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Sample records for surveys measure bird

  1. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  2. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  3. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  4. Winter bird population studies and project prairie birds for surveying grassland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Twedt; Paul B. Hamel; Mark S. Woodrey

    2008-01-01

    We compared 2 survey methods for assessing winter bird communities in temperate grasslands: Winter Bird Population Study surveys are area-searches that have long been used in a variety of habitats whereas Project Prairie Bird surveys employ active-flushing techniques on strip-transects and are intended for use in grasslands.

  5. The role of citizen science in bird conservation: The Christmas Bird Count and Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Butcher, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Many birders in the United States, Canada, and Mexico are critical participants in bird monitoring and conservation activities. This linkage between recreational birders and avian conservation surveys is not new. It was established long before the internet and long before any fast communication facilitated the connection of birders to scientists. It started because a few key individuals realized that birding with a purpose added a new and important dimension to a recreational activity—and birders loved the idea that they were helping to study and conserve the birds they watch. And they still do today.

  6. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hierarchical models and the analysis of bird survey information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Management of birds often requires analysis of collections of estimates. We describe a hierarchical modeling approach to the analysis of these data, in which parameters associated with the individual species estimates are treated as random variables, and probability statements are made about the species parameters conditioned on the data. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure is used to fit the hierarchical model. This approach is computer intensive, and is based upon simulation. MCMC allows for estimation both of parameters and of derived statistics. To illustrate the application of this method, we use the case in which we are interested in attributes of a collection of estimates of population change. Using data for 28 species of grassland-breeding birds from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we estimate the number of species with increasing populations, provide precision-adjusted rankings of species trends, and describe a measure of population stability as the probability that the trend for a species is within a certain interval. Hierarchical models can be applied to a variety of bird survey applications, and we are investigating their use in estimation of population change from survey data.

  8. Grassland bird survey protocol : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for the grassland bird survey at Kulm Wetland Management District. This survey occurs between May 15th and July 15th annually. All...

  9. Experimental and Ecological Implications of Evening Bird Surveys in Stream-Riparian Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2009-10-01

    Stream-riparian ecosystems are dynamic and complex entities that can support high levels of bird assemblage abundance and diversity. The myriad patches (e.g., aquatic, floodplain, riparian) found in the riverscape habitat mosaic attract a unique mixture of aquatic, semiaquatic, riparian, and upland birds, each uniquely utilizing the river corridor. Whereas standard morning bird surveys are widely used across ecosystems, the variety of bird guilds and the temporal habitat partitioning that likely occur in stream-riparian ecosystems argue for the inclusion of evening surveys. At 41 stream reaches in Vermont and Idaho, USA, we surveyed bird assemblages using a combination of morning and evening fixed-width transect counts. Student’s paired t-tests showed that while bird abundance was not significantly different between morning and evening surveys, bird assemblage diversity (as measured by species richness, Shannon-Weiner’s index, and Simpson’s index) was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening. NMS ordinations of bird species and time (i.e., morning, evening) indicated that the structure of morning bird assemblages was different from that of evening assemblages. NMS further showed that a set of species was only found in evening surveys. The inclusion of evening counts in surveying bird assemblages in stream-riparian ecosystems has important experimental and ecological implications. Experimentally, the sole use of morning bird surveys may significantly underestimate the diversity and misrepresent the community composition of bird assemblages in these ecosystems. Ecologically, many of the birds detected in evening surveys were water-associated species that occupy high trophic levels and aerial insectivores that represent unique aquatic-terrestrial energy transfers.

  10. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  11. Survey of breeding birds Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of the second annual survey of breeding birds of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge conducted in 1995. This series of...

  12. Parasitological survey on birds at some selected brazilian zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gonzalez Hofstatter

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was conducted at some zoos in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Several groups of birds were surveyed for fecal samples, but the most important was Psittacidae. Among the parasites, Eimeria (coccidian and Capillaria, Ascaridia and Heterakis (nematodes were observed in almost one third of the samples. Presence of a rich parasite fauna associated with captive birds seems to be an effect of captivity, since data on free-ranging birds indicate few or virtually no parasites at all. The discovery of new coccidian species during this survey reveals the need of more research on the subject as even well-known bird species have unknown parasites, but caution must be exercised in order to avoid descriptions of pseudoparasites.

  13. Parasitological survey on birds at some selected brazilian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, Paulo Gonzalez; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted at some zoos in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Several groups of birds were surveyed for fecal samples, but the most important was Psittacidae. Among the parasites, Eimeria (coccidian) and Capillaria, Ascaridia and Heterakis (nematodes) were observed in almost one third of the samples. Presence of a rich parasite fauna associated with captive birds seems to be an effect of captivity, since data on free-ranging birds indicate few or virtually no parasites at all. The discovery of new coccidian species during this survey reveals the need of more research on the subject as even well-known bird species have unknown parasites, but caution must be exercised in order to avoid descriptions of pseudoparasites.

  14. Measuring circulating antioxidants in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan; Klasing, Kirk; Ricklefs, Robert

    2007-05-01

    Antioxidants protect against free radical damage, which is associated with various age-related pathologies. Antioxidants are also an important buffer against the respiratory burst of the immune system. This protection presumably has costs and therefore might underlie important life-history trade-offs. Studying such trade-offs in a comparative context requires field-applicable methods for assessing antioxidant capacity in wild animals. Here, we present modifications to a simple spectrophotometric assay (the TEAC or TAS assay) that can be applied to miniscule amounts of blood plasma to determine circulating antioxidant capacity. Additionally, uric acid, the most abundant circulating antioxidant, should be measured independently. Uric acid in birds is derived from amino acid catabolism, perhaps incidentally to its antioxidant function. The assay was validated in experimental studies on chickens showing effects of diet on antioxidant capacity, and in field measurements on 92 species of birds, which demonstrate substantial species differences in constitutive antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, most wild birds demonstrate a dramatic change in antioxidant capacity due to stress. These results show that this technique detects variation appropriate for both interspecific and intraspecific studies, and that antioxidants and uric acid change in response to conditions of interest to field ecologists, such as diet and stress.

  15. Birds as bio-indicators and as tools to evaluate restoration measures

    OpenAIRE

    Roché, Jean; Godinho, Carlos; Rabaça, João E.; Frochot, Bernard; Faivre, Bruno; Mendes, Ana; Dias, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Within the RIPIDURABLE Project*, birds were used to characterize ecosystems*, to monitor environmental changes and to assess results of restoration measures. Bird surveys were carried out at different space and time scales using standardised point count methods on 8 watercourses in Portugal and France. Several aspects of riparian breeding bird community variation were assessed: along a decreasing gradient of vegetation complexity, along and upstream-downstream gradient, with diffe...

  16. A survey of the birds of Ol Donyo Sabuk National Park, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is considered the most important form of habitat loss in terms of potential for adversely ... Museums of Kenya that carried out an inventory of the biodiversity in and .... Measuring species diversity while counting large mammals: comparison of methods using species. Survey of birds of Ol Donyo Sabuk National Park. 45 ...

  17. Grassland bird surveys in support of the Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas II: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Grassland birds, as a group, have suffered the most severe population declines of any other North American birds (Herkert 1995, Herkert et al. 1996). Compared to...

  18. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979): Marine Bird Surveys (F041) (NCEI Accession 0014160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Surveys (F041) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979). Each dataset uses the NODC...

  19. Influence of Survey Length and Radius Size on Grassland Bird Surveys by Point Counts at Williams Lake, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre L. Savard; Tracey D. Hooper

    1995-01-01

    We examine the effect of survey length and radius on the results of point count surveys for grassland birds at Williams Lake, British Columbia. Four- and 8-minute counts detected on average 68 percent and 85 percent of the number of birds detected during 12-minute counts. The most efficient sampling duration was 4 minutes, as long as travel time between points was...

  20. 1999 Breeding Bird Survey Route Paths for the Lower 48 States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays a 1999 snapshot of the approximate route paths of active Breeding Bird Survey routes in the lower 48 States. The paths are a visual...

  1. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 38. The McClelland drawings and a reappraisal of the 1835-36 survey of the birds of Assam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Walters, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    McClelland brought back specimens and drawings from a survey in 1835-36 (and perhaps 1836-37). New birds were described in a paper read by Horsfield (1840). A comparison of the McClelland drawings of birds, held at the British Library, with the type specimens of birds newly named in 1840 and with

  2. An Ecological Survey of the Birds of the Mweka Wildlife College ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ecological survey of the birds of the Campus of the College of African Wildlife Management Mweka at Kibosho, in northern Tanzania is presented. It includes an annotated checklist of birds found within the habitats of the Campus and its milieu. The work is a result of one year of study from August 2004 to August 2005.

  3. A survey of the birds of Ol Donyo Sabuk National Park, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of bird species of the Ol Donyo Sabuk National Park was carried out between 24 October and 2 November 2007. From 14 1-km transects distributed across the three habitat categories―forest, woodland and grassland―dominant in this park, 913 individual birds comprising 72 species were recorded. An additional ...

  4. North American Breeding Bird Survey Summary Report for Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge 1989-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary report of the results of breeding bird surveys conducted on Atchafalaya NWR from 1989 to 2016. The data can be accessed from...

  5. A survey for nesting birds of prey along the Copper River, Alaska, 1987/88

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a survey for nesting birds of prey along the Cooper River in Alaska. The primary objectives of the study were as follows:...

  6. PaCSEA Bird Survey Summary Data, 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set was created as a summary layer to more easily represent the original PaCSEA bird transect counts at a consistent scale across the transect for display...

  7. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count data to evaluate seasonal components of population change in Northern Bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Niven, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Annual surveys of wildlife populations provide information about annual rates of change in populations but provide no information about when such changes occur. However, by combining data from 2 annual surveys, conducted in different parts of the year, seasonal components of population change can be estimated. We describe a hierarchical model for simultaneous analysis of 2 continent-scale monitoring programs. The Christmas Bird Count is an early winter survey, whereas the North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted in June. Combining information from these surveys permits estimation of seasonal population variance components and improves estimation of long-term population trends. The composite analysis also controls for survey-specific sampling effects. We applied the model to estimation of population change in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Over the interval 1969?2004, bobwhite populations declined, with trend estimate of -3.56% per year (95% CI = [-3.80%, -3.32%]) in the surveyed portion of their range. Our analysis of seasonal population variance components indicated that northern bobwhite populations changed more in the winter and spring portion of the year than in the summer and fall portion of the year.

  8. Population trends of woodland birds from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterjohn, B.G.; Sauer, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Population trends of woodland birds were summarized from BBS data over 1966-1991, 1966-1979, and 1982-1991. For the entire woodland bird assemblage, increasing species outnumbered decreasing species in all regions except central North America during 1966-1991. However, the proportion of decreasing species increased in most regions during the 19821991 interval. This population trend was most apparent for Neotropical migrants with 15 increasing and 2 decreasing species during 1966-1979 but only 4 increasing and 16 decreasing species during 1980-1991. Short-distance migrants and permanent residents had nearly equal numbers of increasing and decreasing species during both intervals.

  9. The first 50 years of the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Ziolkowski, David; Pardieck, Keith L.; Smith, Adam C.; Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Rodriguez, Vicente; Berlanga, Humberto; Niven, Daniel; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The vision of Chandler (Chan) S. Robbins for a continental-scale omnibus survey of breeding birds led to the development of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). Chan was uniquely suited to develop the BBS. His position as a government scientist had given him experience with designing and implementing continental-scale surveys, his research background made him an effective advocate of the need for a survey to monitor pesticide effects on birds, and his prominence in the birding community gave him connections to infrastructure—a network of qualified volunteer birders who could conduct roadside surveys with standardized point counts. Having started in the eastern United States and the Atlantic provinces of Canada in 1966, the BBS now provides population change information for ∼546 species in the continental United States and Canada, and recently initiated routes in Mexico promise to greatly expand the areas and species covered by the survey. Although survey protocols have remained unchanged for 50 years, the BBS remains relevant in a changing world. Several papers that follow in this Special Section of The Condor: Ornithological Advances review how the BBS has been applied to conservation assessments, especially in combination with other large-scale survey data. A critical feature of the BBS program is an active research program into field and analytical methods to enhance the quality of the count data and to control for factors that influence detectability. Papers in the Special Section also present advances in BBS analyses that improve the utility of this expanding and sometimes controversial survey. In this Perspective, we introduce the Special Section by reviewing the history of the BBS, describing current analyses, and providing summary trend results for all species, highlighting 3 groups of conservation concern: grassland-breeding birds, aridland-breeding birds, and aerial insectivorous birds.

  10. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  11. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    Full Text Available Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas. The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  12. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Skórka, Piotr; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  13. 1995 Bird survey Foothills parkway section 8B National Park Service, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.; Giffen, N.R.; Wade, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Foothills Parkway Section 8B right-of-way (ROW) is a stretch of land between Pittman Center and Cosby, Tennessee that is approximately 14.2 miles long and 1,000 ft wide, with a considerably wider section on Webb Mountain. A breeding bird survey was conducted at selected sample points along the ROW. The intent of the survey was to identify bird communities, area sensitive species (birds dependent on extensive forest systems for all their needs) and endangered, threatened, federal candidate, and state `in need of management` species now using the ROW. The survey also provides baseline data to assess future habitat impacts as well as cumulative impacts of the project.

  14. Analysis of the North American Breeding Bird Survey using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Link, William A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed population change for 420 bird species from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a hierarchical log-linear model, and compared the results to route regression analysis results. Survey-wide trend estimates based on the hierarchical model were more precise than estimates from the earlier analysis. No consistent pattern of differences existed in magnitude of trends between the analysis methods. Survey-wide trend estimates changed substantially for 15 species between route regression and hierarchical model analyses. We compared regional estimates for states, provinces, and Bird Conservation Regions; differences observed in these regional analyses are likely a consequence of the route regression procedure's inadequate accommodation of temporal differences in survey effort. We used species-specific hierarchical model results to estimate composite change for groups of birds associated with major habitats and migration types. Grassland, aridland, and eastern forest obligate bird species declined, while urban/suburban species increased over the interval 1968-2008. No migration status group experienced significant changes, although Nearctic-Neotropical migrant species showed intervals of decline and permanent resident species increased almost 20% during the interval. Hierarchical model results better portrayed patterns of population change over time than route regression results; we recommend use of hierarchical models for BBS analyses.

  15. The role of the North American Breeding Bird Survey in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Francis, Charles M.; Campbell, Kate J.; Downes, Constance M.; Smith, Adam C.; Pardieck, Keith L.

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) was established in 1966 in response to a lack of quantitative data on changes in the populations of many bird species at a continental scale, especially songbirds. The BBS now provides the most reliable regional and continental trends and annual indices of abundance available for >500 bird species. This paper reviews some of the ways in which BBS data have contributed to bird conservation in North America over the past 50 yr, and highlights future program enhancement opportunities. BBS data have contributed to the listing of species under the Canadian Species at Risk Act and, in a few cases, have informed species assessments under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. By raising awareness of population changes, the BBS has helped to motivate bird conservation efforts through the creation of Partners in Flight. BBS data have been used to determine priority species and locations for conservation action at regional and national scales through Bird Conservation Region strategies and Joint Ventures. Data from the BBS have provided the quantitative foundation for North American State of the Birds reports, and have informed the public with regard to environmental health through multiple indicators, such as the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Report on the Environment. BBS data have been analyzed with other data (e.g., environmental, land cover, and demographic) to evaluate potential drivers of population change, which have then informed conservation actions. In a few cases, BBS data have contributed to the evaluation of management actions, including informing the management of Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa), and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Improving geographic coverage in northern Canada and in Mexico, improving the analytical approaches required to integrate data from other sources and to address variation in detectability, and

  16. North American Breeding Bird Survey Summary Report for Sabine National Wildlife Refuge 1989-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary report of the results of breeding bird surveys conducted on Sabine NWR (Sabine1 and Sabine2 Routes) from 1989 to 2016. The data can be accessed...

  17. Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Baptist, Martin J; Ens, Bruno J; Krijgsveld, Karen L; van Loon, E Emiel

    2013-01-01

    Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar's detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer's accuracy in determining a bird's transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ~1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50 ± 0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising

  18. Use of miniroutes and Breeding Bird Survey data to estimate abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    1. Information on relative abundance is easily obtained and adds greatly to the value of an atlas project. 2. The Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) provides annual counts (birds per 50 roadside stops) that can be used to: (1) map relative abundance by physiographic region within a state or province, (2) map relative abundance on a more local scale by using results from individual routes, or (3) compute estimates of total state populations of a species. Where BBS coverage is too scanty to permit mapping, extra temporary routes may be established to provide additional information for the atlas. Or, if continuing coverage is anticipated, additional permanent random routes can be assigned by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 3. Miniroutes of 15 or more stops can be established in individual atlas blocks to serve the dual purposes of providing efficient uniform coverage and providing information on relative abundance. Miniroutes can also be extracted from BBS routes to supplement special atlas coverage, or vice versa; but the data from the BBS will not be confined to individual atlas blocks. 4. Advantages of 15- or 20-stop Miniroutes over 25-stop Miniroutes are several: the ability to do two per morning and the lower variability among M1niroute results. Also, many 5-km atlas blocks do not have enough secondary roads to accommodate 25 stops at one-half mile intervals. Disadvantages of 15-stop Miniroutes starting at sunrise are the smaller numbers of birds recorded, missing of the very productive dawn chorus period (Robbins 1981), and missing crepuscular species (rails, woodcock, owls, and goatsuckers). 5. Advantages of recording counts of individuals rather than checking only species presence at Miniroute stops are that: (1) relative abundance can be mapped rather than frequency only (a measure of frequency is already available in the number of blocks recording each species); (2) population change can be measured over a period of years when the next atlas is made; and (3

  19. Range margin shifts of birds revisited - the role of spatiotemporally varying survey effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Heini; Vepsäläinen, Ville; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Brommer, Jon E

    2013-02-01

    Global climate warming is predicted to lead to global and regional changes in the distribution of organisms. One influential approach to test this prediction using temporally repeated mapping surveys of organisms was suggested in a seminal paper by Thomas & Lennon (1999, Nature). The Thomas & Lennon approach corrects observed changes in the range margin for changes in the range size, and thus potentially controls for other broad-scale environmental changes between surveys, however the approach does not necessarily account for potential biases in sampling effort. To verify whether the issue of variation in sampling effort affects empirical estimates of shifts in range margin, we reanalyzed all three published studies exploring range margin changes of breeding birds in Great Britain (GB), Finland, and New York State (NY). Accounting for changes in survey effort on range margins lowered the estimated shift for breeding birds in New York, but the shift remained statistically significant. For Great Britain and Finland, for which no direct estimate of survey effort is available, we used species richness (a strong correlate of survey effort in New York) as a proxy and found that in both cases the estimated shift in range margin was significantly reduced and became nonsignificant. To understand how robust the approach is to sampling biases, we use a simulation model to show that the Thomas & Lennon approach is, under certain conditions, sensitive to changes in detection probability (probability to detect true occupancy) which in turn may be affected by changes in surveying effort between surveys. We thus found evidence that temporal changes in the distribution of breeding birds based on repeated mapping surveys may be inflated by changes in survey effort along range boundaries. We discuss possible approaches to deal with this issue in the analysis and design of national or regional surveys. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. 1995 Area 1 bird survey/Zone 1, Operable Unit 2, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Robins Air Force Base is located in Warner Robins, Georgia, approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. As part of the Baseline Investigation (CDM Federal 1994) a two day bird survey was conducted by M. C. Wade (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and B.A. Beatty (CDM Federal Programs) in May 1995. The subject area of investigation includes the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, and the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two ponds). This is known as Area 1. The Area 1 wetlands include bottomland hardwood forest, stream, and pond habitats. The objectives of this survey were to document bird species using the Area I wetlands and to see if the change in hydrology (due to the installation of the Sewage Treatment Plant effluent diversion and stormwater runon control systems) has resulted in changes at Area 1 since the previous survey of May 1992 (CDM Federal 1994).

  1. Identifying marine Important Bird Areas using at-sea survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melanie A.; Walker, Nathan J.; Free, Christopher M.; Kirchhoff, Matthew J.; Drew, Gary S.; Warnock, Nils; Stenhouse, Iain J.

    2014-01-01

    Effective marine bird conservation requires identification of at-sea locations used by populations for foraging, staging, and migration. Using an extensive database of at-sea survey data spanning over 30 years, we developed a standardized and data-driven spatial method for identifying globally significant marine Important Bird Areas in Alaska. To delineate these areas we developed a six-step process: binning data and accounting for unequal survey effort, filtering input data for persistence of species use, using a moving window analysis to produce maps representing a gradient from low to high abundance, drawing core area boundaries around major concentrations based on abundance thresholds, validating the results, and combining overlapping boundaries into important areas for multiple species. We identified 126 bird core areas which were merged into 59 pelagic sites important to 45 out of 57 species assessed. The final areas included approximately 34–38% of all marine birds in Alaska waters, within just 6% of the total area. We identified globally significant Important Bird Areas spanning 20 degrees of latitude and 56 degrees of longitude, in two different oceans, with climates ranging from temperate to polar. Although our maps did suffer from some data gaps, these gaps did not preclude us from identifying sites that incorporated 13% of the assessed continental waterbird population and 9% of the assessed global seabird population. The application of this technique over a large and productive region worked well for a wide range of birds, exhibiting a variety of foraging strategies and occupying a variety of ecosystem types.

  2. Extreme measures: the ecological energetics of birds and mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNab, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    .... But energy is a limited resource, as we know well, so birds and mammals-the most energy-intensive fauna on the planet-must reduce energy expenditures to maintain this balance, some taking small steps...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A BIRD INTEGRITY INDEX: MEASURING AVIAN RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE IN THE BLUE MOUNTAINS OF OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bird Integrity Index (BII) presented here uses bird assemblage information to assess human impacts to 28 stream reaches in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Eighty-one candidate metrics were extracted from bird survey data for testing. The metrics represented aspects of ...

  4. Expanding the North American Breeding Bird Survey analysis to include additional species and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) contains data for >700 bird species, but analyses often focus on a core group of ∼420 species. We analyzed data for 122 species of North American birds for which data exist in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) database but are not routinely analyzed on the BBS Summary and Analysis Website. Many of these species occur in the northern part of the continent, on routes that fall outside the core survey area presently analyzed in the United States and southern Canada. Other species not historically analyzed occur in the core survey area with very limited data but have large portions of their ranges in Mexico and south. A third group of species not historically analyzed included species thought to be poorly surveyed by the BBS, such as rare, coastal, or nocturnal species. For 56 species found primarily in regions north of the core survey area, we expanded the scope of the analysis, using data from 1993 to 2014 during which ≥3 survey routes had been sampled in 6 northern strata (Bird Conservation regions in Alaska, Yukon, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and fitting log-linear hierarchical models for an augmented BBS survey area that included both the new northern strata and the core survey area. We also applied this model to 168 species historically analyzed in the BBS that had data from these additional northern strata. For both groups of species we calculated survey-wide trends for the both core and augmented survey areas from 1993 to 2014; for species that did not occur in the newly defined strata, we computed trends from 1966 to 2014. We evaluated trend estimates in terms of established credibility criteria for BBS results, screening for imprecise trends, small samples, and low relative abundance. Inclusion of data from the northern strata permitted estimation of trend for 56 species not historically analyzed, but only 4 of these were reasonably monitored and an additional 13 were questionably monitored; 39

  5. Linking occupancy surveys with habitat characteristics to estimate abundance and distribution in an endangered cryptic bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Lisa H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Pias, Kyle E.; Heindl, Barbara A. P.; Savre, Thomas; Diegmann, Julia S.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the distribution and abundance of endangered species are crucial to determine their status and plan recovery options, but such estimates are often difficult to obtain for species with low detection probabilities or that occur in inaccessible habitats. The Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) is a cryptic species endemic to Kauaʻi, Hawai‘i, and restricted to high elevation ravines that are largely inaccessible. To improve current population estimates, we developed an approach to model distribution and abundance of Puaiohi across their range by linking occupancy surveys to habitat characteristics, territory density, and landscape attributes. Occupancy per station ranged from 0.17 to 0.82, and was best predicted by the number and vertical extent of cliffs, cliff slope, stream width, and elevation. To link occupancy estimates with abundance, we used territory mapping data to estimate the average number of territories per survey station (0.44 and 0.66 territories per station in low and high occupancy streams, respectively), and the average number of individuals per territory (1.9). We then modeled Puaiohi occupancy as a function of two remote-sensed measures of habitat (stream sinuosity and elevation) to predict occupancy across its entire range. We combined predicted occupancy with estimates of birds per station to produce a global population estimate of 494 (95% CI 414–580) individuals. Our approach is a model for using multiple independent sources of information to accurately track population trends, and we discuss future directions for modeling abundance of this, and other, rare species.

  6. The U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory: an integrated scientific program supporting research and conservation of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) was established in 1920 after ratification of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act with the United Kingdom in 1918. During World War II, the BBL was moved from Washington, D.C., to what is now the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC). The BBL issues permits and bands to permittees to band birds, records bird band recoveries or encounters primarily through telephone and Internet reporting, and manages more than 72 million banding records and more than 4.5 million records of encounters using state-of-the-art technologies. Moreover, the BBL also issues bands and manages banding and encounter data for the Canadian Bird Banding Office (BBO). Each year approximately 1 million bands are shipped from the BBL to banders in the United States and Canada, and nearly 100,000 encounter reports are entered into the BBL systems. Banding data are essential for regulatory programs, especially migratory waterfowl harvest regulations. The USGS BBL works closely with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to develop regulations for the capture, handling, banding, and marking of birds. These regulations are published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In 2006, the BBL and the USFWS Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM) began a comprehensive revision of the banding regulations. The bird banding community has three major constituencies: Federal and State agency personnel involved in the management and conservation of bird populations that include the Flyway Councils, ornithological research scientists, and avocational banders. With increased demand for banding activities and relatively constant funding, a Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) was chartered and reviewed the BBL program in 2005. The final report of the Committee included six major goals and 58 specific recommendations, 47 of which have been addressed by the BBL. Specifically, the Committee recommended the BBL continue to support science

  7. Radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluation in meat of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Carla; Desideri, Donatella; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Ceccotto, Federica; Feduzi, Laura; Meli, Maria Assunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the background activity concentration of natural radionuclides and (137)Cesium (Cs) in meat of 14 migratory birds originating from central and northern Europe. This meat is largely consumed by the Italian population. (40)K, (210)Pb, and (137)Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry and (210)Po by alpha spectrometry. The mean (40)K activity concentration detected was 490 ± 117 Bq/kgdw. In all the samples, (210)Pb was below the limit of detection (LOD), and therefore it was not possible to calculate the ratio (210)Po/(210)Pb. The (210)Po activity concentration ranged between 0.11 ± 0.02 Bq/kgdw and 6.2 ± 0.93 Bq/kgdw with a mean value of 1.03 ± 1.75 Bq/kgdw. The (137)Cs activity concentration was not detectable or near LOD except in two samples with 45 ± 0.7 Bq/kgdw (wood pigeon, from Italy) and 139.1 ± 1.9 Bq/kgdw (woodcock, from Sweden). The effective dose of (210)Po ingested by consumption of wild birds meat accounts for only 0.01-0.6% of natural radiation exposure in Italy. These data indicate that the meat analyzed was safe.

  8. Summary of bird-survey and banding results at W.L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2012-01-01

    With some of the best remaining examples of oak habitats in the Willamette Valley, the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex (WVNWRC) has been implementing restoration efforts to reverse the successional trend towards Douglas-fir and maple that is threatening existing oak woodlands. The restoration work has been considered a model for other public and private efforts within the Willamette Valley, and has been showcased through the Oregon Oak Communities Working Group (http://www.oregonoaks.org). Although many oak restoration projects have been initiated over the last several years, and grant recipients typically identify wildlife species that are likely to benefit from their project, measures of success have not included the actual response of wildlife, such as a change in the probability of species occurrence or abundance. Monitoring in the WVNWRC has so far been limited to vegetative and structural changes within the plant community. Hagar and Stern (2001) identified bird species occurring in Willamette Valley oak woodlands that might be expected to benefit from such restoration efforts, including an endemic subspecies of the White-breasted Nuthatch (see Appendix 1 for scientific names of bird and plant species listed in this document), and the Acorn Woodpecker, both of which are species of concern in Oregon. However, empirical data documenting responses of bird assemblages to restoration actions are needed. The goal of this study was to document the effects of a restoration project in an Oregon White Oak woodland on Pigeon Butte in the W.L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge. Restoration treatments on Pigeon Butte include the removal of shade-tolerant tree species (primarily big-leaf maple and Douglas-fir) to reduce competition with oak trees and to return the stand to a more open structure. The objectives of this ongoing study are to compare abundance, survival, and productivity of diurnal songbird species before and after application of these

  9. Monostatic and bistatic radar measurements of birds and micro-drone

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, M. A.; Fioranelli, F.; Torvik, B.; Griffiths, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the experimental results from recent monostatic and bistatic radar measurements of multiple birds as well as a quadcopter micro-drone. The radar system deployed for these measurements was the UCL developed NetRAD system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the key differences observed by a radar system between different birds and a micro-drone. Measurements are presented from simultaneous monostatic co/cross polarized data as well as co-polar bistatic data. The results obt...

  10. Model selection for the North American Breeding Bird Survey: A comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William; Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) provides data for >420 bird species at multiple geographic scales over 5 decades. Modern computational methods have facilitated the fitting of complex hierarchical models to these data. It is easy to propose and fit new models, but little attention has been given to model selection. Here, we discuss and illustrate model selection using leave-one-out cross validation, and the Bayesian Predictive Information Criterion (BPIC). Cross-validation is enormously computationally intensive; we thus evaluate the performance of the Watanabe-Akaike Information Criterion (WAIC) as a computationally efficient approximation to the BPIC. Our evaluation is based on analyses of 4 models as applied to 20 species covered by the BBS. Model selection based on BPIC provided no strong evidence of one model being consistently superior to the others; for 14/20 species, none of the models emerged as superior. For the remaining 6 species, a first-difference model of population trajectory was always among the best fitting. Our results show that WAIC is not reliable as a surrogate for BPIC. Development of appropriate model sets and their evaluation using BPIC is an important innovation for the analysis of BBS data.

  11. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy I. Wellicome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grassland bird species continue to decline steeply across North America. Road-based surveys such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS are often used to estimate trends and population sizes and to build species distribution models for grassland birds, although roadside survey counts may introduce bias in estimates because of differences in habitats along roadsides and in off-road surveys. We tested for differences in land cover composition and in the avian community on 21 roadside-based survey routes and in an equal number of adjacent off-road walking routes in the grasslands of southern Alberta, Canada. Off-road routes (n = 225 point counts had more native grassland and short shrubs and less fallow land and road area than the roadside routes (n = 225 point counts. Consequently, 17 of the 39 bird species differed between the two route types in frequency of occurrence and relative abundance, measured using an indicator species analysis. Six species, including five obligate grassland species, were more prevalent at off-road sites; they included four species listed under the Canadian federal Species At Risk Act or listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada: Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii, Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii, the Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus, and McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii. The six species were as much as four times more abundant on off-road sites. Species more prevalent along roadside routes included common species and those typical of farmland and other human-modified habitats, e.g., the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris, the Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia, and the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus. Differences in avian community composition between roadside and off-road surveys suggest that the use of BBS data when generating population estimates or distribution models may overestimate certain common species and underestimate others of conservation

  12. Predicting Weight Support Based on Wake Measurements of a Flying Bird in Still Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eric; Lentink, David

    2014-11-01

    The wake development of a freely flying Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis) was examined in still air. The bird was trained to fly from perch to perch through the laser sheet while wearing custom-made laser safety goggles. This enabled a detailed study of the evolution of the vortices shed in its wake using high-speed particle image velocimetry at 1000 Hz in the plane transverse to the flight path. The measurement started when the bird was approximately 0.25 wingbeats in front of the laser sheet and stopped after it traveled 3.5 wingbeats beyond the laser sheet. The instantaneous lift force that supports body weight was calculated based on the velocity field, using both the Kuttta-Joukowski and the actuator disk quasi-steady model. During the first few flaps, both models predict an instantaneous lift that is reasonably close to the weight of the bird. Several flaps away from the laser sheet, however, the models predict that the lift steadily declines to about 50% of the weight of the bird. In contrast to earlier reports for bat wakes in wind tunnels, these findings for bird wakes in still air suggest that the predictive strength of quasi-steady force calculations depends on the distance between the animal and the laser sheet.

  13. Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    Using Jamin-Lebedeff interference microscopy, we measured the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of butterfly wing scales and bird feathers. The refractive index values of the glass scales of the butterfly Graphium sarpedon are, at wavelengths 400, 500 and 600 nm, 1.572, 1.552 and 1.541,

  14. Modeling participation duration, with application to the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William; Sauer, John

    2014-01-01

    We consider “participation histories,” binary sequences consisting of alternating finite sequences of 1s and 0s, ending with an infinite sequence of 0s. Our work is motivated by a study of observer tenure in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). In our analysis, j indexes an observer’s years of service and Xj is an indicator of participation in the survey; 0s interspersed among 1s correspond to years when observers did not participate, but subsequently returned to service. Of interest is the observer’s duration D = max {j: Xj = 1}. Because observed records X = (X1, X2,..., Xn)1 are of finite length, all that we can directly infer about duration is that D ⩾ max {j ⩽n: Xj = 1}; model-based analysis is required for inference about D. We propose models in which lengths of 0s and 1s sequences have distributions determined by the index j at which they begin; 0s sequences are infinite with positive probability, an estimable parameter. We found that BBS observers’ lengths of service vary greatly, with 25.3% participating for only a single year, 49.5% serving for 4 or fewer years, and an average duration of 8.7 years, producing an average of 7.7 counts.

  15. Combined analysis of roadside and off-road breeding bird survey data to assess population change in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Sauer, John

    2017-01-01

    Management interest in North American birds has increasingly focused on species that breed in Alaska, USA, and Canada, where habitats are changing rapidly in response to climatic and anthropogenic factors. We used a series of hierarchical models to estimate rates of population change in 2 forested Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) in Alaska based on data from the roadside North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Alaska Landbird Monitoring Survey, which samples off-road areas on public resource lands. We estimated long-term (1993–2015) population trends for 84 bird species from the BBS and short-term (2003–2015) trends for 31 species from both surveys. Among the 84 species with long-term estimates, 11 had positive trends and 17 had negative trends in 1 or both BCRs; negative trends were primarily found among aerial insectivores and wetland-associated species, confirming range-wide negative continental trends for many of these birds. Three species with negative trends in the contiguous United States and southern Canada had positive trends in Alaska, suggesting different population dynamics at the northern edges of their ranges. Regional population trends within Alaska differed for several species, particularly those represented by different subspecies in the 2 BCRs, which are separated by rugged, glaciated mountain ranges. Analysis of the roadside and off-road data in a joint hierarchical model with shared parameters resulted in improved precision of trend estimates and suggested a roadside-related difference in underlying population trends for several species, particularly within the Northwestern Interior Forest BCR. The combined analysis highlights the importance of considering population structure, physiographic barriers, and spatial heterogeneity in habitat change when assessing patterns of population change across a landscape as broad as Alaska. Combined analysis of roadside and off-road survey data in a hierarchical framework may be particularly

  16. Seroprevalence Survey of Avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Methods Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Results The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P < 0.01). Specific avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log2. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China’ s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present

  17. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fioretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  18. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in different taxa and ecological guilds of migratory birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Sensale

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 169 faecal samples were collected from migrating birds, belonging to the Order of Passeriformes, in Campania region in order to isolate Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 of the 169 birds examined (23.1%. Among these 36 were identified as C. jejuni and the remaining strains were identified as Campylobacter coli. Given the high isolation rates wild birds could be considered natural reservoir of infection.

