predict the involvement of parieto-cerebellar circuits. Recent studies that have employed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions associated with prism adaptation have discovered patterns of parietal and cerebellar modulation as participants corrected their visuomotor errors during the early part of adaptation. However, the role of these regions in the later stage of adaptation, when 'spatial realignment' or true adaptation is predicted to occur, remains unclear. Here, we used fMRI to quantify the distinctive patterns of parieto-cerebellar activity as visuomotor adaptation develops. We directly contrasted activation patterns during the initial error correction phase of visuomotor adaptation with that during the later spatial realignment phase, and found significant recruitment of the parieto-cerebellar network--with activations in the right inferior parietal lobe and the right posterior cerebellum. These findings provide the first evidence of both cerebellar and parietal involvement during the spatial realignment phase of prism adaptation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Possibilities of magnet prism β-spectrometer application in on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, K.M.; Arynov, S.

    1996-01-01

    The main attention is paid to works with particle beam in up-to-date nuclear investigations. The application of magnet prism β-spectrometer for works in 'on-line' experiments is considered in this article. The source chamber and detector chamber are distanted from each other on great distance (4 m) and are out of operation field of spectrometer. There is a reliable defence of operating field of device from external parasitic fields by the magnetic screens system. The additional advantage is a factor that source (target) and detector could replacing in specific directions about few centimetres during the device operating. The main β-spectroscopic performances of device are compared with Grenoble spectroscopic complex. The liner depression of prism spectrometer account for from 3,6 up to 6 m; light force - from 2·10 -4 up to 6·10 -4 up to 4π; operating resolving power - 0,02-0,05% by impulse. Investigation range is from several keV up to 3 MeV. There are all opportunities for installing of the on-line magnetic prism spectrometer on the U-150 accelerator and the WWR-K reactor. Spectrometer application in 'on-line' experiments gives possibility to obtain more wide information. 4 refs

  14. Prism-coupled Cherenkov phase-matched terahertz wave generation using a DAST crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizu, Koji; Shibuya, Takayuki; Uchida, Hirohisa; Kawase, Kodo

    2010-02-15

    Terahertz (THz) wave generation based on nonlinear frequency conversion is a promising method for realizing a tunable monochromatic high-power THz-wave source. Unfortunately, many nonlinear crystals have strong absorption in the THz frequency region. This limits efficient and widely tunable THz-wave generation. The Cherenkov phase-matching method is one of the most promising techniques for overcoming these problems. Here, we propose a prism-coupled Cherenkov phase-matching (PCC-PM) method, in which a prism with a suitable refractive index at THz frequencies is coupled to a nonlinear crystal. This has the following advantages. Many crystals can be used as THz-wave emitters; the phase-matching condition inside the crystal does not have to be observed; the absorption of the crystal does not prevent efficient generation of radiation; and pump sources with arbitrary wavelengths can be employed. Here we demonstrate PCC-PM THz-wave generation using the organic crystal 4-dimethylamino-N-metyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) and a Si prism coupler. We obtain THz-wave radiation with tunability of approximately 0.1 to 10 THz and with no deep absorption features resulting from the absorption spectrum of the crystal. The obtained spectra did not depend on the pump wavelength in the range 1300 to 1450 nm. This simple technique shows promise for generating THz radiation using a wide variety of nonlinear crystals.

  15. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  16. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  17. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  18. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Vanany

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder in hotel X such as: customer, employee, supplier, owner and investor, and regulator and community. From the performance measurement system design are obtained 36 types Key Performance Indicator (KPI such as: 6 KPI of customer, 9 KPI of staff manajerial, 9 KPI of staff operational, 4 KPI of supplier, 3 KPI of investor, and 5 KPI of regulator & community. Result of implementation performance measurement system with scoring system indicates that the amount of scor current performance indicator is 50,75%. Result of measurement can be based management act evaluation and choice planning improvement organization and all Stakeholder requirements must be request. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Artikel ini menguraikan hasil penelitian perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja pada sebuah perusahaan dalam bisnis hotel dengan model Performance Prism. Selama ini, sistem pengukuran kinerja di Hotel X belum merepresentasikan kinerja organisasi secara komprehensif dan integratif. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perancangan kembali sistem pengukuran kinerjanya. Dari kondisi objektif hotel X, model yang tepat digunakan adalah model Performance Prism dibanding model lain. Hasil rancangan menunjukkan bahwa stakeholder hotel X meliputi: konsumen, tenaga kerja, supplier, pemilik/investor, serta pemerintah dan masyarakat sekitar lingkungan hotel. Sistem pengukuran kinerja memuat 36 KPI yang meliputi 6 KPI konsumen, 9 KPI staff manajerial, 9 KPI staff operasional, 4 KPI supplier, 3

  19. Laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in the application of laser atomic spectroscopy to study parameters of nuclei available in very small quantities; radioactive nuclei, rare isotopes, nuclear isomers, etc, for which study by conventional spectroscopic methods is difficult. (author)

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  1. HST-WFC3 Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Quenched Galaxies at zeta approx 1.5 from the WISP Survey: Stellar Populations Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, A. G.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A. L.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Colbert, J. W.; Malkan, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST) G102 and G141 near-IR (NIR) grism spectroscopy with HST/WFC3- UVIS, HST/WFC3-IR, and Spitzer/IRAC [3.6 microns] photometry to assemble a sample of massive (log(Mstar/M solar mass) at approx 11.0) and quenched (specific star formation rate spectroscopy for quenched sources at these redshifts. In contrast to the local universe, zeta approx 1.5 quenched galaxies in the high-mass range have a wide range of stellar population properties. We find that their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are well fitted with exponentially decreasing star formation histories and short star formation timescales (tau less than or equal to 100 M/yr). Quenched galaxies also show a wide distribution in ages, between 1 and 4 G/yr. In the (u - r)0-versus-mass space quenched galaxies have a large spread in rest-frame color at a given mass. Most quenched galaxies populate the zeta appro. 1.5 red sequence (RS), but an important fraction of them (32%) have substantially bluer colors. Although with a large spread, we find that the quenched galaxies on the RS have older median ages (3.1 G/yr) than the quenched galaxies off the RS (1.5 G/yr). We also show that a rejuvenated SED cannot reproduce the observed stacked spectra of (the bluer) quenched galaxies off the RS. We derive the upper limit on the fraction of massive galaxies on the RS at zeta approx 1.5 to be 2 and the zeta approx 1.5 RS. According to their estimated ages, the time required for quenched galaxies off the RS to join their counterparts on the z approx. 1.5 RS is of the order of approx. 1G/yr.

  2. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Spectroscopy of Anticipated TESS Planets and Selected Super-Earths Discovered from K2 and Ground-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana; Albert, Loic; Deming, Drake

    2017-01-01

    The 2018 launch of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), coupled with the 2017 launch of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), heralds a new era in Exoplanet Science, with TESS projected to detect over one thousand transiting sub-Neptune-sized planets (Ricker et al, 2014), and JWST offering unprecedented spectroscopic capabilities. Sullivan et al (2015) used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the properties of the planets that TESS is likely to detect, and published a catalog of 962 simulated TESS planets. Prior to TESS launch, the re-scoped Kepler K2 mission and ground-based surveys such as MEarth continue to seek nearby Earth-like exoplanets orbiting M-dwarf host stars. The exoplanet community will undoubtedly employ JWST for atmospheric characterization follow-up studies of promising exoplanets, but the targeted planets for these studies must be chosen wisely to maximize JWST science return. The goal of this project is to estimate the capabilities of JWST’s Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS)—operating with the GR700XD grism in Single Object Slitless Spectrography (SOSS) mode—during observations of exoplanets transiting their host stars. We compare results obtained for the simulated TESS planets, confirmed K2-discovered super-Earths, and exoplanets discovered using ground-based surveys. By determining the target planet characteristics that result in the most favorable JWST observing conditions, we can optimize the choice of target planets in future JWST follow-on atmospheric characterization studies.

  3. Monitoring of biofilm growth using ATR-leaky mode spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, M.; Franke, H.; Grattan, K.T.V.; Tamachkiarow, A.

    2002-01-01

    An approach to the in situ monitoring of biofilm formation using the technique of ATR-leaky mode spectroscopy is given as an example for the case of Cytophaga. The biofilm growth was studied on an aluminium layer and on a bilayer of the hydrogel agarose on aluminium. This metal was chosen because of its chemical stability in aqueous systems. The spectra obtained have been recorded using a flow cell to contain the suspension and nutrients over a period of several days. In the case considered using a prism surface coated with agarose, the experiments were performed by breeding in an incubator. (author)

  4. Leakage radiation spectroscopy of organic/dielectric/metal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Kawalec, Tomasz; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    side of a hemisphere fused silica prism with an index matching liquid was illuminated under normal incidence by a He-Cd 325 nm laser. Two orthogonal linear polarizations were used both parallel and perpendicular to the detection plane. Spectrally resolved leakage radiation was observed on the opposite......Leakage radiation spectroscopy of organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) molecules has been performed in the spectral range 420-675 nm which overlaps with the p-6P photoluminescence band. The p-6P was deposited on 40 nm silver (Ag) films on BK7 glass, covered with SiO2 layers. The SiO2 layer thickness...

  5. Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonser, U.

    1975-01-01

    This book is addressed to persons interested in learning about what has been done and what can be done with Moessbauer spectroscopy. In an introductory chapter the basic principle is explained and the general parameters governing Moessbauer spectroscopy are tabulated. For the following chapters various disciplines are chosen and the wide applicability of this measuring technique is demonstrated. The second chapter discusses a few representative examples of chemical interesting information being reflected by isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings, particularly with respect to bonding and structural properties. The third chapter deals with some applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy for characterizing magnetic compounds and its use for magnetic structure investigations, particularly by making use of polarized radiation. The fourth chapter describes the use of the Moessbauer spectroscopy for studying iron in biological molecules. As an example of recent applications to mineralogy and geology the results of the studies of lunar samples are reviewed in the fifth chapter. Finally, in the last chapter, work is described on the use of Moessbauer spectroscopy in physical metallurgy, particularly quantitative analyses which have enabled metallurgists to solve many old problems. (orig./FW) [de

  6. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  7. The SpeX Prism Library for Ultracool Dwarfs: A Resource for Stellar, Exoplanet and Galactic Science and Student-Led Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, Adam

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility's (IRTF) SpeX spectrograph has been an essential tool in the discovery and characterization of ultracool dwarf (UCD) stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Over ten years of SpeX data have been collected on these sources, and a repository of low-resolution (R 100) SpeX prism spectra has been maintained by the PI at the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries website since 2008. As the largest existing collection of NIR UCD spectra, this repository has facilitated a broad range of investigations in UCD, exoplanet, Galactic and extragalactic science, contributing to over 100 publications in the past 6 years. However, this repository remains highly incomplete, has not been uniformly calibrated, lacks sufficient contextual data for observations and sources, and most importantly provides no data visualization or analysis tools for the user. To fully realize the scientific potential of these data for community research, we propose a two-year program to (1) calibrate and expand existing repository and archival data, and make it virtual-observatory compliant; (2) serve the data through a searchable web archive with basic visualization tools; and (3) develop and distribute an open-source, Python-based analysis toolkit for users to analyze the data. These resources will be generated through an innovative, student-centered research model, with undergraduate and graduate students building and validating the analysis tools through carefully designed coding challenges and research validation activities. The resulting data archive, the SpeX Prism Library, will be a legacy resource for IRTF and SpeX, and will facilitate numerous investigations using current and future NASA capabilities. These include deep/wide surveys of UCDs to measure Galactic structure and chemical evolution, and probe UCD populations in satellite galaxies (e.g., JWST, WFIRST); characterization of directly imaged exoplanet spectra (e.g., FINESSE), and development of low

  8. Behaviour of concrete beams reinforced withFRP prestressed concrete prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, Dagmar

    The use of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) to reinforce concrete is gaining acceptance. However, due to the relatively low modulus of FRP, in comparison to steel, such structures may, if sufficient amount of reinforcement is not used, suffer from large deformations and wide cracks. FRP is generally more suited for prestressing. Since it is not feasible to prestress all concrete structures to eliminate the large deflections of FRP reinforced concrete flexural members, researchers are focusing on other strategies. A simple method for avoiding excessive deflections is to provide sufficiently high amount of FRP reinforcement to limit its stress (strain) to acceptable levels under service loads. This approach will not be able to take advantage of the high strength of FRP and will be generally uneconomical. The current investigation focuses on the feasibility of an alternative strategy. This thesis deals with the flexural and shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms. FRP prestressed concrete prisms (PCP) are new reinforcing bars, made by pretensioning FRP and embedding it in high strength grout/concrete. The purpose of the research is to investigate the feasibility of using such pretensioned rebars, and their effect on the flexural and shear behaviour of reinforced concrete beams over the entire loading range. Due to the prestress in the prisms, deflection of concrete beams reinforced with this product is substantially reduced, and is comparable to similarly steel reinforced beams. The thesis comprises both theoretical and experimental investigations. In the experimental part, nine beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms, and two companion beams, one steel and one FRP reinforced were tested. All the beams were designed to carry the same ultimate moment. Excellent flexural and shear behaviour of beams reinforced with higher prestressed prisms is reported. When comparing deflections of three beams designed to have the

  9. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... information about chemical equilibria, kinetics and molecular motion by monitoring changes in optical properties of the system. The five presented research projects are largely unrelated to each other both in aim and in what property is probed, however they are all connected in that they are fluorophore...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  10. Post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small concrete walls reinforced with plant fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Soto

    Full Text Available Structural masonry using concrete blocks promotes the rationalization of construction projects, lowering the final cost of a building through the elimination of forms and the reduction of the consumption of reinforcement bars. Moreover, production of a block containing a combination of concrete and vegetable fiber sisal results in a unit with properties such as mechanical strength, stiffness, flexibility, ability to absorb energy, and post-cracking behavior that are comparable to those of a block produced with plain concrete. Herein are reported the results of a study on the post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small walls reinforced with sisal fibers (lengths of 20 mm and 40 mm added at volume fractions of 0.5% and 1%. Tests were performed to characterize the fibers and blocks and to determine the compressive strength of the units, prisms, and small walls. The deformation modulus of the elements was calculated and the stress-strain curves were plotted to gain a better understanding of the values obtained. The compression test results for the small walls reinforced with fibers were similar to those of the reference walls and better than the blocks and prisms with added fibers, which had resistances lower than those of the corresponding conventional materials. All elements prepared with the addition of sisal exhibited an increase in the deformation capacity (conferred by the fibers, which was observed in the stress-strain curves. The failure mode of the reference elements was characterized by an abrupt fracture, whereas the reinforced elements underwent ductile breakage. This result was because of the presence of the fibers, which remained attached to the faces of the cracks via adhesion to the cement matrix, thus preventing loss of continuity in the material. Therefore, the cement/plant fiber composites are advantageous in terms of their ductility and ability to resist further damage after cracking.

  11. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Joseph Maclean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN – a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuo-motor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuo-motor aftereffect has been used to study visuo-motor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided space. In order to optimize PA’s use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch, then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late. Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an early error-related negativity (ERN, and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  12. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Stephane J; Hassall, Cameron D; Ishigami, Yoko; Krigolson, Olav E; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN)-a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuomotor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuomotor aftereffect has been used to study visuomotor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided) space. In order to optimize PA's use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch), then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss) and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late). Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an error-related negativity (ERN), and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  13. Intravesicular Phosphatase PHOSPHO1 Function in Enamel Mineralization and Prism Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Pandya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transport of mineral ions from the enamel organ-associated blood vessels to the developing enamel crystals involves complex cargo packaging and carriage mechanisms across several cell layers, including the ameloblast layer and the stratum intermedium. Previous studies have established PHOSPHO1 as a matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase that interacts with matrix vesicles molecules phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine to initiate apatite crystal formation inside of matrix vesicles in bone. In the present study, we sought to determine the function of Phospho1 during amelogenesis. PHOSPHO1 protein localization during amelogenesis was verified using immunohistochemistry, with positive signals in the enamel layer, ameloblast Tomes' processes, and in the walls of ameloblast secretory vesicles. These ameloblast secretory vesicle walls were also labeled for amelogenin and the exosomal protein marker HSP70 using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, PHOSPHO1 presence in the enamel organ was confirmed by Western blot. Phospho1−/− mice lacked sharp incisal tips, featured a significant 25% increase in total enamel volume, and demonstrated a significant 2-fold reduction in silver grain density of von Kossa stained ground sections indicative of reduced mineralization in the enamel layer when compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.001. Scanning electron micrographs of Phospho1−/− mouse enamel revealed a loss of the prominent enamel prism “picket fence” structure, a loss of parallel crystal organization within prisms, and a 1.56-fold increase in enamel prism width (p < 0.0001. Finally, EDS elemental analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in phosphate incorporation in the enamel layer when compared to controls (p < 0.05. Together, these data establish that the matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase PHOSPHO1 is essential for physiological enamel mineralization. Our findings also suggest that intracellular ameloblast secretory

  14. High-performance beam steering using electrowetting-driven liquid prism fabricated by a simple dip-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Clement, Carlos; Park, Sung-Yong, E-mail: mpeps@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, #07-08, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-05-09

    A high degree of beam steering is demonstrated using an electrowetting-driven liquid prism. While prism devices have typically relied on complex and expensive laboratory setups, such as high-vacuum facilities for fabrication of dielectric layers, this work utilizes a simple dip-coating method to provide an ion gel layer as a dielectric, offering 2 or 3 orders higher specific capacitance (c ≈ 10 μF/cm{sup 2}) than that of conventional dielectrics. Analytical studies present the effects of liquid selection and arrangement on overall prism performance. For experimental demonstrations of high-performance beam steering, we not only selected two immiscible liquids of water and 1-bromonaphthalene (1-BN) oil which provide the large refractive index difference (n{sub water} = 1.33 and n{sub 1-BN} = 1.65 at λ = 532 nm) between them, but also utilized a double-stacked prism configuration which increases the number of interfaces for incoming light to be steered. At a prism apex angle of φ = 27°, we were able to achieve significantly large beam steering of up to β = 19.06°, which is the highest beam steering performance ever demonstrated using electrowetting technology.

  15. Optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Demers, Y.; Gagne, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Laser induced optogalvanic spectroscopy in a hollow cathode-produced plasma has been used to resolve the isotopic structure of some absorption lines in uranium. We have shown that the optogalvanic signal associated with any isotope can be related to the concentration of that isotope in a multi-isotopic sample. From the results we have obtained, optogalvanic spectroscopy of sputtered samples appears to be an interesting approach to the isotopic analysis of both natural and enriched uranium and could easily be applied to the analysis of other fissile elements, such as the plutonium isotopes

  16. Multisensory and Modality-Specific Influences on Adaptation to Optical Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calzolari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs, as related to the sensory modality of the target. Visual, auditory, and multisensory – audio-visual – targets in the adaptation phase were used, while participants wore prisms displacing the visual field rightward by 10°. Proprioceptive, visual, visual-proprioceptive, auditory-proprioceptive straight-ahead shifts were measured. Pointing to auditory and to audio-visual targets in the adaptation phase produces proprioceptive, visual-proprioceptive, and auditory-proprioceptive AEs, as the typical visual targets did. This finding reveals that cross-modal plasticity effects involve both the auditory and the visual modality, and their interactions (Experiment 1. Even a shortened PA phase, requiring only 24 pointings to visual and audio-visual targets (Experiment 2, is sufficient to bring about AEs, as compared to the standard 92-pointings procedure. Finally, pointings to auditory targets cause AEs, although PA with a reduced number of pointings (24 to auditory targets brings about smaller AEs, as compared to the 92-pointings procedure (Experiment 3. Together, results from the three experiments extend to the auditory modality the sensorimotor plasticity underlying the typical AEs produced by PA to visual targets. Importantly, PA to auditory targets appears characterized by less accurate pointings and error correction, suggesting that the auditory component of the PA process may be less central to the building up of the AEs, than the sensorimotor pointing activity per se. These

  17. The Implementation of Cumulative Learning Theory in Calculating Triangular Prism and Tube Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muklis, M.; Abidin, C.; Pamungkas, M. D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the application of cumulative learning theory in calculating the volume of a triangular prism and a tube as well as revealing the students’ responses toward the learning. The research method used was descriptive qualitative with elementary school students as the subjects of the research. Data obtained through observation, field notes, questionnaire, tests, and interviews. The results from the application of cumulative learning theory obtained positive students’ responses in following the learning and students’ learning outcomes was dominantly above the average. This showed that cumulative learning could be used as a reference to be implemented in learning, so as to improve the students’ achievement.

  18. Compact surface plasmon resonance biosensor utilizing an injection-molded prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Foo; Chen, Chih-Han; Chang, Yun-Hsiang; Chuang, Hsin-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Targeting at a low cost and accessible diagnostic device in clinical practice, a compact surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with a large dynamic range in high sensitivity is designed to satisfy commercial needs in food safety, environmental bio-pollution monitoring, and fast clinical diagnosis. The core component integrates an optical coupler, a sample-loading plate, and angle-tuning reflectors is injection-molded as a free-from prism made of plastic optics. This design makes a matching-oil-free operation during operation. The disposability of this low-cost component ensures testing or diagnosis without cross contamination in bio-samples.

  19. Calculation of gravity and magnetic anomalies of finite-length right polygonal prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An equation is derived for the vertical gravity field due to a homogeneous body with polygonal cross‐section and finite strike‐length. The equation can be separated into the two‐dimensional (2-D) terms of Talwani et al. (1959) and exact terms for the contributions of the ends of the prism. Equations for the magnetic field due to a similar body were derived by Shuey and Pasquale (1973), who coined the term “two‐and‐a‐half dimensional” (2 1/2-D) to describe the geometry. Magnetic intensities are expressed as a vector sum, from which the common dot product formulation can be obtained by binomial expansion.

