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Sample records for surveys measure bird

  1. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  2. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine oil pollution and beached bird surveys: the development of a sensitive monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Heubeck, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most obvious adverse effects of (chronic) pollution of the world's oceans and seas with mineral oil is the mortality of seabirds. Systematic surveys of beachcast corpses of birds ('beached bird surveys') have been used in many parts of the world to document the effect of oil pollution, but particularly so in Western Europe and in parts of North America. In this paper, the history, current schemes, methods and possible (future) use of beached bird surveys are described and discussed, because the value of beached bird surveys has been hotly disputed. Oil pollution is known since the late 19 th century, while the first beached bird surveys were conducted in the 1920s. Due to the amount of man-power needed for these surveys, most beached bird survey programs thrived only through the work of a large number of volunteers. However, most programs have resulted in substantial amounts of high quality data, often covering many consecutive years. One of the main shortcomings of many beached bird survey programs was the emphasis on stranded bird numbers rather than on relative measures, such as oil rates (percentage of corpses oiled of all corpses found). Sources of pollution, particularly so in chronically polluted regions such as the North Sea, the Baltic, the Mediterranean and the waters around Newfoundland, are insufficiently known, but could be studied through a sampling program connected to beached bird surveys. Suggestions for standardization of methods are presented, which could lead to a global and highly sensitive monitoring instrument of marine oil pollution. (Author)

  4. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  5. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979): Marine Bird Surveys (F041) (NODC Accession 0014160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Surveys (F041) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979). Each dataset uses the NODC...

  6. Birds' species diversity measurement of Uchali Wetland (Ramsar site Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofik Oyedele Dauda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We carried out this study to evaluate bird species diversity and to model bird species abundance using Uchali Wetland, Pakistan (32°33′N, 72°01′E. Data obtained were subjected to summary statistics, Simpson diversity, Shannon evenness index, and rank abundance curve and model. The watershed supports 25,361 birds of 47 species, which is appreciably less than the number of bird species supported by the same wetland in the past year (1991. Total evenness could be obtained as the ranks increases and this differed annually. Evenness index (EI analysis showed that EI for 2011 was 0.0231, for 2012, it was 0.02, for 2013, it was 0.01, and for the annual mean, it was 0.046 indicating functional abundance of the species. Bird species diversity measurement could be enhanced by the use of the modified rank–abundance curve and would clearly present the true picture of the bird species abundance.

  7. Assessing collision risk for birds and bats : radar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, R. [Genivar SEC, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described some of the inventories and instrumentation available for monitoring winged fauna in and around wind farms. In addition to visual observations, bird calls and songs can be recorded to determine the amount and different types of birds located at wind farm sites. Radio-telemetry devices are also used to evaluate bird activities, and nest searches are conducted to determine the amount of eggs or young birds that will soon add to the bird population. Between 90 and 100 percent of birds and bats migrate at night. Acoustic radar, Doppler radar, and maritime surveillance radar instruments are used to monitor night-time activities in wind farm locations. Doppler radar is also used to detect bird and bat migration corridors. Screen-shots of various radar interfaces were presented. tabs., figs.

  8. Strategic Plan for the North American Breeding Bird Survey: 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The mission of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is to provide scientifically credible measures of the status and trends of North American bird populations at continental and regional scales to inform biologically sound conservation and management actions. Determining population trends, relative abundance, and distributions of North American avifauna is critical for identifying conservation priorities, determining appropriate conservation actions, and evaluating those actions. The BBS program, jointly coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada?s Canadian Wildlife Service, provides the U.S. and Canadian Federal governments, state and provincial agencies, other conservation practitioners, and the general public with science-based avian population trend estimates and other information for regional and national species' population assessments. Despite the demonstrated value of the BBS for furthering avian conservation across North America, its importance is often underappreciated, and it is underfunded compared with many other government-supported programs that report on status of the environment. Today, BBS resources, adjusted for inflation, are below the amount allocated in the 1970s and are still only sufficient to support two biologists. Yet the number of routes, participants, data, and data requests has quadrupled. Data and information management and delivery requirements and security concerns, non-existent in 1966, impose further demands on BBS resources. In addition, the Mexican expansion of the BBS offers new hope for a truly continental approach to avian conservation, but also brings additional challenges. Meeting the goals of this plan will take cooperation among myriad stakeholders; yet, even with collaboration, most objectives of this plan will be unattainable if BBS program support is not increased. The BBS developed this strategic plan to help set priorities and identify resources required for the

  9. 77 FR 65201 - Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... eligible areas. Harvest survey data help to ensure that customary and traditional subsistence uses of... harvest report form. We have designed the survey methods to streamline procedures and reduce respondent...-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Household Survey...