  19. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate during flight in a migratory bird using a single bolus injection of FITC-inulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    During migration, passerine birds typically complete a series of multi-hour flights, each followed by a period of stopover. During flight, rates of respiratory water loss are high, yet these birds show no signs of dehydration after flights. During stopover, birds become hyperphagic to replenish fat reserves, often consuming food with high water content, such as fruit. Thus migratory birds seem to face an osmoregulatory challenge; they must reduce water losses during flight but retain the ability to excrete large quantities of water while maintaining osmotic balance at stopover. Our goal was to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and fractional water reabsorption (FWR) of a migratory bird in free flight, at rest, and during feeding to assess the role of the kidney in maintaining water balance during migration. We used FITC-inulin and one- and two-phase exponential decay models to first validate a technique and then measure GFR in the Swainson's thrush, a small (∼30 g) songbird. Single-phase exponential decay models and the modified slope intercept method overestimated GFR by 26% compared with two-phase exponential decay models. We found no differences in GFR among fed, resting and flying birds, but FWR was significantly higher in resting and flying birds relative to feeding birds. There was no effect of the rate of respiratory water loss on GFR or FWR in flight. These data support the idea that birds in flight do not dramatically alter GFR but rely on increased FWR to minimize excretory water losses. PMID:23884146

  20. Behavioural and environmental correlates of soaring-bird mortality at on-shore wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Luis; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    1. Wind power plants represent a risk of bird mortality, but the effects are still poorly quantified. We measured bird mortality, analysed the factors that led birds to fly close to turbines, and proposed mitigation measures at two wind farms installed in the Straits of Gibraltar, one of the most important migration bottlenecks between Europe and Africa. 2. Bird corpses were surveyed along turbine lines and an associated power line to esti- mate mortality rates. The behaviour of birds...

  1. A Stakeholder Survey on Live Bird Market Closures Policy for Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Thuy; Fearnley, Lyle; Dinh, Xuan Tung; Tran, Thi Tram Anh; Tran, Trong Tung; Nguyen, Van Trong; Tago, Damian; Padungtod, Pawin; Newman, Scott H; Tripodi, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs) play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs) including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces. Combining efforts of anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and veterinarians can be useful to elucidate the drivers behind poultry traders' reactions and better understanding the barriers to implementing risk mitigation measures. In this paper, we present results from a stakeholder survey of LBM stakeholders in Vietnam. Our qualitative data show that trading outside formal markets is very likely to occur in the event of a temporary LBM market closure. Our data show that the poultry value chain in Vietnam remains highly flexible, with traders willing and able to trade poultry in many possible locations. Our results indicate that simplification of the poultry value chain along with strict enforcement, engagement of stakeholders, and adequate communication would be a necessary prerequisite before market closure could be an effective policy.

  2. A Stakeholder Survey on Live Bird Market Closures Policy for Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces. Combining efforts of anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and veterinarians can be useful to elucidate the drivers behind poultry traders’ reactions and better understanding the barriers to implementing risk mitigation measures. In this paper, we present results from a stakeholder survey of LBM stakeholders in Vietnam. Our qualitative data show that trading outside formal markets is very likely to occur in the event of a temporary LBM market closure. Our data show that the poultry value chain in Vietnam remains highly flexible, with traders willing and able to trade poultry in many possible locations. Our results indicate that simplification of the poultry value chain along with strict enforcement, engagement of stakeholders, and adequate communication would be a necessary prerequisite before market closure could be an effective policy.

  3. A preliminary survey of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes from native and introduced birds in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedye, K R; Fremaux, M; Garcia-Ramirez, J C; Gartrell, B D

    2018-03-01

    To describe the Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in samples from native and introduced birds from New Zealand by analysis of the sequence variation of the ompA gene. DNA was extracted from samples collected from a non-random sample of birds; either swabs from live asymptomatic birds or birds with clinical signs, or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from historical post-mortem cases. The presence of C. psittaci in all samples had been confirmed using a quantitative PCR assay. The C. psittaci ompA gene was amplified and sequenced from samples from 26 native and introduced infected birds comprising 12 different species. These sequences were compared to published available C. psittaci genotypes. Genotypes A and C of C. psittaci were identified in the samples. Genotype A was identified in samples from nine birds, including various native and introduced species. Genotype C was identified in samples from 16 different waterfowl species, and a mixed infection of both genotypes was found in a kaka (Nestor meridionalis). In native birds, C. psittaci infection was confirmed in seven new host species. Two genotypes (A and C) of C. psittaci were found in samples from a wider range of both native and introduced species of birds in New Zealand than previously reported. Both genotypes have been globally associated with significant disease in birds and humans. These initial results suggest the host range of C. psittaci in New Zealand birds is under-reported. However, the prevalence of C. psittaci infection in New Zealand, and the associated impact on avian and public health, remains to be determined. There are biosecurity implications associated with the importation of birds to New Zealand if there is a limited diversity of C. psittaci genotypes present.

  4. Survey for Newcastle disease viruses in poultry and wild birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oropharyngeal swabs from 710 poultry and cloacal swabs from 100 species in eight families of wild birds were tested using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with set of primers targeting the ND virus matrix protein with 60.5% swabs being positive. The prevalence of ND viruses was highest in live bird market ...

  5. A Survey of Helminth Parasites of Wild Birds in the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the parasites were recovered from the gastro-intestinal tract. Wild birds have been reported as potential source of infection and re-infection to man and his domestic animals. Therefore, migration of wild birds as a result of climate change may lead to change in hosts and parasites prevalence from one geographical region ...

  6. Integrating Breeding Bird Survey and demographic data to estimate Wood Duck population size in the Atlantic Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John; Boomer, G. Scott; Devers, Patrick K.; Garrettson, Pamela R.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) uses data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to assist in monitoring and management of some migratory birds. However, BBS analyses provide indices of population change rather than estimates of population size, precluding their use in developing abundance-based objectives and limiting applicability to harvest management. Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) are important harvested birds in the Atlantic Flyway (AF) that are difficult to detect during aerial surveys because they prefer forested habitat. We integrated Wood Duck count data from a ground-plot survey in the northeastern U.S. with AF-wide BBS, banding, parts collection, and harvest data to derive estimates of population size for the AF. Overlapping results between the smaller-scale intensive ground-plot survey and the BBS in the northeastern U.S. provided a means for scaling BBS indices to the breeding population size estimates. We applied these scaling factors to BBS results for portions of the AF lacking intensive surveys. Banding data provided estimates of annual survival and harvest rates; the latter, when combined with parts-collection data, provided estimates of recruitment. We used the harvest data to estimate fall population size. Our estimates of breeding population size and variability from the integrated population model (N̄ = 0.99 million, SD = 0.04) were similar to estimates of breeding population size based solely on data from the AF ground-plot surveys and the BBS (N̄ = 1.01 million, SD = 0.04) from 1998 to 2015. Integrating BBS data with other data provided reliable population size estimates for Wood Ducks at a scale useful for harvest and habitat management in the AF, and allowed us to derive estimates of important demographic parameters (e.g., seasonal survival rates, sex ratio) that were not directly informed by data.

  7. Second survey and monitoring of birds and mammals of Kiska Island, June 1986 (in support of the EPA experimental compound 1080 use permit G704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to continue surveying and monitoring the birds and mammals of Kiska Island to establish baseline conditions prior to and the first...

  8. Pretreatment survey and monitoring of birds and mammals of Kiska Island, June 1985 (in support of the EPA experimental compound 1080 use permit G704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey to monitor birds and mammals of Kiska Island to establish baseline conditions prior to application of Compound 1080 to complete fox eradication.

  9. Black Tern Survey and Other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of ongoing research into the status of Vermont's marsh birds, this is a report on a statewide census of the black tern nesting population that happened in...

  10. Bird populations in coastal habitats, Arctic National Wildlife Range, Alaska: Results of 1978 and 1979 surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the coastal zone of the Arctic National Wildlife Range, the highest breeding populations of birds occurred in wet and flooded sedge tundra areas surrounded by...

  11. The cost of ventilation in birds measured via unidirectional artificial ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, Jessamyn S; Carrier, David R

    2010-02-01

    The highly derived mechanism birds use to ventilate their lungs relies on dorsoventral excursions of their heavily muscled sternum and abdominal viscera. Our expectation of the level of mechanical work involved in this mechanism led us to hypothesize that the metabolic cost of breathing is higher in birds than in other tetrapods. To test this theory, we used unidirectional artificial ventilation (UDV) to stop normal ventilatory movements in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris L.) at rest and during treadmill locomotion at three speeds. Oxygen consumption was measured during normal breathing and UDV, and the difference was used to approximate the cost of ventilation. Contrary to our prediction, metabolism increased when ventilatory movements ceased during UDV at rest. Although we do not understand why this occurred we suspect that UDV induced a homeostatic mechanism to counteract the loss of carbon dioxide. Nevertheless, across all running speeds, metabolism decreased significantly with UDV, indicating a minimum cost of ventilation during running of 1.43+/-0.62% of total running metabolism or 0.48+/-0.21 mL O(2) (L ventilated)(-1). These results suggest that the metabolic cost of ventilation is low in birds and that it is within the range of costs reported previously for other amniotes. Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available , while the best measurements of dark energy models will come from galaxy autocorrelation function analyses. Using a combination of the EvolutionaryMap of the Universe (EMU) and WODAN to provide a full-sky survey, it will be possible to measure the dark...

  13. Methodical aspects of blood coagulation measurements in birds applying commercial reagents--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddorf, Vanessa; Kummerfeld, Norbert; Mischke, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of commercially available reagents for measurements of coagulation parameters in citrated plasma from birds. Therefore, plasma samples of 17 healthy donor birds of different species were used to determine prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) applying various commercial reagents which are routinely used in coagulation diagnostics in humans and mammals. A PT reagent based on human placental thromboplastin yielded not only shorter clotting times than a reagent containing recombinant human tissue factor (median 49 vs. 84 s), but also showed a minor range of distribution of values (43-55 s vs. 30-147 s, minimum-maximum, n = 5 turkeys). An aPTT reagent containing kaolin and phospholipids of animal origin delivered the shortest clotting times and the lowest range of variation in comparison to three other reagents of different composition. However, even when this reagent was used, aPTTs were partially extremely long (> 200 s). Thrombin time was 38 s (28-57 s, n = 5 chicken) when measured with bovine thrombin at a final concentration of 2 IU thrombin/ ml. Coefficients of variation for within-run precision analysis (20 repetitions) of PT was 8.0% and 4.7% for aPTT measurements using selected reagents of mammalian origin. In conclusion, of the commercially available reagents tested, a PT reagent based on human placental thromboplastin and an aPTT reagent including rabbit brain phospholipid and kaolin, show some promise for potential use in birds.

  14. Social Security income measurement in two surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    As a major source of income for retired persons in the United States, Social Security benefits directly influence economic well-being. That fact underscores the importance of measuring Social Security income accurately in household surveys. Using Social Security Administration (SSA) records, we examine Social Security income as reported in two Census Bureau surveys, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). Although SSA usually deducts Medicare premiums from benefit payments, both the CPS and the SIPP aim to collect and record gross Social Security benefit amounts (before Medicare premium deductions). We find that the Social Security benefit recorded in the CPS closely approximates the gross benefit recorded for CPS respondents in SSA's records, but the Social Security benefit recorded in the SIPP more closely approximates SSA's record of net benefit payments (after deducting Medicare premiums).

  15. Situation-based survey of avian influenza viruses in possible "bridge" species of wild and domestic birds in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba Teru, Vakuru; Manu, Shiiwua A; Ahmed, Gashash I; Junaidu, Kabir; Newman, Scott; Nyager, Joseph; Iwar, Vivian N; Mshelbwala, Gideon M; Joannis, T; Maina, Junaidu A; Apeverga, Paul T

    2012-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) recurred in Nigeria after 9 months period of no reported case. A critical look at possible sources of the re-occurrence was desirable. The objective of this study was to determine whether avian influenza viruses were present at reasonably detectable levels (0.5%) in possible "bridge" species of wild and domestic birds. The study was conducted in 8 Nigerian states. A total of 403 birds from 40 species were sampled. Virus isolation was done in embryonated chicken eggs according to standard protocols. The test results were all negative for avian influenza viruses. The overall confidence interval (CI) calculated in R using the exact binomial confidence interval function was 0-0.007406. Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) was the lowest sampled 0.3% (1/403) and Red-billed Firefinch (Lagonosticta senegala) the highest 11.7% (47/403). The limitations of the sample size and possibly designing effects on the study, as to make concrete conclusions were acknowledged. Species of wild birds, so identified in the study could be useful in future surveys. Furthermore, multidisciplinary and community oriented approach, blending targeted and passive surveillances was suggested. This approach was envisaged to bring about wider coverage of "bridge" species and clearer insight of their possible roles in avian influenza re-occurrences and spread in Nigeria.

  16. Measuring occupations in worldwide web-surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Pavlin, S.; Judge, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design principles underlying the WISCO Database of Occupations for the measurement of occupations in multi-country web-surveys by means of self-identification. It is discussed why the Database has been designed, and its source list, search tree and translations. The

  17. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and “Species of European Conservation Concern” [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs. PMID:25165523

  18. Extremism in survey measures of ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Jordan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on mass political behavior relies extensively on ideology scales. The majority of political science surveys use a unique, and potentially problematic, word to anchor the endpoints of these scales (“extremely”. However, political science has surprisingly little evidence on the effects of using this anchor over others. We utilize an older, but ignored, survey experiment on the 1989 American National Election Study (ANES Pilot Study to analyze the consequences of the choice between using “very” or “extremely” endpoint labels. Theoretically, our results illustrate how a seemingly negative question anchor helps optimally measure a key concept (ideology that is fundamental to understanding phenomena such as mass polarization.

  19. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  20. Bird nesting and droppings control on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report provides a comprehensive literature survey of permanent and temporary deterrents to nesting and roosting, a : discussion of risks to human health and safety from exposure to bird nests and droppings and recommended protective measures, : ...

  1. Development and field-testing of survey methods for a continental marsh bird monitoring program in North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Populations of many species of secretive marsh birds are thought to be declining in North America and several species are game birds in many states and provinces....

  2. Aerial Surveys of Birds and Mammals in Potential Development Areas in Upper Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Distribution and abundance of waterbirds, marine mammals, and other wildlife were surveyed by helicopter in coastal areas of upper Cook Inlet 13-14 July 1993, in...

  3. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  4. The implications of low-speed fixed-wing aerofoil measurements on the analysis and performance of flapping bird wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A H; McArthur, J; Rosén, M

    2008-01-01

    Bird flight occurs over a range of Reynolds numbers (Re; 10(4) aerofoil performance is difficult to predict, compute or measure, with large performance jumps in response to small changes in geometry or environmental conditions. A comparison of measurements of fixed wing performance as a function of Re, combined with quantitative flow visualisation techniques, shows that, surprisingly, wakes of flapping bird wings at moderate flight speeds admit to certain simplifications where their basic properties can be understood through quasi-steady analysis. Indeed, a commonly cited measure of the relative flapping frequency, or wake unsteadiness, the Strouhal number, is seen to be approximately constant in accordance with a simple requirement for maintaining a moderate local angle of attack on the wing. Together, the measurements imply a fine control of boundary layer separation on the wings, with implications for control strategies and wing shape selection by natural and artificial fliers.

  5. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present forecasts for constraints on cosmological models that can be obtained using the forthcoming radio continuum surveys: the wide surveys with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for radio astronomy, theAustralian SquareKilometreArray Pathfinder...

  6. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, Joop|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073351431; de Leeuw, Edith|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073351385; Zijlmans, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of

  7. Bird Surveys at DARHT Before and During Operations: Comparison of Species Abundance and Composition and Trace Element Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez, D. C. Keller, C. D. Hathcock

    2007-11-30

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Mitigation Action Plan specifies the comparison of baseline conditions in biotic and abiotic media with those collected after operations have started. Operations at DARHT at Los Alamos National Laboratory started in 2000. In this study, the abundance and composition of birds collected near the DARHT facility from 2003 through 2006 were determined and compared to a preoperational period (1999). In addition, the levels of radionuclides and other inorganic chemicals in birds were compared to regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). The number and diversity of bird species generally increased over preoperational levels with the greatest number of birds (412) and species (46) occurring in 2005. The most common bird species collected regardless of time periods were the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), the Virginia's warbler (Vermivora virginiae), the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli), and the western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). Most radionuclides, with the exception of uranium-234 and uranium-238, in (whole body) birds collected after operations began were either not detected or below RSRLs. Uranium-234 and uranium-238 concentrations in a few samples were far below screening levels and do not pose a potential unacceptable dose to the birds. In contrast, many inorganic chemicals, particularly arsenic and silver, in birds collected before and after operations began were in higher concentrations than RSRLs. Because birds (skin plus feathers) collected in the years before operations began contained higher levels of arsenic and silver than RSRLs and because there was no evidence of these metals in soil and sediment directly around the DARHT facility, the elevated levels of these metals in birds during early operations are probably not related to DARHT operations. Arsenic and silver in birds, however

  8. Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahav Ofer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious dark energy (or Einstein's cosmological constant. We describe several methodologies of using galaxy redshift surveys as cosmological probes, and then summarize the recent results from the existing surveys. Finally we present our views on the future of redshift surveys in the era of precision cosmology.

  9. Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing short and long lived species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

  10. On measuring bird habitat: influence of observer variability and sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Kimberly A. With; Michael L. Morrison

    1987-01-01

    We studied the effects of observer variability when estimating vegetation characteristics at 75 0.04-ha bird plots. Observer estimates were significantly different for 31 of 49 variables. Multivariate analyses showed significant interobserver differences for five of the seven classes of variables studied. Variable classes included the height, number, and diameter of...

  11. Surveys of forest bird populations found in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the district of Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, J.D.; Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Nielsen, B.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents data on the distribution and status of forest bird species found within the vicinity of proposed geothermal resource development on the Island of Hawaii. Potential impacts of the proposed development on the native bird populations found in the project are are addressed.

  12. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  13. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  14. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  15. Levantamento das aves marinhas no percurso Rio de Janeiro: Bahia (Brasil A survey of the marine birds in the route Rio de Janeiro: Bahía (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Pacheco Coelho

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine birds were surveyed between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, latitudes 24º44'S and 17º50'S, from July to September 1984. Sixteen species were recorded belonging to six families, with most sightings occurring between 24º44'S and 22º3$'S. Data suggest two distinct communities, the more southerly one is represented by Daption capense and the one further north by Puffinus gravis.

  16. Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: red list indices for birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Stuart H M; Stattersfield, Alison J; Bennun, Leon A; Shutes, Sue M; Akçakaya, H Resit; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Stuart, Simon N; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Mace, Georgina M

    2004-12-01

    The rapid destruction of the planet's biodiversity has prompted the nations of the world to set a target of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. However, we do not yet have an adequate way of monitoring progress towards achieving this target. Here we present a method for producing indices based on the IUCN Red List to chart the overall threat status (projected relative extinction risk) of all the world's bird species from 1988 to 2004. Red List Indices (RLIs) are based on the number of species in each Red List category, and on the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status. The RLI for all bird species shows that their overall threat status has continued to deteriorate since 1988. Disaggregated indices show that deteriorations have occurred worldwide and in all major ecosystems, but with particularly steep declines in the indices for Indo-Malayan birds (driven by intensifying deforestation of the Sundaic lowlands) and for albatrosses and petrels (driven by incidental mortality in commercial longline fisheries). RLIs complement indicators based on species population trends and habitat extent for quantifying global trends in the status of biodiversity. Their main weaknesses are that the resolution of status changes is fairly coarse and that delays may occur before some status changes are detected. Their greatest strength is that they are based on information from nearly all species in a taxonomic group worldwide, rather than a potentially biased subset. At present, suitable data are only available for birds, but indices for other taxonomic groups are in development, as is a sampled index based on a stratified sample from all major taxonomic groups.

  17. Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: red list indices for birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart H M Butchart

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid destruction of the planet's biodiversity has prompted the nations of the world to set a target of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. However, we do not yet have an adequate way of monitoring progress towards achieving this target. Here we present a method for producing indices based on the IUCN Red List to chart the overall threat status (projected relative extinction risk of all the world's bird species from 1988 to 2004. Red List Indices (RLIs are based on the number of species in each Red List category, and on the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status. The RLI for all bird species shows that their overall threat status has continued to deteriorate since 1988. Disaggregated indices show that deteriorations have occurred worldwide and in all major ecosystems, but with particularly steep declines in the indices for Indo-Malayan birds (driven by intensifying deforestation of the Sundaic lowlands and for albatrosses and petrels (driven by incidental mortality in commercial longline fisheries. RLIs complement indicators based on species population trends and habitat extent for quantifying global trends in the status of biodiversity. Their main weaknesses are that the resolution of status changes is fairly coarse and that delays may occur before some status changes are detected. Their greatest strength is that they are based on information from nearly all species in a taxonomic group worldwide, rather than a potentially biased subset. At present, suitable data are only available for birds, but indices for other taxonomic groups are in development, as is a sampled index based on a stratified sample from all major taxonomic groups.

  18. Effects of Survey Method on Observer Bias and Detection Probability of marsh Birds on St. Vincent NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2001, a national marsh bird monitoring protocol was developed for National Wildlife Refuges across North America. The protocol has been unproved each year with...

  19. Measuring Sexual Violence on Campus: Climate Surveys and Vulnerable Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke; Jones, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2014 "Not Alone" report on campus sexual assault, the use of climate surveys to measure sexual violence on campuses across the United States has increased considerably. The current study utilizes a quasi meta-analysis approach to examine the utility of general campus climate surveys, which include a measure of sexual violence,…

  20. Measuring Violent Conflict in Micro-Level Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Bruck, Tilman; Justino, Patricia; Verwimp, Philip; Tedesco, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews both current practices and common challenges of measuring the causes, functioning, and consequences of violent conflict at the micro-level. The authors review existing conflict -- and violence-related survey questionnaires, with a particular focus on the World Bank's Living Standard Measurement Surveys. Further, they discuss methodological challenges associated with empi...

  1. Canadian Health Measures Survey pre-test: design, methods, results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark; Langlois, Renée; Bryan, Shirley; Esliger, Dale; Patterson, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) pre-test was conducted to provide information about the challenges and costs associated with administering a physical health measures survey in Canada. To achieve the specific objectives of the pre-test, protocols were developed and tested, and methods for household interviewing and clinic testing were designed and revised. The cost, logistics and suitability of using fixed sites for the CHMS were assessed. Although data collection, transfer and storage procedures are complex, the pre-test experience confirmed Statistics Canada's ability to conduct a direct health measures survey and the willingness of Canadians to participate in such a health survey. Many operational and logistical procedures worked well and, with minor modifications, are being employed in the main survey. Fixed sites were problematic, and survey costs were higher than expected.

  2. Measuring customer satisfaction using SERQUAL survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Tajzadeh Namin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is on assessing the quality of services of Tehran’s Saman bank and the available gap between customer’s expectation and perception. Also the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and each dimension of service quality (ie: reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance and empathy and ranking them accordingly, is investigated. The statistical population of this research is consisted of Tehran’s Saman bank customers. The research methods of this study are descriptive-survey as well as correlation. The statistical approaches of this study are correlation, t-student as well as Friedman tests. The results from a sample of 276, shows the service quality dimensions affect customers' perception based on SERQUAL. In addition, there are significant relationship between customers' perception and their satisfaction of the offered services. However, there are negative gaps between customers' perception and their level of expectation.

  3. Measurement error models for survey statistics and economic archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Groß, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The present work is concerned with so-called measurement error models in applied statistics. The data were analyzed and processed from two very different fields. On the one hand survey and register data, which are used in the Survey statistics and on the other hand anthropological data on prehistoric skeletons. For both fields the problem arises that some variables cannot be measured with sufficient accuracy. This can be due to privacy or measuring inaccuracies. This circumstance can be summa...

  4. Measuring the Accuracy of Survey Responses using Administrative Register Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Lassen, David Dreyer; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how Danish administrative register data can be combined with survey data at the person level and be used to validate information collected in the survey. Register data are collected by automatic third party reporting and the potential errors associated with the two data sources...... data are used to impute total expenditure which is then compared to the survey measure. Results suggest that the two measures match each other well on average. In the second example we compare responses to a one-shot recall question about total gross personal income ¿collected in another survey......¿ with tax records. Tax records hold detailed information about different types of income and this makes it possible to test if errors in the survey responseare related to the reporting of particular types of income. Results show bias in the mean and that the survey error has substantial variance. Results...

  5. Measuring the Accuracy of Survey Responses using Administrative Register Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Lassen, David Dreyer; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how Danish administrative register data can be combined with survey data at the person level and be used to validate information collected in the survey. Register data are collected by automatic third party reporting and the potential errors associated with the two data sources...... are therefore plausibly orthogonal. Two examples are given to illustrate the potential of combining survey and register data. In the first example expenditure survey records with information about total expenditure are merged with income tax records holding information about income and wealth. Income and wealth...... data are used to impute total expenditure which is then compared to the survey measure. Results suggest that the two measures match each other well on average. In the second example we compare responses to a one-shot recall question about total gross personal income ¿collected in another survey...

  6. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  7. A GIS-based model of Serengeti grassland bird species | Gottschalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale landscape ecology. The study was conducted on the Serengeti Plains, Tanzania, combining (1) records from a bird survey, (2) local measurements of vegetation structure and precipitation, and (3) a habitat map derived from a Landsat ...

  8. Protective measures and H5N1-seroprevalence among personnel tasked with bird collection during an outbreak of avian influenza A/H5N1 in wild birds, Ruegen, Germany, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littmann Martina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Germany, the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 occurred among wild birds on the island of Ruegen between February and April 2006. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of recommended protective measures and to measure H5N1-seroprevalence among personnel tasked with bird collection. Methods Inclusion criteria of our study were participation in collecting wild birds on Ruegen between February and March 2006. Study participants were asked to complete a questionnaire, and to provide blood samples. For evaluation of the use of protective measures, we developed a personal protective equipment (PPE-score ranging between 0 and 9, where 9 corresponds to a consistent and complete use of PPE. Sera were tested by plaque neutralization (PN and microneutralization (MN assays. Reactive sera were reanalysed in the World Health Organization-Collaborating Centre (WHO-CC using MN assay. Results Of the eligible personnel, consisting of firemen, government workers and veterinarians, 61% (97/154 participated in the study. Of those, 13% reported having always worn all PPE-devices during bird collection (PPE-score: 9. Adherence differed between firemen (mean PPE-score: 6.6 and government workers (mean PPE-score: 4.5; p = 0.006. The proportion of personnel always adherent to wearing PPE was lowest for masks (19%. Of the participants, 18% had received seasonal influenza vaccination prior to the outbreak. There were no reports of influenza-like illness. Five sera initially H5-reactive by PN assay were negative by WHO-CC confirmatory testing. Conclusion Gaps and variability in adherence demonstrate the risk of exposure to avian influenza under conditions of wild bird collection, and justify serological testing and regular training of task personnel.

  9. Situation-Based Survey of Avian Influenza Viruses in Possible “Bridge” Species of Wild and Domestic Birds in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba Teru, Vakuru; Manu, Shiiwua A.; Ahmed, Gashash I.; Junaidu, Kabir; Newman, Scott; Nyager, Joseph; Iwar, Vivian N.; Mshelbwala, Gideon M.; Joannis, T.; Maina, Junaidu A.; Apeverga, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) recurred in Nigeria after 9 months period of no reported case. A critical look at possible sources of the re-occurrence was desirable. The objective of this study was to determine whether avian influenza viruses were present at reasonably detectable levels (0.5%) in possible “bridge” species of wild and domestic birds. The study was conducted in 8 Nigerian states. A total of 403 birds from 40 species were sampled. Virus isolation was done in embryonated chicken eggs according to standard protocols. The test results were all negative for avian influenza viruses. The overall confidence interval (CI) calculated in R using the exact binomial confidence interval function was 0–0.007406. Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) was the lowest sampled 0.3% (1/403) and Red-billed Firefinch (Lagonosticta senegala) the highest 11.7% (47/403). The limitations of the sample size and possibly designing effects on the study, as to make concrete conclusions were acknowledged. Species of wild birds, so identified in the study could be useful in future surveys. Furthermore, multidisciplinary and community oriented approach, blending targeted and passive surveillances was suggested. This approach was envisaged to bring about wider coverage of “bridge” species and clearer insight of their possible roles in avian influenza re-occurrences and spread in Nigeria. PMID:23074668

  10. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  11. The Survey of H5N1 Flu Virus in Wild Birds in 14 Provinces of China from 2004 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zuohua; Guo, Shan; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Xuebin; Li, Peng; Tang, Lijun; Jiang, Ping; Luo, Ze; Xin, Zhi; Ding, Changqing; He, Yubang; Ren, Zuyi; Cui, Peng; Zhao, Hongfeng; Zhang, Zhong; Tang, Shuang; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian

    2009-01-01

    Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza emerged in the year 1996 in Asia, and has spread to Europe and Africa recently. At present, effective monitoring and data analysis of H5N1 are not sufficient in Chinese mainland. Methodology/Principal Findings During the period from April of 2004 to August of 2007, we collected 14,472 wild bird samples covering 56 species of 10 orders in 14 provinces of China and monitored the prevalence of flu virus based on RT-PCR specific for H5N1 subtype. The 149 positive samples involved six orders. Anseriformes had the highest prevalence while Passeriformes had the lowest prevalence (2.70% versus 0.36%). Among the 24 positive species, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) had the highest prevalence (4.37%). A difference of prevalence was found among 14 provinces. Qinghai had a higher prevalence than the other 13 provinces combined (3.88% versus 0.43%). The prevalence in three species in Qinghai province (Pintail (Anas acuta), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula)) were obviously higher than those in other 13 provinces. The results of sequence analysis indicated that the 17 strains isolated from wild birds were distributed in five clades (2.3.1, 2.2, 2.5, 6, and 7), which suggested that genetic diversity existed among H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds. The five isolates from Qinghai came from one clade (2.2) and had a short evolutionary distance with the isolates obtained from Qinghai in the year 2005. Conclusions/Significance We have measured the prevalence of H5N1 virus in 56 species of wild birds in 14 provinces of China. Continuous monitoring in the field should be carried out to know whether H5N1 virus can be maintained by wild birds. PMID:19742325

  12. The survey of H5N1 flu virus in wild birds in 14 Provinces of China from 2004 to 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Kou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza emerged in the year 1996 in Asia, and has spread to Europe and Africa recently. At present, effective monitoring and data analysis of H5N1 are not sufficient in Chinese mainland. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the period from April of 2004 to August of 2007, we collected 14,472 wild bird samples covering 56 species of 10 orders in 14 provinces of China and monitored the prevalence of flu virus based on RT-PCR specific for H5N1 subtype. The 149 positive samples involved six orders. Anseriformes had the highest prevalence while Passeriformes had the lowest prevalence (2.70% versus 0.36%. Among the 24 positive species, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos had the highest prevalence (4.37%. A difference of prevalence was found among 14 provinces. Qinghai had a higher prevalence than the other 13 provinces combined (3.88% versus 0.43%. The prevalence in three species in Qinghai province (Pintail (Anas acuta, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos and Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula were obviously higher than those in other 13 provinces. The results of sequence analysis indicated that the 17 strains isolated from wild birds were distributed in five clades (2.3.1, 2.2, 2.5, 6, and 7, which suggested that genetic diversity existed among H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds. The five isolates from Qinghai came from one clade (2.2 and had a short evolutionary distance with the isolates obtained from Qinghai in the year 2005. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have measured the prevalence of H5N1 virus in 56 species of wild birds in 14 provinces of China. Continuous monitoring in the field should be carried out to know whether H5N1 virus can be maintained by wild birds.

  13. Measuring Violent Conflict in Micro-level Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Brück, Tilman; Justino, Patricia; Verwimp, Philip; Avdeenko, Alexandra; Tedesco, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews current practices and common challenges in the measurement of the causes, functioning, and consequences of violent conflict at the micro-level. We review existing conflict- and violence-related survey questionnaires, with a particular focus on the World Bank's Living Standard Measurement Surveys. We discuss methodological challenges associated with empirical work in conflict-affected and fragile areas—such as operationalizing a definition of conflict, using the appropriate ...

  14. Methods for measuring bird-mediated seed rain: Insights from a Hawaiian mesic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Eli; Stewart, Meredith; Brinkman, Andrew; Paxton, Eben H.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.

    2017-01-01

    Amount and diversity of bird-dispersed seed rain play important roles in determining forest composition, yet neither is easy to quantify. The complex ecological processes that influence seed movement make the best approach highly context specific. Although recent advances in seed rain theory emphasize quantifying source-specific seed shadows, many ecological questions can be addressed u sing a less mechanistic approach that requires fewer assumptions. Using seed rain rates from 0.38 m2 hoop traps sampled twice monthly over the course of a year, we show that number of traps required to identify changes in seed rain varies across seed species and forest type. Detecting a 50% increase in amount of seed rain required from 65 to >300 traps, while detecting a 200% increase generally required ≤⃒50 traps. Trap size and ecological context dictate the number of seeds found in each trap, but the coefficient of variation (CV) across traps in a given ecological context can help inform future studies about number of traps needed to detect change. To better understand factors influencing variation around estimates of seed rain, we simulated both clustered and evenly distributed patterns of fecal deposition using three different levels of seed aggregation (number of seeds in each fecal deposit). When patterns of fecal deposition were clustered, rather than evenly dispersed across the study area, they required >1.5 times the number of traps to identify a 100% increase in seed rain. Similarly, we found that low seed aggregation required >1.5 times the number of traps to detect a 100% change than when aggregation was medium or high. At low aggregations, fewer seed rain traps contained seeds (low, 33 ± 5%; medium, 23 ± 4%; high, 24 ± 5%), resulting in more variation across traps than medium and high aggregations. We also illustrate the importance of training observers to discern between morphologically similar seeds from different species and provide resources to help identify

  15. A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Seok Choi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.

  16. [Bird species diversity and related protection measures in urban park green spaces of Loudi City, Hunan Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-de; Liu, Ping-yuan; Gong, Xun-sheng; Xiao, Xiao-jun

    2013-08-01

    Urban park green space is an important physical part of urban ecosystem, and also, the important habitat and carrier for birds and other animals. Rapid urbanization induces the great change in the spatial pattern of urban park green space, while the patched distribution of urban park green space has the habitat features similar to 'habitat islands', giving obvious effects on urban avian communities. In order to understand the bird species distribution and species diversity in Loudi City and to provide the basic information for the bird conservation, a line transect method and a quadrat sampling method were adopted to investigate the distribution pattern and species richness of the birds across seven urban parks in the Loudi City from November, 2010 to January, 2012. A total of 56 birds species belonging to 11 orders and 27 families were recorded, among which, there were 32, 12 and 12 species belonging to resident birds, summer migrant birds and winter migrant birds, accounting for 57.2%, 21.4% and 21.4%, respectively. As for the fauna, there were 27, 14, and 15 bird species belonging to oriental species, palaearctic species and widely distributed species, accounting for 48.2%, 25.0% and 26.8%, respectively. A total of 7 species belonging to the second class of the national key protected species were recorded, accounting for 12.5% of the total. The Shannon, Pielou and G-F indices of the bird communities in the urban parks in Loudi City were 1.49, 0.85 and 0.62, respectively. Zhushan Park had the highest species number (42), Shannon index (1.41), G index (3.46), F index (6.12) and G-F index (0.43), and Yueqin Hill Park had the highest Pielou index (0.92). The reasons of the poor bird species in Loudi City were analyzed, and some suggestions for preventing the birds were put forward.