  20. Note: Using a Kösters prism to create a fringe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellmann, R F; Bewerunge, J; Platten, F; Egelhaaf, S U

    2017-05-01

    The interference of two crossed laser beams results in a standing wave. Such fringe patterns are exploited in different instruments such as interferometers or laser-Doppler anemometers. We create a fringe pattern in the sample plane of a microscope using a compact apparatus based on a Kösters prism. The fringe pattern is shown to be spatially and temporally very stable, covers a large area, and its spacing is easily tunable. In addition, we exploit it to impose a sinusoidal potential on colloidal particles.

  1. Evaluation of postulated LOF [loss-of-flow] events in PRISM and SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, B.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Aronson, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The PRISM and SAFR designs, as currently proposed by DOE, are designed for ''inherent'', as opposed to ''engineered'', safety. Brookhaven National Laboratory is supporting the initial NRC review of these advanced LMR concepts. A loss-of-flow (LOF) accident coupled with a failure of the reactor shutdown system is one of the major safety concerns in the advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) evaluation effort. The analysis discussed here covers: (1) primary pipe break without pump trip, (2) primary coolant pump seizure, and (3) primary coolant pump coastdown. The analytical modelling and the calculated thermal and hydraulic behavior are described in detail

  2. Simplified analysis of PRISM RVACS [Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System] performance without liner spill-over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified analysis of the performance of the PRISM RVACS decay heat removal system under off-normal conditions, i.e., without the liner spill-over, is described. Without the spilling of hot-pool sodium over the liner and the resultant down-flow along the inside of the reactor vessel wall, the RVACS system performance becomes dominated by the radial heat condition and radiation. Simple estimates of the resulting heat conduction and radiation processes support GE's contention that the RVACS performance is not severely impacted by the absence of spillover, and can improve significantly if sodium has leaked into the region between the reactor and containment vessels. 7 refs

  3. The eclipse of CI Cygni in 1980 on the objective prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The observations of CI Cyg were carried out with the Torun 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope with the objective prism giving a dispersion of 250 A/mm at H-gamma. Intensity traces of 20 selected spectra, made on the Kodak IIa-O plates, were made. The results were corrected for all instrumental effects and the interstellar extinction. The relative emission lines intensities have been obtained from the tracings after normalization to H-beta = 100. The spectra were typical for the quiet symbiotic star. So, all changes in the spectrum were caused by geometrical effects (eclipse). A preliminary analysis of the obtained spectra is presented. (Auth.)

  4. Karst Depression Detection Using ASTER, ALOS/PRISM and SRTM-Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Bambuí Group, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Abílio de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has been used in karst studies to identify limestone terrain, describe exokarst features, analyze karst depressions, and detect geological structures important to karst development. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of ASTER-, SRTM- and ALOS/PRISM-derived digital elevation models (DEMs to detect and quantify natural karst depressions along the São Francisco River near Barreiras city, northeast Brazil. The study area is a karst landscape characterized by karst depressions (dolines, closed depressions in limestone, many of which contain standing water connected with the ground-water table. The base of dolines is typically sealed with an impermeable clay layer covered by standing water or herbaceous vegetation. We identify dolines by combining the extraction of sink depth from DEMs, morphometric analysis using GIS, and visual interpretation. Our methodology is a semi-automatic approach involving several steps: (a DEM acquisition; (b sink-depth calculation using the difference between the raw DEM and the corresponding DEM with sinks filled; and (c elimination of falsely identified karst depressions using morphometric attributes. The advantages and limitations of the applied methodology using different DEMs are examined by comparison with a sinkhole map generated from traditional geomorphological investigations based on visual interpretation of the high-resolution remote sensing images and field surveys. The threshold values of the depth, area size and circularity index appropriate for distinguishing dolines were identified from the maximum overall accuracy obtained by comparison with a true doline map. Our results indicate that the best performance of the proposed methodology for meso-scale karst feature detection was using ALOS/PRISM data with a threshold depth > 2 m; areas > 13,125 m2 and circularity indexes > 0.3 (overall accuracy of 0.53. The overall correct identification of around half of the true dolines suggests

  5. The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, A.; Zechmeister, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Morales, J. C.; Jeffers, S. V.; Schöfer, P.; Tal-Or, L.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Kaminski, A.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona, R.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Azzaro, M.; Baroch, D.; Barrado, D.; Bauer, F. F.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdinas˜, Z. M.; Bergond, G.; Blümcke, M.; Brinkmöller, M.; del Burgo, C.; Cano, J.; Cárdenas Vázquez, M. C.; Casal, E.; Cifuentes, C.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Díez-Alonso, E.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Ferro, I. M.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Garcia-Piquer, A.; García Vargas, M. L.; Gesa, L.; Galera, V. Gómez; González Hernández, J. I.; González-Peinado, R.; Grözinger, U.; Grohnert, S.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; Guijarro, A.; Guindos, E. de; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Hedrosa, R. P.; Helmling, J.; Henning, Th.; Hermelo, I.; Hernández Arabí, R.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Hernández Hernando, F.; Herrero, E.; Huber, A.; Huke, P.; Johnson, E. N.; Juan, E. de; Kim, M.; Klein, R.; Klüter, J.; Klutsch, A.; Kürster, M.; Lafarga, M.; Lamert, A.; Lampón, M.; Lara, L. M.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; Launhardt, R.; López del Fresno, M.; López-González, J.; López-Puertas, M.; López Salas, J. F.; López-Santiago, J.; Luque, R.; Magán Madinabeitia, H.; Mall, U.; Mancini, L.; Mandel, H.; Marfil, E.; Marín Molina, J. A.; Maroto Fernández, D.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Moya, A.; Mundt, R.; Nagel, E.; Naranjo, V.; Nortmann, L.; Nowak, G.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Pascual, J.; Passegger, V. M.; Pavlov, A.; Pedraz, S.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Medialdea, D. Pérez; Perger, M.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Pluto, M.; Rabaza, O.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhart, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez Trinidad, A.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sadegi, S.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sánchez-López, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarkis, P.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schiller, J.; Schweitzer, A.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Strachan, J. B. P.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tala, M.; Trifonov, T.; Tulloch, S. M.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Vico Linares, J. I.; Vilardell, F.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Wolthoff, V.; Xu, W.; Yan, F.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    The CARMENES radial velocity (RV) survey is observing 324 M dwarfs to search for any orbiting planets. In this paper, we present the survey sample by publishing one CARMENES spectrum for each M dwarf. These spectra cover the wavelength range 520-1710 nm at a resolution of at least R >80 000, and we measure its RV, Hα emission, and projected rotation velocity. We present an atlas of high-resolution M-dwarf spectra and compare the spectra to atmospheric models. To quantify the RV precision that can be achieved in low-mass stars over the CARMENES wavelength range, we analyze our empirical information on the RV precision from more than 6500 observations. We compare our high-resolution M-dwarf spectra to atmospheric models where we determine the spectroscopic RV information content, Q, and signal-to-noise ratio. We find that for all M-type dwarfs, the highest RV precision can be reached in the wavelength range 700-900 nm. Observations at longer wavelengths are equally precise only at the very latest spectral types (M8 and M9). We demonstrate that in this spectroscopic range, the large amount of absorption features compensates for the intrinsic faintness of an M7 star. To reach an RV precision of 1 m s-1 in very low mass M dwarfs at longer wavelengths likely requires the use of a 10 m class telescope. For spectral types M6 and earlier, the combination of a red visual and a near-infrared spectrograph is ideal to search for low-mass planets and to distinguish between planets and stellar variability. At a 4 m class telescope, an instrument like CARMENES has the potential to push the RV precision well below the typical jitter level of 3-4 m s-1.

  6. Byen prisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Winther, Mark; Jakobsen, Mikkel Broen

    Aleppo, Mosul, Kobane, Palmyra, Fallujah, Raqqa og Ramadi. Listen over byer, hvor der kæmpes eller er blevet kæmpet i Irak og Syrien, er lang. Kampen mod ISIL og den syriske borgerkrig er væsentlige eksempler på, at krigen og byerne i stigende grad er sammenhængende temaer. Verdens befolkningstal...

  7. Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  8. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    causes relaxation processes with characteristic contributions to the frequency-dependent complex dielectric constant. These dipolar relaxations were initially described by Debye (Polare Molekeln 1929). They are the basis of impedance spectroscopy (K’Owino and Sadik Electroanalysis 17(23):2101–2113, 2005...

  9. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  10. FDS5 Simulation for OECD PRISME Fire Test of DOOR PRSD5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Bok; Park, Jong Seuk

    2009-01-01

    OECD/NEA PRISME Fire Project is an international co-operation project to investigate fire propagation by means of experiments and analyses for nuclear power plant applications. This project focuses on the generation of experimental data for fire and smoke propagation from the fire room to adjacent rooms under various conditions and room configurations. In addition, analyses using computer codes are performed to understand the phenomena of interest and to produce a consistent interpretation of the experimental results. The PRISME Project is composed of series of tests named as SOURCE, DOOR, LEAK and Global Tests. The SOURCE is composed of tests to characterize the fire source, and the DOOR is to study fire and smoke propagation through an open door, while the LEAK is to investigate hot gas leakages through other modes of openings such as holes, a slot, a duct, and a partially opened door. The Global test will be conducted as integral tests on the basis of the results of the previous separate effects tests. In this paper, simulations are performed with FDS5 computer code for the DOOR Test No.5 (PRS D 5) and the calculation results are compared with the corresponding experimental data to study the code capability to predict the phenomena of the hot gas propagation between two rooms

  11. On the Geometrically Nonlinear Elastic Response of Class θ = 1 Tensegrity Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables or compression (bars, under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either “standard” or “expanded” configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a “thick” and a “slender” model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  12. Rapid growth of ZnO hexagonal prism crystals by direct microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenqi; ZHOU Jian; LIU Guizhen; REN Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal prism crystals were synthesized from ZnO powders by microwave heating in a short time (within 20 min) without any metal catalyst or transport agent.Zinc oxide raw materials were made by evaporating from the high-temperature zone in an enclosure atmosphere and crystals were grown on the self-source substrate.The inherent asymmetry in microwave heating provides the temperature gradient for crystal growth.Substrate and temperature distribution in the oven show significant effects on the growth of the ZnO crystal.The morphologies demonstrate that these samples are pure hexagonal prism crystals with maximum 80 μm in diameter and 600 μm in length,which possess a well faceted end and side surface.X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that these samples are pure crystals.The photoluminescence (PL) exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature,indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices.

  13. Designing and researching of the virtual display system based on the prism elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, V. N.; Grimm, V. A.; Romanova, G. E.; Smirnov, S. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Grishina, N. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Problems of designing of systems for virtual display systems for augmented reality placed near the observers eye (so called head worn displays) with the light guide prismatic elements are considered. Systems of augmented reality is the complex consists of the image generator (most often it's the microdisplay with the illumination system if the display is not self-luminous), the objective which forms the display image practically in infinity and the combiner which organizes the light splitting so that an observer could see the information of the microdisplay and the surrounding environment as the background at the same time. This work deals with the system with the combiner based on the composite structure of the prism elements. In the work three cases of the prism combiner design are considered and also the results of the modeling with the optical design software are presented. In the model the question of the large pupil zone was analyzed and also the discontinuous character (mosaic structure) of the angular field in transmission of the information from the microdisplay to the observer's eye with the prismatic structure are discussed.

  14. Inventory and review of existing PRISM hydrogeologic data for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS entered into an agreement with the Mauritania Ministry of Mines and Industry to inventory and review the quality of information collected as part of the Project for Strengthening of the Institutions in the Mining Sector (PRISM). Whereas the PRISM program collected geophysical, geochemical, geological, satellite, and hydrogeologic information, this report focuses on an inventory and review of available hydrogeologic data provided to the USGS in multiple folders, files, and formats. Most of the information pertained to the hydrogeologic setting and the water budget of evaporation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation in the Choum-Zouerate area in northwestern Mauritania, and the country of Mauritania itself. Other information about the quantity and quality of groundwater was found in the relational Access database. In its present form, the limited hydrogeologic information was not amenable to conducting water balance, geostatistical, and localized numerical modeling studies in support of mineral exploration and development. Suggestions are provided to remedy many of the data's shortcomings, such as performing quality assurance on all SIPPE2 data tables and sending questionnaires to appropriate agencies, mining and other companies to populate the database with additional meteorology, hydrology, and groundwater data.

  15. Polygonal Prism Mesh in the Viscous Layers for the Polyhedral Mesh Generator, PolyGen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Chan Eok; Kim, Shin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Polyhedral mesh has been known to have some benefits over the tetrahedral mesh. Efforts have been made to set up a polyhedral mesh generation system with open source programs SALOME and TetGen. The evaluation has shown that the polyhedral mesh generation system is promising. But it is necessary to extend the capability of the system to handle the viscous layers to be a generalized mesh generator. A brief review to the previous works on the mesh generation for the viscous layers will be made in section 2. Several challenging issues for the polygonal prism mesh generation will be discussed as well. The procedure to generate a polygonal prism mesh will be discussed in detail in section 3. Conclusion will be followed in section 4. A procedure to generate meshes in the viscous layers with PolyGen has been successfully designed. But more efforts have to be exercised to find the best way for the generating meshes for viscous layers. Using the extrusion direction of the STL data will the first of the trials in the near future

  16. On the geometrically nonlinear elastic response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Ida; Amendola, Ada; Zuccaro, Giulio; Feo, Luciano; Fraternali, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class ϑ=1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables) or compression (bars), under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either 'standard' or 'expanded' configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a 'thick' and a 'slender' model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  17. Development and commissioning of a double-prism spectrometer for the diagnosis of femtosecond electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Steffen

    2016-12-15

    Free-electron lasers as accelerator-driven light sources and wakefield-based acceleration in plasmas require the knowledge of the longitudinal extension and the longitudinal current profile of the involved electron bunches. These bunches can yield lengths below 10 μm, or durations shorter than approx. 33 fs, as well as charges less than 30 pC. During this work, transition radiation from relativistic electron bunches was investigated in the mid-infrared wavelength regime. A spectrometer using an arrangement of two consecutive zinc selenide prisms was developed, built and commissioned. The instrument covers the spectral range from 2 μm to 18 μm in a single shot. Measurements with the double-prism spectrometer were conducted at the FEL facilities FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany and FELIX at the Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The assessment of the spectrometer and comparative studies with established diagnostic devices at FLASH show high signal-to-noise ratios at bunch charges below 10 pC and confirm the obtained results.

  18. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (STUDI KASUS PADA PDAM TIRTA MOEDAL CABANG SEMARANG TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menguraikan hasil penelitian perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja pada PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang dengan model Performance Prism. Selama ini PDAM Tirta Moedal belum memiliki sistem pengukuran kinerja. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja. Dari kondisi PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang, model yang tepat digunakan adalah model performance prism  dibanding model lain. Sistem pengukuran kinerja ini memiliki 44 KPI yang meliputi 12 KPI pelanggan, 9 KPI karyawan, 11 KPI pemilik modal, 6 KPI supplier, 6 KPI pemerintah dan masyarakat di sekitar lingkungan. Dari hasil implementasi sistem pengukuran kinerja dengan proses scoring system menggunakan metode OMAX menunjukkan nilai current performance indicator yang telah dicapai oleh PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang adalah sebesar 75,1 %. Hasil pengukuran menjadi landasan pihak manajemen mengevaluasi dan menentukan rencana kerja perbaikan sehingga harapan dari semua stakeholder dapat terpenuhi Kata kunci : Pengukuran Kinerja, Performance Prism, PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang   Abstract This study describes the results of research on the performance measurement system design PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang with model Performance Prism. During this PDAM Tirta Moedal not have a performance measurement system. Therefore, it is necessary to design performance measurement systems. From the condition of PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang, the exact model used is a prism model performance compared to other models. This performance measurement system has 44 KPIs which include 12 customer KPI, KPI 9 employees, 11 KPI owners of capital, supplier KPI 6, KPI 6 governments and communities around the neighborhood. From the results of performance measurement system implementation with the scoring system using the OMAX shows the current performance indicator has been achieved by PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang amounted to 75.1%. The basis of measurement results to evaluate and determine the management

  19. The Spectroscopy and H-band Imaging of Virgo Cluster Galaxies (SHIVir) Survey: Scaling Relations and the Stellar-to-total Mass Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, Nathalie N.-Q.; Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003-8001 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Department of Physics, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cappellari, Michele [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); McDonald, Michael [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Roediger, Joel C.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Taylor, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-07-01

    We present parameter distributions and fundamental scaling relations for 190 Virgo cluster galaxies in the SHIVir survey. The distribution of galaxy velocities is bimodal about V {sub circ} ∼ 125 km s{sup −1}, hinting at the existence of dynamically unstable modes in the inner regions of galaxies. An analysis of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) of late-type galaxies (LTGs) and the fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies (ETGs) is presented, yielding a compendium of galaxy scaling relations. The slope and zero-point of the Virgo TFR match those of field galaxies, while scatter differences likely reflect distinct evolutionary histories. The velocities minimizing scatter for the TFR and FP are measured at large apertures where the baryonic fraction becomes subdominant. While TFR residuals remain independent of any galaxy parameters, FP residuals (i.e., the FP “tilt”) correlate strongly with the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio, yielding stringent galaxy formation constraints. We construct a stellar-to-total mass relation (STMR) for ETGs and LTGs and find linear but distinct trends over the range M {sub *} = 10{sup 8–11} M {sub ⊙}. Stellar-to-halo mass relations (SHMRs), which probe the extended dark matter halo, can be scaled down to masses estimated within the optical radius, showing a tight match with the Virgo STMR at low masses; possibly inadequate halo abundance matching prescriptions and broad radial scalings complicate this comparison at all masses. While ETGs appear to be more compact than LTGs of the same stellar mass in projected space, their mass-size relations in physical space are identical. The trends reported here may soon be validated through well-resolved numerical simulations.

  20. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure Revised II (PRISM-RII) - a novel method to assess perceived burden of illness in diabetes patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, S.; Vingerhoets, A.J.M.M.; de, W.M.; Zandbelt, N.; Snoek, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) has been introduced as a visual measure of suffering. We explored the validity of a revised version, the PRISM-RII, in diabetes patients as part of the annual review. Methods: Participants were 308 adult outpatients with

  1. Overview of the ANL advanced LMR system thermal-hydraulic test program supporting both GE/PRISM and RI/SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptions of the ANL thermal-hydraulic water models of both the PRISM and SAFR reactors are presented, together with results from Phases I and II of the thermal-hydraulic test program. Phenomena discovered during these tests and modeling results are presented. Overall, these efforts demonstrate the acceptable thermal-hydraulic performance of both the PRISM and SAFR concepts

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this work examples of the various aspects of photoelectron spectroscopy are given. The investigation was started with the development of an angle-resolved spectrometer so that the first chapters deal with angle-resolved ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy. To indicate the possibilities and pitfalls of the technique, in chapter II the theory is briefly reviewed. In chapter III the instrument is described. The system is based on the cylindrical mirror deflection analyzer, which is modified and improved for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. In combination with a position sensitive detector, a spectrometer is developed with which simultaneously several angle-resolved spectra can be recorded. In chapter IV, the results are reported of angle-integrated UPS experiments on dilute alloys. Using the improved energy resolution of the instrument the author was able to study the impurity states more accurately and shows that the photoemission technique has become an important tool in the study of impurities and the interactions involved. XPS and Auger results obtained from dilute alloys are presented in chapter V. It is shown that these systems are especially suited for the study of correlation effects and can provide interesting problems related to the satellite structure and the interaction of the impurity with the host. In chapter VI, the valence bands of ternary alloys are studied with UPS and compared to recent band structure calculation. The core level shifts are analyzed in a simple, thermodynamic scheme. (Auth.)

  3. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  4. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  5. Mechanical behavior in the Nankai inner accretionary prism, IODP Site C0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. D., II; Saffer, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control seismogenesis and stress state at subduction zones requires knowledge of fault zone and sediment physical and mechanical properties. As part of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE), Expedition 348 drilled into the Kumano forearc basin and underlying inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, located 35 km landward of the trench. One primary objective was to sample and characterize the mechanical behavior of the inner accretionary prism. Here we report on the frictional and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of mudstone samples and a clay-rich shear zone recovered from 2182-2209 meters below sea floor (mbsf), determined from triaxial deformation tests at confining pressures from 1 to 7 MPa (UCS measurements on mudstones) and 36 MPa (strength of fault zone). Our results show that at a confining pressure of 1 MPa, the wall rock sediments fail at a peak differential stress of 9.1 MPa with a residual stress of 2.8 MPa. A clear peak and evolution to residual strength remains present at 7 MPa, and both the peak and residual strengths of the mudstones increases systematically with confining pressure. At a confining pressure of 36 MPa, the shear zone sediment yields at a differential stress of 25.2 MPa followed by strain-hardening to a maximum stress of 33.1 MPa. The shear zone is frictionally weaker than the surrounding mudstones, with a friction coefficient (μ) of 0.26-0.31, versus µ = 0.45 for the wall rock. The suite of tests defines a UCS for the mudstone of 7.9 MPa. Our friction data suggest that the inner wedge may be weaker than commonly assumed in applications of critical wedge theory to estimate the properties and conditions in accretionary prisms. One key implication is that for a given basal detachment friction coefficient, higher basal pore pressures (or lower wedge pore pressures) would be required to sustain observed taper angles. Additionally, the

  6. PRISM, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Measures Symptom Change in Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Whitman, Cynthia; Talley, Jennifer; Erder, M Haim; Joseph, Alain; Silberg, Debra G; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) experience relief following treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (Vakil et al. in Am J Gastroenterol 101:1900-1920, 2006; Everhart and Ruhl in Gastroenterology 136:376-386, 2009). As many as 17-44% of patients, however, exhibit only partial response to therapy. Most extant GERD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments fail to meet development best practices as described by the FDA (Talley and Wiklund in Qual Life Res 14:21-33, 2005; Van Pinxteren et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18:CD002095, 2004; El-Serag et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:720-737, 2010). To develop and validate a PRO instrument for clinical trials involving patients with GERD who are PPI partial responders. We prepared a systematic literature review, held patient focus groups, convened an expert panel, and conducted cognitive interviews to establish content validity. Eligible participants took PPI therapy for at least 8 weeks, had undergone an upper endoscopy, and scored at least 8 points on the GerdQ [6]. Qualitative data guided development of 26 draft items. Items were reviewed by expert panels and debriefed with patients. The resulting 21-item instrument underwent psychometric evaluation during a Phase IIB trial. During the trial, confirmatory factor analysis (n = 220) resulted in a four-factor model displaying the highest goodness of fit. All domains had a high inter-item correlation (Cronbach's α > 0.8). Test-retest reliability and convergent validity were strong, with highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations between average weekly PRISM scores and severity anchors and significant (p < 0.05) correlations with anchor subscales. Cumulative distribution functions revealed significant differences between responders and non-responders. Analysis in a clinical trial setting demonstrated strong psychometric properties suggesting validity of PRISM. Developed in line with FDA guidance on PROs, PRISM represents an

  7. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  8. Regional Variation of CH4 and N2 Production Processes in the Deep Aquifers of an Accretionary Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shugo; Nagai, Kazushige; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Kunio; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-29

    Accretionary prisms are mainly composed of ancient marine sediment scraped from the subducting oceanic plate at a convergent plate boundary. Large amounts of anaerobic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4) and nitrogen gas (N2), are present in the deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism; however, the origins of these gases are poorly understood. We herein revealed regional variations in CH4 and N2 production processes in deep aquifers in the accretionary prism in Southwest Japan, known as the Shimanto Belt. Stable carbon isotopic and microbiological analyses suggested that CH4 is produced through the non-biological thermal decomposition of organic matter in the deep aquifers in the coastal area near the convergent plate boundary, whereas a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogens contributes to the significant production of CH4 observed in deep aquifers in midland and mountainous areas associated with the accretionary prism. Our results also demonstrated that N2 production through the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter by denitrifying bacteria is particularly prevalent in deep aquifers in mountainous areas in which groundwater is affected by rainfall.

  9. A Pilot Evaluation of On-Road Detection Performance by Drivers with Hemianopia Using Oblique Peripheral Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R. Bowers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Homonymous hemianopia (HH, a severe visual consequence of stroke, causes difficulties in detecting obstacles on the nonseeing (blind side. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the effects of oblique peripheral prisms, a novel development in optical treatments for HH, on detection of unexpected hazards when driving. Methods. Twelve people with complete HH (median 49 years, range 29–68 completed road tests with sham oblique prism glasses (SP and real oblique prism glasses (RP. A masked evaluator rated driving performance along the 25 km routes on busy streets in Ghent, Belgium. Results. The proportion of satisfactory responses to unexpected hazards on the blind side was higher in the RP than the SP drive (80% versus 30%; P=0.001, but similar for unexpected hazards on the seeing side. Conclusions. These pilot data suggest that oblique peripheral prisms may improve responses of people with HH to blindside hazards when driving and provide the basis for a future, larger-sample clinical trial. Testing responses to unexpected hazards in areas of heavy vehicle and pedestrian traffic appears promising as a real-world outcome measure for future evaluations of HH rehabilitation interventions aimed at improving detection when driving.

  10. Pressure and Stress Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism: A Critical State Soil Mechanics Porosity-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, Peter B.; Saffer, Demian M.

    2018-02-01

    We predict pressure and stress from porosity in the Nankai accretionary prism with a critical state soil model that describes porosity as a function of mean stress and maximum shear stress, and assumes Coulomb failure within the wedge and uniaxial burial beneath it. At Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1174 and 808, we find that pore pressure in the prism supports 70% to 90% of the overburden (λu = 0.7 to 0.9), for a range of assumed friction angles (5-30°). The prism pore pressure is equal to or greater than that in the underthrust sediments even though the porosity is lower within the prism. The high pore pressures lead to a mechanically weak wedge that supports low maximum shear stress, and this in turn requires very low basal traction to remain consistent with the observed narrowly tapered wedge geometry. We estimate the décollement friction coefficient (μb) to be 0.08-0.38 (ϕb' = 4.6°-21°). Our approach defines a pathway to predict pressure in a wide range of environments from readily observed quantities (e.g., porosity and seismic velocity). Pressure and stress control the form of the Earth's collisional continental margins and play a key role in its greatest earthquakes. However, heretofore, there has been no systematic approach to relate material state (e.g., porosity), pore pressure, and stress in these systems.

  11. Risk of fall (RoF) intervention by affecting visual egocenter through gait analysis and yoked prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Subramanian, Prem; Spurling, April; Jenness, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Following a neurologic event such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and chronic neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy a shift in the visual midline (egocenter) can directly affect posture, balance and spatial orientation. As a consequence, this increases the risk of fall (RoF) and injury that imposes a major financial burden on the public health system. To determine if there is a statistically significant change in balance with the intervention of yoked prisms to reduce the risk of fall in subjects with neurological impairments. Ambulation of thirty-six subjects was evaluated on a pressure sensitive mat before and after intervention with yoked prisms. Changes in gait and balance were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) axes during ambulation. T-tests for each measure comparing the difference-of-differences to a zero change at baseline returned statistically significant reductions in both AP (p <  0.0001; 95% CI: 1.368- 2.976) and ML (p = 0.0002; 95% CI: 1.472- 4.173) imbalances using specifically directed yoked prisms to correct the visual midline deviation. These findings demonstrate that yoked prisms have the potential to provide a cost-effective means to restore the visual midline thereby improving balance, reduce RoF and subsequent injury.

  12. The nature of the phenomenon “Event” in the prism of the conception by Gilles Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyugina Elena Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the prism of the “event” conception by G. Deleuze the article explores the ambivalent language and social nature of the event. It analyses references between attributes of the event: sign, meaning, and significance. It also defines the role of "floating signifiers" in the event and implementation of the virulent ideas and names into the system of event.

  13. A 900 electrostatic prism for microparticle beam steering on a 2 MV van der Graaff dust accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Clarke, C.D.; McDonnell, J.A.M.; Dickason, R.E.; Flavill, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The design and construction of a 90 0 electrostatic prism is described. The device is used to deflect hypervelocity dust particles produced in a horizontal van der Graaff accelerator to simulate micrometeoroid impacts on dusty lunar and asteroidal surfaces where vertical incidence must be provided. (author)

  14. The influence of hardening conditions on the properties of masonry cement mortar prisms made in brick moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertram, G.; Lourenco, P.B.; Hasseltine, B.A.; Vasconseles, G.

    2014-01-01

    One aspect of our investigation into the spacing of movement joints involved the short and long term deformation of mortar embedded in masonry. In this research the influence of hardening conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of masonry cement mortar [M5] were studied. Mortar prisms

  15. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  16. Islamic exorcism and the cinema fist: Analyzing exorcism among Danish Muslims through the prism of film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this article I apply film theory as an analytic prism through which to examine the ritual mechanisms of a particular kind of Islamic exorcism (al-ruqya al-sharʿiyya). I show how these exorcisms operate as a ritual montage that conjures the absent presence of al-ghayb—a hidden world of power...... that only God can see in its totality and to which the possessed patients and the jinn spirits must succumb. These exorcisms thus provide healing, not in the sense of immediate “well-being” or “relief from pain” but in the sense of moral witnessing, an opportunity to testify to the limits of human seeing...

  17. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side. (orig.)

  18. Single-domain versus two-domain configuration in thin ferromagnetic prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, Maria Gloria; Politi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Thin ferromagnetic elements in the form of rectangular prisms are theoretically investigated in order to study the transition from single-domain to two-domain state, with changing the in-plane aspect ratio p. We address two main questions: first, how general is the transition; second, how the critical value p c depends on the physical parameters. We use two complementary methods: discrete-lattice calculations and a micromagnetic continuum approach. Ultrathin films do not appear to split in two domains. Instead, thicker films may undergo the above transition. We have used the continuum approach to analyze recent magnetic force microscopy observations in 30nm-thick patterned permalloy elements, finding a good agreement for p c

  19. Student Analogy Reasons When Solving Area Concepts in Pyramids and Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashuri, A.; Sudjadi, I.; Pramudya, I.; Gembong, S.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the reasoning of students’ analogies in solving the broad concept problem in pyramids and prisms. This research method using descriptive qualitative. Data collection uses analogous reasoning tests and interviews. After that tested to 32 students of Junior High School. Based on the results of the analysis can be concluded that (1) 16% of students solve the problem of source and target problem correctly. (2) 29% of students correctly solve source problems and target problems incorrectly. (3) 55% solve source problems and target problems wrong. This is because students tend to memorize formulas not using analogy reasoning to solve new problems. Finally, the students have difficulties in solving new problems, because students are not accustomed to using the experience they have gained to solve new problems.

  20. Wavelength-tunable prism-coupled external cavity passively mode-locked quantum-dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan-Hua; Jian Wu; Jin Peng; Wang Fei-Fei; Hu Fa-Jie; Wei Heng; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable mode-locked quantum dot laser using an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot gain medium and a discrete semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. A dispersion prism, which has lower optical loss and less spectral narrowing than a blazed grating, is used for wavelength selection and tuning. A wavelength tuning range of 45.5 nm (from 1137.3 nm to 1182.8 nm) under 140-mA injection current in the passive mode-locked regime is achieved. The maximum average power of 19 mW is obtained at the 1170.3-nm wavelength, corresponding to the single pulse energy of 36.5 pJ. (paper)

  1. Testing of seismic isolation bearings for advanced liquid metal reactor prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajirian, F.F.; Kelly, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Seismic isolation can significantly mitigate earthquake loads on liquid metal reactors (LMR), thus reducing the impact of seismic loads on design. This improves plant safety margins for beyond-design basis seismic events and enhances adaptability of a standardized design to a variety of sites, with potential cost benefits. The PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) LMR incorporates a horizontal isolation system which consists of high damping steel laminated rubber bearings. The results of an experimental program to determine the mechanical properties of the rubber compound and the bearing performance under different loading conditions are presented. The test results demonstrate the excellent performance of the bearings and their suitability for isolating compact LMR plants

  2. Astrophysical Information from Objective Prism Digitized Images: Classification with an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratsolis Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar spectral classification is not only a tool for labeling individual stars but is also useful in studies of stellar population synthesis. Extracting the physical quantities from the digitized spectral plates involves three main stages: detection, extraction, and classification of spectra. Low-dispersion objective prism images have been used and automated methods have been developed. The detection and extraction problems have been presented in previous works. In this paper, we present a classification method based on an artificial neural network (ANN. We make a brief presentation of the entire automated system and we compare the new classification method with the previously used method of maximum correlation coefficient (MCC. Digitized photographic material has been used here. The method can also be used on CCD spectral images.

  3. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF UKRAINE THROUGH THE PRISM OF MEMORY ON CHERNOBYL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Perga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the research of individual, collective and historical memory — through the prism of environmental disasters. Although they lead not only to physical but also to mental trauma in modern scientific discourse this aspect has not become a subject of special studies. In the example of Chernobyl disaster traumatic experience of 50 residents of Kiev, who received indirect effects of the accident, is analyzed. It is shown the formation a stable distrust of the authorities of the USSR, which is transferred to the present and entails a negative assessment of the environmental policy of independent Ukraine. Factors, which cause such situation and its relationship with the views of respondents on their future, are established. The conclusion of the feasibility of using the questionnaire method for determining the main trends traumatic impact of environmental disasters on individual memory is done. Directions for further in-depth research in this area are proposed.

  5. A couple-focused intervention to prevent postnatal smoking relapse: PRISM study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Mihu, Dan; Iuhas, Cristian Ioan; Stamatian, Florin; Caracostea, Gabriela; Sidor, Alexandra; Alexa, Paula Mădălina; Brînza, Cătălina; Pop, Oana Maria; Cherecheș, Răzvan Mircea

    2015-03-01

    Maternal smoking is one of the most modifiable factors with clear adverse effects for the fetus and the entire family. Addressing the dearth of pregnancy smoking interventions with partner support, PRISM (Prevent Relapse In SMoking) is a partnership between a research institution and the two largest state-owned obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The study will assess the efficacy of a couple-focused telephone-counseling program to prevent smoking relapse among mothers who quit smoking closely before or during pregnancy. The intervention is a program for couples based on motivational interviewing delivered over the phone after birth. The study is an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 250 Romanian women recruited soon after childbirth, who quit smoking in the six months before pregnancy or no later than the end of the first pregnancy trimester and remained abstinent (which was biochemically verified) until delivery. Participants were randomized to: (1) a control arm (usual care); and (2) an intervention arm consisting of up to 4 postnatal counseling calls for mothers and their partners using motivational interviewing to encourage the woman to remain smoke-free and the partner to support her decision. The primary outcome is maternal smoking abstinence at 6 months postpartum (biochemically verified). PRISM has the potential to identify strategies to reduce maternal postnatal relapse and increase partner quitting. If successful, the program may be an effective method to prevent and reduce smoking, which may lead to improved child, mother, and partner health both in the short and the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing Uncertainties Associated With Radioactive Waste Disposal: Task Group 4 Of The IAEA PRISM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  7. Complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, NanTroSEIZE Kumano transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. F.; Park, J.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected over the past 10 years by the Institute for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE) of Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) image a zone of complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism south of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The frontal part of the Nankai prism west of Shionomisaki Canyon (SC) at ~136° E, including the Muroto and Ashizuri Transects off Shikoku, is generally formed of imbricate thrusts with spacing of ~ 1-3 km that dip ~25-35° landward and sole into a prominent décollement. Out-of-sequence thrusts (OOSTs) are usually restricted to the landward margin of this imbricate thrust zone. East of SC, in the Kumano Transect area, the imbricate thrust zone is bounded on its seaward edge by a frontal thrust block that is ~5-6 km wide and consists of several OOSTs. The frontal thrust dips ~5-10° under this ~2-4 km thick block, emplacing this thrust sheet over the trench floor. The number and character of thrusts within the frontal thrust block vary laterally along strike. The 2006 Kumano 3D seismic data set images details of one segment of this complex frontal thrust block. Out-of-sequence faulting has led to underplating of several smaller thrust slices and movement along oblique ramps has led to a complex pattern of faulting that cannot be recognized in even closely-spaced 2D seismic lines. The frontal thrust block is further modified by subduction of seamounts and ridges that have caused large slumps of material from the block.

  8. NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenert, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book reviews the applications of NMR-spectroscopy in medicine and biology. The first chapter of about 40 pages summarizes the history of development and explains the chemical and physical fundamentals of this new and non-invasive method in an easily comprehensible manner. The other chapters summarize diagnostic results obtained with this method in organs and tissues, so that the reader will find a systematic overview of the available findings obtained in the various organ systems. It must be noted, however, that ongoing research work and new insight quite naturally will necessitate corrections to be done, as is the case here with some biochemical interpretations which would need adjustment to latest research results. NMR-spectroscopy is able to measure very fine energy differences on the molecular level, and thus offers insight into metabolic processes, with the advantage that there is no need of applying ionizing radiation in order to qualitatively or quantitatively analyse the metabolic processes in the various organ systems. (orig./DG) With 40 figs., 4 tabs [de

  9. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igi, K.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is related to mini-rapporteur talk on baryonium spectroscopy. First of all, the models of baryonium, namely the diquark model, the string picture, the linear baryonium and the bag model, are described. All of these models so far discussed are highly suggestive. In this paper, discussions are confined to the spectroscopy of the string and the bag models. Because of the color degree of freedom, the bag model has mock diquonium and mock mesonium besides true baryonium. It might be possible that the string model takes into account only a part of them. The constraints among baryonium, baryon and boson trajectories using duality and unitarity were proposed as a guide for classifying various spectra. Inequalities were derived as the modest and reliable constraints on baryonium intercepts from baryon and boson intercepts by imposing unitarity and Regge behaviors on scattering amplitudes. As a consequence of residue factorization and duality, the baryonium slopes were derived. The spin of S (1936) was also obtained. The baryonium containing s or c quarks can also be studied. Topics such as the EXD patterns of baryons, linear baryons, linear Regge trajectories for all Q-anti Q families, and the Al and two Q mesons, are presented in this paper. Comments on di-baryon are described. (Kato, T.)

  10. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Spectra of hadrons show various and complex structures due to the strong coupling constants of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) constituting its fundamental theory. For their understandings, two parameters, i.e., (1) the quark mass and (2) their excitation energies are playing important roles. In low energies, for example, rather simple structures similar to the positronium appear in the heavy quarks such as charms and bottoms. It has been, however, strongly suggested by the recent experiments that the molecular resonant state shows up when the threshold to decay to mesons is exceeded. On the other hand, chiral symmetry and its breaking play important roles in the dynamics of light quarks. Strange quarks are in between and show special behaviors. In the present lecture, the fundamental concept of the hadron spectroscopy based on the QCD is expounded to illustrate the present understandings and problems of the hadron spectroscopy. Sections are composed of 1. Introduction, 2. Fundamental Concepts (hadrons, quarks and QCD), 3. Quark models and exotic hadrons, 4. Lattice QCD and QCD sum rules. For sections 1 to 3, only outline of the concepts is described because of the limited space. Exotic hadrons, many quark pictures of light hadrons and number of quarks in hadrons are described briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  11. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Associate Directorate for Advanced Reactors and License Renewal

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  12. Subscales correlations between MSSS-88 and PRISM scales in evaluation of spasticity for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Patient-reported outcomes have been recognized as an important way of assessing health and well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of the study is to determine the correlation between different subscales of Patient-Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM and Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88 scales in the estimation of spasticity influence on different domains Methods. The study is a cross-sectional observational study. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales were analyzed in five domains (body-function domain, activity domain, participation domain, personal factors/wellbeing domain, and hypothesis. For statistical interpretation of the correlation we performed the Spearman’s ρ-test, concurrent validity, divergent validity, and the linear regression model. Results. We found a significant correlation between subscales of evaluated MSSS-88 and PRISM scales for body domains; the highest correlation was between the need for assistance/positioning (NA/P and walking (W. Spasticity has the weakest correlation with the need for intervention (NI. The presence of pain has a negative impact and significant positive correlation between pain discomfort and NI. In the domain of body function for males, there was a non-significant correlation between muscle spasms and NI. The same applies for social functioning and social embarrassment domains, as well as for emotional health and psychological agitation for personal factors / wellbeing domain. The differences between genders of MS patients persist in different domains; muscle spasms are strong predictors for NI, and body movement is a strong predictor versus W for NA/P. Conclusion. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales can be considered reliable in measuring different domains of disability for MS patients with spasticity. Because it is shorter, quicker, and simple to use, it is concluded that the PRISM scale can successfully compete with and replace the MSSS-88 scale in

  13. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielissen, Marieke F M; Prins, Judith B; Knoop, Hans; Verhagen, Stans; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2013-06-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue. Quantitative and qualitative data of a previous randomized controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) especially designed for postcancer fatigue was used to assess convergent validity and sensitivity to change in a sample of 83 cancer survivors. The PRISM, yielding self-illness separation (SIS-fatigue = suffering due to fatigue; SIS-cancer = suffering due to cancer), fatigue severity (Checklist Individual Strength; CIS-fatigue), functional impairment, psychological well-being, quality of life, and coping with the experience of cancer (Impact of Event Scale; IES). Moderate significant correlations were found with the PRISM and the above-mentioned measures. On the basis of SIS scores, the sample was divided into two separate groups: cancer survivors who suffered more because of fatigue and cancer survivors who suffered more because they had cancer in the past. The two groups had different scores on CIS-fatigue and IES, in line with that aspect that caused them the most suffering. The qualitative data confirmed this finding. Participants in the CBT condition demonstrated a significant difference between SIS-fatigue at baseline versus 6 months later compared with those in the waiting list condition. No change of SIS-cancer was found. The PRISM seems to be a valuable tool in fatigue research and clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Promoting Resilience in Stress Management for Parents (PRISM-P): An intervention for caregivers of youth with serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Klein, Victoria; Eaton, Lauren; Wharton, Claire; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2017-09-01

    It is well-known that parental stress and coping impacts the well-being of children with serious illness. The current study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and satisfaction of a novel resilience promoting intervention, the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management Intervention for Parents (PRISM-P) among parents of adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes or cancer. Secondary analyses explored the effect of the PRISM-P on parent-reported resilience and distress. The PRISM-P includes 4 short skills-based modules, delivered in either 2 or 4 separate, individual sessions. English-speaking parents of adolescents with cancer or Type 1 diabetes were eligible. Feasibility was conservatively defined as a completion rate of 80%; satisfaction was qualitatively evaluated based upon parent feedback regarding intervention content, timing, and format. Resilience and distress were assessed pre- and postintervention with the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale. Twelve of 24 caregivers of youth with diabetes (50%) and 13 of 15 caregivers of youth with cancer (87%) agreed to participate. Nine of 12 (75%) and 9 of 13 (64%) completed all PRISM-P modules, respectively. Among those who completed the intervention, qualitative satisfaction was high. Parent-reported resilience and distress scores improved after the intervention. Effect sizes for both groups indicated a moderate intervention effect. Ultimately, the PRISM-P intervention was well accepted and impactful among parents who completed it. However, attrition rates were higher than anticipated, suggesting alternative or less time-intensive formats may be more feasible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Permissive tracts for iron oxide copper-gold deposits in Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 78 ): Chapter M1 in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernette, Gregory; Horton, John D.