  17. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  18. Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys. N. Martins. 4ABSTRACT. 8The aim of this research is to investigate whether web-based ... panels for survey research and found that the use of internet panels would continue to grow and that it would be ...... (q26–q29) and Teamwork (q93–q97). Items q17 ...

  19. Natural language in measuring user emotions : A qualitative approach to quantitative survey-based emotion measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonetto, L.M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to developing surveys that measure user experiences with the use of natural everyday language. The common approach to develop questionnaires that measure experience is to translate theoretical factors into verbal survey items. This theory-based approach can impair the

  20. Measuring socio-economic data in tuberculosis prevalence surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, F; Guilatco, R S; Hossain, S; Van't Hoog, A H; Hoa, N B; van der Werf, M J; Lönnroth, K

    2011-06-01

    Addressing social determinants in the field of tuberculosis (TB) has received great attention in the past years, mainly due to the fact that worldwide TB incidence has not declined as much as expected, despite highly curative control strategies. One of the objectives of the World Health Organization Global Task Force on TB Impact Measurement is to assess the prevalence of TB disease in 22 high-burden countries by active screening of a random sample of the general population. These surveys provide a unique opportunity to assess socio-economic determinants in relation to prevalent TB and its risk factors. This article describes methods of measuring the socio-economic position in the context of a TB prevalence survey. An indirect measurement using an assets score is the most feasible way of doing this. Several examples are given from recently conducted prevalence surveys of the use of an assets score, its construction, and the analyses of the obtained data.

  1. Individual Social Capital and Its Measurement in Social Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With its popularity has come an unresolved issue about social capital: is it an individual or a collective property, or both? Many researchers take it for granted that social capital is collective, but most social surveys implicitly measure social capital at the individual level. After reviewing the definitions by Bourdieu, Coleman, and Putnam, I become to agree with Portes that social capital can be an individual asset and should be firstly analyzed as such; if social capital is to be analyzed as a collective property, then the analysis should explicitly draw on a clear definition of individual social capital. I thus define individual social capital as the features of social groups or networks that each individual member can access and use for obtaining further benefits. Four types of features are identified (basic, specific, generalized, and structural, and example formulations of survey questions are proposed. Following this approach, I then assess some survey questions organized under five themes commonly found in social surveys for measuring social capital: participation in organizations, social networks, trust, civic participation, and perceptions of local area. I conclude that most of these themes and questions only weakly or indirectly measure individual social capital; therefore, they should be strengthened with the conceptual framework proposed in this paper and complemented with the items used in independent surveys on social networks.

  2. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  3. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  4. Measurement of Ethnic Background in Cross-national School Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Krølner, Rikke; Páll, Gabrilla

    2011-01-01

    Indicators such as country of birth and language spoken at home have been used as proxy measures for ethnic background, but the validity of these indicators in surveys among school children remains unclear. This study aimed at comparing item response and student-parent agreement on four questions...

  5. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    . This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  6. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  7. Measuring workplace travel behaviour: validity and reliability of survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunoff, Nicholas A; Xu, Huilan; Rissel, Chris; Wen, Li Ming; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested) reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K = 0.62, P travel time (ρ = 0.75, P travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K = 0.82, P travel time (ρ = 0.83, P travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. The survey question "How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance) portion of your journey" is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  8. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set of...

  9. Development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah H; Glanz, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Objective, observational measures of nutrition environments are now well established and widely used. Individuals' perceptions of their nutrition environments may be equally or more important, but are less well conceptualized, and comprehensive measures are not available. This paper describes the development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS-P), its test-retest reliability, and its ability to discern differences between lower- and higher-SES neighborhoods. This research involved five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model and inventory of items; (2) expert review; (3) pilot testing and cognitive interviews; (4) revising the survey; and (5) administering the revised survey to participants in neighborhoods of high and low SES on two occasions to evaluate neighborhood differences and test-retest reliability. Data were collected in 2010 and 2011 and analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The final survey has 118 items. Fifty-three core items represent three types of perceived nutrition environments: community nutrition environment, consumer nutrition environment, and home food environment. Test-retest reliability for core constructs of perceived nutrition environments was moderate to good (0.52-0.83) for most measured constructs. Residents of higher-SES neighborhoods reported higher availability scores in stores, stronger agreement that healthy options were available in nearby restaurants, and higher scores for accessibility of healthy foods in their homes. The NEMS-P has moderate to good test-retest reliability and can discriminate perceptions of nutrition environments between residents of higher- and lower-SES neighborhoods. This survey is available and ready to be used. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Breeding Bird Survey of the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2000, the author used point counts, area searches, and callback surveys to investigate the use ofrepresentative natural communities (RNC) by breeding landbirds in...

  11. The ability of laying pullets to negotiate two ramp designs as measured by bird preference and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Isabelle C; Weeks, Claire A; Norman, Kate I; Nicol, Christine J

    2017-01-01

    Laying hens are often kept in barn or free-range systems where they must negotiate level changes in the house to access resources. However, collisions and resultant keel fractures are commonplace. Producers sometimes add ramps to make raised areas more accessible but designs vary and very little research has investigated bird preference or behaviour when using different ramp designs, or the effect of ramp design on falls and collisions. Two ramp designs were studied in an experimental setting-a ramp made of plastic poultry slats (grid ramp, GR) and a ramp made of wooden rungs (ladder ramp, LR). Sixty-four young female hens were trained to move to a food reward and this was used to test their behavioural responses when first negotiating the two different ramps during individual tests. Both upward and downward transitions were studied. Ramp preference was also tested using a room that replicated a commercial single-tier system with both types of ramp available. Birds were placed in this room in groups of 16 for three days and their use of the ramps studied. A greater percentage of birds successfully completed (reached the reward bowl) on the GR than the LR during both upward (58% vs 37%) and downward (83% vs 73%) transitions, and a smaller percentage of birds made zero attempts to use the GR than the LR (upwards: 13% vs 56%, downwards: 8% vs 26%). When making a downward transition, more hesitation behaviours were seen (head orientations, stepping on the spot, moving away) for the LR. However, more head orientations were seen for the GR during the upward transition. Birds were more likely to abort attempts (an attempt began when a bird placed both feet on the ramp) to move up the GR than the LR. Birds took longer to negotiate the LR than the GR in both directions, and more pauses were seen during a successful upward transition on the LR. Birds were more likely to move down the GR by walking/running whereas birds tended to jump over the entire LR. More collisions with

  12. The ability of laying pullets to negotiate two ramp designs as measured by bird preference and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle C. Pettersson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Laying hens are often kept in barn or free-range systems where they must negotiate level changes in the house to access resources. However, collisions and resultant keel fractures are commonplace. Producers sometimes add ramps to make raised areas more accessible but designs vary and very little research has investigated bird preference or behaviour when using different ramp designs, or the effect of ramp design on falls and collisions. Methods Two ramp designs were studied in an experimental setting—a ramp made of plastic poultry slats (grid ramp, GR and a ramp made of wooden rungs (ladder ramp, LR. Sixty-four young female hens were trained to move to a food reward and this was used to test their behavioural responses when first negotiating the two different ramps during individual tests. Both upward and downward transitions were studied. Ramp preference was also tested using a room that replicated a commercial single-tier system with both types of ramp available. Birds were placed in this room in groups of 16 for three days and their use of the ramps studied. Results A greater percentage of birds successfully completed (reached the reward bowl on the GR than the LR during both upward (58% vs 37% and downward (83% vs 73% transitions, and a smaller percentage of birds made zero attempts to use the GR than the LR (upwards: 13% vs 56%, downwards: 8% vs 26%. When making a downward transition, more hesitation behaviours were seen (head orientations, stepping on the spot, moving away for the LR. However, more head orientations were seen for the GR during the upward transition. Birds were more likely to abort attempts (an attempt began when a bird placed both feet on the ramp to move up the GR than the LR. Birds took longer to negotiate the LR than the GR in both directions, and more pauses were seen during a successful upward transition on the LR. Birds were more likely to move down the GR by walking/running whereas birds tended to jump

  13. TT detector description and implementation of the survey measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Salzmann, C

    2008-01-01

    The TT geometry in the software has been updated to comply with the latest technical drawings. The main difference is in the description of the beam pipe insulation, where the amount of material has increased from $7.5\\%$ to $15.4\\%$ of $X_0$. Mother volumes are added to decrease the CPU consumption and finally several scans are made to compare the material budget between the DC06 geometry and the new 2008 geometry. In addition, the survey measurements of the TT detector have been analysed. These measurements can be subdivided into surveys of the detector box, photogrammetry of the balconies and metrology of the half-modules. The offsets with the nominal geometry are implemented in the alignment condition database.

  14. Survey of spectral response measurements for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, J.S.; Lind, M.A.

    1981-11-01

    A survey of the photovoltaic community was conducted to ascertain the present state-of-the-art for PV spectral response measurements. Specific topics explored included measurement system designs, good and bad features of the systems, and problems encountered in the evaluation of specific cell structures and materials. The survey showed that most spectral response data are used in diagnostic analysis for the optimization of developmental solar cells. Measurement systems commonly utilize a chopped narrowband source in conjunction with a constant bias illumination which simulates the ambient end use environment. Researchers emphasized the importance of bias illumination for all types of cells in order to minimize the effects of nonlinearities in cell response. Not surprisingly single crystal silicon cells present the fewest measurement problems to the researcher and have been studied more thoroughly than any other type of solar cell. But, the accurate characterization of silicon cells is still difficult and laboratory intercomparison studies have yielded data scatter ranging from +-5% to +-15%. The measurement experience with other types of cells is less extensive. The development of reliable data bases for some solar cells is complicated by problems of cell nonuniformity, environmental instability, nonlinearity, etc. Cascade cells present new problems associated with their structue (multiple cells in series) which are just beginning to be understood. In addition, the importance of many measurement parameters (spectral content of bias light, bias light intensity, bias voltage, chopping frequency, etc.) are not fully understood for most types of solar cells.

  15. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  16. 78 FR 67183 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for... Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-711) and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742d) designate...

  17. Western Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  18. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  19. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  20. Measuring neutrino masses with a future galaxy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: hamann@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: ywong@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    We perform a detailed forecast on how well a EUCLID-like photometric galaxy and cosmic shear survey will be able to constrain the absolute neutrino mass scale. Adopting conservative assumptions about the survey specifications and assuming complete ignorance of the galaxy bias, we estimate that the minimum mass sum of Σm{sub ν} ≅ 0.06 eV in the normal hierarchy can be detected at 1.5σ to 2.5σ significance, depending on the model complexity, using a combination of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements in conjunction with CMB temperature and polarisation observations from PLANCK. With better knowledge of the galaxy bias, the significance of the detection could potentially reach 5.4σ. Interestingly, neither PLANCK+shear nor PLANCK+galaxy alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined effect of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements that breaks the persistent degeneracies between the neutrino mass, the physical matter density, and the Hubble parameter. Notwithstanding this remarkable sensitivity to Σm{sub ν}, EUCLID-like shear and galaxy data will not be sensitive to the exact mass spectrum of the neutrino sector; no significant bias ( < 1σ) in the parameter estimation is induced by fitting inaccurate models of the neutrino mass splittings to the mock data, nor does the goodness-of-fit of these models suffer any significant degradation relative to the true one (Δχ{sub eff}{sup 2} < 1)

  1. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  2. Monitoring of the ventilatory status of anesthetized birds of prey by using end-tidal carbon dioxide measured with a microstream capnometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Rondenay, Yves; Fitzgerald, Guy; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-03-01

    The relationship between end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and blood pH in isoflurane-anesthetized raptors was evaluated. PaCO2 and pH were determined in serial arterial samples from isoflurane anesthetized birds and compared with concurrent end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured with a Microstream sidestream capnograph. Forty-eight paired samples, taken from 11 birds of prey (weighing 416-2,062 g), were used to determine correlations coefficients between PaCO2 and PETCO2, and between PETCO2 and pH. Limits of agreement between PaCO2 and PETCO2 also were calculated. Strong correlations were observed between PaCO2 and PETCO2 (r = 0.94; P birds weighing > 400 g and receiving manual positive ventilation with a Bain system. In our study, the linear relationship observed between the pH and the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide suggested that the monitoring of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide also can be useful to prevent respiratory acidosis.

  3. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  4. Responses of seed-dispersing birds to amount of rainforest in the landscape around fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Cath; Catterall, Carla P

    2014-04-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation alter the composition of bird assemblages in rainforest. Because birds are major seed dispersers in rainforests, fragmentation-induced changes to frugivorous bird assemblages are also likely to alter the ecological processes of seed dispersal and forest regeneration, but the specific nature of these changes is poorly understood. We assessed the influence of fragment size and landscape forest cover on the abundance, species composition, and functional properties of the avian seed disperser community in an extensively cleared, former rainforest landscape of subtropical Australia. Bird surveys of fixed time and area in 25 rainforest fragments (1-139 ha in size across a 1800 km(2) region) provided bird assemblage data which were coupled with prior knowledge of bird species' particular roles in seed dispersal to give measurements of seven different attributes of the seed disperser assemblage. We used multimodel regression to assess how patch size and surrounding forest cover (within 200 m, 1000 m, and 5000 m radii) influenced variation in the abundance of individual bird species and of functional groups based on bird species' responses to fragmentation and their roles in seed dispersal. Surrounding forest cover, specifically rainforest cover, generally had a greater effect on frugivorous bird assemblages than fragment size. Amount of rainforest cover within 200 m of fragments was the main factor positively associated with abundances of frugivorous birds that are both fragmentation sensitive and important seed dispersers. Our results suggest a high proportion of local rainforest cover is required for the persistence of seed-dispersing birds and the maintenance of seed dispersal processes. Thus, even small rainforest fragments can function as important parts of habitat networks for seed-dispersing birds, whether or not they are physically connected by vegetation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Coordinated bird monitoring: Technical recommendations for military lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Manning, Ann; Fischer, Richard; Eberly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is subject to several rules and regulations establishing responsibilities for monitoring migratory birds. The Sikes Act requires all military installations with significant natural resources to prepare and implement Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs). These plans guide the conservation and long-term management of natural resources on military lands in a manner that is compatible with and sustains the military mission. An INRMP also supports compliance with all legal requirements and guides the military in fulfilling its obligation to be a good steward of public land.The management and conservation of migratory birds is addressed in installation INRMPs. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate and disclose the potential environmental impacts of their proposed actions. More recently, DoD signed an MOU (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/EO13186_MOU-DoD.pdf) for migratory birds, under Executive Order 13186, with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in July 2006 and a Migratory Bird Rule (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/MigBirdFINALRule_FRFeb2007.pdf) was passed by Congress in February 2007. The Migratory Bird Rule addresses the potential impacts of military readiness activities on populations of migratory birds and establishes a process to implement conservation measures if and when a military readiness activity is expected to have a significant adverse impact on a population of migratory bird species (as determined through the NEPA process). The MOU states that for nonmilitary readiness activities, prior to initiating any activity likely to affect populations of migratory birds DoD shall (1) identify the migratory bird species likely to occur in the area of the proposed action and determine if any species of concern could be affected by the activity, and (2) assess and document, using NEPA when applicable, the effect of the proposed action on species of concern. By

  6. SURVEY ON CLUSTERING ALGORITHM AND SIMILARITY MEASURE FOR CATEGORICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anitha Elavarasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning is the process of generating useful information from a huge volume of data. Learning can be either supervised learning (e.g. classification or unsupervised learning (e.g. Clustering Clustering is the process of grouping a set of physical objects into classes of similar object. Objects in real world consist of both numerical and categorical data. Categorical data are not analyzed as numerical data because of the absence of inherit ordering. This paper describes about ten different clustering algorithms, its methodology and the factors influencing its performance. Each algorithm is evaluated using real world datasets and its pro and cons are specified. The various similarity / dissimilarity measure applied to categorical data and its performance is also discussed. The time complexity defines the amount of time taken by an algorithm to perform the elementary operation. The time complexity of various algorithms are discussed and its performance on real world data such as mushroom, zoo, soya bean, cancer, vote, car and iris are measured. In this survey Cluster Accuracy and Error rate for four different clustering algorithm (K-modes, fuzzy K-modes, ROCK and Squeezer, two different similarity measure (DISC and Overlap and DILCA applied for hierarchy and partition algorithm are evaluated.

  7. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  8. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne P Cleary

    Full Text Available Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years. Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  9. Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Medallon Calaguas

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a survey instrument on college academic stressors. A review of extant literature and a focus-group interview among 20 college students were done. Based on the review of extant literature and focus-group interview, an initial survey instrument was developed. The initial survey instrument was further reviewed by 11 college students. After the review, a trial-run of the survey instrument was conducted among 17 college students. The comments from the trial-run particip...

  10. A Breeding Bird Survey of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1) Create a list of birds occurring in the study area during the breeding season; 2.) Identify species and habitats of...

  11. Survey of breeding birds using point count methodologies on the Gardner Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge in Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study done on the Gardner Division of Mark Twain NWR to compliment ongoing neotropical migrant bird studies along the Upper Mississippi...

  12. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  14. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  15. Bird observations in Severnaya Zemlya, Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de ext. Korte, J.; Volkov, A.E; Gavrilo, M.V

    Fieldwork in different parts of Severnaya Zemlya in 1985, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and aerial surveys in 1994 revealed a limited bird fauna with a total of 17 breeding species. The most numerous breeding birds are cliff-nesting seabirds, comprising little auk (Alle alle), 10 000-80 000 pairs; kittiwake

  16. Response of bird community structure to habitat management in piñon-juniper woodland-sagebrush ecotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steve; Grace, James B.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Leu, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have been expanding their range across the intermountain western United States into landscapes dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) shrublands. Management actions using prescribed fire and mechanical cutting to reduce woodland cover and control expansion provided opportunities to understand how environmental structure and changes due to these treatments influence bird communities in piñon-juniper systems. We surveyed 43 species of birds and measured vegetation for 1–3 years prior to treatment and 6–7 years post-treatment at 13 locations across Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. We used structural equation modeling to develop and statistically test our conceptual model that the current bird assembly at a site is structured primarily by the previous bird community with additional drivers from current and surrounding habitat conditions as well as external regional bird dynamics. Treatment reduced woodland cover by >5% at 80 of 378 survey sites. However, habitat change achieved by treatment was highly variable because actual disturbance differed widely in extent and intensity. Biological inertia in the bird community was the strongest single driver; 72% of the variation in the bird assemblage was explained by the community that existed seven years earlier. Greater net reduction in woodlands resulted in slight shifts in the bird community to one having ecotone or shrubland affinities. However, the overall influence of woodland changes from treatment were relatively small and were buffered by other extrinsic factors. Regional bird dynamics did not significantly influence the structure of local bird communities at our sites. Our results suggest that bird communities in piñon-juniper woodlands can be highly stable when management treatments are conducted in areas with more advanced woodland development and at the level of disturbance measured in our study.

  17. Dahomey Breeding Bird Survey Route

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document contains route directions and map for the naitonal Dahomey BBS route. Includes milage for where specific listening stations are located along the route...

  18. Quantitative Laughter Detection, Measurement, and Classification-A Critical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Sarah; Sessa, Salvatore; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    The study of human nonverbal social behaviors has taken a more quantitative and computational approach in recent years due to the development of smart interfaces and virtual agents or robots able to interact socially. One of the most interesting nonverbal social behaviors, producing a characteristic vocal signal, is laughing. Laughter is produced in several different situations: in response to external physical, cognitive, or emotional stimuli; to negotiate social interactions; and also, pathologically, as a consequence of neural damage. For this reason, laughter has attracted researchers from many disciplines. A consequence of this multidisciplinarity is the absence of a holistic vision of this complex behavior: the methods of analysis and classification of laughter, as well as the terminology used, are heterogeneous; the findings sometimes contradictory and poorly documented. This survey aims at collecting and presenting objective measurement methods and results from a variety of different studies in different fields, to contribute to build a unified model and taxonomy of laughter. This could be successfully used for advances in several fields, from artificial intelligence and human-robot interaction to medicine and psychiatry.

  19. Active transportation and adolescents' health: the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Faulkner, Guy E J; Fortier, Michelle; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    Active transportation (AT; e.g., walking and cycling) is increasingly promoted to increase youth physical activity (PA). Most previous research focused solely on school trips, and associations among AT and cardiovascular risk factors have seldom been examined in adolescents. To address these important research gaps using data from the nationally representative 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. A total of 1,016 adolescents aged 12-19 years reported their weekly time spent utilitarian walking and cycling, and wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. They underwent a series of physical tests (measures of fitness, body composition, blood pressure, and blood sampling) following standardized protocols. In 2013, differences in PA and health-related outcomes across levels of walking and cycling were assessed with ANCOVA analyses adjusted for age, gender, parental education, and usual daily PA. Greater walking and cycling time was associated with higher moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Compared to adolescents reporting walking 1-5 hours/week, those reporting 5 hours/week had better grip strength, lower total cholesterol, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. Compared to adolescents reporting no cycling, those reporting ≥1 hour/week accumulated more light PA, had greater aerobic fitness, and lower BMI, waist circumference, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio; those who reported cycling <1 hour/week had lower total cholesterol. Utilitarian walking and cycling were associated with higher daily MVPA in youth. Cycling was associated with a more consistent pattern of health benefits than walking. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing survey methodology to measure patients' experiences and views of the emergency and urgent care system: telephone versus postal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholl Jon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To address three methodological challenges when attempting to measure patients' experiences and views of a system of inter-related health services rather than a single service: the feasibility of a population survey for identifying system users, the optimal recall period for system use, and the mode of administration which is most feasible and representative in the context of routine measurement of system performance. Methods Postal survey of a random sample of 900 members of the general population and market research telephone survey of quota sample of 1000 members of the general population. Results Response rates to the postal and market research telephone population surveys were 51% (457 out of 893 receiving the questionnaire and 9% (1014 out of 11924 contactable telephone numbers respectively. Both surveys were able to identify users of the system in the previous three months: 22% (99/457 of postal and 15% (151/1000 of telephone survey respondents. For both surveys, recall of event occurrence reduced by a half after four weeks. The telephone survey more accurately estimated use of individual services within the system than the postal survey. Experiences and views of events remained reasonably stable over the three month recall time period for both modes of administration. Even though the response rate was lower, the telephone survey was more representative of the population, was faster and cheaper to undertake, and had fewer missing values. Conclusions It is possible to identify users of a health care system using a population survey. A recall period of three months can be used to estimate experiences and views but one month is more accurate for estimating use of the system. A quota sample market research telephone survey gives a low response rate yet is more representative and accurate than a postal survey of a random sample of the population.

  1. Measuring workplace travel behaviour: validity and reliability of survey questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrunoff, N.A.; Xu, H.; Rissel, C.; Wen, L.M.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested) reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed

  2. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  3. Measuring Income and Wealth at the Top Using Administrative and Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JESSE BRICKER; ALICE HENRIQUES; JACOB KRIMMEL; JOHN SABELHAUS

    2016-01-01

    .... Household surveys are the traditional data source used to measure the top shares, but recent studies using administrative tax records suggest that these survey-based top share estimates may not be...

  4. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  5. Book review: Bird census techniques, Second edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Conservation concerns, federal mandates to monitor birds, and citizen science programs have spawned a variety of surveys that collect information on bird populations. Unfortunately, all too frequently these surveys are poorly designed and use inappropriate counting methods. Some of the flawed approaches reflect a lack of understanding of statistical design; many ornithologists simply are not aware that many of our most entrenched counting methods (such as point counts) cannot appropriately be used in studies that compare densities of birds over space and time. It is likely that most of the readers of The Condor have participated in a bird population survey that has been criticized for poor sampling methods. For example, North American readers may be surprised to read in Bird Census Techniques that the North American Breeding Bird Survey 'is seriously flawed in its design,' and that 'Analysis of trends is impossible from points that are positioned along roads' (p. 109). Our conservation efforts are at risk if we do not acknowledge these concerns and improve our survey designs. Other surveys suffer from a lack of focus. In Bird Census Techniques, the authors emphasize that all surveys require clear statements of objectives and an understanding of appropriate survey designs to meet their objectives. Too often, we view survey design as the realm of ornithologists who know the life histories and logistical issues relevant to counting birds. This view reflects pure hubris: survey design is a collaboration between ornithologists, statisticians, and managers, in which goals based on management needs are met by applying statistical principles for design to the biological context of the species of interest. Poor survey design is often due to exclusion of some of these partners from survey development. Because ornithologists are too frequently unaware of these issues, books such as Bird Census Techniques take on added importance as manuals for educating ornithologists about

  6. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  7. Population densities and community structure of birds in riverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population density and community structure of birds were studied at three sites in riverine forest in the lowveld of Swaziland. Birds were surveyed monthly using a standard point count technique. A total of 101 species of birds was recorded. Species richness at the three sites ranged between 70–76 species. Population ...

  8. Situation-Based Survey of Avian Influenza Viruses in Possible “Bridge” Species of Wild and Domestic Birds in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Columba Teru, Vakuru; Manu, Shiiwua A.; Ahmed, Gashash I.; Junaidu, Kabir; Newman, Scott; Nyager, Joseph; Iwar, Vivian N.; Mshelbwala, Gideon M.; Joannis, T.; Maina, Junaidu A.; Apeverga, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) recurred in Nigeria after 9 months period of no reported case. A critical look at possible sources of the re-occurrence was desirable. The objective of this study was to determine whether avian influenza viruses were present at reasonably detectable levels (0.5%) in possible “bridge” species of wild and domestic birds. The study was conducted in 8 Nigerian states. A total of 403 birds from 40 species were sampled. Virus isolation was done i...

  9. Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether web-based and paper-based organisational climate surveys can be regarded as equivalent techniques of data collection. Due to the complex geographical placement of various units of the participating organisation and limited internet access, both paper-based and

  10. Measuring corruption in Europe: Public opinion surveys and composite indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chábová, Kristýna

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2017), s. 1877-1900 ISSN 0033-5177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015066 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Corruption * Surveys * Quantitative * Europe Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.094, year: 2016

  11. Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey to Teach Poverty Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diduch, Amy McCormick

    2012-01-01

    Poverty measurement is often controversial, but good public policy relies crucially on a broadly supported and understood poverty measure. In 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau announced it would begin regular reporting of a new supplemental poverty measure in October 2011. The present article provides background information for a student exercise…

  12. Measuring temporary employment. Do survey or register data tell the truth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlopoulos, D.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main variables in the Dutch Labour Force Survey is the variable measuring whether a respondent has a permanent or a temporary job. The aim of our study is to determine the measurement error in this variable by matching the information obtained by the longitudinal part of this survey with

  13. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  14. Lyme Disease (Borelia burgdorferi) Spriochetes in Ticks collected from birds in midwestern United states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H. Nicholls; S.M. Callister

    1996-01-01

    In a tick-spirochete survey conducted from fall 1989 through fall 1992 in northwestern Wisconsin, 4,256 birds (composed of 91 species) were examined for ticks. Infestations were recorded for 400 birds (composed of 30 species). Of 1,184 ticks taken from 335 birds (composed of 26 species), 60 (5%) Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) from eight species of birds were...

  15. Surveying Temperature and Density Measurements in Nuclear Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, G.; Bassini, R.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Fritz, S.; Groß, C.; Immè, G.; Iori, I.; Lynen, U.; Mahi, M.; Möhlenkamp, T.; Müller, W. F. J.; Ocker, B.; Odeh, T.; Pochodzalla, J.; Riccobene, G.; Romano, F. P.; Saija, A.; Schwarz, C.; Serfling, V.; Schnittker, M.; Schüttauf, A.; Seidel, W.; Sfienti, C.; Trautmann, W.; Trzclnski, A.; Verde, G.; Xi, Hongfei; Zwieglinski, B.

    2001-11-01

    An experimental investigation on thermodynamical observables characterizing the conditions of multifragmenting systems is reported. High granularity hodoscopes allowed simultaneous measurements of isotopic and emission temperatures. HBT interferometry with light charged particles allowed radii measurements. The disagreement between the two temperature measurements could be related to the space-time evolution of the fragmentation process as confirmed by density measurements. The slope temperatures derived from the target spectator decay fragment energy spectra suggest a dependence on the Fermi motion within the initial system. The dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve on the mass of the systems was probed.

  16. Measuring Impact of Stabilization Initiatives Survey Data (MISTI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The raw data from the Measuring Impact of Stabilization Initiatives (MISTI) project is the largest and most comprehensive evaluations of stabilization interventions...

  17. Experimental Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method to Find the Mass Properties of an Iron Bird Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  18. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Lee, Seoho; Ahsan, Syed S; Karlsson, Kolbeinn; Gabrielson, Richard; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Winkler, David W; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  19. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Gumus

    Full Text Available The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  20. Addressing sampling bias in counting forest birds: a West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No one bird survey technique is perfect. Either the assumptions made by a technique are difficult to meet in the field, or there are biases due to the observer, the birds themselves, the landscape, or the nature of the habitat. These include survey effort, time of day, time of year, edge effects, vegetation structure, and variation ...

  1. The Use of PCs, Smartphones, and Tablets in a Probability-Based Panel Survey : Effects on Survey Measurement Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Toepoel, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Respondents in an Internet panel survey can often choose which device they use to complete questionnaires: a traditional PC, laptop, tablet computer, or a smartphone. Because all these devices have different screen sizes and modes of data entry, measurement errors may differ between devices. Using

  2. A survey on the measure of combat readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  3. Lies, Damned Lies, and Survey Self-Reports? Identity as a Cause of Measurement Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Philip S.; DeLamater, John

    2017-01-01

    Explanations of error in survey self-reports have focused on social desirability: that respondents answer questions about normative behavior to appear prosocial to interviewers. However, this paradigm fails to explain why bias occurs even in self-administered modes like mail and web surveys. We offer an alternative explanation rooted in identity theory that focuses on measurement directiveness as a cause of bias. After completing questions about physical exercise on a web survey, respondents completed a text message–based reporting procedure, sending updates on their major activities for five days. Random assignment was then made to one of two conditions: instructions mentioned the focus of the study, physical exercise, or not. Survey responses, text updates, and records from recreation facilities were compared. Direct measures generated bias—overreporting in survey measures and reactivity in the directive text condition—but the nondirective text condition generated unbiased measures. Findings are discussed in terms of identity. PMID:29038609

  4. Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey (BHNAS): Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    consistent across the history of the project. Since the first BHNAS administration, the primary target population for the survey has been Navy...to select any of the following: • Over-the-counter drugs (including Aspirin , Tylenol, Motrin, Ibuprofen, Aleve) • Prescription painkillers that...O 2. Have chronic pain, but taking no medications. O 3. Over-the-counter drugs (including Aspirin , Tylenol, Motrin, Ibuprofen, Aleve). O 4

  5. A Survey on Wireless Transmitter Localization Using Signal Strength Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nurminen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of deployed transmitters’ (Tx locations in a wireless network improves many aspects of network management. Operators and building administrators are interested in locating unknown Txs for optimizing new Tx placement, detecting and removing unauthorized Txs, selecting the nearest Tx to offload traffic onto it, and constructing radio maps for indoor and outdoor navigation. This survey provides a comprehensive review of existing algorithms that estimate the location of a wireless Tx given a set of observations with the received signal strength indication. Algorithms that require the observations to be location-tagged are suitable for outdoor mapping or small-scale indoor mapping, while algorithms that allow most observations to be unlocated trade off some accuracy to enable large-scale crowdsourcing. This article presents empirical evaluation of the algorithms using numerical simulations and real-world Bluetooth Low Energy data.

  6. Refining measures of alcohol problems for general population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Witbrodt, Jane; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2015-02-01

    There is a need to improve classification of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in general population surveys. We developed and tested follow-up questions for 2 commonly reported symptom domains (withdrawal and larger/longer) to assess effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 AUD classification. Telephone interviews recontacted a selective follow-up sample of respondents under age 46 from the 2010 National Alcohol Survey with at least 1 lifetime AUD symptom (n = 244). Items included detailed questions about past-year AUD symptoms. Three items (vomiting, sweating, irritability) were recoded as acute intoxication rather than withdrawal if they most recently occurred within 8 hours of stopping drinking. The larger/longer criterion was recoded as socially motivated if respondents endorsed "got caught up in drinking with a group of friends" and not "feel compelled to drink and just can't stop" as a reason for drinking more than intended. Of 225 current drinkers, 11% reported past-year withdrawal, with 28% of those reporting acute intoxication instead of physical withdrawal. Adjusting past-year withdrawal classification reduced AUD prevalence by 6%. A minority (12%) reported the past-year larger/longer criterion. Of those, 50% indicated social reasons for drinking more than intended, rather than compulsion to drink. Adjusting the past-year larger/longer criterion reduced AUD prevalence by 8%. Accounting for both adjustments reduced AUD prevalence by 13%. Cases that met AUD criteria after both adjustments were substantially heavier drinkers than those that were reclassified. Follow-up items could be implemented in epidemiologic studies with minimal response burden and may help reduce misclassification of AUD. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

  8. A survey on infrared thermography for convective heat transfer measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astarita, T.; Cardone, G.; Carlomagno, G.M.; Meola, C. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica

    2000-11-01

    During the past several years infrared thermography has evolved into a powerful investigative means, of thermo-fluid-dynamic analysis to measure convective heat fluxes as well as to investigate the surface flow field behaviour over complicated body shapes. The basic concepts that govern this innovative measurement technique together with some particular aspects linked to its use are herein reviewed. Different operating methods together with their implementations are also discussed. Finally, the capability of infrared thermography to deal with several simple, or complex, fluid flow configurations is analysed. (author)

  9. Bird Avoidance Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the bird avoidance model to predict bird strike hazards with low flying aircraft. Included is peak periods for different species of...

  10. GPS survey in long baseline neutrino-oscillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Noumi, H; Inagaki, T; Hasegawa, T; Katoh, Y; Kohama, M; Kurodai, M; Kusano, E; Maruyama, T; Minakawa, M; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Sakuda, M; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K H; Yamanoi, Y; 10.1109/TNS.2004.836042

    2004-01-01

    We made a series of surveys to obtain neutrino beam line direction toward SuperKamiokande (SK) at a distance of 250 km for the long- baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK. We found that the beam line is directed to SK within 0.03 mr and 0.09 mr (in sigma) in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. During beam operation, we monitored the muon distribution from secondary pions produced at the target and collected by a magnetic horn system. We found that the horn system functions like a lens of a point-to- parallel optics with magnification of approximately -100 and the focal length of 2.3 m. Namely, a small displacement of the primary beam position at the target is magnified about a factor -100 at the muon centroid, while the centroid position is almost stable against a change of the incident angle of the primary beam. Therefore, the muon centroid can be a useful monitor of the neutrino beam direction. We could determine the muon centroid within 6 mm and 12 mm in horizontal and vertical ...

  11. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  12. On a simple survey measure of individual risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; Jonker, N.

    2000-01-01

    We ask individuals for their reservation price of a specified lotteryand deduce their Arrow-Pratt measure of risk aversion.This allows direct testing of common hypotheses on risk attitudes inthree datasets. We find that risk aversion indeed fallswith income and wealth. Entrepreneurs are less risk

  13. Safety Measures During Cholecystectomy : Results of a Nationwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddingh, K. T.; Hofker, H. S.; Hoedemaker, H. O. ten Cate; van Dam, G. M.; Ploeg, R. J.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.