    2012-01-01

    In 1996, at the request of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists produced a strategic plan for the acquisition, improvement and modernization of multidisciplinary sets of data to support the growth of the Mauritanian minerals sector and to highlight the geological and mineral exploration potential of the country. In 1999, the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy, and Mines of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania implemented a program for the acquisition of the recommended basic geoscientific information, termed the first Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier (Project for Institutional Capacity Building in the Mining Sector, PRISM-I). As a result of the PRISM-I efforts, a great deal of new geological, geophysical, geochemical, remote sensing, and hydrological data became available for evaluation and synthesis. However, the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy, and Mines recognized that additional work was required to extract the full benefit of the data before it could be of greatest use to the international community and of benefit to the Mauritanian minerals and development sector.

  16. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects

  17. Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemcik, T.

    1984-01-01

    The emission and absorption of photons taking place without changes in the frequency spectrum of the crystal lattice are known as the Moessbauer effect. It takes place in the low energy levels of heavy nuclei in solid lattices at low temperatures. On the basis of the hyperfine structure of Moessbauer spectra the notions are explained of isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and magnetic splitting. The principle and function are explained of Moessbauer spectrometers and the methods of graphical processing of spectra, also the use of the least square fit. Moessbauer spectroscopy is nondestructive, highly sensitive and selective and makes structural resolution possible. It is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of compounds. Examples are given of the use of this method for mineralogical and crystallo-chemical analysis of lunar minerals and rocks, for analysis of corrosion products of iron and for phase analysis of alloys. (M.D.)

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in photoelectron spectroscopy at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: the orientation of CO on Pt(III) and Ni(III) surfaces from angle-resolved photoemission; photoemission from CO on Pt(III) in the range 40 eV less than or equal to dirac constant ω less than or equal to 150 eV; photoemission studies of electron states at clean surfaces using synchrotron radiation; angle and energy dependent photoemission studies of plasmon loss structure in Al and In; d-orbital directed photoemission from copper; interpretation of angle-resolved x-ray photoemission from valence bands; atomic cross-section effects in soft x-ray photoemission from Ag, Au, and Pt valence bands; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of the electronic structure of transition metal difluorides; x-ray photoemission investigation of the density of states of B'-NiAl; the electronic structure of SrTiO 3 and some simple related oxides; fluorescence lifetime measurements of np 5 (n+1)S' states in krypton and xenon; Zeeman beats in the resonance fluorescence of the 3P 1 , states in krypton and xenon; lifetime measurements of rare-gas dimers; configuration interaction effects in the atomic photoelectron spectra of Ba, Sm, Eu, and Yb; glow discharge lamps as electron sources for electron impact excitation; electron impact excitation of electron correlation states in Ca, Sr, and Ba; photoelectron spectroscopy of atomic and molecular bismuth; relativistic effects in the uv photoelectron spectra of group VI diatomic molecules; and relative gas-phase acidities and basicities from a proton potential model

  19. Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Errui [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Guangshe [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Xinsong [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Wen [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Liping, E-mail: lipingli@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-10-25

    In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+}. With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentration in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9

  20. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  1. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACS J0416.1-2403 Using Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Wang, X.; Brammer, G. B.; Broussard, A.; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Schrabback, T.; Trenti, M.; Vulcani, B.

    2016-11-01

    We present a model using both strong and weak gravitational lensing of the galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 30 multiple images belonging to 15 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for five of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and nine multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting map of total mass density is compared with a map of stellar mass density obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total mass in the cluster. We find that the projected stellar mass to total mass ratio, f ⋆, varies considerably with the stellar surface mass density. The mean projected stellar mass to total mass ratio is =0.009+/- 0.003 (stat.), but with a systematic error as large as 0.004-0.005, dominated by the choice of the initial mass function. We find agreement with several recent measurements of f ⋆ in massive cluster environments. The lensing maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available to the broader community in the standard HFF format.

  2. SIMP spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, Yonit [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kuflik, Eric [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Center for Japanese Studies, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3→2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e{sup +}e{sup −} colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing ‘hidden valley’ phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  3. SIMP spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3→2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e + e − colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing ‘hidden valley’ phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  4. Planetary spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, U.

    1988-01-01

    The main goal of the research is charge coupled device (CCD) spectroscopic and imaging studies of the solar system in support of spacecraft investigations. Studies include the physical behavior of comets, the atmosphere of the gaseous planets, and the solid surfaces of satellites and asteroids. The major observing program consisted of approximately 50 nights of photometry of Comet Halley in order to resolve the controversy over this comet's rotation period. This data is presently being analyzed. Additional observing projects included the spectroscopic occultation of Charon by Pluto, reflection spectroscopy of Mercury, and a spectrum of the satellite Oberon. Mercury data does not corroborate the Fe(++) absorption feature reported by McCord and Clark at 8800 A but instead potentially shows a weaker feature at longer wavelengths. This position is in much closer accord with expectations for Mercury since a band center near 8800 A implies too little Fe(++) on Mercury, especially if band shifts with temperature are considered. The Pluto project proved that the deep methane absorptions visible in their combined specta are due soley to Pluto with Charon showing a flat and featureless spectrum. It appears that if Charon ever contained a substantial methane component, the satellite's low surface gravity could not hold it and the methane evaporated and escaped

  5. Intermolecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbart, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this article some of the theoretical background is presented for the following papers on 'Intermolecular Spectroscopy and Dynamical Properties of Dense Systems'. In Section 1 we outline a simple semi-classical description of the interaction between optical radiation and matter. The motion of a many-body polarizability is introduced; limiting forms of this complicated quantity lead to the familiar cases of light scattering spectra. In Section 2 we consider the linear response approximation, and the equation of motion for the many-body density matrix is solved to first order in the matter-radiation interaction. The often quoted fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the time-dependent, equilibrium correlation functions are discussed. Section 3 treats the problem of the local field. In Section 4 we consider the special case of collision-induced light scattering by atomic fluids in the low-density limit. This allows us to focus on determining the interaction polarizability for simple gases. Finally, in Section 5 we distinguish between collision-induced and multiple light scattering, and discuss the double-light-scattering analyses which provide new information about critical and thermodynamically unstable fluids. (KBE)

  6. Prism Adaptation Alters Electrophysiological Markers of Attentional Processes in the Healthy Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Laube, Inga; Koun, Eric; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T; Pisella, Laure

    2016-01-20

    Neglect patients typically show a rightward attentional orienting bias and a strong disengagement deficit, such that they are especially slow in responding to left-sided targets after right-sided cues (Posner et al., 1984). Prism adaptation (PA) can reduce diverse debilitating neglect symptoms and it has been hypothesized that PA's effects are so generalized that they might be mediated by attentional mechanisms (Pisella et al., 2006; Redding and Wallace, 2006). In neglect patients, performance on spatial attention tasks improves after rightward-deviating PA (Jacquin-Courtois et al., 2013). In contrast, in healthy subjects, although there is evidence that leftward-deviating PA induces neglect-like performance on some visuospatial tasks, behavioral studies of spatial attention tasks have mostly yielded negative results (Morris et al., 2004; Bultitude et al., 2013). We hypothesized that these negative behavioral findings might reflect the limitations of behavioral measures in healthy subjects. Here we exploited the sensitivity of event-related potentials to test the hypothesis that electrophysiological markers of attentional processes in the healthy human brain are affected by PA. Leftward-deviating PA generated asymmetries in attentional orienting (reflected in the cue-locked N1) and in attentional disengagement for invalidly cued left targets (reflected in the target-locked P1). This is the first electrophysiological demonstration that leftward-deviating PA in healthy subjects mimics attentional patterns typically seen in neglect patients. Significance statement: Prism adaptation (PA) is a promising tool for ameliorating many deficits in neglect patients and inducing neglect-like behavior in healthy subjects. The mechanisms underlying PA's effects are poorly understood but one hypothesis suggests that it acts by modulating attention. To date, however, there has been no successful demonstration of attentional modulation in healthy subjects. We provide the first

  7. [Shared decision-making and individualized goal setting - a pilot trial using PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in psychiatric inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchi, S; Straub, S; Schwager, U

    2010-12-01

    Although there is much talk about shared decision making and individualized goal setting, there is a lack of knowledge and knowhow in their realization in daily clinical practice. There is a lack in tools for easy applicable tools to ameliorate person-centred individualized goal setting processes. In three selected psychiatric inpatients the semistructured, theory driven use of PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in patients with complex psychiatric problems is presented and discussed. PRISM sustains a person-centred individualized process of goal setting and treatment and reinforces the active participation of patients. The process of visualisation and synchronous documentation is validated positively by patients and clinicians. The visual goal setting requires 30 to 45 minutes. In patients with complex psychiatric illness PRISM was used successfully to ameliorate individual goal setting. Specific effects of PRISM-visualisation are actually evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  8. Evaluating PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) as a measure of life quality for children with skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbardis Jørgensen, K.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2011-01-01

    of age-dependant cognitive development on children's self-reported QoL. Methods and materials: A total of 43 children of both sexes aged 5-16, with a diagnosed dermatologic disease were asked to complete both PRISM and CDLQI. Children with a mental handicap, children who did not speak Danish or who were......Background: Changes in Quality of Life (QoL) are increasingly being used as an outcome measure in dermatology. For pediatric dermatology this poses special problems due to the natural cognitive development of the patients. QoL is mostly assessed using questionnaires. The use of a non......-verbal instrument may therefore be of particular relevance to pediatric patients. Purpose: To evaluate PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) as a non-verbal measure of QoL for children with skin diseases compared to CDLQI (Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index) and the possible influence...

  9. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  10. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection (TIR is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm2 with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  11. Scattering of a light wave by a thin fiber on or near a prism: experiment and analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Fumiaki; Nishiyama, Yoshio

    2012-06-01

    We have performed an experiment of the scattering of the near field on a prism created by a laser wave, evanescent wave (EW), or plane wave (PW) of an incident angle slightly larger than or smaller than the critical angle, by a thin fiber of subwavelength diameter set above the prism, and we made an analytical theory of an adapted model for the experiment. We have been able to analyze the experimental data exactly by the model theory better than any other theory we have ever known. The importance of the multiple interaction of the wave between the fiber and the surface and also the close similarity of the scattering characteristics between the EW and the PW mentioned above have been acknowledged by the analysis of the data obtained.

  12. Stress distribution and pressure-bearing capacity of a high-pressure split-cylinder die with prism cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingzhe; Wang, Liyan; Qu, Erhu; Yi, Zhuo

    2018-03-01

    A novel high-pressure belt-type die with a split-type cylinder is investigated with respect to extending its lifetime and improving its pressure bearing capacity. Specifically, a tungsten carbide cylinder is split into several parts along the radial direction with a prism-type cavity. In this paper, the cylinders with different split numbers are chosen to study the stress distribution and compare them with the traditional belt-type die. The simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has much smaller stress than those in the belt-type cylinder, and the statistical analysis reveals that the split-pressure cylinder is able to bear higher pressure. Experimental tests also show that the high-pressure die with a split cylinder and prism cavity has a stronger pressure-bearing capacity than a belt-type die. The split cylinder has advantages of easy manufacturing, high pressure bearing capacity, and replaceable performance.

  13. Critically Tapered Wedges and Critical State Soil Mechanics: Porosity-based Pressure Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Saffer, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    We predict pore pressure from porosity measurements at ODP Sites 1174 and 808 in the Nankai Accretionary prism, offshore Japan. For a range of friction angles (5-30 degrees), we estimate that the pore pressure ratio (λ*) ranges from 0.5 to 0.8: the pore pressure supports 50% to 80% of the overburden. Higher friction angles result in higher pressures. For the majority of the scenarios, pressures within the prism parallel the lithostat and are greater than the pressures beneath it. Our results support previous qualitative interpretations at Nankai and elsewhere suggesting that lower porosity above the décollement than below reflects higher mean effective stress there. By coupling a critical state soil model (Modified Cam Clay), which describes porosity as a function of mean and deviator stress, with a stress model that considers the difference in stress states above and below the décollement, we quantitatively show that the prism porosities record significant overpressure despite their lower porosity. As the soil is consumed by the advancing prism, changes in both mean and shear stress drive overpressure generation. Even in the extreme case where only change in mean stress is considered (a vertical end cap model), significant overpressures are generated. The high pressures we predict require an effective friction coefficient (µb') at the décollement of 0.023-0.038. Assuming that the pore pressure at the décollement lies between the values we report for the wedge and the underthrusting sediments, these effective friction coefficients correspond to intrinsic friction coefficients of µb= 0.08-0.38 (f = 4.6 - 21°). These values are comparable to friction coefficients of 0.1-0.4 reported for clay-dominated fault zones in a wide range of settings. By coupling the critical wedge model with an appropriate constitutive model, we present a systematic approach to predict pressure in thrust systems.

  14. A model of the transverse modes of stable and unstable porro-prism resonators using symmetry considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    A simple model of a Porro prism laser resonator has been found to correctly predict the formation of the "petal" mode patterns typical of these resonators. A geometrical analysis of the petals suggests that these petals are the lowest-order modes of this type of resonator. Further use of the model reveals the formation of more complex beam patterns, and the nature of these patterns is investigated. Also, the output of stable and unstable resonator modes is presented.

  15. An analytic solution to the alibi query in the space-time prisms model for moving object data

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMSON, Rafael; KUIJPERS, Bart; OTHMAN, Walied

    2010-01-01

    Moving objects produce trajectories, which are stored in databases by means of finite samples of time-stamped locations. When also speed limitations in these sample points are known, space-time prisms (also called beads) (Egenhofer 2003, Miller 2005, Pfoser and Jensen 1999) can be used to model the uncertainty about an object’s location in between sample points. In this setting, a query of particular interest, that has been studied in the literature of geographic information systems (GIS), is...

  16. Tarzan as a cultural prism: Ideological Associations in Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan of the Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Hadi Q. Alseed

    2013-01-01

    More than any other of Burroughs’ many creations, Tarzan has become a staple of popular culture. The character functions as a cultural prism, in which the concerns, anxieties, desires, and tastes of particular times and places are encapsulated in such a way to make us look at that context in a different perspective. Burroughs’ original Tarzan embodies several of the aspirations, tensions, and failings of the early twentieth-century Unites States. On one hand, the novel refracts a national lon...

  17. Basal and prism dislocation cores in magnesium: comparison of first-principles and embedded-atom-potential methods predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasi, J A; Nogaret, T; Curtin, W A; Trinkle, D R; Qi, Y; Hector, L G Jr

    2009-01-01

    The core structures of screw and edge dislocations on the basal and prism planes in Mg, and the associated gamma surfaces, were studied using an ab initio method and the embedded-atom-method interatomic potentials developed by Sun et al and Liu et al. The ab initio calculations predict that the basal plane dislocations dissociate into partials split by 16.7 Å (edge) and 6.3 Å (screw), as compared with 14.3 Å and 12.7 Å (Sun and Liu edge), and 6.3 Å and 1.4 Å (Sun and Liu screw), with the Liu screw dislocation being metastable. In the prism plane, the screw and edge cores are compact and the edge core structures are all similar, while ab initio does not predict a stable prismatic screw in stress-free conditions. These results are qualitatively understood through an examination of the gamma surfaces for interplanar sliding on the basal and prism planes. The Peierls stresses at T = 0 K for basal slip are a few megapascals for the Sun potential, in agreement with experiments, but are ten times larger for the Liu potential. The Peierls stresses for prism slip are 10–40 MPa for both potentials. Overall, the dislocation core structures from ab initio are well represented by the Sun potential in all cases while the Liu potential shows some notable differences. These results suggest that the Sun potential is preferable for studying other dislocations in Mg, particularly the (c + a) dislocations, for which the core structures are much larger and not accessible by ab initio methods

  18. Transit spectroscopy with GTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio M.R. Zapatero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to different ground-based surveys and space missions, nowadays we have a fairly large sample of discovered extra-solar planets to study and, without a doubt, this number will increase in the future. One of the most succesful techniques that allows us to prove the physical properties and atmospheric composition of these exoplanets is transmission spectroscopy. The level of precision that is require to measure these effects provides a technical challenge that is solved by using big telescopes and stable instruments to reach low noise levels. In this article, we will discuss the use of the 10m class telescope GTC to observed planetary transits in spectroscopic mode and some of the results that we are currently obtaining.

  19. High-precision angle sensor based on a Köster’s prism with absolute zero-point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, V.; Oertel, E.; Manske, E.

    2018-06-01

    In this publication, a novel approach will be presented to use a compact white-light interferometer based on a Köster’s prism for angle measurements. Experiments show that the resolution of this angle interferometer is in the range of a commercial digital autocollimator, with a focal length of f  =  300 mm, but with clearly reduced signal noise and without overshoot artifacts in the signal caused by digital filters. The angle detection of the reference mirror in the Köster’s interferometer is based on analysing the rotation angle of the fringe pattern, which is projected on a CMOS-matrix. The fringe pattern is generated by two displaced spherical wave fronts coming from one fiber-coupled white-light source and getting divided into a reference and a measurement beam by the Köster’s prism. The displacement correlates with the reference angle mirror in one linear direction and with the angle aberrations of the prism in the other orthogonal direction on the CMOS sensor. We will present the experimental and optical setup, the method and algorithms for the image-to-angle processing as well as the experimental results obtained in calibration and long-term measurements.

  20. Summary of advanced LMR [Liquid Metal Reactor] evaluations: PRISM [Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module] and SAFR [Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Kennett, R.J.; Cheng, H.S.; Kroeger, P.G.

    1989-10-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed independent analyses of two advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) concepts. The designs, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) [Berglund, 1987] and the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) [Baumeister, 1987], were developed primarily by General Electric (GE) and Rockwell International (RI), respectively. Technical support was provided to DOE, RI, and GE, by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), particularly with respect to the characteristics of the metal fuels. There are several examples in both PRISM and SAFR where inherent or passive systems provide for a safe response to off-normal conditions. This is in contrast to the engineered safety systems utilized on current US Light Water Reactor (LWR) designs. One important design inherency in the LMRs is the ''inherent shutdown'', which refers to the tendency of the reactor to transition to a much lower power level whenever temperatures rise significantly. This type of behavior was demonstrated in a series of unscrammed tests at EBR-II [NED, 1986]. The second key design feature is the passive air cooling of the vessel to remove decay heat. These systems, designated RVACS in PRISM and RACS in SAFR, always operate and are believed to be able to prevent core damage in the event that no other means of heat removal is available. 27 refs., 78 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Graphite oxide-mediated synthesis of porous CeO2 quadrangular prisms and their high-efficiency adsorptive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ling; Wang, Fengxian; Xie, Dong; Zhang, Jun; Du, Gaohui

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous CeO 2 quadrangular prisms have been prepared via graphite oxide-mediated synthesis. • Dual-pore hierarchical systems are formed with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. • Porous CeO 2 exhibits a rapid adsorption to Rhodamine B with a removal efficiency of ∼99%. • Porous CeO 2 retains the same performances in different pH solutions. - Abstract: We report a graphite oxide-mediated approach for synthesizing porous CeO 2 through a facile hydrothermal process followed by thermal annealing in air. The phase structure, morphology, microstructure and porosity of the products have been revealed by a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N 2 adsorption. The as-prepared CeO 2 products show well-defined quadrangular prism morphology, and they are composed of interconnected nanoparticles with diameters around 30–100 nm. In particular, the dual-pore hierarchical systems are created in the CeO 2 quadrangular prisms with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. The dye sorption capacity of the porous CeO 2 is investigated, which exhibits a rapid adsorption to rhodamine B with a high removal efficiency of ∼99%. Moreover, the CeO 2 absorbent retains the same performances in different pH solutions

  2. Comparison of the Spectral Properties of Pansharpened Images Generated from AVNIR-2 and Prism Onboard Alos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, M.

    2012-07-01

    A considerable number of methods for pansharpening remote-sensing images have been developed to generate higher spatial resolution multispectral images by the fusion of lower resolution multispectral images and higher resolution panchromatic images. Because pansharpening alters the spectral properties of multispectral images, method selection is one of the key factors influencing the accuracy of subsequent analyses such as land-cover classification or change detection. In this study, seven pixel-based pansharpening methods (additive wavelet intensity, additive wavelet principal component, generalized Laplacian pyramid with spectral distortion minimization, generalized intensity-hue-saturation (GIHS) transform, GIHS adaptive, Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, and block-based synthetic variable ratio) were compared using AVNIR-2 and PRISM onboard ALOS from the viewpoint of the preservation of spectral properties of AVNIR-2. A visual comparison was made between pansharpened images generated from spatially degraded AVNIR-2 and original images over urban, agricultural, and forest areas. The similarity of the images was evaluated in terms of the image contrast, the color distinction, and the brightness of the ground objects. In the quantitative assessment, three kinds of statistical indices, correlation coefficient, ERGAS, and Q index, were calculated by band and land-cover type. These scores were relatively superior in bands 2 and 3 compared with the other two bands, especially over urban and agricultural areas. Band 4 showed a strong dependency on the land-cover type. This was attributable to the differences in the observing spectral wavelengths of the sensors and local scene variances.

  3. Excitation of the Uller-Zenneck electromagnetic surface waves in the prism-coupled configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Mehran; Faryad, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    A configuration to excite the Uller-Zenneck surface electromagnetic waves at the planar interfaces of homogeneous and isotropic dielectric materials is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The Uller-Zenneck waves are surface waves that can exist at the planar interface of two dissimilar dielectric materials of which at least one is a lossy dielectric material. In this paper, a slab of a lossy dielectric material was taken with lossless dielectric materials on both sides. A canonical boundary-value problem was set up and solved to find the possible Uller-Zenneck waves and waveguide modes. The Uller-Zenneck waves guided by the slab of the lossy dielectric material were found to be either symmetric or antisymmetric and transmuted into waveguide modes when the thickness of that slab was increased. A prism-coupled configuration was then successfully devised to excite the Uller-Zenneck waves. The results showed that the Uller-Zenneck waves are excited at the same angle of incidence for any thickness of the slab of the lossy dielectric material, whereas the waveguide modes can be excited when the slab is sufficiently thick. The excitation of Uller-Zenneck waves at the planar interfaces with homogeneous and all-dielectric materials can usher in new avenues for the applications for electromagnetic surface waves.

  4. Potential of a polygonal prism and lamina; Takakuchu men no potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S

    1996-05-01

    With the use of rectangular coordinates O-XYZ, the potential of a calculation point P is expressed in the form of a triple repeated integral of a density {sigma} at point Q in the mass. The potential at the density {sigma} assumed to be 1 is named the potential of a polygonal prism. Further, a double repeated integral with an integral concerning Z removed from the triple integral is named the potential of polygonal lamina. This potential can be expressed in a quadratic form (linear form) with 2nd order partial derivative (1st order partial derivative) as a coefficient. On the contrary, in order to extract the 1st/2nd order partial derivatives from this potential by partial differential, it requires partial differentiation with these partial derivatives considered to be a constant. The reason that they can be realized is attributable to the zero result of the linear form which has as the coefficient a 3rd order partial derivative concerning the variable of integration in a primitive function. If this relation is used, the integral calculation and description may be simplified. An explanation was given with examples enumerated so that these conditions might be understood.

  5. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.; Clarke, S. L.; Guturu, H.; Chen, J.; Schaar, B. T.; McLean, C. Y.; Bejerano, G.

    2013-01-01

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  6. Efficient Geo-Computational Algorithms for Constructing Space-Time Prisms in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ping Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Space-time prism (STP is a key concept in time geography for analyzing human activity-travel behavior under various Space-time constraints. Most existing time-geographic studies use a straightforward algorithm to construct STPs in road networks by using two one-to-all shortest path searches. However, this straightforward algorithm can introduce considerable computational overhead, given the fact that accessible links in a STP are generally a small portion of the whole network. To address this issue, an efficient geo-computational algorithm, called NTP-A*, is proposed. The proposed NTP-A* algorithm employs the A* and branch-and-bound techniques to discard inaccessible links during two shortest path searches, and thereby improves the STP construction performance. Comprehensive computational experiments are carried out to demonstrate the computational advantage of the proposed algorithm. Several implementation techniques, including the label-correcting technique and the hybrid link-node labeling technique, are discussed and analyzed. Experimental results show that the proposed NTP-A* algorithm can significantly improve STP construction performance in large-scale road networks by a factor of 100, compared with existing algorithms.

  7. Methane fluxes and inventories in the accretionary prism of southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. H.; Chen, N. C.; Yang, T. F.; Hong, W. L.; Chen, H. W.; Chen, H. C.; Hu, C. Y.; Huang, Y. C.; Lin, S.; Su, C. C.; Liao, W. Z.; Sun, C. H.; Wang, P. L.; Yang, T.; Jiang, S. Y.; Liu, C. S.; Wang, Y.; Chung, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Sediments distributed across marine and terrestrial realms represent the largest methane reservoir on Earth. The degassing of methane facilitated through either geological structures or perturbation would contribute significantly to global climatic fluctuation and elemental cycling. The exact fluxes and processes governing methane production, consumption and transport in a geological system remain largely unknown in part due to the limited coverage and access of samples. In this study, more than 200 sediment cores were collected from offshore and onshore southwestern Taiwan and analyzed for their gas and aqueous geochemistry. These data combined with published data and existing parameters of subduction system were used to calculate methane fluxes across different geochemical transitions and to develop scenarios of mass balance to constrain deep microbial and thermogenic methane production rates within the Taiwanese accretionary prism. The results showed that high methane fluxes tend to be associated with structural features, suggesting a strong structural control on methane transport. A significant portion of ascending methane (>50%) was consumed by anaerobic oxidation of methane at most sites. Gas compositions and isotopes revealed a transition from the predominance of microbial methane in the passive margin to thermogenic methane at the upper slope of the active margin and onshore mud volcanoes. Methane production and consumption at shallow depths were nearly offset with a small fraction of residual methane discharged into seawater or the atmosphere. The flux imbalance arose primarily from the deep microbial and thermogenic production and could be likely accounted for by the sequestration of methane into hydrate forms, and clay absorption.

  8. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.

    2013-02-04

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  9. Landward vergence in accretionary prism, evidence for frontal propagation of earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    cubas, Nadaya; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Landward vergence in accretionary wedges is rare and have been described at very few places: along the Cascadia subduction zone and more recently along Sumatra where the 2004 Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman event and the 2011 tsunami earthquake occurred. Recent studies have suggested a relation between landward thrust faults and frontal propagation of earthquakes for the Sumatra subduction zone. The Cascadia subduction zone is also known to have produced in 1700 a Mw9 earthquake with a large tsunami across the Pacific. Based on mechanical analysis, we propose to investigate if specific frictional properties could lead to a landward sequence of thrusting. We show that landward thrust requires very low effective friction along the megathrust with a rather high internal effective friction. We also show that landward thrust appears close to the extensional critical limit. Along Cascadia and Sumatra, we show that to get landward vergence, the effective basal friction has to be lower than 0.08. This very low effective friction is most likely due to high pore pressure. This high pore pressure could either be a long-term property or due to dynamic effects such as thermal pressurization. The fact that landward vergence appears far from the compressional critical limit favors a dynamic effect. Landward vergence would then highlight thermal pressurization due to occasional or systematic propagation of earthquakes to the trench. As a consequence, the vergence of thrusts in accretionary prism could be used to improve seismic and tsunamigenic risk assessment.

  10. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Tuyle, G.J. Van

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing a pre-application review of the 471 MWt, liquid metal reactor, PRISM, by General Electric, with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical support. The revised design has been evaluated, using the SSC code, for an unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS), an unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) with and without the Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), and a 40 cents unscrammed transient overpower (UTOP) event. The feedback effects for U-27Pu-10Zr metal fuel were modeled in SSC. The ULOHS accident was determined to be a benign event for the design, with the reactor power transitioning down to a decay heat level within 500s. The power during the postulated ULOF events, with the GEMs functioning, transitioned to decay heat levels without fuel damage, and included a 300K margin to sodium saturation. The case without the GEMs had only a 160K margin to sodium saturation and higher fuel temperatures. In addition, the clad was predicted to quickly pass through the eutectic phase (between fuel and clad), and some clad wastage would result. The 40 cents UTOP was predicted to raise the power to 1.8 rated, which later stabilized near 1.2 times full power. SSC predicted some localized fuel melting for the event, but the significance of this localized damage has not yet been determined. If necessary, the vendor has options to reduce the maximum reactivity insertion below 40 cents

  11. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing a pre-application review of the 471 MWt, Liquid Metal Reactor, PRISM by General Electric, with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical support. The revised design has been evaluated, using the SSC code, for an unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS), an unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) with and without the Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), and a 40 cents unscrammed transient overpower (UTOP) event. The feedback effects for U-27Pu-10Zr metal fuel were modeled in SSC. The ULOHS accident was determined to be a benign event for the design, with the reactor power transitioning down to a decay heat level within 500s. The power during the postulated ULOF events, with the GEMs functioning, transitioned to decay heat levels without fuel damage, and included a 300K margin to sodium saturation. The case without the GEMs had only a 160K margin to sodium saturation and higher fuel temperatures. In addition, the clad was predicted to quickly pass through the eutectic phase (between fuel and clad), and some clad wastage would result. The 40 cents UTOP was predicted to raise the power to 1.8 rated, which later stabilized near 1.2 times full power. SSC predicted some localized fuel melting for the event, but the significance of this localized damage has not yet been determined. If necessary, the vendor has options to reduce the maximum reactivity insertion below 40 cents

  12. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  13. Integration of Tidal Prism Model and HSPF for simulating indicator bacteria in coastal watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rose S.; Rifai, Hanadi S.; Petersen, Christina M.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal water quality is strongly influenced by tidal fluctuations and water chemistry. There is a need for rigorous models that are not computationally or economically prohibitive, but still allow simulation of the hydrodynamics and bacteria sources for coastal, tidally influenced streams and bayous. This paper presents a modeling approach that links a Tidal Prism Model (TPM) implemented in an Excel-based modeling environment with a watershed runoff model (Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN, HSPF) for such watersheds. The TPM is a one-dimensional mass balance approach that accounts for loading from tidal exchange, runoff, point sources and bacteria die-off at an hourly time step resolution. The novel use of equal high-resolution time steps in this study allowed seamless integration of the TPM and HSPF. The linked model was calibrated to flow and E. Coli data (for HSPF), and salinity and enterococci data (for the TPM) for a coastal stream in Texas. Sensitivity analyses showed the TPM to be most influenced by changes in net decay rates followed by tidal and runoff loads, respectively. Management scenarios were evaluated with the developed linked models to assess the impact of runoff load reductions and improved wastewater treatment plant quality and to determine the areas of critical need for such reductions. Achieving water quality standards for bacteria required load reductions that ranged from zero to 90% for the modeled coastal stream.

  14. Heteroleptic metallosupramolecular racks, rectangles, and trigonal prisms: stoichiometry-controlled reversible interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Subhadip; Lorenz, Yvonne; Engeser, Marianne; Samanta, Debabrata; Schmittel, Michael

    2013-06-17

    A simple approach toward preparation of heteroleptic two-dimensional (2D) rectangles and three-dimensional (3D) triangular prisms is described utilizing the HETPYP (HETeroleptic PYridyl and Phenanthroline metal complexes) concept. By mixing metal-loaded linear bisphenanthrolines of varying lengths with diverse (multi)pyridine (py) ligands in a proper ratio, six different self-assembled architectures arise cleanly and spontaneously in the absence of any template. They are characterized by (1)H and DOSY NMR, ESI-FT-ICR mass spectrometry as well as by Job plots and UV-vis titrations. Density functional theory (DFT) computations provide information about each structure. A stoichiometry-controlled supramolecule-to-supramolecule interconversion based on the relative amounts of metal bisphenanthroline and bipyridine forces the rectangular assembly to reorganize to a rack architecture and back to the rectangle, as clearly supported by variable temperature and DOSY NMR as well as dynamic light scattering data. The highly dynamic nature of the assemblies represents a promising starting point for constitutional dynamic materials.

  15. Role of prism decussation on fatigue crack growth and fracture of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-10-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset compact tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Regardless of the growth direction, the near-threshold region of cyclic extension was typical of "short crack" behavior (i.e. deceleration of growth with an increase in crack length). Cyclic crack growth was more stable in the forward direction and occurred over twice the spatial distance achieved in the reverse direction. In response to the monotonic loads, a rising R-curve response was exhibited by growth in the forward direction only. The total energy absorbed in fracture for the forward direction was more than three times that in the reverse. The rise in crack growth resistance was largely attributed to a combination of mechanisms that included crack bridging, crack bifurcation and crack curving, which were induced by decussation in the inner enamel. An analysis of the responses distinguished that the microstructure of enamel appears optimized for resisting crack growth initiating from damage at the tooth's surface.

  16. Computer-Aided Panoramic Images Enriched by Shadow Construction on a Prism and Pyramid Polyhedral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and practical method of a direct mapping of a panoramic projection on an unfolded prism and pyramid polyhedral projection surface with the aid of a computer. Due to the fact that straight lines very often appear in any architectural form we formulate algorithms which utilize data about lines and draw panoramas as plots of functions in Mathcad software. The ability to draw panoramic images of lines enables drawing a wireframe image of an architectural object. The application of the multicenter projection, as well as the idea of shadow construction in the panoramic representation, aims at achieving a panoramic image close to human perception. The algorithms are universal as the application of changeable base elements of panoramic projection—horizon height, station point location, number of polyhedral walls—enables drawing panoramic images from various viewing positions. However, for more efficient and easier drawing, the algorithms should be implemented in some graphical package. The representation presented in the paper and the method of its direct mapping on a flat unfolded projection surface can find application in the presentation of architectural spaces in advertising and art when drawings are displayed on polyhedral surfaces and can be observed from multiple viewing positions.

  17. Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2001-01-01

    Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism has been investigated by using a PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. Three different boundary layers (thick, medium and thin) were generated in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at Pusan National University. The thick boundary layer having 670mm thickness was generated by using spires and roughness elements. The medium thickness of boundary layer(δ=270mm) was the natural turbulent boundary layer at the test section with fully long developing length(18m). The thin boundary layer with 36.5mm thickness was generated by on a smooth panel elevated 70cm from the wind tunnel floor. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the height of the model was 7.9X10 3 . The mean velocity vector fields and turbulent kinetic energy distribution were measured and compared. The effect of boundary layer thickness is clearly observed not only in the length of separation bubble but also in the reattachment points. The thinner boundary layer thickness, the higher turbulent kinetic energy peak around the model roof. It is strongly recommended that the height ratio between model and approaching boundary layer thickness should be a major parameter

  18. Variability of dose predictions for cesium-137 and radium-226 using the PRISM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Andersson, K.; Roejder, B.

    1984-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with dose predictions for cesium-137 and radium-226 in a specific ecosystem has been studied. The method used is a systematic method for determining the effect of parameter uncertainties on model prediction called PRISM. The ecosystems studied are different types of lakes where the following transport processes are included: runoff of water in the lake, irrigation, transport in soil, in groundwater and in sediment. The ecosystems are modelled by the compartment principle, using the BIOPATH-code. Seven different internal exposure pathways are included. The total dose commitment for both nuclides varies about two orders of magnitude. For cesium-137 the total dose and the uncertainty are dominated by the consumption of fish. The most important factor to the total uncertainty is the concentration factor water-fish. For radium-226 the largest contributions to the total dose are the exposure pathways, fish, milk and drinking-water. Half of the uncertainty lies in the milk dose. This uncertainty is dominated by the distribution factor for milk. (orig.)

  19. SU-G-IeP1-13: Sub-Nyquist Dynamic MRI Via Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, B; Gao, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accelerated dynamic MRI is important for MRI guided radiotherapy. Inspired by compressive sensing (CS), sub-Nyquist dynamic MRI has been an active research area, i.e., sparse sampling in k-t space for accelerated dynamic MRI. This work is to investigate sub-Nyquist dynamic MRI via a previously developed CS model, namely Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM). Methods: The proposed method utilizes PRISM with rank minimization and incoherent sampling patterns for sub-Nyquist reconstruction. In PRISM, the low-rank background image, which is automatically calculated by rank minimization, is excluded from the L1 minimization step of the CS reconstruction to further sparsify the residual image, thus allowing for higher acceleration rates. Furthermore, the sampling pattern in k-t space is made more incoherent by sampling a different set of k-space points at different temporal frames. Results: Reconstruction results from L1-sparsity method and PRISM method with 30% undersampled data and 15% undersampled data are compared to demonstrate the power of PRISM for dynamic MRI. Conclusion: A sub- Nyquist MRI reconstruction method based on PRISM is developed with improved image quality from the L1-sparsity method.

  20. Auger electron spectroscopy, ionization loss spectroscopy, appearance potential spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riwan, R.

    1973-01-01

    The spectroscopy of surfaces using an incident electron beam is studied. The fundamental mechanisms are discussed together with the parameters involved in Auger emission: excitation of the atom, de-excitation by electron emission, and the migration of electrons towards the surface and their ejection. Some examples of applications are given (surface structures, metallurgy, chemical information). Two new techniques for analyzing surfaces are studied: ionization spectroscopy, and appearance potential spectroscopy [fr

  1. Small-scale and reconnaissance surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Andres, Brad A.; Elliott, Kyle; Francis, Charles M.; Johnston, Victoria; Morrison, R.I.G.; Pierce, Elin P.; Rausch, Jennie; Bart, Jonathan; Johnston, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This brief chapter addresses two related issues: how effort should be allocated to different parts of the sampling plan and, given optimal allocation, how large a sample will be required to achieve the PRISM accuracy target. Simulations based on data collected to date showed that 2 plots per cluster on rapid surveys, 2 intensive camps per field crew-year, 2-4 intensive plots per intensive camp, and 2-3 rapid surveys per intensive plot is the most efficient allocation of resources. Using this design, we investigated how crew-years should be allocated to each region in order to meet the PRISM accuracy target most efficiently. The analysis indicated that 40-50 crew-years would achieve the accuracy target for 18-24 of the 26 species breeding widely in the Arctic. This analysis was based on assuming that two rounds of surveys were conducted and that a 50% decline occurred between them. We discuss the complexity of making these estimates and why they should be viewed as first approximations.

  2. Ba3NbAs3O: synthesis, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy and bonding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monconduit, L.; Tillard, M.; Favier, F.; Belin, C.

    1999-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ba 3 NbAs 3 O has been solved by crystal X-ray analysis (CAD-4 automatic diffractometer, Mo Kα radiation). The compound crystallizes in space group Pnma, a=6.724(2), b=11.100(2), c=13.462(3) A, V=1004.7(4) A 3 , Z=4. The structure has been refined to R1=0.0343 for 964 independent reflections, it can be described as packing of nearly tetrahedral NbAs 3 O 6- anions, their coordination by Ba 2+ cations forming interconnected trigonal prisms. The chemical bonding has been analyzed by MO calculations and Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

  3. Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Rasaiah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of datasets created in situ. Currently there is no standardized methodology for documentation of in situ spectroscopy data or metadata. This paper presents results of an international experiment comprising a web-based survey and expert panel evaluation that investigated critical metadata in field spectroscopy. The survey participants were a diverse group of scientists experienced in gathering spectroscopy data across a wide range of disciplines. Overall, respondents were in agreement about a core metadataset for generic campaign metadata, allowing for a prioritization of critical metadata elements to be proposed including those relating to viewing geometry, location, general target and sampling properties, illumination, instrument properties, reference standards, calibration, hyperspectral signal properties, atmospheric conditions, and general project details. Consensus was greatest among individual expert groups in specific application domains. The results allow the identification of a core set of metadata fields that enforce long term data storage and serve as a foundation for a metadata standard. This paper is part one in a series about the core elements of a robust and flexible field spectroscopy metadata standard.

  4. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  5. The Category of Definiteness Indefiniteness through the Prism of Functional Approach to Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labetova Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The studying of language phenomena with the emphasis on their functional component is topical for modern linguistics. This approach gives a boost to thinking over various (semantic, morphological, syntactic forms through the prism of their functional-semantic load. The analysis of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness from this point of view allows defining the actual theoretical categorial model and the system of its expressive means. Purpose: The aim of the article is to define the essence and the bounds of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in the Ukrainian language and reveal its expressive potential. Results: The category of definiteness/indefiniteness is a universal category that is based on the symbiosis of psychic, cognitive and lingual spheres. Its functional potential is accumulated in cognitive and communicative fields so it is not restricted only to defining spheres of definiteness or indefiniteness. Not only do things or objects appear definite or indefinite in the process of communication or its interpretation but also their characteristics or properties may acquire these senses. The category of definiteness/indefiniteness correlates with other functional-semantic categories, which leads to its complicated and ramified field structure with diffuse and peripheral zones. Discussion: The studying of the widened structure of the functional-semantic field of definiteness/indefiniteness and organizing all possible (regular, typical, occasional, etc. means of its expression is a perspective approach. It is important to study the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in different types of discourse to reveal the logic of its functioning.

  6. Does prism adaptation affect visual search in spatial neglect patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, Liselotte; Ten Brink, Antonia F; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2018-03-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is a widely used intervention for (visuo-)spatial neglect. PA-induced improvements can be assessed by visual search tasks. It remains unclear which outcome measures are the most sensitive for the effects of PA in neglect. In this review, we aimed to evaluate PA effects on visual search measures. A systematic literature search was completed regarding PA intervention studies focusing on patients with neglect using visual search tasks. Information about study content and effectiveness was extracted. Out of 403 identified studies, 30 met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was evaluated: Rankings were moderate-to-high for 7, and low for 23 studies. As feature search was only performed by five studies, low-to-moderate ranking, we were limited in drawing firm conclusions about the PA effect on feature search. All moderate-to-high-ranking studies investigated cancellation by measuring only omissions or hits. These studies found an overall improvement after PA. Measuring perseverations and total task duration provides more specific information about visual search. The two (low ranking) studies that measured this found an improvement after PA on perseverations and duration (while accuracy improved for one study and remained the same for the other). This review suggests there is an overall effect of PA on visual search, although complex visual search tasks and specific visual search measures are lacking. Suggestions for search measures that give insight in subcomponents of visual search are provided for future studies, such as perseverations, search path intersections, search consistency and using a speed-accuracy trade-off. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The SpeX Prism Library Analysis Toolkit: Design Considerations and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Aganze, Christian; Escala, Ivana; Lopez, Mike; Choban, Caleb; Jin, Yuhui; Iyer, Aishwarya; Tallis, Melisa; Suarez, Adrian; Sahi, Maitrayee

    2016-01-01

    Various observational and theoretical spectral libraries now exist for galaxies, stars, planets and other objects, which have proven useful for classification, interpretation, simulation and model development. Effective use of these libraries relies on analysis tools, which are often left to users to develop. In this poster, we describe a program to develop a combined spectral data repository and Python-based analysis toolkit for low-resolution spectra of very low mass dwarfs (late M, L and T dwarfs), which enables visualization, spectral index analysis, classification, atmosphere model comparison, and binary modeling for nearly 2000 library spectra and user-submitted data. The SpeX Prism Library Analysis Toolkit (SPLAT) is being constructed as a collaborative, student-centered, learning-through-research model with high school, undergraduate and graduate students and regional science teachers, who populate the database and build the analysis tools through quarterly challenge exercises and summer research projects. In this poster, I describe the design considerations of the toolkit, its current status and development plan, and report the first published results led by undergraduate students. The combined data and analysis tools are ideal for characterizing cool stellar and exoplanetary atmospheres (including direct exoplanetary spectra observations by Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, and JWST), and the toolkit design can be readily adapted for other spectral datasets as well.This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AI75G. SPLAT code can be found at https://github.com/aburgasser/splat.