    This study aimed to identify safety measures practiced by Dutch surgeons during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. An electronic questionnaire was sent to all members of the Dutch Society of Surgery with a registered e-mail address. The response rate was 40.4% and 453 responses were analyzed. The

  14. Measuring neutrino masses with a future galaxy survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    that the minimum mass sum of sum m_nu ~ 0.06 eV in the normal hierarchy can be detected at 1.5 sigma to 2.5 sigma significance, depending on the model complexity, using a combination of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements in conjunction with CMB temperature and polarisation observations from Planck....... With better knowledge of the galaxy bias, the significance of the detection could potentially reach 5.4 sigma. Interestingly, neither Planck+shear nor Planck+galaxy alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined effect of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements that breaks...... the persistent degeneracies between the neutrino mass, the physical matter density, and the Hubble parameter. Notwithstanding this remarkable sensitivity to sum m_nu, Euclid-like shear and galaxy data will not be sensitive to the exact mass spectrum of the neutrino sector; no significant bias (sigma...

  15. Bird community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Antrobus; M.P. Guilfoyle; W.C. Barrow; Paul B. Hamel; J.S. Wakeley

    2000-01-01

    Neotropical migrants are birds that breed in North America and winter primarily in Central and South America. Longterm population studies of birds in the Eastern United States indicated declines of some forest-dwelling birds, many of which winter in the Neotropics (Peterjohn and others 1995). These declines were attributed to loss of wintering and breeding habitat due...

  16. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  17. Measuring Risk and Protection in Communities Using the Communities that Care Youth Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Brooke-Weiss, Blair L.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that…

  18. The Use of Online Surveys to Measure Satisfaction in Job Training and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steve; Strachota, Elaine; Conceicao, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines two empirical studies that used online surveys to collect data to measure satisfaction in job training and workforce development. A description of each study, findings related to response rate, the processes used in online survey development and implementation, as well as recommendations for the future use of online surveys…

  19. Interpreting household survey data intended to measure insecticide-treated bednet coverage: results from two surveys in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukich Josh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As efforts are currently underway to roll-out insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs to populations within malarious areas in Africa, there is an unprecedented need for data to measure the effectiveness of such programmes in terms of population coverage. This paper examines methodological issues to using household surveys to measure core Roll Back Malaria coverage indicators of ITN possession and use. Methods ITN coverage estimates within Anseba and Gash Barka Provinces from the 2002 Eritrean Demographic and Health Survey, implemented just prior to a large-scale ITN distribution programme, are compared to estimates from the same area from a sub-national Bednet Survey implemented 18 months later in 2003 after the roll-out of the ITN programme. Results Measures of bednet possession were dramatically higher in 2003 compared to 2002. In 2003, 82.2% (95% confidence interval (CI 77.4–87.0 of households in Anseba and Gash Barka possessed at least one ITN. RBM coverage indicators for ITN use were also dramatically higher in 2003 as compared to 2002, with 76.1% (95% CI 69.9–82.2 of children under five years old and 52.4% (95% CI 38.2–66.6 of pregnant women sleeping under ITNs. The ITN distribution programme resulted in a gross increase in ITN use among children and pregnant women of 68.3% and 48% respectively. Conclusion Eritrea has exceeded the Abuja targets of 60% coverage for ITN household possession and use among children under five years old within two malarious provinces. Results point to several important potential sources of bias that must be considered when interpreting data for ITN coverage over time, including: disparate survey universes and target populations that may include non-malarious areas; poor date recall of bednet procurement and treatment; and differences in timing of surveys with respect to malaria season.

  20. Arctic PRISM Shorebird Location and Plot Survey Geodatabase. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management (2012).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of shorebird surveys conducted as part of the Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM). This dataset was derived...

  1. A Scoring System for Measuring College Interest with the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Form DD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Bert A.; Vicinanza, Paul

    1971-01-01

    While evaluating a project designed to improve certain skills and motivation of disadvantaged tenth graders, the authors developed a unique test for measuring college interest with the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey For DD. (Authors)

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. Kelly [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, Murray [CDM Smith, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haines, Angelina [Xcel Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, James W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, Robert Trent [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950 2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species approximately 10% of the total number of species observed have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  3. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, N. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, M. C. [CDM Smith (United States); Haines, A. M. [Xcel Engineering, Inc.(United States); Evans, J. W. [Tennessee WIldlife Resources Agency (WRA), Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950-2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species--approximately 10% of the total number of species observed--have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  4. Species Diversity and Bird Feed in Residential Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinoto; Suhesti, Eni

    2017-12-01

    Bird is one component of the ecosystem which has an important role in supporting the occurrence of an organism's life cycle. Therefore, the presence of birds in an area is important, because it can affect the existence and distribution of plant species. The purpose of this study is to calculate the diversity of bird species and identify the source of bird feed in the compound. This study was conducted by field surveys in the residential complex. In addition to the birds as a research object vegetation as habitat / foraging birds were also observed. Data were analyzed by using the bird diversity index, richenes index, bundance index, dominance analysis, analysis of bird distribution and analysis of the level of meeting types, while vegetation will be analyzed based on the type and part of what is eaten by birds. In Pandau Jaya housing complex, found as many as 12 species of birds which consists of seven families. Bird species often present is Cucak Kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster) of 20 individuals, Bondol Peking (Lonchura punctulata) 14 individuals and Perkutut Jawa (Geopelia striata) 10 individuals. Bird species diversity (H ‘) in Pandau Jaya housing complex is still relatively moderate with a value of 2.27, while the Evenness Index (E) of 0.91 and Richenes Index (R) of 2.45. Types of vegetation as a food source, among others: mango, guava, cherry, jackfruit, ketapang, coconut, areca, palm, banana, papaya, flowers and grasses.

  5. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The Effects of Survey Timing on Student Evaluation of Teaching Measures Obtained Using Online Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelami, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Teaching evaluations are an important measurement tool used by business schools in gauging the level of student satisfaction with the educational services delivered by faculty. The growing use of online teaching evaluations has enabled educational administrators to expand the time period during which student evaluation of teaching (SET) surveys…

  7. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Inventory of wetland birds occupying WPAs in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary focus of this survey was the non-game bird species found in wetlands; game bird species found to be using the wetlands were also recorded. Both diversity...

  9. Raptor-Powerline Mortality Data, Snake River Birds of Prey Conservation Area - 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a spreadsheet resulting from monthly searches for dead birds along randomly selected power line segments in and near the Snake River Birds of Prey...

  10. Birds of Sabaragamuwa University campus, Buttala, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Surasinghe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a bird survey in the Sabaragamuwa University premises in southeastern Sri Lanka between 2001 and 2004. We recorded 145 bird species, representing 17 orders and 51 families from the campus. The birdlife included Red-faced Malkoha, a globally Vulnerable species and four Near Threatened taxa. The university premises suffer from severe habitat alteration largely owing to fire, filling-up of aquatic habitats, resource over-extraction, improper waste management, invasion by exotic species and livestock grazing. Several conservation measures, including habitat management strategies such as restoration of riparian vegetation, and wetlands, increasing plant diversity in home gardens and prevention of secondary successions in grasslands are recommended to protect the campus environment and to conserve its avifaunal diversity.

  11. No galaxy left behind: accurate measurements with the faintest objects in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchyta, E.; Huff, E. M.; Aleksić, J.; Melchior, P.; Jouvel, S.; MacCrann, N.; Ross, A. J.; Crocce, M.; Gaztanaga, E.; Honscheid, K.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sheldon, E.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Percival, W. J.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zhang, Y.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of detectable stars or galaxies. We have implemented our proposal in BALROG, software which embeds fake objects in real imaging to accurately characterize measurement biases. We demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for their sensitivity to depth and seeing variations. Using the synthetic galaxies as randoms in the Landy-Szalay estimator suppresses the effects of variable survey selection by at least two orders of magnitude. With this correction, our measured angular clustering is found to be in excellent agreement with that of a matched sample from much deeper, higher resolution space-based Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) imaging; over angular scales of 0.004° < θ < 0.2°, we find a best-fitting scaling amplitude between the DES and COSMOS measurements of 1.00 ± 0.09. We expect this methodology to be broadly useful for extending measurements' statistical reach in a variety of upcoming imaging surveys.

  12. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  13. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  14. American Samoa ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls and terns in American Samoa. Vector polygons...

  15. Avifaunal diversity and bird community responses to man-made habitats in St. Coombs Tea Estate, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey on birds was conducted at St. Coombs Tea Estate, Talawakelle, Sri Lanka with the objective of assessing the avifaunal diversity of a given tea plantation ecosystem. Bird populations were sampled in man-made habitats such as home garden, wetland, tea plantation, Eucalyptus plantation and small scale reservoir. Hundred-and-twenty counts were made for each habitat and in addition, activities of birds, feeding habits and food recourses were also observed. A total of 87 species, including 11 endemic and 11 migrant species of birds, was recorded, which included one globally threatened species, Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra and 16 nationally threatened species. A majority of the bird species were observed in home gardens (75%, followed by reservoirs (57%, wetlands (48%, tea plantations (43% and in Eucalyptus plantations (23%. Home gardens support bird diversity while the species richness of endemic bird species increases thereby enabling these findings to be used as guidelines in long term conservational practices. Several conservation measures such as increasing plant diversity, introduction of shade trees and prevention of fire are recommended to conserve and enhance avifaunal diversity in tea plantations.

  16. Measuring teamwork in health care settings: a review of survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.

  17. Disentangling How Landscape Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity Affects Savanna Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bronwyn; McAlpine, Clive A.; Kutt, Alex S.; Ward, Doug; Phinn, Stuart R.; Ludwig, John A.

    2013-01-01

    In highly seasonal tropical environments, temporal changes in habitat and resources are a significant determinant of the spatial distribution of species. This study disentangles the effects of spatial and mid to long-term temporal heterogeneity in habitat on the diversity and abundance of savanna birds by testing four competing conceptual models of varying complexity. Focussing on sites in northeast Australia over a 20 year time period, we used ground cover and foliage projected cover surfaces derived from a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, rainfall data and site-level vegetation surveys to derive measures of habitat structure at local (1–100 ha) and landscape (100–1000s ha) scales. We used generalised linear models and an information theoretic approach to test the independent effects of spatial and temporal influences on savanna bird diversity and the abundance of eight species with different life-history behaviours. Of four competing models defining influences on assemblages of savanna birds, the most parsimonious included temporal and spatial variability in vegetation cover and site-scale vegetation structure, suggesting savanna bird species respond to spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity at both the broader landscape scale and at the fine-scale. The relative weight, strength and direction of the explanatory variables changed with each of the eight species, reflecting their different ecology and behavioural traits. This study demonstrates that variations in the spatial pattern of savanna vegetation over periods of 10 to 20 years at the local and landscape scale strongly affect bird diversity and abundance. Thus, it is essential to monitor and manage both spatial and temporal variability in avian habitat to achieve long-term biodiversity outcomes. PMID:24066138

  18. Impacts of Sublethal Mercury Exposure on Birds: A Detailed Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Margaret C; Cristol, Daniel A

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant known to accumulate in, and negatively affect, fish-eating and oceanic bird species, and recently demonstrated to impact some terrestrial songbirds to a comparable extent. It can bioaccumulate to concentrations of >1 μg/g in tissues of prey organisms such as fish and insects. At high enough concentrations, exposure to mercury is lethal to birds. However, environmental exposures are usually far below the lethal concentrations established by dosing studies.The objective of this review is to better understand the effects of sublethal exposure to mercury in birds. We restricted our survey of the literature to studies with at least some exposures >5 μg/g. The majority of sublethal effects were subtle and some studies of similar endpoints reached different conclusions. Strong support exists in the literature for the conclusion that mercury exposure reduces reproductive output, compromises immune function, and causes avoidance of high-energy behaviors. For some endpoints, notably certain measures of reproductive success, endocrine and neurological function, and body condition, there is weak or contradictory evidence of adverse effects and further study is required. There was no evidence that environmentally relevant mercury exposure affects longevity, but several of the sublethal effects identified likely do result in fitness reductions that could adversely impact populations. Overall, 72% of field studies and 91% of laboratory studies found evidence of deleterious effects of mercury on some endpoint, and thus we can conclude that mercury is harmful to birds, and the many effects on reproduction indicate that bird population declines may already be resulting from environmental mercury pollution.

  19. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two

  20. A National Survey of Faculty Development Evaluation Outcome Measures and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Murrell, Vicki S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national study of 39 higher education institutions that collected information about their evaluation procedures and outcome measures for faculty development for online teaching conducted during 2011-2012. The survey results found that over 90% of institutions used measures of the faculty person's…

  1. Can i just check...? Effects of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Jäckle, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to

  2. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  3. Aerodynamics of Bird Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to c...

  4. Avian abundance and oak mistletoe survey data from the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Kyle R.; Hagar, Joan; Shaw, David C.

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes two spreadsheets: The "Avian_abundance_oak_mistletoe_bird_data" spreadsheet contains data regarding Oregon White Oak tree (Quercus garryana) measurements such as height, diameter and crown volume along with microhabitat data including number of mistletoe infections, number of cavities, amount of dead wood, amount of loose/missing bark, amount of poison oak, amount of bole cracks, and presence of woodpecker sign, bark-beetle sign, and fungal fruiting bodies. The "Avian_abundance_oak_mistletoe_surveys_data" spreadsheet contains bird survey observations including data, time, temperature, precipitation, bird species observations, age/sex, and behavioral observations.

  5. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  6. Long-term variation in the winter resident bird community of Guanica Forest, Puerto Rico: lessons for measuring and monitoring species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Faaborg; Katie M. Dugger; Wayne J. Arendt

    2007-01-01

    Because the winter season is potentially limiting for migratory birds, understanding their nonbreeding distributional patterns is essential. At a given site, patterns of species occurrence and abundance may vary over time and, within a species, wintering strategies may vary with regard to the degree that individuals are site-faithful both within and between winters. We...

  7. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the bird species abundance and diversity of the Pandam wildlife park and the surrounding farmlands. The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice ...

  8. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  9. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  10. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  11. Exotic birds increase generalization and compensate for native bird decline in plant-frugivore assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2014-11-01

    Exotic species are thought to alter the structure of natural communities and disrupt ecosystem functioning through invasion. Nevertheless, exotic species may also provide ecological insurance when they contribute to maintain ecosystem functions after the decline of native species following anthropogenic disturbance. Here, this hypothesis is tested with the assemblage of frugivorous birds and fleshy-fruited plants of New Zealand, which has suffered strong historical declines in native birds while simultaneously gaining new frugivores introduced by European settlers. We studied the plant-frugivore assemblage from measures of fruit and bird abundances and fruit consumption in nine forest patches, and tested how this changed across a gradient of relative abundance of exotic birds. We then examined how each bird species' role in the assemblage (the proportion of fruits and the number of plant species consumed) varied with their relative abundance, body size and native/exotic status. The more abundant and, to a lesser extent, larger birds species consumed a higher proportion of fruits from more plant species. Exotic birds consumed fruits less selectively and more proportionate to the local availability than did native species. Interaction networks in which exotic birds had a stronger role as frugivores had higher generalization, higher nestedness and higher redundancy of plants. Exotic birds maintained frugivory when native birds became rarer, and diversified the local spectrum of frugivores for co-occurring native plants. These effects seemed related to the fact that species abundances, rather than trait-matching constraints, ultimately determined the patterns of interactions between birds and plants. By altering the structure of plant-frugivore assemblages, exotic birds likely enhance the stability of the community-wide seed dispersal in the face of continued anthropogenic impact. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  12. Indoor Environment and Energy Use in Historic Buildings - Comparing Survey Results with Measurements and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, P.; Dalewski, M.; Moshfegh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand for energy efficiency places new requirements on energy use in historic buildings. Efficient energy use is essential if a historic building is to be used and preserved, especially buildings with conventional uses such as residential buildings and offices. This paper presents...... results which combine energy auditing with building energy simulation and an indoor environment survey among the occupants of the building. Both when comparing simulations with measurements as well as with survey results good agreement was found. The two efficiency measures that are predicted to increase...

  13. The impact of the bird flu on public willingness to pay for the protection of migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; van Beukering, P.J.H.; Sultanian, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a unique time series analysis of contingent values and models for migratory bird protection based on an identical contingent valuation (CV) survey carried out over a three year time period since the first bird flu outbreak in 2003. Although there exists no

  14. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  15. Standardization of physical measurements in European health examination surveys-experiences from the site visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Mäki-Opas, Johanna; Mindell, Jennifer S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Giampaoli, Simona; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-10-01

    Health examination surveys (HESs) provide valuable data on health and its determinants at the population level. Comparison of HES results within and between countries and over time requires measurements which are free of bias due to differences in or adherence to measurement procedures and/or measurement devices. In the European HES (EHES) Pilot Project, 12 countries conducted a pilot HES in 2010-11 using standardized measurement protocols and centralized training. External evaluation visits (site visits) were performed by the EHES Reference Centre staff to evaluate the success of standardization and quality of data collection. In general, standardized EHES protocols were followed adequately in all the pilot surveys. Small deviations were observed in the posture of participants during the blood pressure and height measurement; in the use of a tourniquet when drawing blood samples; and in the calibration of measurement devices. Occasionally, problems with disturbing noise from outside or people coming into the room during the measurements were observed. In countries with an ongoing national HES or a long tradition of conducting national HESs at regular intervals, it was more difficult to modify national protocols to fulfil EHES requirements. The EHES protocols to standardize HES measurements and procedures for collection of blood samples are feasible in cross-country settings. The prerequisite for successful standardization is adequate training. External and internal evaluation activities during the survey fieldwork are also needed to monitor compliance to standards.

  16. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  17. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  18. The healing bird

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    said that it comes out at night hiding itself during the day. Aristophanes (444 - 380 BC) in The Birds mentioned the caladrius twice: '... did the hoopoe go into the thicket and utter its cry in imitation of the charadrius' and then later classed it with the water-birds '... the charadrie and other river-fowl bore water from below into the ...

  19. The healing bird

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greek mythology it was a nondescript bird but in the medieval bestiaries it became pure white. The caladrius is used in the coats of arms of the South African Medical and Dental Council and also the Medical University of Soufhern Africa. These appear to be the first use of this medically significant bird in modern heraldry.

  20. Migratory Birds. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses why, how, where, and when birds migrate as well as problems birds encounter while migrating; the importance of research…

  1. Training for and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Erica; Clawson, Margaret; Glanz, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Researchers believe that nutrition environments contribute to obesity and may explain some health disparities. The Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS) are valid and reliable observational measures of the nutrition environment. This article describes the dissemination of the measures, including the development, implementation, and evaluation of training workshops, and a follow-up survey of training participants. To disseminate the NEMS measures, we developed a 2-day intensive, participatory workshop. We used an immediate postcourse evaluation and a structured telephone follow-up interview to evaluate the workshops and the dissemination strategy. Topics included use of the NEMS measures, reactions to the workshops, and participants' training others on the measures. During the study period, 173 people participated in 14 workshops. Participants indicated a high level of satisfaction with the training workshops. Almost two-thirds of respondents reported using the measures to train an additional 292 people and to rate more than 3,000 food outlets. The measures have been used in diverse locations across the United States for various purposes. Respondents have reported NEMS results in peer-reviewed journals, master's theses, newspaper articles, and presentations. The NEMS measures are the only nutrition environment measures that have been packaged for distribution and widely disseminated. The measures fill a need in the worlds of research and community action, and dissemination was successful in accelerating diffusion and promoting adoption of the measures. The use of an ongoing, continual process to improve workshops and measures contributes to the usefulness of the surveys and accelerates their adoption and continued use.

  2. BUSINESS SURVEY LIQUIDITY MEASURE AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Business survey liquidity measure is one of the modifications of the uniform EU business survey methodology applied in Croatia. Consequent liquidity problem have been, since socialist times, one of the major problem for Croatia's business. The problem rapidly increased between 1995 and 2000 and now it again represents the main difficulty for the Croatian economy. In order to improve the forecasting properties of business survey liquidity measure, some econometric models ware applied. Based on the regression analysis we concluded that the changes in the liquidity variable can predict the direction of changes in industrial production with one quarter lead. The results also show that liquidity can be a proxy of the Industrial Confidence Indicator in the observed period. The empirical analysis was performed using quarterly data covering the period from the first quarter 2005 to the fourth quarter 2011. The data sources were Privredni vjesnik (a business magazine in Croatia and the Croatian Bureau of Statistics.

  3. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  4. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3` NaI detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.; Ugletveit, F.; Floe, L.; Mikkelborg, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3` NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of {sup 137}Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3` NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au).

  5. The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

  6. The Development of an Emotional Response to Literature Measure: The Affective Response to Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on theories of emotional intelligence, adult education, psychology of reading, and emotions and literature, this study was designed to develop and validate the Affective Response to Literature Survey (ARLS), a psychological instrument used to measure an emotional response to literature. Initially, 27 items were generated by a review of…

  7. Proposing a survey instrument for measuring operational, formal, information and strategic Internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies prove to be very suitable to provide a realistic view of people's Internet skills. However, their cost and time are a strong limitation for large-scale data gathering. A useful addition to the measurement of Internet skills would be the development of survey questions for

  8. Reducing survey burden: feasibility and validity of PROMIS measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senders, Angela; Hanes, Douglas; Bourdette, Dennis; Whitham, Ruth; Shinto, Lynne

    2014-07-01

    Patient-reported outcomes are important for clinical research and care, yet administering and scoring the questionnaires requires considerable effort and time. The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) could considerably reduce administrative obstacles and lessen survey burden for participants. Assess the feasibility and validity of PROMIS, compared to commonly-used legacy measures for multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional survey, 133 participants with confirmed MS completed legacy surveys and PROMIS Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs) for depression, anxiety, pain, fatigue and physical function. We conducted a multi-trait, multi-method analysis and verified results with confirmatory factor analysis. The correlations between PROMIS and the corresponding legacy measures were large (0.67 to 0.87). The multi-trait, multi-method criteria were generally well met, providing good evidence of the validity of PROMIS measures. PROMIS surveys asked fewer questions and required substantially less time to complete than the legacy scales. Our results provide evidence of the construct validity of PROMIS for use with MS patients. Several aspects of the PROMIS CATs made them an important resource, including: (a) less time was required to complete them; (b) missing data was reduced; and (c) the automatic scoring referenced the general population. Our findings support the use of PROMIS in MS research and may have broader implications for clinical care, as well. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta Central Agricultural Zone were investigated. The study fills the gap in empirical information on the profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds. Randomly selected 54 poultry bird marketers were surveyed in 5 major markets. The primary ...

  10. Biocultural Homogenization in Urban Settings: Public Knowledge of Birds in City Parks of Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Celis-Diez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An understudied consequence of growing urbanization is the rapid and concurrent loss of native biological and cultural diversity. Here, we measured the concordance between avian species richness in public green areas of the city of Santiago, Chile, and the corresponding knowledge of local citizens of this avian diversity. To assess this correspondence, we sampled avian species richness in 10 representative city parks and surveyed the awareness of avian diversity by park visitors as well as their ability to identify bird species. We found no significant relationship between estimated bird diversity from field sampling and their perception by park visitors, suggesting that visitors underestimate avian diversity in city parks because they perceive only a small fraction of the overall diversity, with their awareness especially biased towards the most abundant species. Exotic bird species comprise the majority of the latter group. This result was observed regardless of whether the city park had high or low bird diversity. Public knowledge of birds did not relate to the species richness present at city parks, and was strongly biased towards the most abundant, widely distributed, and primarily exotic species. This result agrees with the biocultural homogenization hypothesis, documenting the role of urban areas in this global process.

  11. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  12. The Relevance of Teaching Traditional Measurement Techniques to Undergraduate Quantity Surveying Students.

    OpenAIRE

    McDonnell, Fiacra P.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of quantities is a core skill which must be inherent in all graduates from Quantity Surveying courses. Many students find this subject difficult to grasp, and the learning experience can be problematic especially in the first semester of first year. This is not unique to measurement as in many cases first year students are in the process of adapting to a new stage in their life, along with attempting to master many new subjects (Cottrell, 2008). This is reinforced by Johnston (201...

  13. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Michaels

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  14. Measure and category a survey of the analogies between topological and measure spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Oxtoby, John C

    1980-01-01

    In this edition, a set of Supplementary Notes and Remarks has been added at the end, grouped according to chapter. Some of these call attention to subsequent developments, others add further explanation or additional remarks. Most of the remarks are accompanied by a briefly indicated proof, which is sometimes different from the one given in the reference cited. The list of references has been expanded to include many recent contributions, but it is still not intended to be exhaustive. John C. Oxtoby Bryn Mawr, April 1980 Preface to the First Edition This book has two main themes: the Baire category theorem as a method for proving existence, and the "duality" between measure and category. The category method is illustrated by a variety of typical applications, and the analogy between measure and category is explored in all of its ramifications. To this end, the elements of metric topology are reviewed and the principal properties of Lebesgue measure are derived. It turns out that Lebesgue integration is not es...

  15. mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory. The analysis of the ...

  16. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory . The analysis of the ...

  17. Physical, chemical, net haul, bird surveys, and other observations (BIOMASS data) from the British Antarctic Survey FIBEX and SIBEX Projects from 01 November 1980 to 30 April 1985 (NODC Accession 9400053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession includes observations of physical, chemical, and biomass properties from three field experiments conducted by the British Antarctic Survey: the First...

  18. Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mineau

    Full Text Available Common agricultural birds are in decline, both in Europe and in North America. Evidence from Europe suggests that agricultural intensification and, for some species, the indirect effects of pesticides mediated through a loss of insect food resource is in part responsible. On a state-by-state basis for the conterminous Unites States (U.S., we looked at several agronomic variables to predict the number of grassland species increasing or declining according to breeding bird surveys conducted between 1980 and 2003. Best predictors of species declines were the lethal risk from insecticide use modeled from pesticide impact studies, followed by the loss of cropped pasture. Loss of permanent pasture or simple measures of agricultural intensification such as the proportion of land under crop or the proportion of farmland treated with herbicides did not explain bird declines as well. Because the proportion of farmland treated with insecticides, and more particularly the lethal risk to birds from the use of current insecticides feature so prominently in the best models, this suggests that, in the U.S. at least, pesticide toxicity to birds should be considered as an important factor in grassland bird declines.

  19. Monitoring Hawaiian biodiversity: Pilot study to assess changes to forest birds and their habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Gaudioso, Jacqueline; Brinck, Kevin W.; Berkowitz, Paul; Jacobi, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is the variety and abundance of species in a defined area, and is one of the oldest and most basic descriptions of biological communities. Understanding how populations and communities are structured and change over space and time in response to internal and external forces is a management priority. Effective management practices and conservation strategies depend on our understanding of the relationship between changes in biodiversity and ecological drivers such as invasive species, land use and climate change. To demonstrate how changes in biodiversity may be monitored over a large (400 km2) tract of native forest habitat, we compared bird and plant community composition and structure in an upper montane region of Hawai‘i Island originally surveyed in 1977 as part of the Hawai‘i Forest Bird Survey (Scott et al. 1986) with a comprehensive sample of the same region in 2015.Our findings suggest that across a region spanning an elevation range of 600 to 2,000 m considerable changes occurred in the plant and bird communities between 1977 and 2015. Endemic and indigenous plants species richness (i.e., total number of species) decreased dramatically in the low and middle elevations below an invasive weed front, whereas naturalized plant species richness did not change between the two periods at any elevation. Endemic bird abundance decreased and two species were lost in the lower elevations (species increased in the same area. In addition to changes in community composition, the structure of the forest showed evidence of changes in dominant and sub-dominant tree canopy cover, shrub and herbaceous cover, dominant tree canopy height, and matted fern cover. Biodiversity monitoring helps to define specific conservation targets and to measure progress towards reaching those targets. It is difficult to ascribe causative factors to a change in biodiversity without directly manipulating the environment. Forest habitat in a variety of

  20. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed at developing and evaluating statistical models predicting objectively measured occupational time spent sedentary or in physical activity from self-reported information available in large epidemiological studies and surveys. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fourteen blue-collar workers...... responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......, of the variance of the objectively measured exposures. Internal validation using bootstrapping suggested that the full and single-predictor models would show almost the same performance in new datasets as in that used for modelling. CONCLUSIONS: Both full and single-predictor models based on self...

  1. Forest Bird Distribution, Density and Trends in the Ka'u Region of Hawai'i Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate and current measure of population status and trend is necessary for conservation and management efforts. Scott and Kepler (1985) provided a comprehensive review of the status of native Hawaiian birds based on the extensive Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) of the main islands (Scott et al. 1986). At that time, they documented declining populations and decreasing ranges for most species, and the extinction of several species over the previous 50 years. Many native bird species continue to decline throughout Hawai`i (Camp et al. In review, Gorresen et al. In prep.). The focus of this study is the mid-to-high elevation rainforest on the southeast windward slopes of Mauna Loa Volcano (Figure 1). Known as Ka`u, the region encompasses forest lands protected by Kamehameha Schools, The Nature Conservancy, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HVNP), and the State of Hawai'i's Ka`u Forest Reserve, Kapapala Forest Reserve and Kapapala Cooperative Game Management Area,. Together these lands support one of three main concentrations of native forest birds on the Hawai`i Island (the other two being centered on the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge and Kulani-Keauhou area in the north and central windward part of the island, respectively.) Because this region harbors important populations of native and endangered forest birds in some of the best remaining forest habitat on the island, it has been a focus of forest bird surveys since the 1970s. The Ka`u region was first quantitatively surveyed in 1976 by the Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (Scott et al. 1986). Surveys were conducted by State of Hawai`i Division of Forestry and Wildlife in 1993 and 2002 and by the U.S. National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey in 2004 and 2005. In this report, we present analyses of the density, distribution and trends of native and introduced forest bird within the Ka`u region of Hawai`i Island. The analyses cover only those species with sufficient detections to model detection

  2. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  3. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  4. Comparing Aerodynamic Efficiency in Birds and Bats Suggests Better Flight Performance in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  5. THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THREE SPECIFIC CLIMATIC FACTORS ON NORTH AMERICAN BREEDING BIRD SPECIES RICHNESS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zhang; Y. Lin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of the relationships between bird species and environment facilitates protecting avian biodiversity and maintaining nature sustaining. However, the effects of many climatic factors on bird richness have not been fully grasped. To fill this gap, this study investigated the relationships between the richness of three typical North American breeding bird species and three climatic factors at the monthly scale. Based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data during 1967&...

  6. Local-scale habitat associations of grassland birds in southwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lisa H.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of obligate grassland species requires not only the protection of a sufficiently large area of habitat but also the availability of necessary vegetation characteristics for particular species. As a result land managers must understand which habitat characteristics are important for their target species. To identify the habitat associations of eight species of grassland birds, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys on 66 grassland habitat patches in southwestern Minnesota in 2013 and 2014. Species of interest included sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), dickcissel (Spiza americana), bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). We calculated correlation coefficients between vegetation variables and species density as measures of linear association. We assessed curvilinear relationships with loess plots. We found grassland birds on 95.5% of surveyed sites, indicating remnant prairie in southwestern Minnesota is used by grassland birds. In general individual species showed different patterns of association and most species were tolerant of a wide variety of habitat conditions. The most consistent pattern was a negative association with both the quantity and proximity of trees. Our findings that individual species have different habitat preferences suggest that prairie resource managers may need to coordinate management efforts in order to create a mosaic of habitat types to support multiple species, though tree control will be an important and ongoing management activity at the individual site level.

  7. Modeling and the management of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of migratory bird populations is reviewed in the context of migratory bird management. We focus on dynamic models of waterfowl, since most management-oriented migratory bird models concern waterfowl species. We describe the management context for these modeling efforts, with a focus on large-scale operational data collection programs and on processes by which waterfowl harvest is regulated and waterfowl habitats are protected and managed. Through their impacts on key population parameters such as recruitment and survival rate, these activities can influence population dynamics, thereby providing managers some measure of control over the status of populations. Recent applications of the modeling of waterfowl are described in terms of objectives, mathematical structures, and contributions to management. Finally, we discuss research needs and data limitations in migratory bird modeling, and offer suggestions to increase the value to managers of future modeling efforts.

  8. Grassland birds wintering at U.S. Navy facilities in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Bryan, Pearce D.; Ruddy, Amanda J.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland birds have undergone widespread decline throughout North America during the past several decades. Causes of this decline include habitat loss and fragmentation because of conversion of grasslands to cropland, afforestation in the East, brush and shrub invasion in the Southwest and western United States, and planting of exotic grass species to enhance forage production. A large number of exotic plant species, including grasses, have been introduced in North America, but most research on the effects of these invasions on birds has been limited to breeding birds, primarily those in northern latitudes. Research on the effects of exotic grasses on birds in winter has been extremely limited.This is the first study in southern Texas to examine and compare winter bird responses to native and exotic grasslands. This study was conducted during a period of six years (2003–2009) on United States Navy facilities in southern Texas including Naval Air Station–Corpus Christi, Naval Air Station–Kingsville, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Waldron, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Orange Grove, and Escondido Ranch, all of which contained examples of native grasslands, exotic grasslands, or both. Data from native and exotic grasslands were collected and compared for bird abundance and diversity; ground cover, vegetation density, and floristic diversity; bird and vegetation relationships; diversity of insects and arachnids; and seed abundance and diversity. Effects of management treatments in exotic grasslands were evaluated by comparing numbers and diversity of birds and small mammals in mowed, burned, and control areas.To determine bird abundance and bird species richness, birds were surveyed monthly (December–February) during the winters of 2003–2008 in transects (100 meter × 20 meter) located in native and exotic grasslands distributed at all five U.S. Navy facilities. To compare vegetation in native and exotic grasslands, vegetation characteristics were measured

  9. Investigating Measures of Social Context on 2 Population-Based Health Surveys, Hawaii, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobutsky, Ann M; Baker, Kathleen Kromer; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2015-12-17

    Measures from the Social Context Module of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used on 2 population-based health surveys in Hawaii to explicate the role of the nonmedical and social determinants of health; these measures were also compared with conventional socioeconomic status (SES) variables. Results showed that the self-reported SES vulnerabilities of food and housing insecurity are both linked to demographic factors and physical and mental health status and significant when controlling for the conventional measures of SES. The social context module indicators should be increasingly used so results can inform appropriate interventions for vulnerable populations.

  10. Bird Diversity in Fruit Gardens in Bang Nang Li Sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitinarth Charoenpokaraj

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is quantitative and qualitative explorative research. The purposes of this research was 1 to study bird species, feeding behavior, abundance and status in study area 2 to study activities in utilization of birds in the study site. The data was obtained by interviewing the owners of fruit gardens and field surveys of bird species, activities of birds in habitat utilization in three kinds of organic fruit gardens namely; lychee garden, coconut garden, and pomelo garden in Bang Nang Li Sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province from October 2012 – September 2013. The result of bird survey in 3 gardens found 31 families and 61 species of birds. 52 bird species were found the most in organic pomelo gardens. In feeding habitats, insectivorous, piscivorous, granivorous, nectrivorous birds and aquatic invertebrate feeding birds were found. Abundance level of birds in organic fruit gardens was at level 5. 23 bird species were frequently found. 43 bird species were found in November because migratory birds came to utilize the study site. According to the status of bird species, 48 resident bird species, 6 resident and 7 migrant bird species were found in o

  11. Functional and phylogenetic structure of island bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xingfeng; Cadotte, Marc W; Zeng, Di; Baselga, Andrés; Zhao, Yuhao; Li, Jiaqi; Wu, Yiru; Wang, Siyu; Ding, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Biodiversity change in anthropogenically transformed habitats is often nonrandom, yet the nature and importance of the different mechanisms shaping community structure are unclear. Here, we extend the classic Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) to account for nonrandom processes by incorporating species traits and phylogenetic relationships into a study of faunal relaxation following habitat loss and fragmentation. Two possible mechanisms can create nonrandom community patterns on fragment islands. First, small and isolated islands might consist of similar or closely related species because they are environmentally homogeneous or select for certain shared traits, such as dispersal ability. Alternatively, communities on small islands might contain more dissimilar or distantly related species than on large islands because limited space and resource availability result in greater competitive exclusion among species with high niche overlap. Breeding birds were surveyed on 36 islands and two mainland sites annually from 2010 to 2014 in the Thousand Island Lake region, China. We assessed community structure of breeding birds on these subtropical land-bridge islands by integrating species' trait and evolutionary distances. We additionally analysed habitat heterogeneity and variance in size ratios to distinguish biotic and abiotic processes of community assembly. Results showed that functional-phylogenetic diversity increased with island area, and decreased with isolation. Bird communities on the mainland were more diverse and generally less clustered than island bird communities and not different than randomly assembled communities. Bird communities on islands tend to be functionally similar and phylogenetically clustered, especially on small and isolated islands. The nonrandom decline in species diversity and change in bird community structure with island area and isolation, along with the relatively homogeneous habitats on small islands, support the environmental

  12. Bird Communities of Southern Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Hunter; James G. Dickson; David N. Pashley; Paul B. Hamel

    2002-01-01

    Birds constitute a high-profile group of species that attract a great deal of attention as watchable wildlife. Also, birds are important as indicators of habitat conditions and environmental health. Compared to other groups of animals and plants, birds are relatively conspicuous and can be easily monitored. Available information on bird ecology is substantial, but...