  8. Pathway to future sustainable land imaging: the compact hyperspectral prism spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; Good, William S.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) program, managed through the Earth Science Technology Office, aims to develop technologies that will provide future Landsat-like measurements. SLI aims to develop a new generation of smaller, more capable, less costly payloads that meet or exceed current imaging capabilities. One projects funded by this program is Ball's Compact Hyperspectral Prism Spectrometer (CHPS), a visible-to-shortwave imaging spectrometer that provides legacy Landsat data products as well as hyperspectral coverage suitable for a broad range of land science products. CHPS exhibits extremely low straylight and accommodates full aperture, full optical path calibration needed to ensure the high radiometric accuracy demanded by SLI measurement objectives. Low polarization sensitivity in visible to near-infrared bands facilitates coastal water science as first demonstrated by the exceptional performance of the Operational Land Imager. Our goal is to mature CHPS imaging spectrometer technology for infusion into the SLI program. Our effort builds on technology development initiated by Ball IRAD investment and includes laboratory and airborne demonstration, data distribution to science collaborators, and maturation of technology for spaceborne demonstration. CHPS is a three year program with expected exiting technology readiness of TRL-6. The 2013 NRC report Landsat and Beyond: Sustaining and Enhancing the Nations Land Imaging Program recommended that the nation should "maintain a sustained, space-based, land-imaging program, while ensuring the continuity of 42-years of multispectral information." We are confident that CHPS provides a path to achieve this goal while enabling new science measurements and significantly reducing the cost, size, and volume of the VSWIR instrument.

  9. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Petra; Alberti, Edoardo; Schaepman, Michael E

    2010-06-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption features present in the Sun, atmosphere, or ground, and their stability. The assessment of instrument performance in two different environments, e.g., laboratory and airborne, using precisely the same calibration reference, has not been possible so far. The Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX), an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer, uses an onboard in-flight characterization (IFC) facility, which makes it possible to monitor the sensor's performance in terms of spectral, radiometric, and geometric stability in flight and in the laboratory. We discuss in detail a new method for the monitoring of spectral instrument performance. The method relies on the monitoring of spectral shifts by comparing instrument-induced movements of absorption features on ground and in flight. Absorption lines originate from spectral filters, which intercept the full field of view (FOV) illuminated using an internal light source. A feature-fitting algorithm is used for the shift estimation based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Environmental parameter monitoring, coregistered on board with the image and calibration data, revealed that differential pressure and temperature in the baffle compartment are the main driving parameters explaining the trend in spectral performance deviations in the time and the space (across-track) domains, respectively. The results presented in this paper show that the system in its current setup needs further improvements to reach a stable performance. Findings provided useful guidelines for the instrument revision currently under way. The main aim of the revision is the stabilization of the instrument for a range of temperature and pressure conditions

  10. Spectral resolution enhancement of Fourier-transform spectrometer based on orthogonal shear interference using Wollaston prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin-xiao; Huang, Min; Cai, Qi-sheng

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a multi-line interferogram stitching method based on orthogonal shear using the Wollaston prism(WP) was proposed with a 2D projection interferogram recorded through the rotation of CCD, making the spectral resolution of Fourier-Transform spectrometer(FTS) of a limited spatial size increase by at least three times. The fringes on multi-lines were linked with the pixels of equal optical path difference (OPD). Ideally, the error of sampled phase within one pixel was less than half the wavelength, ensuring consecutive values in the over-sampled dimension while aliasing in another. In the simulation, with the calibration of 1.064μm, spectral lines at 1.31μm and 1.56μm of equal intensity were tested and observed. The result showed a bias of 0.13% at 1.31μm and 1.15% at 1.56μm in amplitude, and the FWHM at 1.31μm reduced from 25nm to 8nm after the sample points increased from 320 to 960. In the comparison of reflectance spectrum of carnauba wax within near infrared(NIR) band, the absorption peak at 1.2μm was more obvious and zoom of the band 1.38 1.43μm closer to the reference, although some fluctuation was in the short-wavelength region arousing the spectral crosstalk. In conclusion, with orthogonal shear based on the rotation of the CCD relative to the axis of WP, the spectral resolution of static FTS was enhanced by the projection of fringes to the grid coordinates and stitching the interferograms into a larger OPD, which showed the advantages of cost and miniaturization in the space-constrained NIR applications.

  11. Adding methylphenidate to prism-adaptation improves outcome in neglect patients. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Villeneuve, Laurent; Roux, Adeline; Nash, Stuart; Bar, Jean-Yves; Chabanat, Eric; Cotton, François; Ciancia, Sophie; Sancho, Pierre-Olivier; Hovantruc, Patrick; Quelard, François; Sarraf, Thierry; Cojan, Yann; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Farné, Alessandro; Janoly-Dumenil, Audrey; Boisson, Dominique; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Rode, Gilles; Rossetti, Yves

    2018-04-04

    Spatial neglect is one of the main predictors of poor functional recovery after stroke. Many therapeutic interventions have been developed to alleviate this condition, but to date the evidence of their effectiveness is still scarce. The purpose of this study was to test whether combining prism adaptation (PA) and methylphenidate (MP) could enhance the recovery of neglect patients at a functional level. RITAPRISM is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing PA plus placebo (control) versus PA plus MP. 24 patients were prospectively enrolled (10 in the placebo group and 14 in the MP group). The main result is a long-term functional improvement (on the functional independence measure (FIM) and on Bergego's scale) induced by MP combined with PA. No serious adverse event occurred. The long-term benefit on activities of daily living (ADL) obtained in this randomized controlled trial set this intervention apart from previous attempts and supports with a high level of evidence the value of combining PA and MP in order to improve the autonomy of neglect patients. Further studies will be needed to clarify the mechanism of this improvement. Although not specifically assessed at this stage, a part of the improvement in ADL might be related to the collateral effect of MP on mood, executive functions or fatigue, and/or the combined effect of PA and MP on motor intentional bias of neglect patients. This study provides Class I evidence that adding MP to PA improves the functional outcome of neglect patients. EUCTR2008-000325-20-FR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychedelics and cognitive liberty: Reimagining drug policy through the prism of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This paper reimagines drug policy--specifically psychedelic drug policy--through the prism of human rights. Challenges to the incumbent prohibitionist paradigm that have been brought from this perspective to date--namely by calling for exemptions from criminalisation on therapeutic or religious grounds--are considered, before the assertion is made that there is a need to go beyond such reified constructs, calling for an end to psychedelic drug prohibitions on the basis of the more fundamental right to cognitive liberty. This central concept is explicated, asserted as being a crucial component of freedom of thought, as enshrined within Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It is argued that the right to cognitive liberty is routinely breached by the existence of the system of drug prohibition in the United Kingdom (UK), as encoded within the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (MDA). On this basis, it is proposed that Article 9 could be wielded to challenge the prohibitive system in the courts. This legal argument is supported by a parallel and entwined argument grounded in the political philosophy of classical liberalism: namely, that the state should only deploy the criminal law where an individual's actions demonstrably run a high risk of causing harm to others. Beyond the courts, it is recommended that this liberal, rights-based approach also inform psychedelic drug policy activism, moving past the current predominant focus on harm reduction, towards a prioritization of benefit maximization. How this might translate in to a different regulatory model for psychedelic drugs, a third way, distinct from the traditional criminal and medical systems of control, is tentatively considered. However, given the dominant political climate in the UK--with its move away from rights and towards a more authoritarian drug policy--the possibility that it is only through underground movements that cognitive liberty will be assured in the foreseeable future is

  13. Improvement of Navigation and Representation in Virtual Reality after Prism Adaptation in Neglect Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Glize

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is responsible for an expansion of sensori-motor after-effects to cognitive domains for patients with spatial neglect. One important question is whether the cognitive after-effects induced by PA may also concern higher aspects of spatial cognition, such as navigation and topographic memory, which are critical in everyday life. The aim of this study was to assess whether multiple sessions of right PA can affect navigation and topographic memory. Seven right brain-damaged (RBD patients with chronic neglect were included. We used a virtual supermarket named VAP-S which is an original paradigm, similar to the “shopping list test” during which patients had to purchase items from a list of eight products. Furthermore, in order to assess generalization of PA effects on constructing a spatial map from virtual information, each participant was then asked to draw the map of the virtual supermarket from memory. Regarding navigation performance, significant results were obtained: session duration reduction, fewer numbers of pauses and omissions, more items purchased on the left side and more items purchased over all. A long-lasting effect was noted, up to one month after PA. The representational task performance was also significantly increased for map drawing, with a reduction of the right shift of the symmetry axis of the map, more items drawn on the left side of maps and over all, and more items correctly located on the map. Some of these effects lasted for at least 7 days. These results suggest an expansion of PA benefit to a virtual environment. Crucially, the cognitive benefits induced by PA were noted for complex spatial cognition tasks required in everyday life such as navigation and topographic memory and this improvement was maintained for up to 1 month.

  14. Prism adaptation does not alter object-based attention in healthy participants [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ is a disabling condition that can follow damage to the right side of the brain, in which patients show difficulty in responding to or orienting towards objects and events that occur on the left side of space. Symptoms of neglect can manifest in both space- and object-based frames of reference. Although patients can show a combination of these two forms of neglect, they are considered separable and have distinct neurological bases. In recent years considerable evidence has emerged to demonstrate that spatial symptoms of neglect can be reduced by an intervention called prism adaptation. Patients point towards objects viewed through prismatic lenses that shift the visual image to the right. Approximately five minutes of repeated pointing results in a leftward recalibration of pointing and improved performance on standard clinical tests for neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Here we examined the effect of prism adaptation on the performance of healthy participants who completed a computerised test of space- and object-based attention. Participants underwent adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms, or performed neutral pointing according to a between-groups design. Significant pointing after-effects were found for both prism groups, indicating successful adaptation. In addition, the results of the computerised test revealed larger reaction-time costs associated with shifts of attention between two objects compared to shifts of attention within the same object, replicating previous work. However there were no differences in the performance of the three groups, indicating that prism adaptation did not influence space- or object-based attention for this task. When combined with existing literature, the results are consistent with the

  15. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  16. Construction of coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) has been built. It consists of a Raman cell, which is filled with CO 2 gas at 5 atm pressure and a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex lens into Raman cell. The Antistokes signals (CARS signals) are generated due to Four-wave mixing process. The antistokes signals were directed to monochrometer entrance slit by prism . The signals are detected by photomultiplier detector which is fixed on the exit slit and connected to data acquisition card located inside the computed case. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the ν 1 beam (Nd- YAG laser beam) and the ν 2 beam (the stokes beam or the dye laser beam) exactly corresponds to a vibrational - rotational Raman resonance (ν 2 - ν 1 = ν M ) in the 12 CO 2 or 13 CO 2 molecule, then the antistokes signals (ν 3 ) will be generated. The spectra of the CARS signals have been recorded to determine the isotope shift of 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , which is 18.3 cm -1 . (author)

  17. Analytical applications of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaser, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides an up to date overview of recent developments in analytical spectroscopy, with a particular emphasis on the common themes of chromatography - spectroscopy combinations, Fourier transform methods, and data handling techniques, which have played an increasingly important part in the development of all spectroscopic techniques. The book contains papers originally presented at a conference entitled 'Spectroscopy Across The Spectrum' held jointly with the first 'International Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference' at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, in July 1987, which have been edited and rearranged with some additional material. Each section includes reviews of key areas of current research as well as short reports of new developments. The fields covered are: Near Infrared Spectroscopy; Infrared Spectroscopy; Mass Spectroscopy; NMR Spectroscopy; Atomic and UV/Visible Spectroscopy; Chemometrics and Data Analysis. (author)

  18. Reliability of tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms: clinical implications from the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System Quality Assurance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Daly, M K; Cakiner-Egilmez, T; Baker, E

    2011-05-01

    Given the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System's recent introduction of single-use Tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms as an alternative to Goldmann applanation tonometers (GATs), this study had two aims: to conduct a large-scale quality assurance trial to assess the reliability of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements of the Tonosafe disposable tonometer compared with GAT, particularly at extremes of pressure; to evaluate the suitability of Tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms as an acceptable substitute for GATs and for clinic-wide implementation in an academic tertiary referral setting. Ophthalmology resident physicians measured the IOPs of patients in general and specialty eye clinics with the Tonosafe disposable tonometer and GAT. Tonosafe test-retest reliability data were also collected. A retrospective review of patient charts and data analysis were performed to determine the reliability of measurements. The IOPs of 652 eyes (326 patients) were measured with both GAT and Tonosafe, with a range of 3-34 mm Hg. Linear regression analysis showed R=0.93, slope=0.91, both of which supported the proposed hypothesis, and the y-intercept=-1.05 was significantly different from the hypothesized value. The Tonosafe test-retest repeatability (40 eyes of 40 patients), r=0.977, was very high, which was further supported by linear regression slope=0.993, y-intercept=0.118, and a Tonosafe repeatability coefficient of 2.06, similar to GAT repeatability. The IOP measurements by Tonosafe disposable prisms correlated closely with Goldmann measurements, with similar repeated measurement variability to GAT. This suggests that the Tonosafe is an acceptable substitute for GAT to measure IOP in ophthalmology clinic settings.

  19. Health-related quality of life and binocular vision in patients with diplopia in acute-onset comitant esotropia with press-on prism improves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effect of press-on prisms in patients with acute-onset comitant esotropia and diplopia, focusing primarily on vision-related quality of life and binocular vision. METHODS: Retrospective case-series study. Totally 16 acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia who received treatment in the Huzhou Central Hospital were included in this study from March 2014 to March 2017. Vision-related quality of life before press-on prism correction and 1mo after press-on prism correction were performed with the Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire(CHI-NEI-VFQ-25. In each time of follow-up, we made a minute examination, includes worth four dot test and stereo tests. Data was statistically analyzed with paired sample t test, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Except the degree of eye pain, color vision and perimetry, the indicators from CHI-NEI-VFQ-25 table including general health status, overall vision, mental health, social role difficulties, social functional, near activities, distant activities, independency and driving of acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia were obviously significant improved 1mo after press-on prism correction(PPCONCLUSION: Press-on prism correction may be helpful for binocular vision recovery in acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia, so as improve the vision-related quality of life.

  20. Tarzan as a cultural prism: Ideological Associations in Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan of the Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hadi Q. Alseed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available More than any other of Burroughs’ many creations, Tarzan has become a staple of popular culture. The character functions as a cultural prism, in which the concerns, anxieties, desires, and tastes of particular times and places are encapsulated in such a way to make us look at that context in a different perspective. Burroughs’ original Tarzan embodies several of the aspirations, tensions, and failings of the early twentieth-century Unites States. On one hand, the novel refracts a national longing for an unspoiled nature, on another hand, the novel echoes the racism and violence directed at African Americans at this time.

  1. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  2. Introductory Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    2012-01-01

    Praise for Introductory Raman Spectroscopy Highlights basic theory, which is treated in an introductory fashion Presents state-of-the-art instrumentation Discusses new applications of Raman spectroscopy in industry and research.

  3. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy, tunable cw sources, and Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy. Discusses saturation spectroscopy; continuous wave saturation spectroscopy in the ultraviolet; and two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen 1S-2S. Focuses on Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of gaseous samples. Explains that in saturation spectroscopy, a monochromatic laser beam ''labels'' a group of atoms within a narrow range of axial velocities through excitation or optical pumping, and a Doppler-free spectrum of these selected atoms is observed with a second, counterpropagating beam. Notes that in two-photon spectroscopy it is possible to record Doppler-free spectra without any need for velocity selection by excitation with two counterpropagating laser beams whose first order Doppler shifts cancel

  4. Residual stress measurement of electron beam welded copper plates using prism hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakkonen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Eleven electron beam (EB) welded copper plates were measured in this investigation with Prism hole drilling equipment made by Stresstech Oy. All samples contained a linear weld in their center. Two different sets of plates were measured in this investigation. The first set included five samples (X436, X437, X438, X439 and X440) which were welded using four different welding speeds. Samples X439 and X440 were welded with the same speed but X440 is the only sample of the set that received a cosmetic pass. The second set received heat treatments at four different temperatures. Samples X456 and X458 were annealed at the same temperature but sample X456 received a cosmetic pass while X458 did not. Samples X455 and X457 were both annealed at a different temperature, with (X455) or without (X457) the cosmetic pass. Two areas were machined from the samples. About five millimeters was machined from the surfaces on the both of areas. Machined surfaces located on the top surfaces. The measurement points on the top surface are located on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld on machined areas. Lower surface measurements are located -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld. All measurements were about 122 mm from the edges perpendicular to the weld. The top surfaces of all samples were machined in two areas across the weld. About 5 mm were removed. Stress measurements on the top surfaces were performed in these two areas, on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm away from the weld. Stresses were also measured on the back sides, at -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm distance from the weld. All measurement locations were about 122mm from the sample edges. Most of the measurements give tensile strengths from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Stresses parallel to the weld were slightly higher than weld stresses in transverse direction. The machined surfaces have residual stress values above 30 MPa near the surface. (orig.)

  5. Integrated Risk-Informed Decision-Making for an ALMR PRISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Denning, Richard S. [Self Employed

    2016-05-01

    Decision-making is the process of identifying decision alternatives, assessing those alternatives based on predefined metrics, selecting an alternative (i.e., making a decision), and then implementing that alternative. The generation of decisions requires a structured, coherent process, or a decision-making process. The overall objective for this work is that the generalized framework is adopted into an autonomous decision-making framework and tailored to specific requirements for various applications. In this context, automation is the use of computing resources to make decisions and implement a structured decision-making process with limited or no human intervention. The overriding goal of automation is to replace or supplement human decision makers with reconfigurable decision-making modules that can perform a given set of tasks rationally, consistently, and reliably. Risk-informed decision-making requires a probabilistic assessment of the likelihood of success given the status of the plant/systems and component health, and a deterministic assessment between plant operating parameters and reactor protection parameters to prevent unnecessary trips and challenges to plant safety systems. The probabilistic portion of the decision-making engine of the supervisory control system is based on the control actions associated with an ALMR PRISM. Newly incorporated into the probabilistic models are the prognostic/diagnostic models developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These allow decisions to incorporate the health of components into the decision–making process. Once the control options are identified and ranked based on the likelihood of success, the supervisory control system transmits the options to the deterministic portion of the platform. The deterministic portion of the decision-making engine uses thermal-hydraulic modeling and components for an advanced liquid-metal reactor Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module. The deterministic multi

  6. Residual stress measurement of electron beam welded copper plates using prism hole drilling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakkonen, M. [Stresstech Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    Eleven electron beam (EB) welded copper plates were measured in this investigation with Prism hole drilling equipment made by Stresstech Oy. All samples contained a linear weld in their center. Two different sets of plates were measured in this investigation. The first set included five samples (X436, X437, X438, X439 and X440) which were welded using four different welding speeds. Samples X439 and X440 were welded with the same speed but X440 is the only sample of the set that received a cosmetic pass. The second set received heat treatments at four different temperatures. Samples X456 and X458 were annealed at the same temperature but sample X456 received a cosmetic pass while X458 did not. Samples X455 and X457 were both annealed at a different temperature, with (X455) or without (X457) the cosmetic pass. Two areas were machined from the samples. About five millimeters was machined from the surfaces on the both of areas. Machined surfaces located on the top surfaces. The measurement points on the top surface are located on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld on machined areas. Lower surface measurements are located -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld. All measurements were about 122 mm from the edges perpendicular to the weld. The top surfaces of all samples were machined in two areas across the weld. About 5 mm were removed. Stress measurements on the top surfaces were performed in these two areas, on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm away from the weld. Stresses were also measured on the back sides, at -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm distance from the weld. All measurement locations were about 122mm from the sample edges. Most of the measurements give tensile strengths from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Stresses parallel to the weld were slightly higher than weld stresses in transverse direction. The machined surfaces have residual stress values above 30 MPa near the surface. (orig.)

  7. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  8. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  9. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  10. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented. (GHT)

  11. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented

  12. Broadband IR polarizing beam splitter using a subwavelength-structured one-dimensional photonic-crystal layer embedded in a high-index prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfar, H K; Azzam, R M A

    2009-09-20

    An iterative procedure for the design of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses a form-birefringent, subwavelength-structured, one-dimensional photonic-crystal layer (SWS 1-D PCL) embedded in a high-index cubical prism is presented. The PBS is based on index matching and total transmission for the p polarization and total internal reflection for the s polarization at the prism-PCL interface at 45 degrees angle of incidence. A high extinction ratio in reflection (>50 dB) over the 4-12 microm IR spectral range is achieved using a SWS 1-D PCL of ZnTe embedded in a ZnS cube within an external field of view of +/-6.6 degrees and in the presence of grating filling factor errors of up to +/-10%. Comparable results, but with wider field of view, are also obtained with a Ge PCL embedded in a Si prism.

  13. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents climate observations throughout the years 2008-09 within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the Composite Topographic Index (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms). PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data were summarized to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  14. Recon Spectroscopy with TRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, David W.; TRES Team

    2018-01-01

    The Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5-m Tillinghast Reflector at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins has been a workhorse for reconnaissance spectroscopy of transiting-planet candidates identified by a variety of ground- and space-based photometric surveys, including Vulcan, TrES, HATNet, KELT, QES, Kepler, and K2. In support of NASA missions, quick-look classifications of effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, line broadening due to rotation, and absolute radial velocity have been uploaded to ExoFOP at NExScI on a timely schedule. More careful results derived using the Stellar Parameter Classification (SPC) tool can be provided in support of publications. For example, SPC results for effective temperature and metallicity have been used extensively to help constrain asteroseismic analyses of Kepler and K2 targets. TRES has also been used effectively for orbital solutions, Rossiter-McLaughlin observations, and Doppler tomography of large planets orbiting brighter. We look forward to continuing this work on TESS Objects of Interest.