  13. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  14. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  15. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  16. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be cooked until the yolks and whites are firm. Risk factors The greatest risk factor for bird ... and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not endorse any of the ...

  17. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terns and shorebirds or waterfowl such as ducks, geese and swans. These wild birds are often viewed ... human health. FAO and OIE are concerned with issues affecting animals, food and agriculture. Top of Page ...

  18. Measuring gender when you don't have a gender measure: constructing a gender index using survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter M; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2016-05-28

    Disentangling the impacts of sex and gender in understanding male and female differences is increasingly recognised as an important aspect for advancing research and addressing knowledge gaps in the field of work-health. However, achieving this goal in secondary data analyses where direct measures of gender have not been collected is challenging. This study outlines the development of a gender index, focused on gender roles and institutionalised gender, using secondary survey data from the Canadian Labour Force survey. Using this index we then examined the distribution of gender index scores among men and women, and changes in gender roles among male and female labour force participants between 1997 and 2014. We created our Labour Force Gender Index (LFGI) using information in four areas: responsibility for caring for children; occupation segregation; hours of work; and level of education. LFGI scores ranged from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating more feminine gender roles. We examined correlations between each component in our measure and our total LFGI score. Using multivariable linear regression we examined change in LFGI score for male and female labour force participants between 1997 and 2014. Although women had higher LFGI scores, indicating greater feminine gender roles, men and women were represented across the range of LFGI scores in both 1997 and 2014. Correlations indicated no redundancy between measures used to calculate LFGI scores. Between 1997 and 2014 LFGI scores increased marginally for men and decreased marginally for women. However, LFGI scores among women were still more than 1.5 points higher on average than for men in 2014. We have described and applied a method to create a measure of gender roles using survey data, where no direct measure of gender (masculinity/femininity) was available. This measure showed good variation among both men and women, and was responsive to change over time. The article concludes by outlining an approach to

  19. Measuring Science Instructional Practice: A Survey Tool for the Age of NGSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.; Lee, Christine S.; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn; Seitz, Jeffery C.

    2016-03-01

    Ambitious efforts are taking place to implement a new vision for science education in the United States, in both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-adopted states and those states creating their own, often related, standards. In-service and pre-service teacher educators are involved in supporting teacher shifts in practice toward the new standards. With these efforts, it will be important to document shifts in science instruction toward the goals of NGSS and broader science education reform. Survey instruments are often used to capture instructional practices; however, existing surveys primarily measure inquiry based on previous definitions and standards and with a few exceptions, disregard key instructional practices considered outside the scope of inquiry. A comprehensive survey and a clearly defined set of items do not exist. Moreover, items specific to the NGSS Science and Engineering practices have not yet been tested. To address this need, we developed and validated a Science Instructional Practices survey instrument that is appropriate for NGSS and other related science standards. Survey construction was based on a literature review establishing key areas of science instruction, followed by a systematic process for identifying and creating items. Instrument validity and reliability were then tested through a procedure that included cognitive interviews, expert review, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (using independent samples), and analysis of criterion validity. Based on these analyses, final subscales include: Instigating an Investigation, Data Collection and Analysis, Critique, Explanation and Argumentation, Modeling, Traditional Instruction, Prior Knowledge, Science Communication, and Discourse.

  20. Coexistence of DTT and Mobile Broadband: A Survey and Guidelines for Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Kalliovaara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey and a general methodology for coexistence studies between digital terrestrial television (DTT and mobile broadband (MBB systems in the ultra high frequency (UHF broadcasting band. The methodology includes characterization of relevant field measurement scenarios and gives a step-by-step guideline on how to obtain reliable field measurement results to be used in conjunction with link budget analyses, laboratory measurements, and simulations. A survey of potential European coexistence scenarios and regulatory status is given to determine feasible future use scenarios for the UHF television (TV broadcasting band. The DTT reception system behavior and performance are also described as they greatly affect the amount of spectrum potentially available for MBB use and determine the relevant coexistence field measurement scenarios. Simulation methods used in determining broadcast protection criteria and in coexistence studies are briefly described to demonstrate how the information obtained from field measurements can be used to improve their accuracy. The presented field measurement guidelines can be applied to any DTT-MBB coexistence scenarios and to a wide range of spectrum sharing and cognitive radio system coexistence measurements.

  1. Measurement of innovation in South Africa: An analysis of survey metrics and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso T. Manzini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The National System of Innovation (NSI is an important construct in South Africa’s policy discourse as illustrated in key national planning initiatives, such as the National Development Plan. The country’s capacity to innovate is linked to the prospects for industrial development leading to social and economic growth. Proper measurement of innovation activity is therefore crucial for policymaking. In this study, a constructive analytical critique of the innovation surveys that are conducted in South Africa is presented, the case for broadening current perspectives of innovation in the national policy discourse is reinforced, the significance of a broad perspective of innovation is demonstrated and new metrics for use in the measurement of the performance of the NSI are proposed. Current NSI survey instruments lack definition of non-technological innovation. They emphasise inputs rather than outputs, lack regional and sectoral analyses, give limited attention to innovation diffusion and are susceptible to respondent interpretation. Furthermore, there are gaps regarding the wider conditions of innovation and system linkages and learning. In order to obtain a comprehensive assessment of innovation in South Africa, there is a need to sharpen the metrics for measuring non-technological innovation and to define, account for and accurately measure the ‘hidden’ innovations that drive the realisation of value in management, the arts, public service and society in general. The new proposed indicators, which are mostly focused on innovation outputs, can be used as a basis for plugging the gaps identified in the existing surveys.

  2. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Survey (VIPERS). First Data Release of 57 204 spectroscopic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Fumana, M.; Granett, B. R.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present the first Public Data Release (PDR-1) of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Survey (VIPERS). It comprises 57 204 spectroscopic measurements together with all additional information necessary for optimal scientific exploitation of the data, in particular the associated photometric measurements and quantification of the photometric and survey completeness. VIPERS is an ESO Large Programme designed to build a spectroscopic sample of ≃100 000 galaxies with iAB accessing the data through the survey database (http://vipers.inaf.it) where all information can be queried interactively. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://vipers.inaf.it/

  3. Indirect Distance Measuring as Applied upon both Connecting Surveys and Orientation One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Černota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As per Regulation of the Czech Mining Office Board No. 435/1992 of Law Digest, in wording of later rulings, there is a dutyto survey any and all mining workings in the state reference system of S-JTSK type. Tasks for both connecting and orientation surveyson the Earth’s surface are to identify the end point position for the plummet segment and especially to identify their bearing. Connectingthe horizon in the mine plays a role in transferring the coordinate values from said plummet segment to the points ensuring the basicorientation line of the connected mine working. Distance measurement is done by means of survey compared tape. Time demandand difficultness in organizing the works represent a disadvantage of this standard solution. Connecting and Orientation measuringmight be executed such a way, that end point coordinates for plummeted segment both on the surface and underground ones areidentified thru the total station using the surveying omnidirectional prism inserted coaxially above said plumb lob. Then, distances arenot measured using the survey tape, but by means of electronic optical distance meters.

  4. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  5. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Snow measurement system for airborne snow surveys (GPR system from helicopter) in high mountian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, Hilleborg K.

    2010-05-01

    In the hydropower industry, it is important to have precise information about snow deposits at all times, to allow for effective planning and optimal use of the water. In Norway, it is common to measure snow density using a manual method, i.e. the depth and weight of the snow is measured. In recent years, radar measurements have been taken from snowmobiles; however, few energy supply companies use this method operatively - it has mostly been used in connection with research projects. Agder Energi is the first Norwegian power producer in using radar tecnology from helicopter in monitoring mountain snow levels. Measurement accuracy is crucial when obtaining input data for snow reservoir estimates. Radar screening by helicopter makes remote areas more easily accessible and provides larger quantities of data than traditional ground level measurement methods. In order to draw up a snow survey system, it is assumed as a basis that the snow distribution is influenced by vegetation, climate and topography. In order to take these factors into consideration, a snow survey system for fields in high mountain areas has been designed in which the data collection is carried out by following the lines of a grid system. The lines of this grid system is placed in order to effectively capture the distribution of elevation, x-coordinates, y-coordinates, aspect, slope and curvature in the field. Variation in climatic conditions are also captured better when using a grid, and dominant weather patterns will largely be captured in this measurement system.

  7. French citizens monitoring ordinary birds provide tools for conservation and ecological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Julliard, Romain; Couvet, Denis

    2012-10-01

    Volunteer-based standardized monitoring of birds has been widely implemented in Europe and North America. In France, a breeding bird survey is running since 1989 and offers keen birdwatchers to count spring birds annually during 5 min exactly on 10 fix points within a randomly selected square. The first goal of such breeding bird surveys is to measure temporal trends in order to detect possible species declines. Combining annual indices of species sharing ecological affinities or a protected/red list status further provides biodiversity indicators for policy makers. Because the sampling effort is similar among sites, and because the initial selection of monitored sites is random, the temporal trends can be considered representative of national trends, and spatial comparisons of the obtained metrics are possible. Species abundance, community richness but also community specialization and average trophic level can be estimated for each site and each year and further related to the wide range of habitat and landscape characteristics and to agricultural or forestry practices. The large number of sites allows overcoming the opposition between adaptive and passive monitoring, making such schemes fitted to adaptive monitoring. This provides opportunities to determine which type of management or practices favour biodiversity. The comparison of population fate or community dynamics across a wide range of climates and temperatures, e.g. from southern to northern Europe, revealed how European birds are already affected by climate change. Bird communities are shifting northwards, but at a slower rate than temperatures, while bird populations have larger growth rates away from their hot thermal limit. Finally, such large-scale long-term monitoring data on a complete taxonomic group (Aves) is original and offers the opportunity to compare different measures of biological diversity, such as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity. Such a citizen science scheme is an

  8. Cranial kinesis in palaeognathous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Bout, Ron G

    2005-09-01

    Cranial kinesis in birds is induced by muscles located caudal on the cranium. These forces are transferred onto the moveable parts of the skull via the Pterygoid-Palatinum Complex (PPC). This bony structure therefore plays an essential role in cranial kinesis. In palaeognathous birds the morphology of the PPC is remarkably different from that of neognathous birds and is thought to be related to the specific type of cranial kinesis in palaeognaths known as central rhynchokinesis. We determined whether clear bending zones as found in neognaths are present in the upper bill of paleognaths, and measured bending forces opposing elevation of the upper bill. A static force model was used to calculate the opening forces that can be produced by some of the palaeognathous species. We found that no clear bending zones are present in the upper bill, and bending is expected to occur over the whole length of the upper bill. Muscle forces are more than sufficient to overcome bending forces and to elevate the upper bill. The resistance against bending by the bony elements alone is very low, which might indicate that bending of bony elements can occur during food handling when muscles are not used to stabilise the upper bill. Model calculations suggest that the large processi basipterygoidei play a role in stabilizing the skull elements, when birds have to resist external opening forces on the upper bill as might occur during tearing leafs from plants. We conclude that the specific morphology of the palaeognathous upper bill and PPC are not designed for active cranial kinesis, but are adapted to resist external forces that might cause unwanted elevation of the upper bill during feeding.

  9. The blood donor identity survey: a multidimensional measure of blood donor motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Janis L; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H

    2014-08-01

    Evidence indicates that donor identity is an important predictor of donation behavior; however, prior studies have relied on diverse, unidimensional measures with limited psychometric support. The goals of this study were to examine the application of self-determination theory to blood donor motivations and to develop and validate a related multidimensional measure of donor identity. Items were developed and administered electronically to a sample of New York Blood Center (NYBC) donors (n=582) and then to a sample of Ohio University students (n=1005). Following initial confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the NYBC sample to identify key items related to self-determination theory's six motivational factors, a revised survey was administered to the university sample to reexamine model fit and to assess survey reliability and validity. Consistent with self-determination theory, for both samples CFAs indicated that the best fit to the data was provided by a six-motivational-factor model, including amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic regulation. The Blood Donor Identity Survey provides a psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of donor motivations (ranging from unmotivated to donate to increasing levels of autonomous motivation to donate) that is suitable for nondonors as well as donors with varying levels of experience. Future research is needed to examine longitudinal changes in donor identity and its relationship to actual donation behavior. © 2014 AABB.

  10. Documentation of the U.S. Geological Survey Oceanographic Time-Series Measurement Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Martini, Marinna A.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Butman, Bradford

    2008-01-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Oceanographic Time-Series Data Collection (previously named the USGS Oceanographic Time-Series Measurement Database) contains oceanographic observations made as part of studies designed to increase understanding of sediment transport processes and associated dynamics. Analysis of these data has contributed to more accurate prediction of the movement and fate of sediments and other suspended materials in the coastal ocean. The measurements were collected primarily by investigators at the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) and colleagues, beginning in 1975. Most of the field experiments were carried out on the U.S. continental shelf and slope.

  11. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2016-01-01

    responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......-squares linear regression models were developed, predicting objectively measured exposures from selected predictors in the questionnaire. RESULTS: A full prediction model based on age, gender, body mass index, job group, self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA), and self-reported occupational sedentary...

  12. Measuring patient safety culture in Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen I-Chi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is a critical component to the quality of health care. As health care organizations endeavour to improve their quality of care, there is a growing recognition of the importance of establishing a culture of patient safety. In this research, the authors use the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC questionnaire to assess the culture of patient safety in Taiwan and attempt to provide an explanation for some of the phenomena that are unique in Taiwan. Methods The authors used HSOPSC to measure the 12 dimensions of the patient safety culture from 42 hospitals in Taiwan. The survey received 788 respondents including physicians, nurses, and non-clinical staff. This study used SPSS 15.0 for Windows and Amos 7 software tools to perform the statistical analysis on the survey data, including descriptive statistics and confirmatory factor analysis of the structural equation model. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSOPSC survey was 64%, slightly higher than the average positive response rate for the AHRQ data (61%. The results showed that hospital staff in Taiwan feel positively toward patient safety culture in their organization. The dimension that received the highest positive response rate was "Teamwork within units", similar to the results reported in the US. The dimension with the lowest percentage of positive responses was "Staffing". Statistical analysis showed discrepancies between Taiwan and the US in three dimensions, including "Feedback and communication about error", "Communication openness", and "Frequency of event reporting". Conclusions The HSOPSC measurement provides evidence for assessing patient safety culture in Taiwan. The results show that in general, hospital staffs in Taiwan feel positively toward patient safety culture within their organization. The existence of discrepancies between the US data and the Taiwanese data

  13. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenda Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile, but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones. Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  14. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenda, Grzegorz; Uznański, Andrzej; Strach, Michał; Lewińska, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile), but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones). Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  15. Measuring oral health self perceptions as part of a concise patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, M; Burke, F J T; Matthews, R; Cyrta, J; Mullins, A

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the measurement of oral health self perceptions, as part of a concise patient survey, and to consider the potential value of including this aspect in survey instruments. In 2011, the data collected from 42,794 patients attending 276 practices participating in a voluntary accreditation programme patient survey were reviewed, with a particular emphasis on three oral health impact questions (OHIQs) included in the instrument. These three questions were about comfort (pain), function and dental appearance. Patient self perceptions of oral health varied with age. For each of the three OHIQs the percentage of patients reporting 'ideal' health fell with age to some extent, although for each of the OHIQs the percentage of patients reporting 'unacceptable' health remained below 3% and varied little with age. Statistically significant variations from the mean scores for these OHIQs were observed for some of the participating practices, which would not be explained by age variations in their patient sample alone. Patient surveys are a useful opportunity to elicit collective feedback from patients on self perceived oral health. When results are benchmarked they can inform practices, particularly when reviewed together with additional relevant data, of opportunities to develop clinical services to produce still higher standards of oral health and wellbeing for their patients.

  16. Competitiveness of firms, performance and customer orientation measures – empirical survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Klapalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to presents results from two empirical surveys concerning selected factors which can be connected to customer orientation, performance and competitiveness of firms. The purpose of the surveys was also to reveal potential differences between sectors arising from not only the different influences of internal but as well as external environment. A survey instrument was developed to analyse the relationship between several variables measuring customer orientation of surveyed firms and between these factors and level of financial performance. Several statistical methods were applied to analyse the data, specifically descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test using financial performance for clustering firms and for assessment of potential differences of customer orientation criteria evaluation and Spearman rank correlation coefficients to assess the linear bivariate relationship between customer orientation variables. The results of ANOVA show that only the innovativeness is distinctive distinguishing criteria in conformity with the indicators of financial prosperity and that there are some differences between companies from two groups of sectors within the managers’ perception of customer orientation criteria performance.

  17. Measuring coverage in MNCH: tracking progress in health for women and children using DHS and MICS household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancioglu, Attila; Arnold, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Household surveys are the primary data source of coverage indicators for children and women for most developing countries. Most of this information is generated by two global household survey programmes-the USAID-supported Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). In this review, we provide an overview of these two programmes, which cover a wide range of child and maternal health topics and provide estimates of many Millennium Development Goal indicators, as well as estimates of the indicators for the Countdown to 2015 initiative and the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. MICS and DHS collaborate closely and work through interagency processes to ensure that survey tools are harmonized and comparable as far as possible, but we highlight differences between DHS and MICS in the population covered and the reference periods used to measure coverage. These differences need to be considered when comparing estimates of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health indicators across countries and over time and we discuss the implications of these differences for coverage measurement. Finally, we discuss the need for survey planners and consumers of survey results to understand the strengths, limitations, and constraints of coverage measurements generated through household surveys, and address some technical issues surrounding sampling and quality control. We conclude that, although much effort has been made to improve coverage measurement in household surveys, continuing efforts are needed, including further research to improve and refine survey methods and analytical techniques.

  18. Measuring coverage in MNCH: tracking progress in health for women and children using DHS and MICS household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Hancioglu

    Full Text Available Household surveys are the primary data source of coverage indicators for children and women for most developing countries. Most of this information is generated by two global household survey programmes-the USAID-supported Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. In this review, we provide an overview of these two programmes, which cover a wide range of child and maternal health topics and provide estimates of many Millennium Development Goal indicators, as well as estimates of the indicators for the Countdown to 2015 initiative and the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. MICS and DHS collaborate closely and work through interagency processes to ensure that survey tools are harmonized and comparable as far as possible, but we highlight differences between DHS and MICS in the population covered and the reference periods used to measure coverage. These differences need to be considered when comparing estimates of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health indicators across countries and over time and we discuss the implications of these differences for coverage measurement. Finally, we discuss the need for survey planners and consumers of survey results to understand the strengths, limitations, and constraints of coverage measurements generated through household surveys, and address some technical issues surrounding sampling and quality control. We conclude that, although much effort has been made to improve coverage measurement in household surveys, continuing efforts are needed, including further research to improve and refine survey methods and analytical techniques.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of bird species diversity in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. C. Figueira

    Full Text Available Analysis of a three-year bird survey in the pantanal of Poconé revealed that most of the resident and seasonal birds are habitat generalists, using two or more habitats. In this study, previously sampled habitats were ranked in relation to species richness and stability (as measured by the ratio of seasonal to resident species. In all, nine habitats were grouped into three categories; results are as follows: 1 forests: more species-rich and more stable; 2 cerrado: intermediate levels; and 3 aquatic: less species-rich and less stable. The number of seasonal species remained relatively constant in forests throughout the year, while increasing in the other habitats during the dry season. The abundance of resident species seems to be related to species use of multiple habitats. Although many species were found to be habitat generalists, we discuss possible consequences of habitat loss and other human impacts on efforts to conserve this important bird community.

  20. Quantification of bird-to-bird and bird-to-human infections during 2013 novel H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Wu, Jianhong; Fang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Lou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    From February to May, 2013, 132 human avian influenza H7N9 cases were identified in China resulting in 37 deaths. We developed a novel, simple and effective compartmental modeling framework for transmissions among (wild and domestic) birds as well as from birds to human, to infer important epidemiological quantifiers, such as basic reproduction number for bird epidemic, bird-to-human infection rate and turning points of the epidemics, for the epidemic via human H7N9 case onset data and to acquire useful information regarding the bird-to-human transmission dynamics. Estimated basic reproduction number for infections among birds is 4.10 and the mean daily number of human infections per infected bird is 3.16*10-5 [3.08*10-5, 3.23*10-5]. The turning point of 2013 H7N9 epidemic is pinpointed at April 16 for bird infections and at April 9 for bird-to-human transmissions. Our result reveals very low level of bird-to-human infections, thus indicating minimal risk of widespread bird-to-human infections of H7N9 virus during the outbreak. Moreover, the turning point of the human epidemic, pinpointed at shortly after the implementation of full-scale control and intervention measures initiated in early April, further highlights the impact of timely actions on ending the outbreak. This is the first study where both the bird and human components of an avian influenza epidemic can be quantified using only the human case data.

  1. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  3. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  4. Development of measurement apparatus for high resolution electrical surveys; Komitsudo denki tansa sokuteiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Shiokawa, Y. [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchino, Y. [Cosmic Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the enforcement of the {rho}a-{rho}u survey method which is a type of high-density electrical survey, a multichannel resistivity measuring instrument has been developed. This instrument, in addition to the above, conducts resistivity tomography and various other kinds of high-density electrical survey. A potential produced by a low frequency rectangular current of 1Hz or lower outputted by the transmitter of this instrument is received and measured by the receiver connected to electrodes positioned at 100 or less locations. The receiver comprises a scanner that automatically switches from electrode to electrode, conditioner that processes signals, and controller. A transmitter of the standard design outputs a maximum voltage of 800V and maximum current of 2A, making a device suitable for probing 50 to several 100m-deep levels. The receiver is operated by a personal computer that the controller is provided with. The newly-developed apparatus succeeded in presenting high-precision images of the result of a {rho}a-{rho}u analysis for an apparent resistivity section and of the underground structure, verifying the high quality of the data collected by this apparatus. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Measures of large-scale structure in the CfA redshift survey slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lapparent, Valerie; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1991-01-01

    Variations of the counts-in-cells with cell size are used here to define two statistical measures of large-scale clustering in three 6 deg slices of the CfA redshift survey. A percolation criterion is used to estimate the filling factor which measures the fraction of the total volume in the survey occupied by the large-scale structures. For the full 18 deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, f is about 0.25 + or - 0.05. After removing groups with more than five members from two of the slices, variations of the counts in occupied cells with cell size have a power-law behavior with a slope beta about 2.2 on scales from 1-10/h Mpc. Application of both this statistic and the percolation analysis to simulations suggests that a network of two-dimensional structures is a better description of the geometry of the clustering in the CfA slices than a network of one-dimensional structures. Counts-in-cells are also used to estimate at 0.3 galaxy h-squared/Mpc the average galaxy surface density in sheets like the Great Wall.

  6. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  7. A portable UAV LIDAR system for coastal topographic surveys and sea surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Yeh, Sunny

    2017-04-01

    A light-weight UAV system for coastal topography and coastal sea surface measurements is developed. This system is based on techniques of a multirotor UAV, a light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an inertial measurement unit, and a real-time kinematic global navigation satellite system (RTK-GNSS). The synchronization and data recording are achieved using Labview. This system can be operated in a very low attitude flight within a range of 10m that can provide very high resolution of point cloud data. The performance of this system has been tested and calibrated with known targets. The vertical root-mean-square error is less than about 10 cm, depending on the flight height. Applications of the system, including coastal topographic surveys, tidal elevation measurement, wave measurements, and bottom roughness measurements are presented and discussed. The tide and wave measurements are compared with in-situ measurements using pressure sensors. The results of comparison suggest that this system is a useful tool to measure the sea surface elevation and topography. The challenges of applying this system are also discussed.

  8. Testing the Question-Behavior Effect of Self-Administered Surveys Measuring Youth Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briney, John S; Brown, Eric C; Kuklinski, Margaret R; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2017-09-29

    Concern that asking about a specific behavior could elicit that behavior is often cited as a reason that communities and schools should not administer surveys about youth drug use. In this study, we investigated if this question-behavior effect exists related to substance use. We examined if simply asking a student about their current drug use leads to an increase in drug use 1 year later. This study tests the validity of the question-behavior effect on youth drug use in a longitudinal panel of 2,002 elementary school students. The sample of students was drawn from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized test of the Communities That Care prevention system. If the prevalence of self-reported drug use in sixth grade in a sample surveyed in fifth and sixth grades was higher than in an accretion sample surveyed only in sixth grade, the difference could indicate a question-behavior effect. Results from logistic regression analyses did not provide any evidence of a question-behavior effect on 30-day or lifetime prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, inhalant, or marijuana use reported in sixth grade. Asking youth about drug use in a survey did not increase the rates of self-reported drug use measured 1 year later. The absence of evidence of a question-behavior effect should ease concerns of communities and schools when administering surveys asking youth about their drug use. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid Survey For Measuring The Level And Causes Of Maternal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of problem of maternal mortality in a given population? Objective: 1. To evolve a rapid survey methodology aimed at measuring maternal mortality ratio. 2. To find out the probable medical causes of maternal deaths and behavioural factors associated with them. Study Design: cross- sectional. Setting: Urban and rural areas of district Mohindergarh, Haryana. Participants: Members of families in which a maternal death had taken place in last 12 months. Sample size: All 275 deaths among women 15-44 years occurring in the district from 1st April 95 to 31st March 96. Study variables: Age, gravida, parity, literacy, caste, land holding, health care facilities, distance from health centers, mode of conveyance. Statistical Analysis: Rates and ratios. Results: Maternal mortality ratio was estimated to be 275 per 100,000 live births (298 rural and 82 urban. Major causes of death were â€" sepsis(30%, haemorrhage (21%, abortion(5%, eclampsia (3% and obstructed labour(3%. Twenty-nine causes of deaths occurred at home and 26% on way to hospital. Out of 59(93.7% cases who could avail medical consultation, 61% arranged it within five hours after onset of symptoms, and 78% availed two, 21% three, and 11% four consulations. The survey was completed in three months at a cost of Rs. 54,000. Recommendations: Such rapid surveys should be carried out periodically (every 4-5 years to monitor the progress in maternal health. Staff of heath deptt. Should be involved in carrying out these surveys. This will not only help in reducing cost of the survey but information about specific problems of maternal mortality in the area can be utilized by health staff for taking appropriate action to improve maternal health care.

  10. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  11. Behavior and spatial learning in radial mazes in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskacheva, M G

    2009-10-01

    This review addresses studies of spatial memory and learning in birds performed using the radial maze method. Descriptions of different versions of this test (standard and "giant" tunnel-type mazes, as well as unstructured "analogs") are described and the methodological problems of testing birds are discussed. Behavioral measures from birds and laboratory rats, as the "standard" system for radial maze studies, are compared. The characteristics of spatial learning in birds of different systematic groups (pigeons, tits, corvids, chickens, etc.) are compared. Particular attention is paid to studies addressing spatial memory in closely related bird species with different ecological features, in terms of the ability to hoard food and finding their hoards after prolonged time periods, as well as to the few reports of results from experiments with migrant birds and homing pigeons.

  12. Measuring the health of the Indian elderly: evidence from National Sample Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahal Ajay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparable health measures across different sets of populations are essential for describing the distribution of health outcomes and assessing the impact of interventions on these outcomes. Self-reported health (SRH is a commonly used indicator of health in household surveys and has been shown to be predictive of future mortality. However, the susceptibility of SRH to influence by individuals' expectations complicates its interpretation and undermines its usefulness. Methods This paper applies the empirical methodology of Lindeboom and van Doorslaer (2004 to investigate elderly health in India using data from the 52nd round of the National Sample Survey conducted in 1995-96 that includes both an SRH variable as well as a range of objective indicators of disability and ill health. The empirical testing was conducted on stratified homogeneous groups, based on four factors: gender, education, rural-urban residence, and region. Results We find that region generally has a significant impact on how women perceive their health. Reporting heterogeneity can arise not only from cut-point shifts, but also from differences in health effects by objective health measures. In contrast, we find little evidence of reporting heterogeneity due to differences in gender or educational status within regions. Rural-urban residence does matter in some cases. The findings are robust with different specifications of objective health indicators. Conclusions Our exercise supports the thesis that the region of residence is associated with different cut-points and reporting behavior on health surveys. We believe this is the first paper that applies the Lindeboom-van Doorslaer methodology to data on the elderly in a developing country, showing the feasibility of applying this methodology to data from many existing cross-sectional health surveys.

  13. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  14. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Julie A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Methods Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. Results In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. Conclusions The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence

  15. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Julie A; Clayton, Paula F; Dove, Cassandra; Funchess, Tanya; Jones, Ellen; Perveen, Ghazala; Skidmore, Brandon; Sutton, Victor; Worthington, Sarah; Baker, Elizabeth A; Deshpande, Anjali D; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-03-09

    While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM) to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA) to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability) in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence-based. The survey can serve as a valuable tool for other health

  16. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  17. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  18. The measurement invariance of job diagnostic survey (JDS) across three university student groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gomez, M.; Marin-Garcia, J.A.; Girado Omeara, M.

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to apply a multigroup confirmatory analysis to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of the adapted version of the Job Diagnosis Survey (JDS) as a measurement tool that analyses the relationship between the features of teaching methodologies with university students’ motivation and satisfaction across data collected on different degrees and academic years. Design/methodology/approach: Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using a multigroup structural equation model, using the program EQS 6.1 to test the invariance of the adapted version of JDS in a sample constituted by 535 student of a Spanish public university. The assessment of invariance included the levels of configural, metric, scalar, covariance and latent variables invariance. Several goodness-of-fit measures were assessed... (Author)

  19. Ghosts of Gone Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Linda

    2011-01-01

    GHOSTS OF GONE BIRDS is an ongoing art project dedicated to breathing life back into the birds we have lost – so we don’t lose anymore.\\ud \\ud After shows in Liverpool, London, Brighton and Swansea we have raised a creative army for conservation of over 200 artists, writers and musicians.\\ud \\ud Donations, plus a percentage of the profits from the sale of the original art and prints and 50% of the royalties from the book will go directly to help frontline conservation projects fighting to sav...

  20. Bird population density estimated from acoustic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Efford, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Many animal species are detected primarily by sound. Although songs, calls and other sounds are often used for population assessment, as in bird point counts and hydrophone surveys of cetaceans, there are few rigorous methods for estimating population density from acoustic data. 2. The problem has several parts - distinguishing individuals, adjusting for individuals that are missed, and adjusting for the area sampled. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) is a statistical methodology that addresses jointly the second and third parts of the problem. We have extended SECR to use uncalibrated information from acoustic signals on the distance to each source. 3. We applied this extension of SECR to data from an acoustic survey of ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla density in an eastern US deciduous forest with multiple four-microphone arrays. We modelled average power from spectrograms of ovenbird songs measured within a window of 0??7 s duration and frequencies between 4200 and 5200 Hz. 4. The resulting estimates of the density of singing males (0??19 ha -1 SE 0??03 ha-1) were consistent with estimates of the adult male population density from mist-netting (0??36 ha-1 SE 0??12 ha-1). The fitted model predicts sound attenuation of 0??11 dB m-1 (SE 0??01 dB m-1) in excess of losses from spherical spreading. 5.Synthesis and applications. Our method for estimating animal population density from acoustic signals fills a gap in the census methods available for visually cryptic but vocal taxa, including many species of bird and cetacean. The necessary equipment is simple and readily available; as few as two microphones may provide adequate estimates, given spatial replication. The method requires that individuals detected at the same place are acoustically distinguishable and all individuals vocalize during the recording interval, or that the per capita rate of vocalization is known. We believe these requirements can be met, with suitable field methods, for a significant

  1. Beached bird survey at Puale Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1989, an oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The spill resulting from this accident, known as the Exxon-Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS), released 43.9...

  2. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  3. Measuring determinants of career satisfaction of anesthesiologists: validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Anoushka M; Diaz, James H; Scher, Corey S; Beyl, Robbie A; Nair, Singh R; Kaye, Alan David

    2013-06-01

    To measure the parameter of job satisfaction among anesthesiologists. Survey instrument. Academic anesthesiology departments in the United States. 320 anesthesiologists who attended the annual meeting of the ASA in 2009 (95% response rate). The anonymous 50-item survey collected information on 26 independent demographic variables and 24 dependent ranked variables of career satisfaction among practicing anesthesiologists. Mean survey scores were calculated for each demographic variable and tested for statistically significant differences by analysis of variance. Questions within each domain that were internally consistent with each other within domains were identified by Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.7. P-values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Cronbach's alpha analysis showed strong internal consistency for 10 dependent outcome questions in the practice factor-related domain (α = 0.72), 6 dependent outcome questions in the peer factor-related domain (α = 0.71), and 8 dependent outcome questions in the personal factor-related domain (α = 0.81). Although age was not a variable, full-time status, early satisfaction within the first 5 years of practice, working with respected peers, and personal choice factors were all significantly associated with anesthesiologist job satisfaction. Improvements in factors related to job satisfaction among anesthesiologists may lead to higher early and current career satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PARAMETERS OF BEEF AND MILK CATTLE MEASURED WITH THE USE OF SURVEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata SITKOWSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine parameters related to cattles health and the environment in which they live in cowsheds oriented at beef and milk production. The study included 70 cattle breeders from the pilskie county, Wielkopolskie province. Twenty of the surveyed farmers produced milk, 31 beef, and 19 produced both. The majority of the surveyed farmers worked on family run farms: taking up the area of up to 50 ha and the with up to 50 animals. Approximately 70% of the surveyed farmers kept their animals tethered. Only more or less 40% declared they owned a designated isolation area. Automatic drinkers were, unsurprisingly, present mostly at farms where either milk or both milk and beef were produced (over 60%. Deworming was significantly more frequent on farms producing only beef (68.97%. Measurements of the intensity of harmful gases, airflow speed, humidity, and lighting intensity were conducted in only few cowsheds (up to 9% of the analysed. The results of our study point to greater need of education among farmers, and improving environmental conditions in which cattle are maintained.

  5. Development of a Conceptual Model and Survey Instrument to Measure Conscientious Objection to Abortion Provision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Florence Harris

    Full Text Available Conscientious objection to abortion, clinicians' refusal to perform legal abortions because of their religious or moral beliefs, has been the subject of increasing debate among bioethicists, policymakers, and public health advocates in recent years. Conscientious objection policies are intended to balance reproductive rights and clinicians' beliefs. However, in practice, clinician objection can act as a barrier to abortion access-impinging on reproductive rights, and increasing unsafe abortion and related morbidity and mortality. There is little information about conscientious objection from a medical or public health perspective. A quantitative instrument is needed to assess prevalence of conscientious objection and to provide insight on its practice. This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to measure conscientious objection to abortion provision.A literature review, and in-depth formative interviews with stakeholders in Colombia were used to develop a conceptual model of conscientious objection. This model led to the development of a survey, which was piloted, and then administered, in Ghana.The model posits three domains of conscientious objection that form the basis for the survey instrument: 1 beliefs about abortion and conscientious objection; 2 actions related to conscientious objection and abortion; and 3 self-identification as a conscientious objector.The instrument is intended to be used to assess prevalence among clinicians trained to provide abortions, and to gain insight on how conscientious objection is practiced in a variety of settings. Its results can inform more effective and appropriate strategies to regulate conscientious objection.