  15. Removal of intraocular foreign body in anterior chamber angle with prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ming; Yan, Hua; Cai, Jin-Hong; Li, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a novel approach in removal of anterior chamber angle foreign body (ACFB) using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps. Data of 42 eyes of 42 patients who had undergone removal of ACFB using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps from January 2008 to October 2013 were collected and analyzed. Twenty eyes in group A received the conventional approach by using toothed forceps through corneal limbus incision, and 22 eyes in group B underwent the novel method through the opposite corneal limbus incision. The success rate of ACFB once removal was 75% (15/20) in group A, and 100% (22/22) in group B. The average operation time of group A was significantly longer compared with group B (34.9±9.88min vs 22.13±8.85min; P contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps is a safer, more effective, and convenient technique compared with the conventional approach.

  16. Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Borda, R.; Waluschka, E.; Pellicori, S.; Martins, J. V.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Cieslak, J. D.; Thompson, P.

    2009-08-01

    The design and construction of wide FOV imaging polarimeters for use in atmospheric remote sensing requires significant attention to the prevention of artificial polarization induced by the optical elements. Surface, coatings, and angles of incidence throughout the system must be carefully designed in order to minimize these artifacts because the remaining instrumental bias polarization is the main factor which drives the final polarimetric accuracy of the system. In this work, we present a detailed evaluation and analysis to explore the possibility of retrieving the initial polarization state of the light traveling through a generic system that has inherent instrumental polarization. Our case is a wide FOV lens and a splitter device. In particular, we chose as splitter device a Philips-type prism, because it is able to divide the signal in 3 independent channels that could be simultaneously analyze to retrieve the three first elements of the Stoke vector (in atmospheric applications the elliptical polarization can be neglected [1]). The Philips-type configuration is a versatile, compact and robust prism device that is typically used in three color camera systems. It has been used in some commercial polarimetric cameras which do not claim high accuracy polarization measurements [2]. With this work, we address the accuracy of our polarization inversion and measurements made with the Philips-type beam divider.

  17. Applying machine learning methods for characterization of hexagonal prisms from their 2D scattering patterns - an investigation using modelled scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, Emmanuel Oluwatobi; Hesse, Evelyn; Stopford, Chris; Davey, Neil; Sun, Yi

    2017-11-01

    Better understanding and characterization of cloud particles, whose properties and distributions affect climate and weather, are essential for the understanding of present climate and climate change. Since imaging cloud probes have limitations of optical resolution, especially for small particles (with diameter < 25 μm), instruments like the Small Ice Detector (SID) probes, which capture high-resolution spatial light scattering patterns from individual particles down to 1 μm in size, have been developed. In this work, we have proposed a method using Machine Learning techniques to estimate simulated particles' orientation-averaged projected sizes (PAD) and aspect ratio from their 2D scattering patterns. The two-dimensional light scattering patterns (2DLSP) of hexagonal prisms are computed using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) model. The 2DLSP cover the same angular range as the SID probes. We generated 2DLSP for 162 hexagonal prisms at 133 orientations for each. In a first step, the 2DLSP were transformed into rotation-invariant Zernike moments (ZMs), which are particularly suitable for analyses of pattern symmetry. Then we used ZMs, summed intensities, and root mean square contrast as inputs to the advanced Machine Learning methods. We created one random forests classifier for predicting prism orientation, 133 orientation-specific (OS) support vector classification models for predicting the prism aspect-ratios, 133 OS support vector regression models for estimating prism sizes, and another 133 OS Support Vector Regression (SVR) models for estimating the size PADs. We have achieved a high accuracy of 0.99 in predicting prism aspect ratios, and a low value of normalized mean square error of 0.004 for estimating the particle's size and size PADs.

  18. Spectroscopy in catalysis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy in Catalysis describes the most important modern analytical techniques used to investigate catalytic surfaces. These include electron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS, AES, EELS), ion spectroscopy (SIMS, SNMS, RBS, LEIS), vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, EELS), temperature-programmed

  19. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  20. Physical properties of the Nankai inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, IODP Expedition 348

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Manami; Kitajima, Hiroko; Henry, Pierre; Valdez, Robert; Josh, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) Expedition 348 focused on deepening the existing riser hole at Site C0002 to ~3000 meters below seafloor (mbsf) to access the deep interior of the Miocene inner accretionary prism. This unique tectonic environment, which has never before been sampled in situ by ocean drilling, was characterized through riser drilling, logging while drilling (LWD), mud gas monitoring and sampling, and cuttings and core analysis. Shipboard physical properties measurements including moisture and density (MAD), electrical conductivity, P-wave, natural gamma ray, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed mainly on cuttings samples from 870.5 to 3058.5 mbsf, but also on core samples from 2163 and 2204 mbsf. MAD measurements were conducted on seawater-washed cuttings ("bulk cuttings") in two size fractions of >4 mm and 1-4 mm from 870.5 to 3058.5 mbsf, and hand-picked intact cuttings from the >4 mm size fractions within 1222.5-3058.5 mbsf interval. The bulk cuttings show grain density of 2.68 g/cm3 and 2.72 g/cm3, bulk density of 1.9 g/cm3 to 2.2 g/cm3, and porosity of 50% to 32%. Compared to the values on bulk cuttings, the intact cuttings show almost the same grain density (2.66-2.70 g/cm3), but higher bulk density (2.05-2.41 g/cm3) and lower porosity (37-18%), respectively. The grain density agreement suggests that the measurements on both bulk cuttings and intact cuttings are of good quality, and the differences in porosity and density are real, but the values from the bulk cuttings are affected strongly by artifacts of the drilling process. Thus, the bulk density and porosity data on handpicked cuttings are better representative of formation properties. Combined with the MAD measurements on hand-picked intact cuttings and discrete core samples from previous expeditions, porosity generally decreases from ~60% to ~20% from the seafloor to 3000 mbsf at Site C0002. Electrical

  1. Progress in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.J.; Kleinpoppen, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents reviews by leading experts in the field covering areas of research at the forefront of atomic spectroscopy. Topics considered include the k ordering of atomic structure, multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for complex atoms, new methods in high-resolution laser spectroscopy, resonance ionization spectroscopy (inert atom detection), trapped ion spectroscopy, high-magnetic-field atomic physics, the effects of magnetic and electric fields on highly excited atoms, x rays from superheavy collision systems, recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions, investigations of superheavy quasi-atoms via spectroscopy of electron rays and positrons, impact ionization by fast projectiles, and amplitudes and state parameters from ion- and atom-atom excitation processes

  2. New Hadronic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the field of hadron spectroscopy has seen renewed interest due to the publication, initially mostly from B-Factories, of evidences of states that do not match regular spectroscopy, but are rather candidates for bound states with additional quarks or gluons (four quarks for tetraquarks and molecules and two quarks and gluons for hybrids). A huge effort in understanding the nature of this new states and in building a new spectroscopy is ongoing. This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art on heavy quarkonium exotic spectroscopy, with particular attention on the steps towards a global picture.

  3. Advances in DUV spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mogensen, Claus Tilsted

    The would-be advantages of deep UV (DUV) spectroscopy are well known, but the potential applications have so far not been fully realized due to technological limitations and, perhaps, lack of bright ideas. However, new components and new knowledge about DUV spectra and spectroscopic methods...... combined with increasing needs for solutions to practical problems in environmental protection, medicine and pollution monitoring promise a new era in DUV spectroscopy. Here we shall review the basis for DUV spectroscopy, both DUV fluorescence and DUV Raman spectroscopy, and describe recent advances...

  4. Spectroscopy for Dummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René

    This presentation will give short introduction to the most pertinent topics of optical spectroscopy. The following topics will be discussed: • The origin of spectra in UV, VIS and IR spectral range • Spectroscopic methods like absorption, luminescence and Raman • Wavelength dispersive optical...... components • Materials for use optical spectroscopy • Spectrometer geometries • Detectors for use in spectrometer • Practical examples of optical spectroscopy The objective of this presentation is to give the audience a good feel for the range of possibilities that optical spectroscopy can provide....

  5. Treatment of vestibular disorders with weak asymmetric base-in prisms : An hypothesis with a focus on Ménière’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Vente, P.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Regular treatments of Ménière’s disease (MD) vary largely, and no single satisfactory treatment exists. A complementary treatment popular among Dutch and Belgian patients involves eyeglasses with weak asymmetric base-in prisms, with a perceived high success rate. An explanatory

  6. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  7. Comparison of male and female emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) responses to phoebe oil and (Z)-3-hexanol lures in light green prism traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Tina Ciaramitaro; D. Barry Lyons; Gene C. Jones

    2011-01-01

    We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA, and Ontario, Canada, to compare unbaited light green sticky prism traps with traps baited with phoebe oil, (Z)-3-hexenol (Z3-6:OH), or blends of other green leaf volatiles (GLVs) with Z3-6:OH. Traps were placed in the...

  8. Brain Activity Stimulated by Prism Adaptation Tasks Utilized for the Treatment of Unilateral Spatial Neglect: A Study with fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the neurological basis for efficacy of prism adaptation therapy, which is used for the treatment of poststroke unilateral spatial neglect (USN. Study subjects were 6 USN-positive (+, 6 USN-negative patients, and 6 healthy volunteer control subjects. USN was identified by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT. During the tasks, brain activity was assessed with fNIRS via changes in oxyHb concentration per unit length. There was no significant difference in the number of errors in the task between the 3 groups. However, in the USN(+ group there was a significantly greater reduction in oxyHb levels in the right parietal association cortex during the prism adaptation task than in the other 2 groups (<0.05. There was an immediate improvement in USN symptoms as well as a significant increase in oxyHb levels during the prism adaptation in the channels covering the right frontal and parietal lobes in 2 patients in the USN(+ group (<0.05. This result suggested that decreased activity in the right parietal association cortex, which is related to spatial perception, during the prism adaptation task and task-induced reorganization of the right frontal and parietal areas were involved in improvement in USN symptoms.

  9. RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECTS EVALUATION OF INNOVATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-HIGH TECHNOLOGY USING THE PERSPECTIVE OF PRISM METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana de Barros Jerônimo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the failures of the activity of project management in small and medium-sized high-tech firms, using the tool PRISM. This postmortem methodology, proposed by Gary Pan, Shan L. and Ray Hackney Pan, analyzes the interactions between the components of the project during the exchange relationship between the project organization, information system and the users. Thus, the contribution of this work is to allow a formal analysis of the relationship between the sequence of events development projects into an innovative view, that provide insights into the potential success or failure of the project on medium-sized high-tech firms (whose the acronym is PMET.

  10. Output-Mirror-Tuning Terahertz-Wave Parametric Oscillator with an Asymmetrical Porro-Prism Resonator Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiliang; Qu, Yanchen; Zhao, Weijiang; Liu, Chuang; Chen, Zhenlei

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a terahertz-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) with an asymmetrical porro-prism (PP) resonator configuration, consisting of a close PP corner reflector and a distant output mirror relative to the MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. Based on this cavity, frequency tuning of Stokes and the accompanied terahertz (THz) waves is realized just by rotating the plane mirror. Furthermore, THz output with high efficiency and wide tuning range is obtained. Compared with a conventional TPO employing a plane-parallel resonator of the same cavity length and output loss, the low end of the frequency tuning range is extended to 0.96 THz from 1.2 THz. The highest output obtained at 1.28 THz is enhanced by about 25%, and the oscillation threshold pump energy measured at 1.66 THz is reduced by about 4.5%. This resonator configuration also shows some potential to simplify the structure and application for intracavity TPOs.

  11. Contributions of Organizational Performance Measurement Model Performance Prism to the Balanced Scorecard: a study from the stakeholder’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Darcy da Silva Jr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the organizational performance is a big challenge to companies. Thus, we should highlight the organizational performance measurement model Balanced Scorecard (BSC. However, the Performance Prism (PP model emphasizes the organizational stakeholders and states that BSC treats them in a superficial way, giving more importance to the shareholders and the customers. The objective of this research is to identify the PP contributions to the BSC, from the stakeholders perspective. With this objective, a semi-structured script to the interviews was applied to professionals of the strategic area. In parallel, the structure of the models was compared to enrich the results, as well as to complement the analysis of the perceptions of respondents. The results were very relevant given important contributions of the PP to the BSC, opposing the original criticisms of the PP. These criticisms became questionable through the perception of respondents and the comparison between the models.

  12. Geological Study of Active Cold Seeps in the Syn-collision Accretionary Prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogonophoran tube worms, elongated pyrite tubes and authigenic carbonate nodules are used to evaluate the occurrence of potential cold seeps in the syn-collision accretionary prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan. At least two species of pogonophoran tubeworms were found in surface and core sediments. Pyrites occur in three different forms: fillings inside foraminiferal chambers, cements between calcareous microfossils, and elongated tubes. The bottom water off SW Taiwan is aerobic, but authigenic pyrites are found in the surface sediments at several sites, suggesting the existence of local reducing environments enabling the formation of pyrites. These environments are most likely caused by the occurrence of active cold seeps where methane expulses. Authigenic carbonates with highly depleted carbon isotope values (-54 to -43‰ were found at more than 5 locations, in agreement with a methane-derived source for the carbon.

  13. Influence of the apex angle of a hollow prism made from an ordinary commercial glass plate as a simple refractometer to the accuracy of the refractive index measurement of the edible oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N.; Maswati; Yusibani, E.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the apex angle of a hollow prism used as a simple refractometer to the accuracy of a refractive index measurement of the edible oil samples was studied. The hollow prism was made from an ordinary commercial glass plate with a thickness of 2 mm. The apex angle of the constructed hollow prism was varied. The edible oil sample used in this study was palm oil, namely the packaged, branded oil sample and the bulk oil sample. For measuring the refractive index, the oil sample was filled in the constructed hollow prism, and then a helium-neon laser beam was passed through the oil sample at a certain angle of incidence. The angle of minimum deviation of the transmitted laser He-Ne beam was measured and then was used for calculating the refractive index of the oil sample. The refractive index measurement was made using the hollow prism with different apex angles, ranging from 300 to 600. The measurement accuracy was estimated by comparing the refractive index measured using the hollow prisms to that of obtained using a standard Abbe refractometer. It was found that the refractive index of the edible oil can be measured accurately by using the hollow prism. It was also found that the accuracy of the refractive index measurement significantly changes with the apex angle of the hollow prism. The refractive index values measured using this simple refractometer deviate up to 3,49% from the refractive index value measured using the standard Abbe refractometer, especially when the apex angle of the prism is 30°. The measurement results with high accuracies obtained when using the hollow prisms with apex angles of 450 and 600. The optimum apex angle for the present constructed hollow prism is 450. The refractive index obtained using the hollow prism with the apex angle of 450 is 1,4623 and 1,4438 for the bulk oil and the packed, branded oil samples, respectively. This result suggests that the apex angle of the prism used affects largely the accuracy of the

  14. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Matulková, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2010), s. 408-420 ISSN 1230-3402 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FTIR spectroscopy * absorption spectroscopy * laser diodes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2010

  15. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  16. Coherent atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, W.R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne Spectroscopy Laboratory, initiated and advanced over several decades by F.S. Tomkins and M. Fred, has been a major international facility. A range of collaborative work in atomic spectroscopy is selected to illustrate advances in experimental physics which have been made possible by combination of the talents of Tomkins and Fred with the unique facilities of the Argonne Laboratory. (orig.)

  17. Permissive tracts for nickel, copper, platinum group elements (PGE), and chromium deposits of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 66): Chapter G1 in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Horton, John D.

    2012-01-01

    In 1996, at the request of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists produced a strategic plan for the acquisition, improvement and modernization of multidisciplinary sets of data to support the growth of the Mauritanian minerals sector and to highlight the geological and mineral exploration potential of the country. In 1999, the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy, and Mines of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania implemented a program for the acquisition of the recommended basic geoscientific information, termed the first Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier (Project for Institutional Capacity Building in the Mining Sector, PRISM-I). As a result of the PRISM-I efforts, a great deal of new geological, geophysical, geochemical, remote sensing, and hydrological data became available for evaluation and synthesis. However, the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy, and Mines recognized that additional work was required to extract the full benefit of the data before it could be of greatest use to the international community and of benefit to the Mauritanian minerals and development sector.

  18. Penning ionization processes studied by electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of measuring the kinetic energy of electrons ejected from atomic or molecular species as a result of collisional energy transfer between a metastable excited rare gas atom and an atom or molecule is known as Penning ionization spectroscopy. Like the analogous photoionization process of photoelectron spectroscopy, a considerable amount of information has been gained about the ionization potentials of numerous molecular systems. It is, in fact, through the combined analyses of photoelectron and Penning electron spectra that affords a probe of the particle-particle interactions that occur in the Penning process. In this paper a short survey of the phenomenon of Penning ionization, as studied by electron spectroscopy, will be presented as it pertains to the ionization processes of simple molecules by metastable excited atoms. (author)

  19. A survey of northern Bok globules for H-alpha emission stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Katsuo; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko.

    1983-01-01

    Northern globules in the catalog of Bok and Cordwell (1973) have been surveyed for Hα-emission stars of T Tau type by using the Kiso Schmidt telescope with an objective prism. The results for 15 globules are presented here. A total of 60 emission-line stars, of which 80 % are new, and 17 suspected ones have been discovered. Some of them are known T Tau stars; one star shows Ca 2 H and K lines in emission on objective-prism plates in the blue-violet and presumably is a new T Tau star. The celestial coordinates and rough estimates of magnitude and color are given for all of the objects. (author)

  20. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  1. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  2. Baryon spectroscopy at KAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comyn, Martin

    1992-07-01

    The unique opportunities for the study of baryon spectroscopy at the TRIUMF KAON Factory are outlined. Related issues in other areas of hadron spectroscopy are discussed. The complex of accelerators that comprise the TRIUMF KAON Factory, and the properties of the separated beams that will be available to experimenters, are described. Initial design considerations for detectors to be used in the study of hadron spectroscopy are presented, along with a proposed detector configuration. The progress towards realization of the TRIUMF KAON Factory is examined, and the timetable for the determination of the initial experimental programme and facilities is explained. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. THE SPITZER MID-INFRARED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SURVEY. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF OBSCURED CANDIDATES AND NORMAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SELECTED IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ridgway, S. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gates, E. L. [UCO/Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Nielsen, D. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Petric, A. O. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sajina, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tuffs University, 212 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urrutia, T. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Cox Drews, S. [946 Mangrove Avenue 102, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States); Harrison, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Seymour, N. [CSIRO, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Storrie-Lombardi, L. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGNs closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to highly luminous quasars (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}), all with redshifts ranging from 0 to 4.3. Samples of candidate AGNs were selected with mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 μm flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGNs and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type 1 AGNs with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type 2 objects with extinctions A{sub V} ∼> 5 toward their AGNs, 96 (14%) are AGNs with lower extinctions (A{sub V} ∼ 1), and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. Of the survey objects 50% have L {sub bol} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type 2 quasars and objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared—emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) mid-infrared selected AGN candidates exist which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGNs often differ.

  4. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on

  5. IR Spectroscopy. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzler, H.; Gremlich, H.U.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: absorption and molecular design, spectrometers, sample preparation, qualitative spectral interpretation and assertions, near-infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy, reference spectra and expert systems

  6. Charmonium spectroscopy, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The state of charmonium spectroscopy is reviewed. All analyses proceed from a spin-dependent, non-relativistic Schroedinger equation. Many of the possible branching ratios for charm like states are investigated. 17 refs

  7. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  8. Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Barry D; Soifer, Hadas; Shafir, Dror; Dudovich, Nirit; Serbinenko, Valeria; Smirnova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science where attosecond time resolution and Angstrom spatial resolution are accessible in a single measurement. However, reconstructing the dynamics under study is limited by the multiple degrees of freedom involved in strong field interactions. In this paper we describe a new class of measurement schemes for resolving attosecond dynamics, integrating perturbative nonlinear optics with strong-field physics. These approaches serve as a basis for multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy. Specifically, we show that multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy can measure tunnel ionization dynamics with high precision, and resolves the interference between multiple ionization channels. In addition, we show how multidimensional HHG can function as a type of lock-in amplifier measurement. Similar to multi-dimensional approaches in nonlinear optical spectroscopy that have resolved correlated femtosecond dynamics, multi-dimensional high harmonic spectroscopy reveals the underlying complex dynamics behind attosecond scale phenomena. (paper)

  9. Foundations of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stenholm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    A simple presentation of the theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this text helps students to apply theory to calculations with a systematic series of examples and exercises. 1984 edition.

  10. Surface vibrational spectroscopy (EELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbed states of hydrogen on metal surfaces have been studied by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In this article, typical spectra and analysis as well as recent development are introduced. (author)

  11. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  12. Positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Viswanathan, B.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy, the experimental techniques and its application to studies on defects and electronic structure of materials is presented. The scope of this paper is to present the requisite introductory material, that will enable a better appreciation of the subsequent specialized articles on the applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to investigate various problems in materials science. (author). 31 refs., 3 figs

  13. Ultrafast infrared vibrational spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayer, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years or so have seen the introduction of multidimensional methods into infrared and optical spectroscopy. The technology of multidimensional spectroscopy is developing rapidly and its applications are spreading to biology and materials science. Edited by a recognized leader in the field and with contributions from top researchers, including experimentalists and theoreticians, this book presents the latest research methods and results and will serve as an excellent resource for other researchers.

  14. Spectroscopy stepping stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, M.R.; Sturman, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining the elemental composition of samples has long been a basic task of analytical science. Some very powerful and convenient approaches are based on the wavelength-specific absorption or emission of light by gas-phase atoms. Techniques briefly described as examples of analytical atomic spectrometry include atomic emission and absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectroscopy and laser induced breakdown spectrometry

  15. Fast antihydrogen beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The motivation for production and precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms is outlined. An experimental configuration is considered, concerning laser-microwave spectroscopy of a fast hydrogen beam with characteristics similar to those of an antihydrogen beam emanating from an antiproton-positron overlap region in an antiproton storage ring. In particular, a possible experiment for the measurement of the ground state hyperfine structure splitting is described. (orig.)

  16. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; Taylor, W.D.; Trundle, C.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Tarantula Survey is an ambitious ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here, we introduce the scientific motivations of the survey and give an overview of the observational sample.

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markova, N.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Graefener, G.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Appellaniz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartts, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; Taylor, W.D.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Tarantula survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi- epochs spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Dor region in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Here we briefly describe the main drivers of the survey and the observational material derived.

  18. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous o...

  19. Preparation of fluorinated Cr2O3 hexagonal prism and catalytic performance for the dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane to vinyl fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wenfeng; Li, Xiaojuan; Tang, Haodong; Wang, Zhikun; Xi, Miao; Li, Ying; Liu, Huazhang

    2015-01-01

    A Cr 2 O 3 hexagonal prism structure synthesized via the reaction of aqueous CrCl 3 solution with NaBH 4 solution at room temperature followed by calcination of the precipitate in N 2 atmosphere at 500 °C is investigated as an efficient catalyst for dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane producing vinyl fluoride. With the assistance of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, experimental results revealed that the uniform hexagonal prism has a prism length of 285 ± 43 nm and width of 233 ± 33 nm. It is in the form of loose and net-like aggregation of nano-Cr 2 O 3 with diameter less than 3–5 nm with polycrystalline structure. NH 3 temperature programmed desorption and chlorodifluoromethane dismutation experiments confirm the existence of relatively abundant and strong acidic sites. As a catalyst for dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane, compared with commercial Cr 2 O 3 , much higher activity and stability were observed due to the evolution of CrO x F y species and much higher surface area and mesoporous structure. No significant morphology changes or sintering of the catalyst are observed after 70-h reaction. Compared with the commercial Cr 2 O 3 , we suggest that the much smaller size of Cr 2 O 3 crystalline which possesses higher surface energy, lower strength, and more abundant Lewis acidity and the formation of CrO x F y during reaction over hexagonal prism catalyst probably contributes to the activity and stability difference between these two catalysts.

  20. Preparation of fluorinated Cr2O3 hexagonal prism and catalytic performance for the dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane to vinyl fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenfeng; Li, Xiaojuan; Tang, Haodong; Wang, Zhikun; Xi, Miao; Li, Ying; Liu, Huazhang

    2015-09-01

    A Cr2O3 hexagonal prism structure synthesized via the reaction of aqueous CrCl3 solution with NaBH4 solution at room temperature followed by calcination of the precipitate in N2 atmosphere at 500 °C is investigated as an efficient catalyst for dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane producing vinyl fluoride. With the assistance of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, experimental results revealed that the uniform hexagonal prism has a prism length of 285 ± 43 nm and width of 233 ± 33 nm. It is in the form of loose and net-like aggregation of nano-Cr2O3 with diameter less than 3-5 nm with polycrystalline structure. NH3 temperature programmed desorption and chlorodifluoromethane dismutation experiments confirm the existence of relatively abundant and strong acidic sites. As a catalyst for dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane, compared with commercial Cr2O3, much higher activity and stability were observed due to the evolution of CrO x F y species and much higher surface area and mesoporous structure. No significant morphology changes or sintering of the catalyst are observed after 70-h reaction. Compared with the commercial Cr2O3, we suggest that the much smaller size of Cr2O3 crystalline which possesses higher surface energy, lower strength, and more abundant Lewis acidity and the formation of CrO x F y during reaction over hexagonal prism catalyst probably contributes to the activity and stability difference between these two catalysts.

  1. The Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS redshift survey of galaxy evolution since z = 1.5. I. Description and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Villanueva, Edward V.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Quadri, Ryan F. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We describe the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) Survey, a wide-field, near-IR selected spectrophotometric redshift survey with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on Magellan-Baade. By defining a flux-limited sample of galaxies in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6 μm imaging of SWIRE fields, the CSI Survey efficiently traces the stellar mass of average galaxies to z ∼ 1.5. This first paper provides an overview of the survey selection, observations, processing of the photometry and spectrophotometry. We also describe the processing of the data: new methods of fitting synthetic templates of spectral energy distributions are used to derive redshifts, stellar masses, emission line luminosities, and coarse information on recent star formation. Our unique methodology for analyzing low-dispersion spectra taken with multilayer prisms in IMACS, combined with panchromatic photometry from the ultraviolet to the IR, has yielded high-quality redshifts for 43,347 galaxies in our first 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the SWIRE XMM-LSS field. We use three different approaches to estimate our redshift errors and find robust agreement. Over the full range of 3.6 μm fluxes of our selection, we find typical redshift uncertainties of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) ≲ 0.015. In comparisons with previously published spectroscopic redshifts we find scatters of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.011 for galaxies at 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 0.9, and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.014 for galaxies at 0.9 ≤ z ≤ 1.2. For galaxies brighter and fainter than i = 23 mag, we find σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.008 and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.022, respectively. Notably, our low-dispersion spectroscopy and analysis yields comparable redshift uncertainties and success rates for both red and blue galaxies, largely eliminating color-based systematics that can seriously bias observed dependencies of galaxy evolution on environment.

  2. The Clinical Utility of ASRS-v1.1 for Identifying ADHD in Alcoholics Using PRISM as the Reference Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria M; Schneekloth, Terry D; Hitschfeld, Mario J; Geske, Jennifer R; Atkinson, David L; Karpyak, Victor M

    2016-05-02

    The objective was to assess the clinical utility of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) in identifying ADHD in alcoholics using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) as the diagnostic "gold standard." We performed a secondary analysis of data from 379 treatment-seeking alcoholics who completed the ASRS-v1.1 and the ADHD module of the PRISM. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. The prevalence of ADHD was 7.7% (95% CI = [5.4, 10.8]). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the ASRS-v1.1 was 18.1% (95% CI = [12.4, 25.7]) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.6% (95% CI = [94.9, 98.9]). The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated a sensitivity of 79.3% (95% CI = [61.6, 90.2]) and a specificity of 70.3% (95% CI = [65.3, 74.8]). The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and specificity in a sample of treatment-seeking alcoholics when compared with the PRISM as the reference standard for ADHD diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. One Year Performance Results for the Prism Solar Installation at the New Mexico Regional Test Center: Field Data from February 15 2016 - February 14 2017.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    A 9.6 kW test array of Prism bifacial modules and reference monofacial modules installed in February 2016 at the New Mexico Regional Test Center has produced one year of performance data. The data reveal that the Prism modules are out-performing the monofacial modules, with bifacial gains in energy over the twelve-month period ranging from 17% to 132%, depending on the orientation and ground albedo. These measured bifacial gains were found to be in good agreement with modeled bifacial gains using equations previously published by Prism Solar. The most dramatic increase in performance was seen among the vertically mounted, west-facing modules, where the bifacial modules produced more than double the energy of monofacial modules in the same orientation. Because peak energy generation (mid- morning and mid-afternoon) for these bifacial modules may best match load on the electric grid, the west-facing orientation may be more economically desirable than traditional south-facing module orientations (which peak at solar noon).

  4. Performance Results for the Prism Solar Installation at the New Mexico Regional Test Center: Field Data from February 15 - August 15 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Stein, Joshua S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaics and Distributed Systems Integration; Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electric Power Systems Research

    2016-09-01

    A 9.6 kW test array of Prism bifacial modules and reference monofacial modules installed in February 2016 at the New Mexico Regional Test Center has produced six months of performance data. The data reveal that the Prism modules are out-performing the monofacial modules, with bifacial gains in energy over the six-month period ranging from 18% to 136%, depending on the orientation and ground albedo. These measured bifacial gains were found to be in good agreement with modeled bifacial gains using equations previously published by Prism. The most dramatic increase in performance was seen among the vertically tilted, west-facing modules, where the bifacial modules produced more than double the energy of monofacial modules and more energy than monofacial modules at any orientation. Because peak energy generation (mid-morning and mid-afternoon) for these bifacial modules may best match load on the electric grid, the west-facing orientation may be more economically desirable than traditional south-facing module orientations (which peak at solar noon).

  5. Effect of binasal occlusion (BNO) and base-in prisms on the visual-evoked potential (VEP) in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Naveen K; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    To assess quantitatively the effect and relative contribution of binasal occlusion (BNO) and base-in prisms (BI) on visually-evoked potential (VEP) responsivity in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and the symptom of visual motion sensitivity (VMS), as well as in visually-normal (VN) individuals. Subjects were comprised of 20 VN adults and 15 adults with mTBI and VMS. There were four test conditions: (1) conventional pattern VEP, which served as the baseline comparison condition; (2) VEP with BNO alone; (3) VEP with 2 pd BI prisms before each eye; and (4) VEP with the above BNO and BI prism combination. In mTBI, the mean VEP amplitude increased significantly in nearly all subjects (∼90%) with BNO alone. In contrast, in VN, it decreased significantly with BNO alone in all subjects (100%), as compared to the other test conditions. These objective findings were consistent with improvements in visual impressions and sensorimotor tasks in the group with mTBI. Latency remained within normal limits under all test conditions in both groups. Only the BNO condition demonstrated significant, but opposite and consistent, directional effects on the VEP amplitude in both groups. The BNO-VEP test condition may be used clinically for the objectively-based, differential diagnosis of persons suspected of having mTBI and VMS from the VNs.

  6. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  7. Applicability of PRISM PRA Methodology to the Level II Probabilistic Safety Analysis of KALIMER-600 (I) (Core Damage Event Tree Analysis Part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, T. W.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, B. Y.

    2009-03-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing liquid metal reactor (LMR) design technologies under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Nevertheless, there is no experience of the PSA domestically for a fast reactor with the metal fuel. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish the methodologies of risk assessment for the reference design of KALIMER-600 reactor. An applicability of the PSA of the PRISM plant to the KALIMER-600 has been studied. The study is confined to a core damage event tree analysis which is a part of a level 2 PSA. Assuming that the accident types, which can be developed from level 1 PSA, are same as the PRISM PRA, core damage categories are defined and core damage event trees are developed for the KALIMER-600 reactor. Fission product release fractions of the core damage categories and branch probabilities of the core damage event trees are referred from the PRISM PRA temporarily. Plant specific data will be used during the detail analysis

  8. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Normals Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  9. Synthesis and characterization of grinding aid fly ash blended mortar effect on bond strength of masonry prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, L.; Ravichandran, P. T.; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of particle size reduction by applying top-down nanotechnology such as ball mill grinding process with the addition of amine-based grinding aids. The particle size reduction in synthesis process and its characterization were investigated for fly ash particles. The Rosin-Rammler-Bennet (RRB) distribution model using mathematical formulations were studied for fly ash ground particles. The hardened properties of grinding aid fly ash composite mortar were studied using compressive strength test. The optimum grinding time was 120 min identified through the particle size distribution analysis. The mean particle size decreased from 92.09 μm to 10.5 μm in which there is 89% reduction in particle size due to the grinding of fly ash particle with grinding aids. The compressive strength results show that substitutions of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mortar by Amine-based Grinding aid Fly Ash (AGFA) 15% gives 12, 23% and at 30% gives 6, 8% of higher strength compare to the substitutions of raw fly ash. The addition of grinding aids in grinding process gives more advantages to reduce the particle size without changing chemical composition. The AGFA sample shows better performance in compressive strength and bond strength behavior of masonry prism. It may suggest that amine based grinding aids play a vital role and feasible to use in fly ash grinding process.

  10. Design of a Modular DNA Triangular-Prism Sensor Enabling Ratiometric and Multiplexed Biomolecule Detection on a Single Microbead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Qiaoshu; Liu, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaohai; Guo, Qiuping; Li, Li; Liu, Wei; Wang, Kemin

    2017-03-21

    DNA nanostructures have emerged as powerful and versatile building blocks for the construction of programmable nanoscale structures and functional sensors for biomarker detection, disease diagnostics, and therapy. Here we integrated multiple sensing modules into a single DNA three-dimensional (3D) nanoarchitecture with a triangular-prism (TP) structure for ratiometric and multiplexed biomolecule detection on a single microbead. In our design, the complementary hybridization of three clip sequences formed TP nanoassemblies in which the six single-strand regions in the top and bottom faces act as binding sites for different sensing modules, including an anchor module, reference sequence module, and capture sequence module. The multifunctional modular TP nanostructures were thus exploited for ratiometric and multiplexed biomolecule detection on microbeads. Microbead imaging demonstrated that, after ratiometric self-calibration analysis, the imaging deviations resulting from uneven fluorescence intensity distribution and differing probe concentrations were greatly reduced. The rigid nanostructure also conferred the TP as a framework for geometric positioning of different capture sequences. The inclusion of multiple targets led to the formation of sandwich hybridization structures that gave a readily detectable optical response at different fluorescence channels and distinct fingerprint-like pattern arrays. This approach allowed us to discriminate multiplexed biomolecule targets in a simple and efficient fashion. In this module-designed strategy, the diversity of the controlled DNA assembly coupled with the geometrically well-defined rigid nanostructures of the TP assembly provides a flexible and reliable biosensing approach that shows great promise for biomedical applications.

  11. Using the prisms of gender and rank to interpret research collaboration power dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, Monica; Bozeman, Barry

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration is central to modern scientific inquiry, and increasingly important to the professional experiences of academic scientists. While the effects of collaboration have been widely studied, much less is understood about the motivations to collaborate and collaboration dynamics that generate scientific outcomes. A particular interest of this study is to understand how collaboration experiences differ between women and men, and the attributions used to explain these differences. We use a multi-method study of university Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics faculty research collaborators. We employ 177 anonymous open-ended responses to a web-based survey, and 60 semi-structured interviews of academic scientists in US research universities. We find similarities and differences in collaborative activity between men and women. Open-ended qualitative textual analysis suggests that some of these differences are attributed to power dynamics - both general ones related to differences in organizational status, and in power dynamics related specifically to gender. In analysis of semi-structured interviews, we find that both status and gender were used as interpretive frames for collaborative behavior, with more emphasis placed on status than gender differences. Overall, the findings support that gender structures some part of the collaborative experience, but that status hierarchy exerts more clear effects.

  12. In vivo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.R.; Cady, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    The technique which the authors describe in this chapter provides alternative information to imaging, although based upon the same physical principles. The experiments are carried out differently and have instrumental requirements which are not met by a standard imaging system. Furthermore, although the clinical efficacy of NMR imaging has been proven, clinical spectroscopy is very much in its infancy. With the exception of some specific /sup 31/P applications not is not even clear how spectroscopic investigations will be performed. This is particularly true with regard to localization techniques for investigating other than superficial organs and and in the use of /sup 1/H spectroscopy. They attempt to show what information spectroscopy can provide in principle and point out some of the problems associated with such investigations. NMR has come to the notice of the clinical community mainly through its use as an imaging technique, and many may consider spectroscopy as a secondary discipline. NMR spectroscopy, however, has a longer history than imaging and has been a standard technique in chemistry laboratories for more than two decades. It is a technique without peer for structural analysis of molecules and no new chemical compound is discovered or synthesized without an NMR spectrum being taken. The influence of molecular structure on resonant frequency has been termed the chemical shift

  13. Moessbauer spectroscopy. Tutorial book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Langouche, Guido

    2013-01-01

    First textbook on Moessbauer Spectroscopy covering the complete field. Offers a concise introduction to all aspects of Moessbauer spectroscopy by the leading experts in the field. Tutorials on Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Since the discovery of the Moessbauer Effect many excellent books have been published for researchers and for doctoral and master level students. However, there appears to be no textbook available for final year bachelor students, nor for people working in industry who have received only basic courses in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, chemistry and materials science. The challenge of this book is to give an introduction to Moessbauer Spectroscopy for this level. The ultimate goal of this book is to give this audience not only a scientific introduction to the technique, but also to demonstrate in an attractive way the power of Moessbauer Spectroscopy in many fields of science, in order to create interest among the readers in joining the community of Moessbauer spectroscopists. This is particularly important at times where in many Moessbauer laboratories succession is at stake.

  14. Prism inside. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the lanthanide(III) chloride oxidotungstates(VI) Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}] (Ln = La - Nd, Sm - Tb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Katharina V.; Blaschkowski, Bjoern; Hartenbach, Ingo [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Foerg, Katharina; Netzsch, Philip; Hoeppe, Henning A. [Institute for Physics, University of Augsburg (Germany)

    2017-11-17

    The lanthanide(III) chloride oxidotungstates(VI) with the formula Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}] for Ln = La - Nd, Sm - Tb were synthesized by solid-state reactions utilizing the respective lanthanide trichloride, lanthanide sesquioxide (where available), and tungsten trioxide together with lithium chloride as flux. The title compounds crystallize hexagonally in space group P6{sub 3}/m (no. 176, a = 941-909, c = 543-525 pm, Z = 2). The structures comprise crystallographically unique Ln{sup 3+} cations surrounded by six O{sup 2-} and four Cl{sup -} anions (C.N. = 10) forming distorted tetracapped trigonal prisms as well as rather uncommon trigonal prismatic [WO{sub 6}]{sup 6-} units, whose edges are coordinated by nine Ln{sup 3+} cations. Thus, a {sup 3}{sub ∞}{([WO_6]Ln"e_9_/_3)"3"+} framework (e = edge-sharing) is created, which contains tube-shaped channels along [001] lined with chloride anions. To elucidate the spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the obtained pure phase samples, single-crystal Raman (for Ln = La - Nd, Sm-Tb), diffuse reflectance (for Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Gd), and luminescence spectroscopy (for bulk Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}] (Ln = La, Eu, Gd, Tb) and Eu{sup 3+}- or Tb{sup 3+}-doped derivatives of La{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}] and Gd{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}], respectively) were performed and their temperature-dependent magnetic moments (for Ln = Pr, Nd, Gd) were determined. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Complete titanium substitution by boron in a tetragonal prism: exploring the complex boride series Ti(3-x)Ru(5-y)Ir(y)B(2+x) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 1 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokwa, Boniface P T; Hermus, Martin

    2011-04-18

    Polycrystalline samples and single crystals of four members of the new complex boride series Ti(3-x)Ru(5-y)Ir(y)B(2+x) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 1 X-ray diffraction as well as energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. They crystallize with the tetragonal Ti(3)Co(5)B(2) structure type in space group P4/mbm (No. 127). Tetragonal prisms of Ru/Ir atoms are filled with titanium in the boron-poorest phase (Ti(3)Ru(2.9)Ir(2.1)B(2)). Gradual substitution of titanium by boron then results in the successive filling of this site by a Ti/B mixture en route to the complete boron occupation, leading to the boron-richest phase (Ti(2)Ru(2.8)Ir(2.2)B(3)). Furthermore, both ruthenium and iridium share two sites in these structures, but a clear Ru/Ir site preference is found. First-principles density functional theory calculations (Vienna ab initio simulation package) on appropriate structural models (using a supercell approach) have provided more evidence on the stability of the boron-richest and -poorest phases, and the calculated lattice parameters corroborate very well with the experimentally found ones. Linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation calculations further supported these findings through crystal orbital Hamilton population bonding analyses, which also show that the Ru/Ir-B and Ru/Ir-Ti heteroatomic interactions are mainly responsible for the structural stability of these compounds. Furthermore, some stable and unstable phases of this complex series could be predicted using the rigid-band model. According to the density of states analyses, all phases should be metallic conductors, as was expected from these metal-rich borides.

  16. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  17. Autobalanced Ramsey Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Christian; Huntemann, Nils; Lange, Richard; Tamm, Christian; Peik, Ekkehard

    2018-01-01

    We devise a perturbation-immune version of Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields. Spectroscopy of an atomic clock transition without compromising the clock's accuracy is accomplished by actively balancing the spectroscopic responses from phase-congruent Ramsey probe cycles of unequal durations. Our simple and universal approach eliminates a wide variety of interrogation-induced line shifts often encountered in high precision spectroscopy, among them, in particular, light shifts, phase chirps, and transient Zeeman shifts. We experimentally demonstrate autobalanced Ramsey spectroscopy on the light shift prone Yb+ 171 electric octupole optical clock transition and show that interrogation defects are not turned into clock errors. This opens up frequency accuracy perspectives below the 10-18 level for the Yb+ system and for other types of optical clocks.

  18. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  19. EarthFinder: A Precise Radial Velocity Survey Probe Mission of our Nearest Stellar Neighbors for Earth-Mass Habitable Zone Analogs Using High-Resolution UV-Vis-NIR Echelle Spectroscopy on a Space Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavchan, Peter; EarthFinder Team

    2018-01-01

    We are investigating the science case for a 1.0-1.4 meter space telescope to survey the closest, brightest FGKM main sequence stars to search for Habitable Zone (HZ) Earth analogs using the precise radial velocity (PRV) technique at a precision of 1-10 cm/s. Our baseline instrument concept uses two diffraction-limited spectrographs operating in the 0.4-1.0 microns and 1.0-2.4 microns spectral regions each with a spectral resolution of R=150,000~200,000, with the possibility of a third UV arm. Because the instrument utilizes a diffraction-limited input beam, the spectrograph would be extremely compact, less than 50 cm on a side, and illumination can be stabilized with the coupling of starlight into single mode fibers. With two octaves of wavelength coverage and a cadence unimpeded by any diurnal, seasonal, and atmospheric effects, EarthFinder will offer a unique platform for recovering stellar activity signals from starspots, plages, granulation, etc. to detect exoplanets at velocity semi-amplitudes currently not obtainable from the ground. Variable telluric absorption and emission lines may potentially preclude achieving PRV measurements at or below 10 cm/s in the visible and advantage compared to an annual ~3-6 month observing season from the ground for mitigating stellar activity and detecting the orbital periods of HZ Earth-mass analogs (e.g. ~6-months to ~2 years). Finally, we are compiling a list of ancillary science cases for the observatory, ranging from asteroseismology to the direct measurement of the expansion of the Universe.

  20. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed; and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.