  6. Unusual feeding behaviors in five species of Barbadian birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Morand-Ferron, J.; Côté, I.; Lefebvre, L.

    2002-01-01

    Field reports of new or unusual feeding behaviors may provide a valuable measure of behavioral flexibility in both birds and primates (Lefebvre et al. 1997, Reader and Laland 2002). In birds, many of these new behaviors are observed on islands and in urbanized habitats. We report here several

  7. Some Alaska Peninsula bird notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The wandering bird lover if fortunate sometimes find himself in a bird paradise - such was my good luck last Spring when I landed in Stepovak Bay on the south side...

  8. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-01-01

    .... Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds...

  9. Measuring social exclusion in routine public health surveys: construction of a multidimensional instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Addi P L; Hoff, Stella J M; van Ameijden, Erik J C; van Hemert, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Social exclusion is considered a major factor in the causation and maintenance of health inequalities, but its measurement in health research is still in its infancy. In the Netherlands the Institute for Social Research (SCP) developed an instrument to measure the multidimensional concept of social exclusion in social and economic policy research. Here, we present a method to construct a similar measure of social exclusion using available data from public health surveys. Analyses were performed on data from the health questionnaires that were completed by 20,877 adults in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. From each of the four questionnaires we selected the items that corresponded to those of the SCP-instrument. These were entered into a nonlinear canonical correlation analysis. The measurement properties of the resulting indices and dimension scales were assessed and compared to the SCP-instrument. The internal consistency of the indices and most of the dimension scales were adequate and the internal structure of the indices was as expected. Both generalisabiliy and construct validity were good: in all datasets strong associations were found between the index and a number of known risk factors of social exclusion. A limitation of content validity was that the dimension "lack of normative integration" could not be measured, because no relevant items were available. Our findings indicate that a measure for social exclusion can be constructed with available health questionnaires. This provides opportunities for application in public health surveillance systems in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the world.

  10. Nonprobability Web surveys to measure sexual behaviors and attitudes in the general population: a comparison with a probability sample interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erens, Bob; Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J

    2014-12-08

    Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web panels provided appreciably biased estimates. The

  11. Nonprobability Web Surveys to Measure Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes in the General Population: A Comparison With a Probability Sample Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. Objective The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. Results For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Conclusions Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web

  12. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  13. ALMS Surveys 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Landbird Monitoring Survey (ALMS) program is a cooperative statewide program established to monitor population trends of landbirds and other birds across...

  14. ALMS Surveys 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Landbird Monitoring Survey (ALMS) program is a cooperative statewide program established to monitor population trends of landbirds and other birds across...

  15. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  16. Birds, behavior, and anatomical evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyles, J S; Kunkel, J.G.; Wilson, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    Study of more than 200 species suggests that the anatomical differences among birds are as big as those among other vertebrates of comparable taxonomic rank. The result is notable because, for more than 100 years, many biologists have believed that birds are more uniform anatomically than other classes of vertebrates. Furthermore, assessment of biochemical and geological evidence suggests that the time scale for bird evolution could be quite short. Hence, birds may share with placental mammal...

  17. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  18. [Anesthesia in birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F

    1987-01-01

    Anaesthesia in birds is ordered by law and is also necessary for various operations and manipulations. Anaesthesia by injection of Ketamin, which in special cases may be combined with Diazepam, has been found useful. Anaesthesia by inhalation with Halothan, Methoxyfluran or Isofluran is the most careful method. Local anaesthesia has few indications.

  19. Climate change impacts: birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, B.M.; Ramakers, J.J.C.; Gienapp, P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can affect populations and species in various ways. Rising temperatures can shift geographical distributions and lead to (phenotypic or genetic) changes in traits, mostly phenology, which may affect demography. Most of these effects are well documented in birds. For example, the

  20. Breeding Ecology of Birds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0022-0032. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory; coloniality; heronries. ecology; nesting strategies. Author Affiliations. Abdul Jamil Urfi1. Department of Environmental Biology, School of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007. Resonance – Journal of Science ...

  1. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Healthy Families and Flocks Pet Food Safety Trouble with Tiny Turtles Trouble with Tiny ... before purchase. Ask your veterinarian about the proper food, care, and enclosure or environment that is best for the bird you are ...

  2. Birds of Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Harriet

    Introducing students to different hawks and owls found in Wisconsin and building a basis for appreciation of these birds in their own environment is the purpose of this teacher's guide. Primarily geared for upper elementary and junior high grades, the concepts presented could be used in conjunction with the study of ecology. A filmstrip is…

  3. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings ...

  4. Bird community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrobus, T.J.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Barrow, W.C.; Hamel, P.B.; Wakeley, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Neotropical migrants are birds that breed in North America and winter primarily in Central and South America. Long-term population studies of birds in the Eastern United States indicated declines of some forest-dwelling birds, many of which winter in the Neotropics (Peterjohn and others 1995). These declines were attributed to loss of wintering and breeding habitat due to deforestation and fragmentation, respectively. Many species of Nearctic migrants--birds that breed in the northern regions of North America and winter in the Southern United States--are also experiencing population declines. Because large areas of undistrubed, older, bottomland hardwood forests oftern contain large numbers of habitat specialists, including forest-interior neotropical migrants and wintering Nearctic migrants, these forests may be critical in maintaining avian diversity. This study had two primary objectivs: (1) to create a baseline data set that can be used as a standard against which other bottomland hardwood forests can be compared, and (2) to establish long-term monitoring stations during both breeding and wintering seasons to discern population trends of avian species using bottomland hardwood forests.

  5. Using Christmas Bird Count data in analysis of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific credibility of Christmas Bird Count (CBC) results depend on the development and implementation of appropriate methods of statistical analysis. The key to any successful analysis of CBC data is to begin with a careful review of how the limitations of the data are likely to influence the results of the analysis, then to choose methods of analysis that accommodate as much as possible the limitations of the survey. For our analyses of CBC data, we develop a flexible model for effort adjustment and use information from the data to guide the selection of the best model. We include geographic structuring to accommodate the regional variation in number of samples, use a model that allows for overdispersed poisson data appropriate for counts, and employ empirical Bayes procedures to accommodate differences in quality of information in regional summaries. This generalized linear model approach is very flexible, and can be applied to a variety of studies focused on factors influencing wintering bird populations. In particular, the model can be easily modified to contain covariates, allowing for assessment of associations between CBC counts and winter weather, disturbance, and a variety of other environmental factors. These new survey analysis methods have added value in that they provide insights into changes in survey design that can enhance the value of the information. The CBC has been extremely successful as a tool for increasing public interest in birding and bird conservation. Use of the information for bird conservation creates new demands on quality of information, and it is important to maintain a dialogue between users of the information, information needs for the analyses, and survey coordinators and participants. Our work as survey analysts emphasizes the value and limitations of existing data, and provides some indications of what features of the survey could be modified to make the survey a more reliable source of bird population data. Surveys

  6. 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations: Report on Scales and Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ormerod, Alayne

    2003-01-01

    ...: Workplace and Gender Relations Survey (2002 WGR). This report describes advances from previous surveys and presents results on scale development as obtained from 19,960 respondents to this survey...

  7. Developing Spatially Explicit Habitat Models for Grassland Bird Conservation Planning in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal D. Niemuth; Michael E. Estey; Charles R. Loesch

    2005-01-01

    Conservation planning for birds is increasingly focused on landscapes. However, little spatially explicit information is available to guide landscape-level conservation planning for many species of birds. We used georeferenced 1995 Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data in conjunction with land-cover information to develop a spatially explicit habitat model predicting the...

  8. Birding--Fun and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article presents the basics of birding, or bird watching, and discusses its appeal, especially to serious birders. A section on "citizen scientists" explains organizations that collect data on birds and describes projects they organize. Other sections discuss the legacy of John James Audubon and the bald eagle.

  9. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  10. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Accuracy of Measuring Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Malaria from Household Surveys in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Thomas P.; Silumbe, Kafula; Yukich, Josh; Hamainza, Busiku; Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Miller, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess progress in the scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) across Africa, malaria control programs have increasingly relied on standardized national household surveys to determine the proportion of children with a fever in the past 2 wk who received an effective antimalarial within 1–2 d of the onset of fever. Here, the validity of caregiver recall for measuring the primary coverage indicators for malaria diagnosis and treatment of children malaria testing, diagnosis, and treatment, compared to a gold standard of direct observation at the health clinics. Compared to the gold standard of clinic observation, for recall for children with fever in the past 2 wk, the sensitivity for recalling that a finger/heel stick was done was 61.9%, with a specificity of 90.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of caregivers' recalling a positive malaria test result were 62.4% and 90.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of recalling that the child was given a malaria diagnosis, irrespective of whether a laboratory test was actually done, were 76.8% and 75.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for recalling that an ACT was given were 81.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Conclusions Based on these findings, results from household surveys should continue to be used for ascertaining the coverage of children with a fever in the past 2 wk that received an ACT. However, as recall of a malaria diagnosis remains suboptimal, its use in defining malaria treatment coverage is not recommended. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23667337

  11. Efficiency of the WFIRST Coronagraphic Survey based on Precursory Radial Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulz, Shannon D.; Crepp, Justin; Plavchan, Peter; Newman, Patrick; Stark, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We present our results and ongoing work studying how ground-based radial velocity systems can improve WFIRST planet detection and characterization efficiency. NASA's WFIRST mission will have the ability to characterize exoplanets via direct detection from space. By the time the mission is readied for launch in the mid 2020s, there will exist extensive data sets that provide precursory ground-based radial velocity measurements from a multitude of instruments. Such observations could presumably impact the efficiency of the high-contrast imaging system's ability to detect the signal of faint exoplanets, by providing time series measurements that both identify promising targets and establish orbital constraints for known planets. We are developing a suite of simulation tools to quantify the impact that such data sets will have on the mission. Populating nearby stars with synthetic planets based on the observed demographics of planetary systems, we simulate a ground-based radial velocity survey and WFIRST imaging follow-up.

  12. Interferometric study on birds' feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

    2013-05-01

    Optical techniques such as speckle pattern interferometry are well known in the nondestructive testing measurement community. They can be used, for instance, as a predictor of the mechanical behavior of a sample under study. However, in almost all circumstances, a mathematical model has to be applied in order to make sense of these measurements. This is a critical issue when an organic sample is studied, mainly due to its complex deformation response. A good example of this is observed in the birds' feathers. They have extraordinary mechanical and aerodynamic properties thanks to their stiffness and lightness. A couple of live birds are safely situated in front of an out-of-plane sensitive digital holographic interferometer (DHI), an optical system capable of recovering the optical phase in this type of nonrepeatable or unpredictable experiment. In order to recover the backscattering signal and its interferometric response, several images are recorded from different sections of the plumage. Displacement maps are obtained from what is, as far as is known, the first time that full field microdisplacement maps are presented over a hummingbird and a parakeet plumage.

  13. [Measurement of socioeconomic status in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T; Kroll, L; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H

    2013-05-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) constitutes a central analysis category of epidemiological research and health reporting. As part of the German cardiovascular disease prevention study 1984-1991, a multi-dimensional aggregated index was developed for the purpose of measuring SES. This index continues to be used in numerous studies to this day. For the purpose of health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the index was fundamentally revised following critical assessment. This article describes the basic concepts underlying the revision and how they were implemented in relation to the "German health interview and examination survey for adults" (DEGS1). In addition, the results of the age and sex-specific distribution of the values of the revised SES index and those relating to the connection with other measurements of socioeconomic status are reported. The results are based on the data of DEGS1 2012 and the German national health interview and examination survey 1998 (GNHIES98). An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  14. Validation of the survey of work styles: a profile measure of the type A behaviour pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A; Jackson, D N; Howard, J H

    1989-01-01

    The present study compares the Type A classification accuracy of the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), The Framingham Type A Scale, and a new Type A behaviour pattern (TABP) measure. The Survey of Work Styles (SWS), a self-report measure of the TABP, was developed using a construct approach to scale construction. It consists of six content scales. Impatience, Anger, Work Involvement, Time Urgency, Job Dissatisfaction and Competitiveness. In addition to the six content scales, a seventh scale, Scale A, is comprised of items empirically selected to relate to the Rosenman Structured Interview. In the present study the SWS was found to be significantly related to both the JAS, and the Framingham Type A Scale in a sample of 163 business managers. Median reliability of the SWS subscales was 0.82, and for the total scale 0.90. Discriminant function analysis using cross validational jackknifing procedures resulted in a classification accuracy of 83% of the Type A managers in relation to the Structured Interview. Classification using the SWS was found to correlate significantly higher with the Structured Interview than did either classification with the JAS or with the Framingham Type A Scale. Modal profile analysis yielded three independent bipolar typal dimensions, indicating that a single dimension or classification of the TABP represents an oversimplification of a complex behaviour pattern. These results support the reconceptualization of the TABP in terms of distinct facets and profile patterns.

  15. Improving public health preparedness capacity measurement: development of the local health department preparedness capacities assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary V; Mays, Glen P; Bellamy, James; Bevc, Christine A; Marti, Cammie

    2013-12-01

    To address limitations in measuring the preparedness capacities of health departments, we developed and tested the Local Health Department Preparedness Capacities Assessment Survey (PCAS). Preexisting instruments and a modified 4-cycle Delphi panel process were used to select instrument items. Pilot test data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. Kappa statistics were calculated to examine rater agreement within items. The final instrument was fielded with 85 North Carolina health departments and a national matched comparison group of 248 health departments. Factor analysis identified 8 initial domains: communications, surveillance and investigation, plans and protocols, workforce and volunteers, legal infrastructure, incident command, exercises and events, and corrective action. Kappa statistics and z scores indicated substantial to moderate agreement among respondents in 7 domains. Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.605 for legal infrastructure to 0.929 for corrective action. Mean scores and standard deviations were also calculated for each domain and ranged from 0.41 to 0.72, indicating sufficient variation in the sample to detect changes over time. The PCAS is a useful tool to determine how well health departments are performing on preparedness measures and identify opportunities for future preparedness improvements. Future survey implementation will incorporate recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Preparedness Capabilities: National Standards for State and Local Planning.

  16. Developing and testing a new measure of staff nurse clinical leadership: the clinical leadership survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Allison; Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Wong, Carol; Finegan, Joan

    2011-05-01

    To test the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of staff nurse clinical leadership derived from Kouzes and Posner's model of transformational leadership. While nurses have been recognized for their essential role in keeping patients safe, there has been little empirical research that has examined clinical leadership at the staff nurse level.   A non-experimental survey design was used to test the psychometric properties of the clinical leadership survey (CLS). Four hundred and eighty registered nurses (RNs) providing direct patient care in Ontario acute care hospitals returned useable questionnaires.   Confirmatory factor analysis provided preliminary evidence for the construct validity for the new measure of staff nurse clinical leadership. Structural empowerment fully mediated the relationship between nursing leadership and staff nurse clinical leadership. The results provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity of the CLS. Nursing administrators must create empowering work environments to ensure staff nurses have access to work structures which enable them to enact clinical leadership behaviours while providing direct patient care. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Blood Donation Ambivalence Survey: measuring conflicting attitudes about giving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K R; Himawan, L K; France, C R

    2017-05-18

    This study was designed to develop and conduct initial validation testing for a novel measure of ambivalence about donating blood. Previous studies of living organ, bone marrow and stem cell donors have identified donation-related ambivalence as a predictor of decisions about donation and post-donation outcomes. Ambivalence about blood donation has not received the same attention. In Study 1, a sample of young adults (N = 396) were administered test items of ambivalence, and exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to identify the Blood Donation Ambivalence Survey. In Study 2, a separate sample of young adults (N = 241) completed the Blood Donation Ambivalence Survey in addition to questionnaires assessing known predictors of blood donation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a two-factor structure reflecting commitment to donating blood and indecision about giving blood. The commitment subscale was positively related to known predictors of increased donation behaviour (e.g. donation intention, self-efficacy), whereas the indecision subscale was positively related to known predictors of decreased donation behaviour (e.g. donation anxiety, negative affect). Furthermore, a history of blood donation was associated with greater commitment and less indecision. The present findings provide strong initial support for the reliability and validity of a novel measure of blood donor ambivalence. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  19. The measurement invariance of job diagnostic survey (JDS across three university student groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Martinez-Gomez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to apply a multigroup confirmatory analysis to examine the measurement invariance (MI of the adapted version of the Job Diagnosis Survey (JDS as a measurement tool that analyses the relationship between the features of teaching methodologies with university students’ motivation and satisfaction across data collected on different degrees and academic years. Design/methodology/approach: Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using a multigroup structural equation model, using the program EQS 6.1 to test the invariance of the adapted version of JDS in a sample constituted by 535 student of a Spanish public university. The assessment of invariance included the levels of configural, metric, scalar, covariance and latent variables invariance. Several goodness-of-fit measures were assessed. Findings: The results show that measurements are equivalent at the configural, metric, covariance and latent factors invariance. Although the hypotheses of scalar invariance is rejected, results suggest that JDS is partial strict invariant and has satisfactory psychometric properties on all samples. Research limitations/implications: The sample is framed in university students aged between 18 and 30 and for a questionnaire on teaching methodology and students' satisfaction in the context of a Spanish university and the generalization to other questionnaire, or population, should be proved with specific data. Furthermore, the sample size is rather small. Originality/value: In the current process of change that is taking place in universities according to the plan developed by the European Space of Higher Education, focused on increasing the student skills, validate instruments as the satisfaction scale of JDS, are necessary to evaluate students’ satisfaction with new active methodologies. These findings are useful for researchers since they add the first sample in which the MI of a student’s satisfaction survey

  20. Improved characterisation and modelling of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Chak-Hau Michael; Kuras, Oliver; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Graham, James; Sherlock, Emma F.; Binley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Measurement errors can play a pivotal role in geophysical inversion. Most inverse models require users to prescribe or assume a statistical model of data errors before inversion. Wrongly prescribed errors can lead to over- or under-fitting of data; however, the derivation of models of data errors is often neglected. With the heightening interest in uncertainty estimation within hydrogeophysics, better characterisation and treatment of measurement errors is needed to provide improved image appraisal. Here we focus on the role of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We have analysed two time-lapse ERT datasets: one contains 96 sets of direct and reciprocal data collected from a surface ERT line within a 24 h timeframe; the other is a two-year-long cross-borehole survey at a UK nuclear site with 246 sets of over 50,000 measurements. Our study includes the characterisation of the spatial and temporal behaviour of measurement errors using autocorrelation and correlation coefficient analysis. We find that, in addition to well-known proportionality effects, ERT measurements can also be sensitive to the combination of electrodes used, i.e. errors may not be uncorrelated as often assumed. Based on these findings, we develop a new error model that allows grouping based on electrode number in addition to fitting a linear model to transfer resistance. The new model explains the observed measurement errors better and shows superior inversion results and uncertainty estimates in synthetic examples. It is robust, because it groups errors together based on the electrodes used to make the measurements. The new model can be readily applied to the diagonal data weighting matrix widely used in common inversion methods, as well as to the data covariance matrix in a Bayesian inversion framework. We demonstrate its application using extensive ERT monitoring datasets from the two aforementioned sites.

  1. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development’s attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more

  2. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  3. Survey Instruments to Assess Patient Experiences With Access and Coordination Across Health Care Settings: Available and Needed Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Martha; Robinson, Claire; Forman, Jane; Krein, Sarah L; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2017-07-01

    Improving access can increase the providers a patient sees, and cause coordination challenges. For initiatives that increase care across health care settings, measuring patient experiences with access and care coordination will be crucial. Map existing survey measures of patient experiences with access and care coordination expected to be relevant to patients accessing care across settings. Preliminarily examine whether aspects of access and care coordination important to patients are represented by existing measures. Structured literature review of domains and existing survey measures related to access and care coordination across settings. Survey measures, and preliminary themes from semistructured interviews of 10 patients offered VA-purchased Community Care, were mapped to identified domains. We identified 31 existing survey instruments with 279 items representing 6 access and 5 care coordination domains relevant to cross-system care. Domains frequently assessed by existing measures included follow-up coordination, primary care access, cross-setting coordination, and continuity. Preliminary issues identified in interviews, but not commonly assessed by existing measures included: (1) acceptability of distance to care site given patient's clinical situation; (2) burden on patients to access and coordinate care and billing; (3) provider familiarity with Veteran culture and VA processes. Existing survey instruments assess many aspects of patient experiences with access and care coordination in cross-system care. Systems assessing cross-system care should consider whether patient surveys accurately reflect the level of patients' concerns with burden to access and coordinate care, and adequately reflect the impact of clinical severity and cultural familiarity on patient preferences.

  4. Pathology of mycobacteriosis in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H L; Palmieri, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Avian mycobacteriosis is a disease that affects companion, captive exotic, wild, and domestic birds. The disease in birds is generally caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp avium but more than 10 other species of mycobacteria infect birds. Oral route of infection appears to be the primary mode of transmission. In some cases, the extensive involvement of the respiratory system suggests an airborne mode of transmission. Molecular diagnostic techniques have improved the ability to confirm the disease. Avian mycobacteriosis is an important veterinary and economic risk in birds and mammals. Exposure of humans to infected birds may cause a zoonotic infection.

  5. The role of community participation in the control of bird hazards at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of measures to prevent bird hazards from occurring. One of the most important methods of bird hazard control involves participation of local communities around the airport. This paper illustrates the different ways in which the airport works with the community to control bird collisions with aircraft at Entebbe International ...

  6. The effects of climate change on terrestrial birds of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David King; Deborah M. Finch

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of avian responses to climate change is of interest for a number of reasons. First, because birds are relatively easy to identify and measure and their responses to environmental perturbation are relatively well known, they are useful as indicators of ecological change (1). Furthermore, birds are of conservation interest in their own right. Bird...

  7. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, A. J.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; de la Torre, S.; Garilli, B.; Bolzonella, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Percival, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    We aim to develop a novel methodology for measuring thegrowth rate of structure around cosmic voids. We identified voids in the completed VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres. We measured the cross-correlation between the centres of voids and the complete galaxy catalogue. The cross-correlation function exhibits a clear anisotropy in both VIPERS fields (W1 and W4), which is characteristic of linear redshift space distortions. By measuring the projected cross-correlation and then de-projecting it we are able to estimate the un-distorted cross-correlation function. We propose that given a sufficiently well-measured cross-correlation function one should be able to measure the linear growth rate of structure by applying a simple linear Gaussian streaming model for the redshift space distortions (RSD). Our study of voids in 306 mock galaxy catalogues mimicking the VIPERS fields suggests that VIPERS is capable of measuring β, the ratio of the linear growth rate to the bias, with an error of around 25%. Applying our method to the VIPERS data, we find a value for the redshift space distortion parameter, β = 0.423-0.108+0.104 which, given the bias of the galaxy population we use, gives a linear growth rate of f σ8 = 0.296-0.078+0.075 at z = 0.727. These results are consistent with values observed in parallel VIPERS analyses that use standard techniques. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in

  8. five_min_grid of marine bird density data off central CA, 1980-2001, from the CDAS central CA data set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A shapefile of five minute grids with summary information on at-sea bird surveys from 1980-2001. Bird densities by ocean season, by species.

  9. Conserving the birds of Uganda's Banana-Coffee Arc: Land Sparing and Land Sharing Compared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulme, Mark F.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing...... (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species...... and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as "winners" (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or "losers" (total population sometimes or always reduced...

  10. Classification of Birds and Bats Using Flight Tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; Matzner, Shari; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2015-05-01

    Classification of birds and bats that use areas targeted for offshore wind farm development and the inference of their behavior is essential to evaluating the potential effects of development. The current approach to assessing the number and distribution of birds at sea involves transect surveys using trained individuals in boats or airplanes or using high-resolution imagery. These approaches are costly and have safety concerns. Based on a limited annotated library extracted from a single-camera thermal video, we provide a framework for building models that classify birds and bats and their associated behaviors. As an example, we developed a discriminant model for theoretical flight paths and applied it to data (N = 64 tracks) extracted from 5-min video clips. The agreement between model- and observer-classified path types was initially only 41%, but it increased to 73% when small-scale jitter was censored and path types were combined. Classification of 46 tracks of bats, swallows, gulls, and terns on average was 82% accurate, based on a jackknife cross-validation. Model classification of bats and terns (N = 4 and 2, respectively) was 94% and 91% correct, respectively; however, the variance associated with the tracks from these targets is poorly estimated. Model classification of gulls and swallows (N ≥ 18) was on average 73% and 85% correct, respectively. The models developed here should be considered preliminary because they are based on a small data set both in terms of the numbers of species and the identified flight tracks. Future classification models would be greatly improved by including a measure of distance between the camera and the target.

  11. Urinary bisphenol A and obesity in adults: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh T. Do

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and promote weight gain in animal studies. Recent epidemiological studies also support a link between BPA and obesity in human populations, although many were limited to a single adiposity measure or have not considered potential confounding by dietary factors. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between urinary BPA and adiposity measures in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Methods: We performed analyses using biomonitoring and directly measured anthropometric data from 4733 adults aged 18 to 79 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2011. We used multinomial and binary logistic regression models to estimate associations of urinary BPA with body mass index (BMI categories (overweight vs. under/normal weight; obesity vs. under/normal weight and elevated waist circumference (males: ≥ 102 cm; females: ≥ 88 cm, respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Linear regression analyses were also performed to assess associations between urinary BPA and continuous BMI and waist circumference measures. Results: Urinary BPA was positively associated with BMI-defined obesity, with an odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002–2.37 in the highest (vs. lowest BPA quartile (test for trend, p = .041. Urinary BPA was not associated with elevated waist circumference defined using standard cut-offs. Additionally, each natural-log unit increase in urinary BPA concentration was associated with a 0.33 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.10–0.57 increase in BMI and a 1.00 cm (95% CI: 0.34–1.65 increase in waist circumference. Conclusion: Our study contributes to the growing body of evidence that BPA is positively associated with obesity. Prospective studies with repeated measures are needed to address temporality and improve exposure classification.

  12. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. © 2015 L. A. Corwin et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Measuring the impact of information skills training: a survey of health libraries in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, Stephen; Barbrook, John; Engel, Colin; Lacey, Patricia; Phul, Anita; Stevenson, Paul; Toft, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    The lack of robust research measuring the impact of NHS based information skills training prompted the West Midlands Regional Trainers' Forum to conduct a post-training survey. This is a multi-centred study which collected data from over 60 separate organisations. Survey questionnaires were completed by learners a few weeks after the training event. Five hundred and thirty-four responses were received. 82% of information skills training recipients indicated that they had implemented learning or changed practice as a result of the training. 70% of recipients indicated there had been an impact on patient care. The beneficial results from information skills training manifest in a multitude of ways. The results of this study indicate that the learning from information skills training is being used to reduce problems and address the key issues in modern health care. The results clearly demonstrate the value of information skills training and its beneficial impact on patient care, lifelong learning and other key NHS functions. This study shows information skills training as an important activity which supports the information literacy agenda, and has a positive impact across the four key functions of library and knowledge services within the NHS. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  14. Preussag CNC survey simulator - a keystone for high precision drill measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnacker, H.; Boehne, E.

    1988-09-01

    Current efforts to discover and exploit existing hydrocarbon deposits demand increasingly greater precision in directional drilling technology. A computer controlled, 3-dimensionally rotatable calibration and simulation system which can artifically heat probes under test has been developed. It is used to measure the accuracy of and to provide the calibration for the probe sensor system. Further, the system provides for a simulation of the complete environmental conditions encountered in an actual borehole survey. The rotatable device is constructed of non-magnetic materials and is capable of obtaining an accuracy of 0.02/sup 0/ for inclination, azimuth, and toolface angles with a reproducability of 0.006/sup 0/ and a 0.002/sup 0/ resolution. The programmed computer automatically and dynamically obtains and stores the determined sensor errors. The residual error of calculated angles simultaneously using temperature and spatial correction data thus was reduced to the limit caused by the resolution of the data telemetry system. After the calibration, a real-time error analysis procedure using a certified survey-simulation program is performed; simulation of temperatures normally encountered during drilling operations are dynamically performed for all drilling angles up to 150/sup 0/C, and performed statically up to 250/sup 0/C.

  15. Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh eForouzan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs explained by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health care system of Tehran. Utilising the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Autonomy, quality of basic amenities and clear communication were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  16. A measurement of the faint source correlation function in the GOODS and UDF surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganson, Eric; Blandford, Roger

    2009-09-01

    We present a stable procedure for defining and measuring the two point angular autocorrelation function, w(θ) = [θ/θ0(V)]-Γ, of faint (25 < V < 29), barely resolved and unresolved sources in the Hubble Space Telescope Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and Ultra Deep Field data sets. We construct catalogues that include close pairs and faint detections. We show, for the first time, that, on subarcsec scales, the correlation function exceeds unity. This correlation function is well fit by a power law with index Γ ~ 2.5 and a θ0 = 10-0.1(V-25.8) arcsec. This is very different from the values of Γ ~ 0.7 and θ0(r) = 10-0.4(r-21.5) arcsec associated with the gravitational clustering of brighter galaxies. This observed clustering probably reflects the presence of giant star-forming regions within galactic-scale potential wells. Its measurement enables a new approach to measuring the redshift distribution of the faintest sources in the sky.

  17. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  18. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. I. Spectral Measurements, Derived Quantities, and AGN Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Berney, Simon; Schawinski, Kevin; Baloković, Mislav; Baronchelli, Linda; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Fischer, Travis; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Hogg, Drew; Ichikawa, Kohei; Masetti, Nicola; Mushotzky, Richard; Sartori, Lia; Stern, Daniel; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    We present the first catalog and data release of the Swift-BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We analyze optical spectra of the majority of the detected AGNs (77%, 642/836)based on their 14–195 keV emission in the 70-month Swift-BAT all-sky catalog. This includes redshift determination, absorption and emission-line measurements, and black hole mass and accretion rate estimates for the majority of obscured and unobscured AGNs (74%, 473/642), with 340 measured for the first time. With ˜90% of sources at zlines show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration (˜94%), such that Sy 1–1.8 have {N}{{H}} {10}21.9 cm‑2. Seyfert 1.9, however, show a range of column densities. Compared to narrow-line AGNs in the SDSS, the X-ray-selected AGNs have a larger fraction of dusty host galaxies ({{H}}α /{{H}}β > 5), suggesting that these types of AGN are missed in optical surveys. Using the [O III] λ5007/Hβ and [N II] λ6583/Hα emission-line diagnostic, about half of the sources are classified as Seyferts; ˜15% reside in dusty galaxies that lack an Hβ detection, but for which the upper limits on line emission imply either a Seyfert or LINER, ˜ 15 % are in galaxies with weak or no emission lines despite high-quality spectra, and a few percent each are LINERS, composite galaxies, H II regions, or in known beamed AGNs.

  19. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  20. The state of Nepal birds 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Inskipp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The national status of Nepal birds was determined using the IUCN Red List criteria and following IUCN regional guidelines. Records of all species identified as potentially at high risk were extracted from all relevant references in a comprehensive, up-to-date Nepal bird bibliography. In addition, numerous previously undocumented records were obtained from observers in Nepal. The initial list of potentially threatened species was revised as records were accumulated. Literature reviews were made of current pressures on Nepal birds, responses to these pressures and recommendations for the future. Finally a comprehensive summary table was compiled for all nationally threatened species, including their world distribution, global threat status, national threat status, occurrence, habitat, main altitudinal range, population, key threats, research needs, and key conservation interventions needed. In 2010, 149 bird species (17% of the total recorded of Nepal birds were considered nationally threatened: 53 Critically Endangered species, 48 Endangered and 47 Vulnerable. Near Threatened species were not assessed due to lack of time available for the necessary research. An additional 16 species were considered threatened in 2010 compared with 2004; no species assessed as threatened in 2004 was considered non-threatened in 2010. When habitat types are considered wetland species are the most threatened (35% of the total wetland species, followed by grassland species (23%. When altitudinal preferences are considered lowland species are the most threatened (36% of all lowland species, followed by species only occurring in the middle hills (17%. Human activities leading to habitat loss and damage are the major threats, with agriculture the root cause; hunting and trapping are other important threats. Effective responses for conservation include Nepal protected areas network, community forestry, designation of Ramsar sites, National Wetland Policy implementation

  1. Nepal’s National Red List of Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Inskipp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the Nepal National Bird Red Data Book were to provide comprehensive and up-to-date accounts of all the bird species found in Nepal, assess their status applying the IUCN Guidelines at Regional Levels, identify threats to all bird species and recommend the most practical measures for their conservation.  It is hoped that the Bird RDB will help Nepal achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity target of preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status.  As population changes of Nepal’s birds have been studied for only a few species, assessments of species’ national status were mainly made by assessing changes in distribution.  Species distribution maps were produced for all of Nepal’s bird species except vagrants and compared to maps that were produced in 1991 using the same mapping system.  Of the 878 bird species recorded, 168 species (19% were assessed as nationally threatened. These comprise 68 (40% Critically Endangered species, 38 (23% Endangered species and 62 (37% Vulnerable species.  A total of 62 species was considered Near Threatened and 22 species Data Deficient.  Over 55% of the threatened birds are lowland grassland specialists, 25% are wetland birds and 24% tropical and sub-tropical broadleaved forest birds.  Larger birds appear to be more threatened than smaller birds with 98 (25% non-passerine species threatened and 67 (14% passerine species.  Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are the most important threats.  Other threats include chemical poisoning, over-exploitation, climate change, hydropower, invasive species, intensification of agriculture, disturbance, and limited conservation measures and research.  Measures to address these threats are described.  It was also concluded that re-assessments of the status of certain bird groups carried out every five years and the setting up of a national online system for storing and reporting

  2. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W; Morrell, Lesley J

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.

  3. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Rothery

    Full Text Available Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.

  4. Hawai`i forest bird monitoring database: Database dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Rick; Genz, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1981, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (now U.S. Geological Survey – Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center [USGS-PIERC]) conducted systematic surveys of forest birds and plant communities on all the main Hawaiian Islands, except O‘ahu, as part of the Hawai‘i Forest Bird Surveys (HFBS). Results of this monumental effort have guided conservation efforts and provided the basis for many plant and bird recovery plans and land acquisition decisions in Hawai‘i. Unfortunately, these estimates and range maps are now seriously outdated, hindering modern conservation decision-making and recovery planning. HFBIDP staff work closely with land managers and others to identify the location of bird populations in need of protection. In addition, HFBIDP is able to assess field collection methods, census areas, and survey frequency for their effectiveness. Survey and geographical data are refined and released in successive versions, each more inclusive, detailed, and accurate than the previous release. Incrementally releasing data gives land managers and survey coordinators reasonably good data to work with early on rather than waiting for the release of ‘perfect’ data, ‘perfectly’ analyzed. Consequently, summary results are available in a timely manner.

  5. Bird associations with shrubsteppe plant communities at the proposed reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, C.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides information on te seasonal use of shrubsteppe vegetation by bird species at the RRL. Bird abundance and distribution were studied at the RRL to ensure that the DOE monitored migratory bird species pursuant to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and to assess potential impacts of site characterization activities on bird populations. Birds were counted on two transects that together sampled an areas of 1.39 km/sup 2/. The relative abundance of birds, species richness, seasonal distribution, and the association of breeding shrubsteppe birds with major vegetation types were determined from Janurary through December 1987. Only 38 species were counted during 82 surveys. Total bird density during the nesting season (March-June) was 42.96 birdskm/sup 2/ and the density for the entire year was 26.74 birdskm/sup 2/. The characteristic nesting birds in shrubsteppe habitats were western meadowlark, sage sparrow, burrowing owl, mourning dove, horned lark, long-billed curlew, lark sparrow, and loggerhead shrike. Western meadowlark and sage sparrows were the most abundant breeding birds with an average density of 11.25 and 7.76 birdskm/sup 2/, respectively. Seasonal distribution of birds varied with species, but most species were present from March to September. Distribution and abunandance of nesting birds were correlated with habitat type. About 63% of the habitat surveyed was sagebrush, 26% was cheatgrass, and 11% was spiny hopsage. Sagebrush habitat supproted a greeater total bird density than cheatgrass or hopsage habitats. Sage sparrows were closely associated with sagebrush habitats, while western meadowlarks showed no strong habitat affinities. 22 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Nested analysis of passeriform bird assemblages in the Thousand Island Lake region

    OpenAIRE

    Jingcheng Zhang; Yanping Wang; Pingping Jiang; Peng Li; Mingjian Yu; Ping Ding

    2008-01-01

    Between April 2006 and November 2007, we used line-transects to survey species richness of passeriform birds on 20 islands in order to test for nestedness within bird assemblages in the Thousand IslandLake region. To determine factors correlated with patterns of nestedness, we also conducted field surveys of plant species richness on these islands, and defined and valued some species-specific characteristics such as body length, distribution width, and habitat specificity using field surveys ...

  7. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Salum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880, fear disorders (n = 108, distress disorders (n = 76, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143 and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56. Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  8. [Survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control measures in hospitals participating in the VINCat program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopena-Galindo, Nieves; Hornero-Lopez, Anna; Freixas-Sala, Núria; Bella-Cueto, Feliu; Pérez-Jové, Josefa; Limon-Cáceres, Enric; Gudiol-Munté, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    VINCat is a nosocomial infection surveillance program in hospitals in Catalonia. The aim of the study was to determine the surveillance and control measures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in these centres. An e-mail survey was carried out from January to March 2013 with questions related to the characteristics of the hospitals and their control measures for MRSA. A response was received from 53 hospitals (>500 beds: 7; 200-500 beds: 14;<200 beds: 32; had ICU: 29). Computer alert of readmissions was available in 63%. There was active surveillance of patients admitted from another hospital (46.2%) or a long-term-care centre (55.8%), both being significantly more common measures in hospitals with a rate of MRSA≤22% (global median). Compliance with hand hygiene was observed in 77.4% of the centres, and was greater than 50% in 69.7% of them. All hospitals had contact precautions, although 62.3% did not have exclusive frequently used clinical material in bedrooms. The room cleaning was performed more frequently in 54.7% of hospitals, and 67.9% of them had programs for the appropriate use of antibiotics. This study provides information on the implementation of measures to prevent MRSA in hospitals participating in the VINCat program. Most of the centres have an MRSA protocol, however compliance with it should be improved, especially in areas such as active detection on admission in patients at risk, hand hygiene adherence, cleaning frequency and optimising the use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Informed Design of Mixed-Mode Surveys : Evaluating mode effects on measurement and selection error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klausch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    “Mixed-mode designs” are innovative types of surveys which combine more than one mode of administration in the same project, such as surveys administered partly on the web (online), on paper, by telephone, or face-to-face. Mixed-mode designs have become increasingly popular in international survey

  10. Validation of the Child HCAHPS survey to measure pediatric inpatient experience of care in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyneel, Luk; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Buyse, Gunnar; Casteels, Kristina; Lommers, Barbara; Vandersmissen, Jo; Van Eldere, Johan; Van Geet, Chris; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2017-07-01

    The recently developed Child HCAHPS provides a standard to measure US hospitals' performance on pediatric inpatient experiences of care. We field-tested Child HCAHPS in Belgium to instigate international comparison. In the development stage, forward/backward translation was conducted and patients assessed content validity index as excellent. The draft Flemish Child HCAHPS included 63 items: 38 items for five topics hypothesized to be similar to those proposed in the US (communication with parent, communication with child, attention to safety and comfort, hospital environment, and global rating), 10 screeners, a 14-item demographic and descriptive section, and one open-ended item. A 6-week pilot test was subsequently performed in three pediatric wards (general ward, hematology and oncology ward, infant and toddler ward) at a JCI-accredited university hospital. An overall response rate of 90.99% (303/333) was achieved and was consistent across wards. Confirmatory factor analysis largely confirmed the configuration of the proposed composites. Composite and single-item measures related well to patients' global rating of the hospital. Interpretation of different patient experiences across types of wards merits further investigation. Child HCAHPS provides an opportunity for systematic and cross-national assessment of pediatric inpatient experiences. Sharing and implementing international best practices are the next logical step. What is Known: • Patient experience surveys are increasingly used to reflect on the quality, safety, and centeredness of patient care. • While adult inpatient experience surveys are routinely used across countries around the world, the measurement of pediatric inpatient experiences is a young field of research that is essential to reflect on family-centered care. What is New: • We demonstrate that the US-developed Child HCAHPS provides an opportunity for international benchmarking of pediatric inpatient experiences with care through parents

  11. X-Ray Polarization Measurements with the EXIST Hard X-Ray Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynski, Henric; Garson, A., III; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed NASA mission for scanning the entire sky in intermediate and hard X-rays. The EXIST mission includes a wide field of view High Energy Telescope (HET) covering the 5-600 keV energy range, and an infrared telescope. The HET has the capability to measure the energy dependent X-ray polarization properties of moderately bright and bright X-ray sources. Here we report on a study of the polarization sensitivity of EXIST as a function of the integration time. Broadband X-ray polarization measurements with EXIST have the potential to make important contributions to our understanding of a number of astrophysical source types including binary black holes, accreting neutron stars, magnetars, pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. EXIST observations of the X-rays from binary black holes can be used to constrain the spins of black holes. Last but not least, EXIST observations of active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts can be used for extremely sensitive Lorentz Invariance tests.

  12. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  13. Measurement properties and normative data for the Norwegian SF-36: results from a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, A M; Stavem, K

    2017-03-14

    The interpretation of the SF-36 in Norwegian populations largely uses normative data from 1996. This study presents data for the general population from 2002-2003 which has been used for comparative purposes but has not been assessed for measurement properties. As part of the Norwegian Level of Living Survey 2002-2003, a postal survey was conducted comprising 9,164 members of the general population aged 16 years and over representative for Norway who received the Norwegian SF-36 version 1.2. The SF-36 was assessed against widely applied criteria including data completeness and assumptions relating to the construction and scoring of multi-item scales. Normative data are given for the eight SF-36 scales and the two summary scales (PCS, MCS) for eight age groups and gender. There were 5,396 (58.9%) respondents. Item levels of missing data ranged from 0.6 to 3.0% with scale scores computable for 97.5 to 99.8% of respondents. All item-total correlations were above 0.4 and were of a similar level with the exceptions of the easiest and most difficult physical function items and two general health items. Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.8 for all scales. Under 5% of respondents scored at the floor for five scales. Role-physical had the highest floor effect (14.6%) and together with role-emotional had the highest ceiling effects (66.3-76.8%). With three exceptions for the eight age groups, females had lower scores than males across the eight health scales. The two youngest age groups (SF-36 data meet necessary criteria for applications of normative data. The data is more recent, has more respondents including older people than the original Norwegian normative data from 1996, and can help the interpretation of SF-36 scores in applications that include clinical and health services research.

  14. Measuring success: Results from a national survey of recruitment and retention initiatives in the nursing workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthon, J. Margo Brooks; Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Chittams, Jesse; Park, Elizabeth; Guevara, James

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify common components of diversity pipeline programs across a national sample of nursing institutions and determine what effect these programs have on increasing underrepresented minority enrollment and graduation. Design Linked data from an electronic survey conducted November 2012 to March 2013 and American Association of Colleges of Nursing baccalaureate graduation and enrollment data (2008 and 2012). Participants Academic and administrative staff of 164 nursing schools in 26 states, including Puerto Rico in the United States. Methods Chi-square statistics were used to (1) describe organizational features of nursing diversity pipeline programs and (2) determine significant trends in underrepresented minorities’ graduation and enrollment between nursing schools with and without diversity pipeline programs Results Twenty percent (n = 33) of surveyed nursing schools reported a structured diversity pipeline program. The most frequent program measures associated with pipeline programs included mentorship, academic, and psychosocial support. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander nursing student enrollment increased between 2008 and 2012. Hispanic/Latino graduation rates increased (7.9%–10.4%, p = .001), but they decreased among Black (6.8%–5.0%, p = .004) and Native American/Pacific Islander students (2.1 %–0.3%, p ≥ .001). Conclusions Nursing diversity pipeline programs are associated with increases in nursing school enrollment and graduation for some, although not all, minority students. Future initiatives should build on current trends while creating targeted strategies to reverse downward graduation trends among Black, Native American, and Pacific Island nursing students. PMID:24880900

  15. The diversity of bird species in Ternate island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted with the purpose of knowing the type diversity of birds in various habitats (research sites and to identify which species of bird are dominant in a variety of selected habitat. This research lasted for 3 months from April to June 2015 located in the cluster are of Ternate Island. The sampling and collecting data are taken from five habitat types in the study site: Settlement, Plantation, River Basin, Secondary Forest and Primary Forest. 3 observation points taken randomly are made in each type of habitat, but the determination of the observation point is adjusted to the easily accessible field condition to make the observation so that the total number of points obtained 15 observation points. The data collection of the diversity of bird species is done using TSCs (Time Species Counts method which is the calculation of bird species by time and free exploration. In this method, the data is recorded in six columns with a time interval of ten minutes with a one-hour count of each survey. To calculate the diversity of bird species by using Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index according to Bibby et al, (2000 with the formula H’ = - Σ Pi. ln.Pi where: H’: Shannon- Wiener Diversity Index; In: Basic logarithm; Pi: ni/N; ni: i number of species; N: Number of all species. From the research result, it is found that 64 bird species, among the bird species that have been found, are relative of paruh bengkok bird such as Kakatua putih (Cacatua alba, Kasturi Ternate (Lorius garrulus, Nuri kalung ungu (Eos squamata, Betet-kelapa paruh-besar (Tanygnathus megalorynchos and Perkici dagu-merah (Charmosyna placentis. In which these birds occupy the height from the sea reaching to the 1000 m above sea level above the sea level and some are kept by the community during the research such as Kakatua putih (Cacatua alba, Kasturi Ternate (Lorius garrulus and Nuri kalung ungu (Eos squamata.

  16. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  17. UAS-based automatic bird count of a common gull colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Grenzdörffer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard procedure to count birds is a manual one. However a manual bird count is a time consuming and cumbersome process, requiring several people going from nest to nest counting the birds and the clutches. High resolution imagery, generated with a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System offer an interesting alternative. Experiences and results of UAS surveys for automatic bird count of the last two years are presented for the bird reserve island Langenwerder. For 2011 1568 birds (± 5% were detected on the image mosaic, based on multispectral image classification and GIS-based post processing. Based on the experiences of 2011 the results and the accuracy of the automatic bird count 2012 became more efficient. For 2012 1938 birds with an accuracy of approx. ± 3% were counted. Additionally a separation of breeding and non-breeding birds was performed with the assumption, that standing birds cause a visible shade. The final section of the paper is devoted to the analysis of the 3D-point cloud. Thereby the point cloud was used to determine the height of the vegetation and the extend and depth of closed sinks, which are unsuitable for breeding birds.

  18. Tropical birds take small risks

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller; Wei Liang

    2013-01-01

    The life history of tropical birds differs from that of their temperate counterparts by late start of reproduction, small clutch sizes, and high rates of adult survival. Thus, tropical species should have greater residual reproductive value than temperate species. Therefore, tropical birds can be predicted to take smaller risks than closely related temperate birds in order not to jeopardize their prospects of survival, which is the single most important component of fitness, and which is grea...

  19. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Greta R. Bauer; Braimoh, Jessica; Ayden I Scheim; Dharma, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require ...

  20. Abundance and distribution of birds and marine mammals in Jammerbugten in 2012 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ib Krag; Nielsen, Rasmus Due

    2014-01-01

    . The results of these five aerial surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013 in Jammerbugten are presented in this report. The objective was to map the distribution of all birds and mammals present in the area. A total of 24 bird species were recorded in the study area. The most common species was Herring Gull. Birds...... were recorded throughout the survey area. Common Scoters and Common Eiders were found in the shallow coastal waters while Razorbills and Guillemots were found in the deeper areas to the north. Gulls were recorded throughout the survey area. No attempt has been made to estimate total numbers or perform...

  1. Questionnaire survey, indoor climate measurements and energy consumption: Concerto initiative. Class1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellemose Knudsen, H.; Engelund Thomsen, K.; Bergsoee, N.C. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark); Moerck, O.; Holmegaard Andersen, K. [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as ''low-energy class 1'' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup .} Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m{sup }thermal solar system for hot water preparation. The dense low-rise housing are to be heated by a district heating network. All dwellings were to be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery and an electronic system for energy monitoring and control of the heating systems. The first houses were occupied in 2008. This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58 flats, and measurements, assessments, and a series of physical measurements of selected indoor climate parameters in 7 selected single-family houses during March 2012. (Author)

  2. Arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes: results from the 2007–2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Feseke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inorganic arsenic and its metabolites are considered dangerous to human health. Although several studies have reported associations between low-level arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus in the United States and Mexico, this association has not been studied in the Canadian population. We evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, as measured by total arsenic concentration in urine, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in 3151 adult participants in Cycle 1 (2007–2009 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS. Methods: All participants were tested to determine blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Urine analysis was also performed to measure total arsenic. In addition, participants answered a detailed questionnaire about their lifestyle and medical history. We assessed the association between urinary arsenic levels and T2D and prediabetes using multivariate logistic regression while adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Total urinary arsenic concentration was positively associated with the prevalence of T2D and prediabetes: adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.12–2.95 and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.03–4.05, respectively, when comparing the highest (fourth urinary arsenic concentration quartile with the lowest (first quartile. Total urinary arsenic was also associated with glycated hemoglobin levels in people with untreated diabetes. Conclusion: We found significant associations between arsenic exposure and the prevalence of T2D and prediabetes in the Canadian population. Causal inference is limited due to the cross-sectional design of the study and the absence of long-term exposure assessment.

  3. A high-resolution spectropolarimetric survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars - I. Observations and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.; Catala, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Marsden, S.; Waite, I.

    2013-02-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we describe and report the analysis of a large survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars in circular spectropolarimetry. Using the ESPaDOnS and Narval high-resolution spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii and Bernard Lyot Telescopes, respectively, we have acquired 132 circularly polarized spectra of 70 Herbig Ae/Be stars and Herbig candidates. The large majority of these spectra are characterized by a resolving power of about 65 000, and a spectral coverage from about 3700 Å to 1 μm. The peak signal-to-noise ratio per CCD pixel ranges from below 100 (for the faintest targets) to over 1000 (for the brightest). The observations were acquired with the primary aim of searching for magnetic fields in these objects. However, our spectra are suitable for a variety of other important measurements, including rotational properties, variability, binarity, chemical abundances, circumstellar environment conditions and structure, etc. In this paper, we describe the sample selection, the observations and their reduction, and the measurements that will comprise the basis of much of our following analysis. We describe the determination of fundamental parameters for each target. We detail the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) that we have applied to each of our spectra, including the selection, editing and tuning of the LSD line masks. We describe the fitting of the LSD Stokes I profiles using a multicomponent model that yields the rotationally broadened photospheric profile (providing the projected rotational velocity and radial velocity for each observation) as well as circumstellar emission and absorption components. Finally, we diagnose the longitudinal Zeeman effect via the measured circular polarization, and report the longitudinal magnetic field and Stokes V Zeeman signature detection probability. As an appendix, we provide a detailed review of each star observed.

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  5. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  8. Use of flowering trees by birds in Savanna in Nigeria during the dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of nectar-producing trees and nectar-feeding birds of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, was conducted in the dry season during the period of January to June, 1997. The point count method was used for the study. A total of 33 tree species flowered during the period. Ten nectar-bird species visited them. Of the ...

  9. Effects of Tide Stage on the Use of Salt Marshes by Wading Birds in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine how tide stage affects wading bird abundance, behavior, and foraging in three Narragansett Bay salt marshes (RI), we conducted surveys at 10-min intervals—across the full tidal range—during six days at each marsh in July/September of 2006. The wading bird community ...

  10. Avian Point Count, Habitat, and Covariate Data for Subarctic Bird Abundance, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains three tables of information: avian counts by species, habitat type, a covariate information used for analysis of bird surveys conducted...

  11. Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey on Algorithms, Measurement Techniques, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Paul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs that has developed significant research interest among academia and research community. Wireless sensor network is formed by a large number of tiny, low energy, limited processing capability and low-cost sensors that communicate with each other in ad-hoc fashion. The task of determining physical coordinates of sensor nodes in WSNs is known as localization or positioning and is a key factor in today’s communication systems to estimate the place of origin of events. As the requirement of the positioning accuracy for different applications varies, different localization methods are used in different applications and there are several challenges in some special scenarios such as forest fire detection. In this paper, we survey different measurement techniques and strategies for range based and range free localization with an emphasis on the latter. Further, we discuss different localization-based applications, where the estimation of the location information is crucial. Finally, a comprehensive discussion of the challenges such as accuracy, cost, complexity, and scalability are given.

  12. Survey on the estimation of mutual information methods as a measure of dependency versus correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencaga, D.; Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In this survey, we present and compare different approaches to estimate Mutual Information (MI) from data to analyse general dependencies between variables of interest in a system. We demonstrate the performance difference of MI versus correlation analysis, which is only optimal in case of linear dependencies. First, we use a piece-wise constant Bayesian methodology using a general Dirichlet prior. In this estimation method, we use a two-stage approach where we approximate the probability distribution first and then calculate the marginal and joint entropies. Here, we demonstrate the performance of this Bayesian approach versus the others for computing the dependency between different variables. We also compare these with linear correlation analysis. Finally, we apply MI and correlation analysis to the identification of the bias in the determination of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) by the satellite based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the ground based AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). Here, we observe that the AOD measurements by these two instruments might be different for the same location. The reason of this bias is explored by quantifying the dependencies between the bias and 15 other variables including cloud cover, surface reflectivity and others.

  13. The impact of camera optical alignments on weak lensing measures for the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonik, M. L.; Bacon, D. J.; Bridle, S.; Doel, P.; Brooks, D.; Worswick, S.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, R.; DePoy, D.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gladders, M.; Gutierrez, G.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S. M.; Lahav, O.; Parker, S. -. J.; Roodman, A.; Walker, A. R.

    2013-04-10

    Telescope point spread function (PSF) quality is critical for realizing the potential of cosmic weak lensing observations to constrain dark energy and test general relativity. In this paper, we use quantitative weak gravitational lensing measures to inform the precision of lens optical alignment, with specific reference to the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We compute optics spot diagrams and calculate the shear and flexion of the PSF as a function of position on the focal plane. For perfect optical alignment, we verify the high quality of the DES optical design, finding a maximum PSF contribution to the weak lensing shear of 0.04 near the edge of the focal plane. However, this can be increased by a factor of approximately 3 if the lenses are only just aligned within their maximum specified tolerances. We calculate the E- and B-mode shear and flexion variance as a function of the decentre or tilt of each lens in turn. We find tilt accuracy to be a few times more important than decentre, depending on the lens considered. Finally, we consider the compound effect of decentre and tilt of multiple lenses simultaneously, by sampling from a plausible range of values of each parameter. We find that the compound effect can be around twice as detrimental as when considering any one lens alone. Furthermore, this combined effect changes the conclusions about which lens is most important to align accurately. For DES, the tilt of the first two lenses is the most important.

  14. Tuberculosis in wild birds: implications for captive birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, K. A.; Dein, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of avian tuberculosis is widespread but the lack of visible epizootics makes assessment of its impact on wild birds difficult. Generally a low prevalence, widely-scattered, individual animal disease, avian tuberculosis is caused by the same agent in wild and domestic birds. Thus there exists the potential for disease transfer between these two groups in situations that result in direct contact such as wild animals newly captured or transferred from rehabilitation centers, and wild and captive animals intermingling in exhibit areas. During the past 7 yr, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium, was diagnosed in 64 birds submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center from 16 states; avian tuberculosis was the primary diagnosis in 52 of the 64 birds, while the remaining 12 isolates were incidental findings. Twenty-eight of these birds were picked up during epizootics caused by other disease agents including avian cholera, botulism type C, and lead, organophosphorus compound, and cyanide poisoning. Twelve birds were found incidental to birds collected during disease monitoring programs and research projects, and 10 birds were collected by hunters or found sick and euthanatized. Tuberculosis lesions occurred (in order of decreasing frequency) in the liver, intestine, spleen, lung, and air sacs. Several unusual morphological presentations were observed in the gizzard, shoulder joint, jugular vein, face, nares and bill, ureter and bone marrow. Infected birds were collected during all 12 mo of the yr from a variety of species in the Anseriformes, Podicipediformes, Gruiformes, and Falconiformes. Nine of the 46 known age birds were immature indicating that lesions can develop during the first year.

  15. 75 FR 58249 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... their range, especially within the important prairie-parkland region. In fact, during the drought... importance of weather and photoperiod on the timing and speed of bird migrations. It is possible that re..., we are preparing to implement a range of on-the-ground habitat conservation or management measures...

  16. Predation on artificial bird nests in chaparral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Tom A; Bolger, Douglas T; Case, Ted J

    1991-05-01

    The predation rate of artificial bird nests was measured in disturbed chaparral habitat fragments and at an unfragmented site in coastal San Diego County, California USA. Local extinctions of chaparral birds has been previously shown to occur in these fragments. The predation rate was highest at the unfragmented site. Among fragments, predation was higher at moderately disturbed than at highly disturbed sites. These results suggest that nest predator species diversity or density is reduced in disturbed chaparral fragments. Nest predation is probably not the most important cause of the observed loss of chaparral breeding bird diversity in these fragments.

  17. A quantitative comparison of bird and bat wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Wolf, Marta; Hedenström, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative comparison of bird and bat wakes has demonstrated significant differences in the structure of the far wake. Birds have been found to have a unified vortex wake of the two wings, while bats have a more complex wake with gradients in the circulation along the wingspan, and with each wing generating its own vortex structure. Here, we compare quantitative measures of the circulation in the far wake of three bird and one bat species. We find that bats have a significantly stronger norm...

  18. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  19. A MEASUREMENT OF THE CORRELATION OF GALAXY SURVEYS WITH CMB LENSING CONVERGENCE MAPS FROM THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L. E.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Van Engelen, A.; Holder, G. P.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Biesiadzinski, T. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Busha, M. T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway, Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Dore, O. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, 1216 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We compare cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps derived from South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with galaxy survey data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, WISE, and a new large Spitzer/IRAC field designed to overlap with the SPT survey. Using optical and infrared catalogs covering between 17 and 68 deg{sup 2} of sky, we detect a correlation between the SPT convergence maps and each of the galaxy density maps at >4{sigma}, with zero correlation robustly ruled out in all cases. The amplitude and shape of the cross-power spectra are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the measured galaxy bias is consistent with previous work. The detections reported here utilize a small fraction of the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey data and serve as both a proof of principle of the technique and an illustration of the potential of this emerging cosmological probe.

  20. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  1. Bird Migration Across the Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Herbert H.T.; Namgail, Tsewang

    2017-01-01

    Birds migrating across the Himalayan region fly over the highest peaks in the world, facing immense physiological and climatic challenges. The authors show the different strategies used by birds to cope with these challenges. Many wetland avian species are seen in the high-altitude lakes of the

  2. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ogy, conservation biology and popular science writing. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory, coloniality, heronries. ecology, nesting strate- gies. Abdul Jamil Urli. One of the most fascinating aspects in the life of birds is their breeding phase, which is intimately tied to the distri- bution and abundance of food resources in their ...

  3. 'WORLD OF BIRDS' WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and animal hospital. For nine years this service was rendered and up to 300 birds and animals in need of help were cared for each month. When the financial ... pact. Many problems are encountered which can only be overcome with time. One example is the identifi- cation plaques for the birds on view. Only pictures.

  4. Bird records from the Moluccas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For the past thirty years I have, from time to time, come across bird material and literature records which have added localities and in a few instances have added new species, to Van Bemmel's (1948) list of birds of the Moluccan Islands and its supplement, published five years later

  5. Measuring Altruistic Behavior in Surveys : The All-or-Nothing Dictator Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    A field study of altruistic behaviour is presented using a modification of the dictator game in a large random sample survey in the Netherlands (n=1,964). In line with laboratory experiments, only 5.7% donated money. In line with other survey research on giving, generosity increased with age,

  6. Measuring Altruistic Behavior in Surveys: The All-or-Nothing Dictator Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Bekkers

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study of altruistic behaviour is presented using a modification of the dictator game in a large random sample survey in the netherlands (n=1,964. In line with laboratory experiments, only 5.7% donated money. In line with other survey research on giving, generosity increased with age, education, income, trust, and prosocial value orientation.

  7. Measuring altruistic behavior in surveys : The all-or-nothing dictator game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    A field study of altruistic behaviour is presented using a modification of the dictator game in a large random sample survey in the Netherlands (n=1,964). In line with laboratory experiments, only 5.7% donated money. In line with other survey research on giving, generosity increased with age,

  8. Evaluation of Psychological Measures Used in the Health Examination Survey of Children Ages 6-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, S. B.

    In this report the psychological procedures used in the Health Examination Survey conducted between June 1963 and December 1965 for children ages 6 through 11 are critically evaluated. In his analysis, the author combines his own professional competence with the information obtained in an extensive survey of literature pertaining to the four…

  9. [What measures of perineal protection at birth are consensual in France? Results of a Delphi survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tayrac, R; Carligny, L; Zimmerman, R; Huberlant, S; Letouzey, V

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate expert's opinion in order to obtain a consensus on the different measures of perineal protection at the time of vaginal delivery. A survey using the Delphi method was carried out with a panel of French obstetricians, urogynecologists and midwives. The questionnaire included 22 questions grouped into four groups: expulsive efforts, indications of episiotomy, episiotomy repair and other forms of perineal protection. The experts had to answer on a 9-point scale, both on the validity and the clarity of each proposal. After analysis of the replies of the first round, a second round was sent to the same experts for certain proposals. Each turn was the subject of two raises. To be validated, each proposal had to obtain a median equal to or greater than 7/9 and an agreement between the experts greater than 65% in the first round, and more than 75% in the second round. The study was conducted between March and October 2016. Of the 300 experts initially selected, 93 (31%) responded to the first round, including 63 obstetricians (67.7%), 12 urogynecologists (12.9%) and 18 midwives (19.4%). In the second round, 72 experts replied, representing 77.4% of the experts who also answered the first round. At the end of the two rounds, 11 proposals were validated, and 11 rejected. The following recommendations have been validated. Uterine expression should be proscribed. The two modes of pushing (blocked in Valsalva and by blowing) can be indifferently proposed, in case of fetal progression and in the absence of fetal distress. The midline episiotomy should be proscribed. The medio-lateral (or lateral) episiotomy should be left to the discretion of the accoucheur. The maintenance of the fetal head with one hand must be systematic to the expulsion to protect the perineum. Repair of the episiotomy should be made (except in some cases) with a rapid absorbable suture. The prescription of NSAIDs and/or painkillers of level 2 should be preferred to reduce the pain of post

  10. The MOSDEF Survey: First Measurement of Nebular Oxygen Abundance at z > 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Alice E.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Kriek, Mariska; Freeman, William R.; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L.; Leung, Gene C. K.; deGroot, Laura; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; Azadi, Mojegan; Aird, James

    2017-09-01

    We present the first spectroscopic measurement of multiple rest-frame optical emission lines at z > 4. During the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we observed the galaxy GOODSN-17940 with the Keck I/MOSFIRE spectrograph. The K-band spectrum of GOODSN-17940 includes significant detections of the [O II]λλ3726,3729, [Ne III]λ3869, and Hγ emission lines and a tentative detection of Hδ, indicating z spec = 4.4121. GOODSN-17940 is an actively star-forming z > 4 galaxy based on its K-band spectrum and broadband spectral energy distribution. A significant excess relative to the surrounding continuum is present in the Spitzer/IRAC channel 1 photometry of GOODSN-17940, due primarily to strong Hα emission with a rest-frame equivalent width of EW(Hα) = 1200 Å. Based on the assumption of 0.5 Z ⊙ models and the Calzetti attenuation curve, GOODSN-17940 is characterized by {M}* ={5.0}-0.2+4.3× {10}9 {M}⊙ . The Balmer decrement inferred from Hα/Hγ is used to dust correct the Hα emission, yielding {{SFR(H}}α )={320}-140+190 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1. These M * and star formation rate (SFR) values place GOODSN-17940 an order of magnitude in SFR above the z ˜ 4 star-forming “main sequence.” Finally, we use the observed ratio of [Ne III]/[O II] to estimate the nebular oxygen abundance in GOODSN-17940, finding O/H ˜ 0.2 (O/H)⊙. Combining our new [Ne III]/[O II] measurement with those from stacked spectra at z ˜ 0, 2, and 3, we show that GOODSN-17940 represents an extension to z > 4 of the evolution toward higher [Ne III]/[O II] (I.e., lower O/H) at fixed stellar mass. It will be possible to perform the measurements presented here out to z ˜ 10 using the James Webb Space Telescope. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of

  11. Iowa Breed Bird Atlas 2, 2008-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — These are the locations of Iowa's Second Breeding Bird Atlas. Blocks are 3 by 3 miles in size. Some of the blocks are the same as those surveyed in the first BBA,...

  12. The birds of Uaso Narok Forest Reserve, Central Kenya | Wamiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds of the Uaso Narok Forest, Central Kenya, were surveyed between June 2008 and April 2009. We recorded 161 species representing 49 families in total. Of these species, 34 were representative of the Afrotropical Highland Biome, representing 51% of all Kenyan species of this biome; two species were ...

  13. The birds of Uaso Narok Forest Reserve, Central Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The birds of the Uaso Narok Forest, Central Kenya, were surveyed between. June 2008 and April 2009. We recorded 161 species representing 49 families in total. Of these species, 34 were representative of the Afrotropical Highland. Biome, representing 51% of all Kenyan species of this biome; two species were.

  14. Bird diversity in the savanna habitats of Akagera National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... point counts and presence–absence surveys to estimate bird species richness and diversity in acacia savanna habitats of the park between 2009 and 2011. We recorded a total number of 301 species, of which 75% were resident and 22% migrant, including a large number of Palearctic visitors and Afrotropical migrants.

  15. Gravitational effects on body composition in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. H.; Sanchez P., O.; Burton, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Gallinaceous birds, presenting a wide range of body size, were adapted physiologically to hyperdynamic environments, provided by chronic centrifugation. Chemical composition was measured directly on prepared carcasses, which were anatomically comparable, and more amenable to analysis than the intact body. Body mass and body fat decreased arithmetically with increasing field strength and also with increasing body mass. Water content of lean tissue increased in hyperdynamic environments, but irrespectively of body size.

  16. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of our bird ringing data analyses series (Harnos et al. 2015a in which we continue to focus on exploring data using the R software. We give a short description of data distributions and the measures of data spread and explain how to obtain basic descriptive statistics. We show how to detect and select one and two dimensional outliers and explain how to treat these in case of avian ringing data.

  17. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and many experiments are only becoming possible with the current development of tracking technologies. During this thesis work I have been tracking the poorly known movements of several species of long-distance migrants and document highly complex migration patterns. In three manuscripts these movements...... were related to the yearly progression of an environmental surrogate for food availability along the course of migration. In one species, with multiple, different non-breeding staging sites, environmental conditions explain movements well and also how yearly differences explain differences in timing...

  18. Atmospheric conditions create freeways, detours and tailbacks for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Liechti, Felix; Vansteelant, Wouter M G

    2017-07-01

    The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments. In this review, we first introduce the most relevant microscale, mesoscale and synoptic scale atmospheric phenomena from the point of view of a migrating bird. We then provide an overview of the individual responses of migrant birds (when, where and how to fly) in relation to these phenomena. We explore the cumulative impact of individual responses to weather during migration, and the consequences thereof for populations and migratory systems. In general, individual birds seem to have a much more flexible response to weather than previously thought, but we also note similarities in migratory behaviour across taxa. We propose various avenues for future research through which we expect to derive more fundamental insights into the influence of weather on the evolution of migratory behaviour and the life-history, population dynamics and species distributions of migrant birds.

  19. A quantitative comparison of bird and bat wakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Wolf, Marta; Hedenström, Anders

    2010-01-06

    Qualitative comparison of bird and bat wakes has demonstrated significant differences in the structure of the far wake. Birds have been found to have a unified vortex wake of the two wings, while bats have a more complex wake with gradients in the circulation along the wingspan, and with each wing generating its own vortex structure. Here, we compare quantitative measures of the circulation in the far wake of three bird and one bat species. We find that bats have a significantly stronger normalized circulation of the start vortex than birds. We also find differences in how the circulation develops during the wingbeat as demonstrated by the ratio of the circulation of the dominant start vortex and the total circulation of the same sense. Birds show a more prominent change with changing flight speed and a relatively weaker start vortex at minimum power speed than bats. We also find that bats have a higher normalized wake loading based on the start vortex, indicating higher relative induced drag and therefore less efficient lift generation than birds. Our results thus indicate fundamental differences in the aerodynamics of bird and bat flight that will further our understanding of the evolution of vertebrate flight.

  20. Sperm competition in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, T R

    1998-05-01

    Sperm competition in birds occurs when a female is inseminated by more than one male during a single breeding cycle. Despite most birds being socially monogamous, sperm competition is widespread and results in frequent extra-pair paternity. Sperm competition is a fundamental part of sexual selection since it results in differential reproductive success among males. Male adaptations to sperm competition include relatively large testes, large sperm stores and long spermatozoa, mate guarding and frequent pair copulations. Females show no obvious morphological adaptations to sperm competition but, by controlling whether copulations are successful, they probably determine its frequency and extent. Despite this, the evolutionary benefits females acquire from extra-pair fertilizations are poorly understood. Experiments in which females are inseminated with equal numbers of spermatozoa from two males usually show last male sperm precedence. Understanding the mechanism of sperm competition requires understanding of why the last male to inseminate a female fertilizes a disproportionate number of eggs. The data from sperm competition studies on the domestic fowl, turkeys and zebra finches are consistent only with a passive sperm loss model of sperm competition. The mechanism is as follows: after insemination, spermatozoa enter the sperm storage tubules located in the oviduct, from which they are lost at a constant rate over days or weeks. All else being equal, the interval between two inseminations determines the probability of fertilization: the second of two inseminations fertilizes most eggs simply because, by the time fertilization occurs, fewer of these spermatozoa have been lost. Other factors also affect the outcome of sperm competition: the timing of insemination relative to oviposition, the differential fertilizing capacity of males and differences in the numbers of spermatozoa inseminated; as a consequence, last male sperm precedence is not automatic. On the basis

  1. Biocultural Homogenization in Urban Settings: Public Knowledge of Birds in City Parks of Santiago, Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan L Celis-Diez; Cesar E Muñoz; Sebastian Abades; Pablo A Marquet; Juan J Armesto

    2017-01-01

    .... To assess this correspondence, we sampled avian species richness in 10 representative city parks and surveyed the awareness of avian diversity by park visitors as well as their ability to identify bird species...

  2. National Wildlife Refuge System Protocol Framework for the Inventory and Monitoring of Secretive Marsh Birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey protocol provides standardized methods for monitoring secretive marsh birds during the breeding season on National Wildlife Refuges across North America....

  3. Elimination of migratory bird mortality at gold and silver mines using cyanide extraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many of the known hazing techniques or deterrents were observed during this survey. We are dealing with a wide array of birds in varying physical condition...

  4. Fire effects on the composition of a bird community in an amazonian Savanna (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cintra

    Full Text Available The effects of fire on the composition of a bird community were investigated in an Amazonian savanna near Alter-do-Chão, Pará (Brazil. Mist-net captures and visual counts were used to assess species richness and bird abundance pre- and post-fire in an approximately 20 ha area. Visual counts along transects were used to survey birds in an approximately 2000 ha area in a nearby area. Results using the same method of ordination analysis (multidimensional scaling showed significant effects of fire in the 20 ha and 2000 ha areas and strongly suggest direct effects on bird community composition. However, the effects were different at different spatial scales and/or in different years, indicating that the effects of fire vary spatially and/or temporally. Bird community composition pre-fire was significantly different from that found post-fire. Using multiple regression analysis it was found that the numbers of burned and unburned trees were not significantly related to either bird species richness or bird abundance. Two months after the fire, neither bird species richness nor bird abundance was significantly related to the number of flowering trees (Lafoensia pacari or fruiting trees (Byrsonima crassifolia. Since fire is an annual event in Alter-do-Chão and is becoming frequent in the entire Amazon, bird community composition in affected areas could be constantly changing in time and space.

  5. Fire effects on the composition of a bird community in an Amazonian savanna (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, R; Sanaiotti, T M

    2005-11-01

    The effects of fire on the composition of a bird community were investigated in an Amazonian savanna near Alter-do-Chão, Pará (Brazil). Mist-net captures and visual counts were used to assess species richness and bird abundance pre- and post-fire in an approximately 20 ha area. Visual counts along transects were used to survey birds in an approximately 2000 ha area in a nearby area. Results using the same method of ordination analysis (multidimensional scaling) showed significant effects of fire in the 20 ha and 2000 ha areas and strongly suggest direct effects on bird community composition. However, the effects were different at different spatial scales and/or in different years, indicating that the effects of fire vary spatially and/or temporally. Bird community composition pre-fire was significantly different from that found post-fire. Using multiple regression analysis it was found that the numbers of burned and unburned trees were not significantly related to either bird species richness or bird abundance. Two months after the fire, neither bird species richness nor bird abundance was significantly related to the number of flowering trees (Lafoensia pacari) or fruiting trees (Byrsonima crassifolia). Since fire is an annual event in Alter-do-Chão and is becoming frequent in the entire Amazon, bird community composition in affected areas could be constantly changing in time and space.

  6. A Minimally Invasive Method for Sampling Nest and Roost Cavities for Fungi: a Novel Approach to Identify the Fungi Associated with Cavity-Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel Lindner; John K. Cianchetti; Adam T. Grisé; Nicholas J. Brazee; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2014-01-01

    Relationships among cavity-nesting birds, trees, and wood decay fungi pose interesting management challenges and research questions in many systems. Ornithologists need to understand the relationships between cavity-nesting birds and fungi in order to understand the habitat requirements of these birds. Typically, researchers rely on fruiting body surveys to identify...

  7. Peer Effects and Measurement Error: The Impact of Sampling Variation in School Survey Data (Evidence from PISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, John; Schnepf, Sylke V.; Silva, Pedro N.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of peer effects on achievement with sample survey data on schools may mean that only a random sample of the population of peers is observed for each individual. This generates measurement error in peer variables similar in form to the textbook case of errors-in-variables, resulting in the estimated peer group effects in an OLS…

  8. Physical activity attenuates the mid-adolescent peak in insulin resistance but by late adolescence the effect is lost: a longitudinal study with annual measures from 9-16 years (EarlyBird 66).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Brad S; Hosking, Joanne; Henley, William E; Jeffery, Alison N; Mostazir, Mohammod; Voss, Linda D; Wilkin, Terence J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to test whether the mid-adolescent peak in insulin resistance (IR) and trends in other metabolic markers are influenced by long-term exposure to physical activity. Physical activity (7 day ActiGraph accelerometry), HOMA-IR and other metabolic markers (glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, lipids and BP) were measured annually from age 9 years to 16 years in 300 children (151 boys) from the EarlyBird study in Plymouth, UK. The activity level of each child was characterised, with 95% reliability, by averaging their eight annual physical activity measures. Age-related trends in IR and metabolic health were analysed by multi-level modelling, with physical activity as the exposure measure (categorical and continuous) and body fat percentage (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and pubertal status (according to age at peak height velocity and Tanner stage) as covariates. The peak in IR at age 12-13 years was 17% lower (p adolescents independently of body fat percentage and pubertal status. However, this difference diminished progressively over the next 3 years and had disappeared completely by the age of 16 years (e.g. difference was -14% at 14 years, -8% at 15 years and +1% at 16 years; 'physical activity × age(2), interaction, p adolescence in the more active group. Our finding that physical activity attenuates IR during mid-adolescence may be clinically important. It remains to be established whether the temporary attenuation in IR during this period has implications for the development of diabetes in adolescence and for future metabolic health generally.

  9. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LT Manica

    Full Text Available Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE, São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP. We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%, which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State.

  10. Measuring Professionalism in Medicine and Nursing: Results of a European Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Plochg, Thomas; Thompson, Caroline A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leveraging professionalism has been put forward as a strategy to drive improvement of patient care. We investigate professionalism as a factor influencing the uptake of quality improvement activities by physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. Objective To (i) investigate the reliability and validity of data yielded by using the self-developed professionalism measurement tool for physicians and nurses, (ii) describe their levels of professionalism displayed, and (iii) quantify the extent to which professional attitudes would predict professional behaviors. Methods and Materials We designed and deployed survey instruments amongst 5920 physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. This was conducted under the cross-sectional multilevel study “Deepening Our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe” (DUQuE). We used psychometric and generalized linear mixed modelling techniques to address the aforementioned objectives. Results In all, 2067 (response rate 69.8%) physicians and 2805 nurses (94.8%) representing 74 hospitals in 7 European countries participated. The professionalism instrument revealed five subscales of professional attitude and one scale for professional behaviour with moderate to high internal consistency and reliability. Physicians and nurses display equally high professional attitude sum scores (11.8 and 11.9 respectively out of 16) but seem to have different perceptions towards separate professionalism aspects. Lastly, professionals displaying higher levels of professional attitudes were more involved in quality improvement actions (physicians: b = 0.019, Pnurses: b = 0.016, Pnurses – OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.23) or medical errors (physicians – OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.23; nurses – OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22–1.67). Involvement in QI actions was found to increase the odds of reporting incompetence or medical errors. Conclusion A tool that reliably and validly measures European physicians’ and nurses

  11. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R; Braimoh, Jessica; Scheim, Ayden I; Dharma, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79), we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans) participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081), but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group) to assess gender

  12. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta R Bauer

    Full Text Available Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79, we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081, but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group to

  13. Wind estimation based on thermal soaring of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, Rolf; Bohrer, Gil; Kranstauber, Bart; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Wikelski, Martin; Flack, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The flight performance of birds is strongly affected by the dynamic state of the atmosphere at the birds' locations. Studies of flight and its impact on the movement ecology of birds must consider the wind to help us understand aerodynamics and bird flight strategies. Here, we introduce a systematic approach to evaluate wind speed and direction from the high-frequency GPS recordings from bird-borne tags during thermalling flight. Our method assumes that a fixed horizontal mean wind speed during a short (18 seconds, 19 GPS fixes) flight segment with a constant turn angle along a closed loop, characteristic of thermalling flight, will generate a fixed drift for each consequent location. We use a maximum-likelihood approach to estimate that drift and to determine the wind and airspeeds at the birds' flight locations. We also provide error estimates for these GPS-derived wind speed estimates. We validate our approach by comparing its wind estimates with the mid-resolution weather reanalysis data from ECMWF, and by examining independent wind estimates from pairs of birds in a large dataset of GPS-tagged migrating storks that were flying in close proximity. Our approach provides accurate and unbiased observations of wind speed and additional detailed information on vertical winds and uplift structure. These precise measurements are otherwise rare and hard to obtain and will broaden our understanding of atmospheric conditions, flight aerodynamics, and bird flight strategies. With an increasing number of GPS-tracked animals, we may soon be able to use birds to inform us about the atmosphere they are flying through and thus improve future ecological and environmental studies.

  14. Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Juliana; Magnusson, William E; Anderson, Marti J; Schlegel, Martin; Pe'er, Guy; Henle, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species.

  15. Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Menger

    Full Text Available Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species.

  16. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  17. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  18. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  19. Sources of measurement variation in blood pressure in large-scale epidemiological surveys with follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    and seasonally variation, observer bias, non-response bias, variation with explanatory variables, such as diabetes, hypertension, body mass index (BMI), height, plasma cholesterol and smoking] for the purpose of identifying relevant errors in population surveys. BP was measured in the seated position after a 5......-smokers. In addition, significantly fewer smokers took antihypertensive medication than did non-smokers (p = 0.000). In conclusion, judging from the degree of association with BP and/or differences between the three surveys, the most important factors to consider were seasonal variation, BMI, the use...

  20. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  1. Veterinary Aspects of Bird of Prey Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom A; Lierz, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Captive breeding has contributed to successful restoration of many species of birds of prey. Avicultural techniques pioneered by raptor breeders include double clutching, direct fostering, cross-fostering, hatch and switch, hacking, imprinting male and female falcons for semen collection, and artificial insemination techniques. However, reproductive failure occurs related to management problems, including hygiene measures, food quality issues, breeding flock structure, or individual health issues of breeding birds. These may result in non-egg laying females, low-quality eggs, or infertile eggs caused by male infertility. Veterinary care of breeding collections is extremely important. This article provides an overview of veterinary involvement in raptor breeding projects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. BirdVis: visualizing and understanding bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nivan; Lins, Lauro; Fink, Daniel; Kelling, Steve; Wood, Chris; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Cláudio

    2011-12-01

    Birds are unrivaled windows into biotic processes at all levels and are proven indicators of ecological well-being. Understanding the determinants of species distributions and their dynamics is an important aspect of ecology and is critical for conservation and management. Through crowdsourcing, since 2002, the eBird project has been collecting bird observation records. These observations, together with local-scale environmental covariates such as climate, habitat, and vegetation phenology have been a valuable resource for a global community of educators, land managers, ornithologists, and conservation biologists. By associating environmental inputs with observed patterns of bird occurrence, predictive models have been developed that provide a statistical framework to harness available data for predicting species distributions and making inferences about species-habitat associations. Understanding these models, however, is challenging because they require scientists to quantify and compare multiscale spatialtemporal patterns. A large series of coordinated or sequential plots must be generated, individually programmed, and manually composed for analysis. This hampers the exploration and is a barrier to making the cross-species comparisons that are essential for coordinating conservation and extracting important ecological information. To address these limitations, as part of a collaboration among computer scientists, statisticians, biologists and ornithologists, we have developed BirdVis, an interactive visualization system that supports the analysis of spatio-temporal bird distribution models. BirdVis leverages visualization techniques and uses them in a novel way to better assist users in the exploration of interdependencies among model parameters. Furthermore, the system allows for comparative visualization through coordinated views, providing an intuitive interface to identify relevant correlations and patterns. We justify our design decisions and present case

  3. Does the reproductive season account for more records of birds in a marked seasonal climate landscape in the state of São Paulo, Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2013-01-01

    Investigators have reported that birds from temperate regions are more detectable during their breeding seasons, which should be used to adequately survey avifaunas. In the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, the rainiest months of the year are usually associated with a peak in the reproduction of birds. To test the hypothesis that birds are equally detectable throughout the year, I conducted transect counts of birds in a predominantly open Cerrado landscape in São Paulo during 2005 and ...

  4. Power to detect trends in abundance of secretive marsh birds: effects of species traits and sampling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Robert J.; Conway, Courtney J.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized protocols for surveying secretive marsh birds have been implemented across North America, but the efficacy of surveys to detect population trends has not been evaluated. We used survey data collected from populations of marsh birds across North America and simulations to explore how characteristics of bird populations (proportion of survey stations occupied, abundance at occupied stations, and detection probability) and aspects of sampling effort (numbers of survey routes, stations/route, and surveys/station/year) affect statistical power to detect trends in abundance of marsh bird populations. In general, the proportion of survey stations along a route occupied by a species had a greater relative effect on power to detect trends than did the number of birds detected per survey at occupied stations. Uncertainty introduced by imperfect detection during surveys reduced power to detect trends considerably, but across the range of detection probabilities for most species of marsh birds, variation in detection probability had only a minor influence on power. For species that occupy a relatively high proportion of survey stations (0.20), have relatively high abundances at occupied stations (2.0 birds/station), and have high detection probability (0.50), ≥40 routes with 10 survey stations per route surveyed 3 times per year would provide an 80% chance of detecting a 3% annual decrease in abundance after 20 years of surveys. Under the same assumptions but for species that are less common, ≥100 routes would be needed to achieve the same power. Our results can help inform the design of programs to monitor trends in abundance of marsh bird populations, especially with regards to the amount of sampling effort necessary to meet programmatic goals.

  5. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...

  6. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL will design, fabricate, and fully characterize a 640x512 format HOT-BIRD FPA with increased quantum efficiency and extended spectral coverage. Unlike the small...

  7. Measuring galaxy [O ii] emission line doublet with future ground-based wide-field spectroscopic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bacon, Roland; Mostek, Nick J.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Schlegel, David J.; Yèche, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of wide-field spectroscopic redshift surveys will map the large-scale galaxy distribution in the redshift range 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2 to measure baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). The primary optical signature used in this redshift range comes from the [Oii] emission line doublet, which provides a unique redshift identification that can minimize confusion with other single emission lines. To derive the required spectrograph resolution for these redshift surveys, we simulate observations of the [Oii] (λλ 3727, 3729) doublet for various instrument resolutions, and line velocities. We foresee two strategies for the choice of the resolution for future spectrographs for BAO surveys. For bright [Oii] emitter surveys ([Oii] flux ~30 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 like SDSS-IV/eBOSS), a resolution of R ~ 3300 allows the separation of 90 percent of the doublets. The impact of the sky lines on the completeness in redshift is less than 6 percent. For faint [Oii] emitter surveys ([Oii] flux ~10 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 like DESi), the detection improves continuously with resolution, so we recommend the highest possible resolution, the limit being given by the number of pixels (4k by 4k) on the detector and the number of spectroscopic channels (2 or 3).

  8. Measuring patient trust in telemedicine services: Development of a survey instrument and its validation for an anticoagulation web-service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsen, Lex van; Tabak, Monique; Hermens, Hermie

    2017-01-01

    For many eServices, end-user trust is a crucial prerequisite for use. For the telemedicine context however, knowledge about the coming about and measurement of end-user trust is scarce. To develop and validate the PAtient Trust Assessment Tool (PATAT): a survey instrument to quantitatively assess patient trust in a telemedicine service. Informed by focus groups, we developed a survey that includes measurement scales for the following factors: trust in the care organization, care professional, treatment, and technology, as well as a scale that assesses a holistic view on trust in the telemedicine service. The survey was completed by 795 patients that use a telemedicine application to manage their anticoagulation treatment. Data were analyzed by means of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The measurement model yielded good to excellent quality measures, after the removal of one item. The causal model resulted in high explained variance (R2=0.68). Trust in healthcare professionals and the treatment had a small effect on overall trust, while trust in the technology displayed a large effect. Trust in the care organization did not result in a significant effect on overall trust. The PATAT is a valid means to assess patient trust in a telemedicine service and can be used to benchmark such a service or to elicit redesign input. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  10. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of...-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer...

  11. 77 FR 23093 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2014 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests...

  12. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests...

  13. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of...-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer...

  14. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands... Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird hunting...

  15. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and... 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  16. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2012-13... RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for...

  17. Assessment of the Measurement Properties of the NHCAHPS Family Survey: A Rasch Scaling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), a family of survey instruments designed to capture and report people's experiences obtaining health care could soon add satisfaction as a consistent dimension of quality that skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are required to assess and report. The SNF setting…

  18. The Academic Experiences Survey (AES): Measuring Perceptions of Academic Climate in Liberal Arts Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galotti, Kathleen M.; Clare, Lacey R.; McManus, Courtney; Nixon, Andrea Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In today's educational climate, liberal arts institutions must demonstrate that their educational goals are being met. This paper presents reliability and stability testing of a concise, research-based survey instrument designed to examine student perceptions of academic experiences that is particularly suited to institutions rooted in the liberal…

  19. A New Measurement and Ranking System for the UK National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, John

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous criticisms of the UK National Student Survey (NSS) institutional managers still strongly support its use in informing student choice, quality and assurance and quality enhancement activities. This article outlines a granular and nuanced benchmarking system for the NSS which provides both a "raw" score (weighted student…

  20. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not underrepresented individuals. We describe the development of a next-generation mentoring survey built upon capital theory and critical race theory. It emphasizes community cultural wealth, thought to be instrumental to the success of individuals from minority communities. Our survey targets relationships between deaf mentees and their research mentors and includes Deaf community cultural wealth. From our results, we identified four segregating factors: Being a Scientist, which incorporated the traditional capitals; Deaf Community Capital; Asking for Accommodations; and Communication Access. Being a Scientist scores did not vary among the mentor and mentee variables that we tested. However, Deaf Community Capital, Asking for Accommodations, and Communication Access were highest when a deaf mentee was paired with a mentor who was either deaf or familiar with the Deaf community, indicating that cultural competency training should improve these aspects of mentoring for deaf mentees. This theoretical framework and survey will be useful for assessing mentoring relationships with deaf students and could be adapted for other underrepresented groups. PMID:28188283

  1. Automatic Description Generation from Images : A Survey of Models, Datasets, and Evaluation Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, Raffaella; Cakici, Ruket; Elliott, Desmond; Erdem, Aykut; Erdem, Erkut; Ikizler-Cinbis, Nazli; Keller, Frank; Muscat, Adrian; Plank, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Automatic description generation from natural images is a challenging problem that has recently received a large amount of interest from the computer vision and natural language processing communities. In this survey, we classify the existing approaches based on how they conceptualize this problem,

  2. Enhancing the scientific value of the Christmas Bird Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erica H.; Francis, C.M.; Blancher, P.J.; Drennan, S.R.; Howe, M.A.; Lepage, D.; Robbins, Chandler S.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Sauer, J.R.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    2005-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC), conducted by the National Audubon Society (NAS) since 1900, constitutes the longest-running and geographically most widespread survey of bird life in the Western Hemisphere. Starting with 25 count locations in its first year, the program has grown continuously ever since, with 20–30 locations currently being added annually. Each CBC consists of a tally of all birds detected within a circle 24.1 km (15 miles) in diameter, on a single day within a few weeks around Christmas (current allowable dates are 14 December through 5 January). More than 50,000 observers now take part each year, in close to 2,000 count circles spread across the U.S. and its territories, southern Canada, and, increasingly, Latin America.

  3. Geo-referencing bird-window collisions for targeted mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scott Winton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird collisions with windows are an important conservation concern. Efficient mitigation efforts should prioritize retrofitting sections of glass exhibiting the highest mortality of birds. Most collision studies, however, record location meta-data at a spatial scale too coarse (i.e., compass direction of facing façade to be useful for large buildings with complex geometries. Through spatial analysis of three seasons of survey data at a large building at a university campus, we found that GPS data were able to identify collision hotspots while compass directions could not. To demonstrate the broad applicability and utility of this georeferencing approach, we identified collision hotspots at two additional urban areas in North America. The data for this latter exercise were collected via the citizen science database, iNaturalist, which we review for its potential to generate the georeferenced data necessary for directing building retrofits and mitigating a major source of anthropogenic bird mortality.

  4. Geo-referencing bird-window collisions for targeted mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, R Scott; Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Cagle, Nicolette

    2018-01-01

    Bird collisions with windows are an important conservation concern. Efficient mitigation efforts should prioritize retrofitting sections of glass exhibiting the highest mortality of birds. Most collision studies, however, record location meta-data at a spatial scale too coarse (i.e., compass direction of facing façade) to be useful for large buildings with complex geometries. Through spatial analysis of three seasons of survey data at a large building at a university campus, we found that GPS data were able to identify collision hotspots while compass directions could not. To demonstrate the broad applicability and utility of this georeferencing approach, we identified collision hotspots at two additional urban areas in North America. The data for this latter exercise were collected via the citizen science database, iNaturalist, which we review for its potential to generate the georeferenced data necessary for directing building retrofits and mitigating a major source of anthropogenic bird mortality.

  5. Using and reducing restrictive measures in adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities: a survey of staff members.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörenberg, V.; Veer, A. de; Francke, A.; Embregts, P.; Nieuwenhuizen, M. van; Frederiks, B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Research suggests that restrictive measures are widely used with adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (ID). Restrictive measures are defined as all measures that limit the freedom of a person. We investigated staff perspectives on the use of restrictive measures with adolescents with

  6. Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Peters, Valerie E; Weygandt, P Logan; Jimenez, Carlos; Villegas, Pedro; O'Connor, Barry; Yabsley, Michael J; Garcia, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Carroll, C Ron

    2013-06-01

    Shade-grown coffee plantations are often promoted as a conservation strategy for wild birds. However, these agro-ecosystems are actively managed for food production, which may alter bird behaviors or interactions that could change bird health, compared to natural forest. To examine whether there is a difference between the health parameters of wild birds inhabiting shade-grown coffee plantations and natural forest, we evaluated birds in Costa Rica for (1) their general body condition, (2) antibodies to pathogens, (paramyxovirus and Mycoplasma spp.), and (3) the prevalence and diversity of endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. We measured exposure to Mycoplasma spp. and paramyxovirus because these are pathogens that could have been introduced with domestic poultry, one mechanism by which these landscapes could be detrimental to wild birds. We captured 1,561 birds representing 75 species. Although seasonal factors influenced body condition, we did not find bird general body condition to be different. A total of 556 birds of 31 species were tested for antibodies against paramyxovirus-1. Of these, five birds tested positive, four of which were from shade coffee. Out of 461 other tests for pathogens (for antibodies and nucleotide detection), none were positive. Pterolichus obtusus, the feather mite of chickens, was found on 15 birds representing two species and all were from shade-coffee plantations. Larvated eggs of Syngamus trachea, a nematode typically associated with chickens, were found in four birds captured in shade coffee and one captured in forest. For hemoparasites, a total of 1,121 blood smears from 68 bird species were examined, and only one species showed a higher prevalence of infection in shade coffee. Our results indicate that shade-coffee plantations do not pose a significant health risk to forest birds, but at least two groups of pathogens may deserve further attention: Haemoproteus spp. and the diversity and identity of endoparasites.

  7. The diversity and abundance of North American bird assemblages fail to track changing productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, LuAnna L; La Sorte, Frank A; Manne, Lisa L; Hawkins, Bradford A

    2015-04-01

    Plant biomass or productivity and the species richness of birds are associated across a range of spatial scales. Species-energy theory is generally assumed to explain these correlations. If true, bird richness should also track productivity temporally, and there should be spatial and temporal relationships between productivity and both bird abundance and bird richness. Using the summer normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for 1982-2006 and the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we evaluated the response of avian richness and abundance to interannual changes in plant biomass or productivity. We found positive spatial relationships between richness and NDVI for all 25 years. Temporally, however, richness and NDVI were positively associated at 1579 survey sites and negatively associated at 1627 sites (mean r2 = 0.09). Further, total abundance and NDVI were unrelated spatially (r2 values spanning richness beyond the spatial correlations, and neither prediction arising from species-energy theory was confirmed. Spatial relationships between productivity and bird richness may thus be largely spurious, arising via covariance between plant biomass or productivity and vegetation structural complexity, and the latter may be driving bird communities. This is consistent with the MacArthurs' classic hypothesis that the vertical profile of foliage drives bird species diversity.

  8. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  9. Screening and contact precautions – A survey on infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in German university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena M. Biehl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the scope of infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in high-risk settings, a survey among university hospitals was conducted. Fourteen professionals from 8 sites participated. Reported policies varied largely with respect to the types of wards conducting screening, sample types used for screening and implementation of contact precautions. This variability among sites highlights the need for an evidence-based consensus of current infection control policies.

  10. Avifaunal diversity and bird community responses to man-made habitats in St. Coombs Tea Estate, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    J. Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi; Rajika N. Gamage

    2015-01-01

    A survey on birds was conducted at St. Coombs Tea Estate, Talawakelle, Sri Lanka with the objective of assessing the avifaunal diversity of a given tea plantation ecosystem. Bird populations were sampled in man-made habitats such as home garden, wetland, tea plantation, Eucalyptus plantation and small scale reservoir. Hundred-and-twenty counts were made for each habitat and in addition, activities of birds, feeding habits and food recourses were also observed. A total of 87 species, including...

  11. Likeability of Garden Birds: Importance of Species Knowledge & Richness in Connecting People to Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Interacting with nature is widely recognised as providing many health and well-being benefits. As people live increasingly urbanised lifestyles, the provision of food for garden birds may create a vital link for connecting people to nature and enabling them to access these benefits. However, it is not clear which factors determine the pleasure that people receive from watching birds at their feeders. These may be dependent on the species that are present, the abundance of individuals and the species richness of birds around the feeders. We quantitatively surveyed urban households from towns in southern England to determine the factors that influence the likeability of 14 common garden bird species, and to assess whether people prefer to see a greater abundance of individuals or increased species richness at their feeders. There was substantial variation in likeability across species, with songbirds being preferred over non-songbirds. Species likeability increased for people who fed birds regularly and who could name the species. We found a strong correlation between the number of species that a person could correctly identify and how connected to nature they felt when they watched garden birds. Species richness was preferred over a greater number of individuals of the same species. Although we do not show causation this study suggests that it is possible to increase the well-being benefits that people gain from watching birds at their feeders. This could be done first through a human to bird approach by encouraging regular interactions between people and their garden birds, such as through learning the species names and providing food. Second, it could be achieved through a bird to human approach by increasing garden songbird diversity because the pleasure that a person receives from watching an individual bird at a feeder is dependent not only on its species but also on the diversity of birds at the feeder.

  12. Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: development and validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes and perceptions towards novel objective measures of ARV-based vaginal ring use: Results from a global stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Randy M; Tharaldson, Jenae; Owen, Derek H; Okumu, Eunice; Moench, Thomas; Mack, Natasha; Tolley, Elizabeth E; MacQueen, Kathleen M

    2017-01-01

    Results of recent microbicide and pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trials have shown adherence to be a significant challenge with new HIV prevention technologies. As the vaginal ring containing dapivirine moves into two open label follow-on studies (HOPE/MTN-025 and DREAM) and other antiretroviral-based and multi-purpose prevention technology ring products advance through the development pipeline, there is a need for more accurate and reliable measures of adherence to microbicide ring products. We previously conducted a comprehensive landscape analysis to identify new technologies that could be applied to adherence measurement of vaginal rings containing antiretrovirals. To explore attitudes and perceptions towards the approaches that we identified, we conducted a survey of stakeholders with experience and expertise in microbicide and HIV prevention clinical trials. From May to July 2015 an electronic survey was distributed via email to 894 stakeholders; a total of 206 eligible individuals responded to at least one question and were included in the data analysis. Survey respondents were presented with various objective measures and asked about their perceived acceptability to trial participants, feasibility of implementation by study staff, usefulness for measuring adherence and ethical concerns. Methods that require no additional input from the participant and require no modifications to the existing ring product (i.e., measurement of residual drug or excipient, or a vaginal analyte that enters the ring) were viewed as being more acceptable to trial participants and more feasible to implement in the field. Respondents saw value in using objective measures to provide real-time feedback on adherence. However, approaches that involve unannounced home visits for sample collection or spot checks of ring use, which could provide significant value to adherence feedback efforts, were met with skepticism. Additional research on the acceptability of these methods to

  14. The perceptual organization of complex sounds by birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Micheal L.

    2004-05-01

    Birds have proven to be ideal models for the perceptual organization of complex sounds because, like humans, they produce, learn, and use complex acoustic signals for communication. Although conducted in laboratory settings, measures of auditory abilities in birds are usually designed to parallel the acoustic problems faced in their natural habitats, including the location of conspecifics, discrimination among potential mates, prey localization, predator avoidance, and territorial defense. As a result, there is probably more known about hearing in birds under both natural and laboratory conditions than in any other nonhuman organism. Behavioral and/or physiological experiments on complex sound perception in birds have revealed that they exhibit serial pattern perception, can discriminate frequency changes in tones embedded within tonal patterns regardless of stimulus uncertainty conditions, segregate signals into auditory streams, and exhibit comodulation masking release. In addition, binaural experiments have revealed that birds exhibit both the cocktail party effect and the precedence effect. Taken together, these results suggest that, like humans, auditory scene analysis plays a general role in auditory perception in birds and probably other animals that must parse the world into auditory objects. [Work supported by NIH DC006124.

  15. ATLANTIC BIRDS: a data set of bird species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasui, Érica; Metzger, Jean Paul; Pimentel, Rafael G; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bovo, Alex A D A; Martensen, Alexandre C; Uezu, Alexandre; Regolin, André L; Bispo de Oliveira, Arthur Â; Gatto, Cassiano A F R; Duca, Charles; Andretti, Christian B; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Luz, Daniela; Mariz, Daniele; Alexandrino, Eduardo R; de Barros, Fabio M; Martello, Felipe; Pereira, Iolanda M D S; da Silva, José N; Ferraz, Katia M P M D B; Naka, Luciano N; Dos Anjos, Luiz; Efe, Márcio A; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Pichorim, Mauro; Gonçalves, Maycon Sanyvan S; Cordeiro, Paulo Henrique Chaves; Dias, Rafael A; Muylaert, Renata D L; Rodrigues, Rodolpho C; da Costa, Thiago V V; Cavarzere, Vagner; Tonetti, Vinicius R; Silva, Wesley R; Jenkins, Clinton N; Galetti, Mauro; Ribeiro, Milton C

    2018-02-01

    South America holds 30% of the world's avifauna, with the Atlantic Forest representing one of the richest regions of the Neotropics. Here we have compiled a data set on Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird occurrence (150,423) and abundance samples (N = 832 bird species; 33,119 bird individuals) using multiple methods, including qualitative surveys, mist nets, point counts, and line transects). We used four main sources of data: museum collections, on-line databases, literature sources, and unpublished reports. The data set comprises 4,122 localities and data from 1815 to 2017. Most studies were conducted in the Florestas de Interior (1,510 localities) and Serra do Mar (1,280 localities) biogeographic sub-regions. Considering the three main quantitative methods (mist net, point count, and line transect), we compiled abundance data for 745 species in 576 communities. In the data set, the most frequent species were Basileuterus culicivorus, Cyclaris gujanensis, and Conophaga lineata. There were 71 singletons, such as Lipaugus conditus and Calyptura cristata. We suggest that this small number of records reinforces the critical situation of these taxa in the Atlantic Forest. The information provided in this data set can be used for macroecological studies and to foster conservation strategies in this biodiversity hotspot. No copyright restrictions are associated with the data set. Please cite this Data Paper if data are used in publications and teaching events. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Measuring child mortality from maternity histories collected at time of childbirth. Case of the EMIS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbacke, C S

    1991-01-01

    A researcher has developed a new research methodology to indirectly estimate infant mortality using data from conditional samples which usually are from hospitals or health centers. This methodology is different from other similar methodologies in that it groups mothers by parity instead of age or marital duration. Parity is used since it is more likely to be accurately mortality levels by the mean length of the birth interval. Mortality patterns are not sensitive to the length of the birth interval. He uses data from the 1983 EMIS follow up survey conducted in Bobodioulasso, Burkina Faso and 1919, 1924, and 1933 data from birth registration areas in the United States to demonstrate the new methodology. The methodology shows that the estimated infant mortality rate (IMR) remained basically the same between 1968-1974 in Bobodioulasso (199-122) and began to fall in 1975. By 1983, it had fallen to 88. These results reflect the estimate from the EMIS survey. The methodology demonstrates that, in the US, estimated trends in IMR agreed with observed IMRs. The new methodology derived IMRs fell in the US between 1919-1932 from 92.8-65.5. Since maternity clinics and hospitals in many Sub-Saharan African countries maintain records with answers to routine questions, the new methodology can analyze these data to determine infant mortality trends. Yet conditional samples are not necessarily representative of the whole population. Thus researchers could apply data from unconditional samples such as those from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys to a variety of indirect estimation methods discussed in this report to complement the estimated trends of the conditional samples.

  17. Ocean Profile Measurements During the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Ocean Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Reconnaissance Surveys Ocean Profiles James Morison Polar Science Center, APL-UW 1013 NE 40th St. Seattle, WA 98105 phone: (206) 543 1394 fax...minimum summer sea ice extent. As such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water ...of atmospheric properties (Schweiger et al.), in-flight, and inflight laser profiling for ice thickness using the CU Laser Profiler Instrument

  18. A national physician survey on prescribing syringes as an HIV prevention measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macalino GE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to sterile syringes is a proven means of reducing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, viral hepatitis, and bacterial infections among injection drug users. In many U.S. states and territories, drug paraphernalia and syringe prescription laws are barriers to syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs: pharmacists may be reluctant to sell syringes to suspected IDUs, and police may confiscate syringes or arrest IDUs who cannot demonstrate a "legitimate" medical need for the syringes they possess. These barriers can be addressed by physician prescription of syringes. This study evaluates physicians' willingness to prescribe syringes, using the theory of planned behavior to identify key behavioral influences. Methods We mailed a survey to a representative sample of physicians from the American Medical Association physician database. Non-responding physicians were then called, faxed, or re-sent the survey, up to four times. Results Twenty percent responded to the survey. Although less than 1 percent of respondents had ever prescribed syringes to a known injection drug user, more than 60% of respondents reported that they would be willing to do so. Physicians' willingness to prescribe syringes was best predicted by the belief that it was a feasible and effective intervention, but individual and peer attitudes were also significant. Conclusion This was the first nationwide survey of the physician willingness to prescribe syringes to IDUs. While the majority of respondents were willing to consider syringe prescription in their clinical practices, multiple challenges need to be addressed in order to improve physician knowledge and attitudes toward IDUs.

  19. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not underrepresented individuals. We describe the development of a next-generation mentoring survey built upon capital theory and critical race theory. It emphasizes community cultural wealth, thought to be instrumental to the success of individuals from minority communities. Our survey targets relationships between deaf mentees and their research mentors and includes Deaf community cultural wealth. From our results, we identified four segregating factors: Being a Scientist, which incorporated the traditional capitals; Deaf Community Capital; Asking for Accommodations; and Communication Access. Being a Scientist scores did not vary among the mentor and mentee variables that we tested. However, Deaf Community Capital, Asking for Accommodations, and Communication Access were highest when a deaf mentee was paired with a mentor who was either deaf or familiar with the Deaf community, indicating that cultural competency training should improve these aspects of mentoring for deaf mentees. This theoretical framework and survey will be useful for assessing mentoring relationships with deaf students and could be adapted for other underrepresented groups. © 2017 D. C. Braun et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Urban Bird Diversity and Landscape Complexity: Species-environment Associations Along a Multiscale Habitat Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Melles; Susan M. Glenn; Kathy Martin

    2003-01-01

    For birds in urban environments, the configuration of local habitat within the landscape may be as critical as the composition of the local habitat itself. We examined the relative importance of environmental attributes (e.g., tree cover, composition, and number of tree species) measured at different spatial scales in relation to urban bird species richness and abundance. We expected that some bird species and nesting guilds would have a closer association with landscape-level features (withi...