  10. The first 50 years of the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Ziolkowski, David; Pardieck, Keith L.; Smith, Adam C.; Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Rodriguez, Vicente; Berlanga, Humberto; Niven, Daniel; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The vision of Chandler (Chan) S. Robbins for a continental-scale omnibus survey of breeding birds led to the development of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). Chan was uniquely suited to develop the BBS. His position as a government scientist had given him experience with designing and implementing continental-scale surveys, his research background made him an effective advocate of the need for a survey to monitor pesticide effects on birds, and his prominence in the birding community gave him connections to infrastructure—a network of qualified volunteer birders who could conduct roadside surveys with standardized point counts. Having started in the eastern United States and the Atlantic provinces of Canada in 1966, the BBS now provides population change information for ∼546 species in the continental United States and Canada, and recently initiated routes in Mexico promise to greatly expand the areas and species covered by the survey. Although survey protocols have remained unchanged for 50 years, the BBS remains relevant in a changing world. Several papers that follow in this Special Section of The Condor: Ornithological Advances review how the BBS has been applied to conservation assessments, especially in combination with other large-scale survey data. A critical feature of the BBS program is an active research program into field and analytical methods to enhance the quality of the count data and to control for factors that influence detectability. Papers in the Special Section also present advances in BBS analyses that improve the utility of this expanding and sometimes controversial survey. In this Perspective, we introduce the Special Section by reviewing the history of the BBS, describing current analyses, and providing summary trend results for all species, highlighting 3 groups of conservation concern: grassland-breeding birds, aridland-breeding birds, and aerial insectivorous birds.

  11. Mourning dove population trend estimates from Call-Count and North American Breeding Bird Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Dolton, D.D.; Droege, S.

    1994-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) Callcount Survey and the North American Breeding Bird Survey provide information on population trends of mourning doves throughout the continental United States. Because surveys are an integral part of the development of hunting regulations, a need exists to determine which survey provides precise information. We estimated population trends from 1966 to 1988 by state and dove management unit, and assessed the relative efficiency of each survey. Estimates of population trend differ (P lt 0.05) between surveys in 11 of 48 states; 9 of 11 states with divergent results occur in the Eastern Management Unit. Differences were probably a consequence of smaller sample sizes in the Callcount Survey. The Breeding Bird Survey generally provided trend estimates with smaller variances than did the Callcount Survey. Although the Callcount Survey probably provides more withinroute accuracy because of survey methods and timing, the Breeding Bird Survey has a larger sample size of survey routes and greater consistency of coverage in the Eastern Unit.

  12. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  13. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Skórka, Piotr; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  14. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    Full Text Available Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas. The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  15. The role of the North American Breeding Bird Survey in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Francis, Charles M.; Campbell, Kate J.; Downes, Constance M.; Smith, Adam C.; Pardieck, Keith L.

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) was established in 1966 in response to a lack of quantitative data on changes in the populations of many bird species at a continental scale, especially songbirds. The BBS now provides the most reliable regional and continental trends and annual indices of abundance available for >500 bird species. This paper reviews some of the ways in which BBS data have contributed to bird conservation in North America over the past 50 yr, and highlights future program enhancement opportunities. BBS data have contributed to the listing of species under the Canadian Species at Risk Act and, in a few cases, have informed species assessments under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. By raising awareness of population changes, the BBS has helped to motivate bird conservation efforts through the creation of Partners in Flight. BBS data have been used to determine priority species and locations for conservation action at regional and national scales through Bird Conservation Region strategies and Joint Ventures. Data from the BBS have provided the quantitative foundation for North American State of the Birds reports, and have informed the public with regard to environmental health through multiple indicators, such as the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Report on the Environment. BBS data have been analyzed with other data (e.g., environmental, land cover, and demographic) to evaluate potential drivers of population change, which have then informed conservation actions. In a few cases, BBS data have contributed to the evaluation of management actions, including informing the management of Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa), and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Improving geographic coverage in northern Canada and in Mexico, improving the analytical approaches required to integrate data from other sources and to address variation in detectability, and

  16. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Bird Survey in Storruns windfarm in Jaemtland; Faagelundersoekning vid Storruns vindkraftanlaeggning Jaemtland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkdalen, Ulla; Falkdalen Lindahl, Lars; Nygaard, Torgeir

    2013-08-15

    A survey of the bird populations in Oldfjaellen in Jaemtland county, Sweden, was initiated in 2003 prior to the construction of a wind-farm on two adjacent hills, Storrun and Froesoerun by the lake Oevre Oldsjoen. After a gap in the surveys in 2004, comprehensive studies were continued during 2005 - 2008, prior to the construction. The construction-work started during autumn 2008, and the turbines were erected during 2009. Power production was started during the autumn of 2009. The post-construction bird studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011. This report summarizes all the studies that were performed before and after the construction of the wind-farm. Many of the separate studies were made using a BACI method (Before-After-Control-Impact) enabling comparisons of the situation before and after development, using a control area. In addition, a study of collision rates and scavenger removal rates is reported. As expected, the movement and migration of birds over Storrun was of rather limited magnitude. Although the majority of observations during the investigated periods spring and autumn are assumed to be migrating birds, larger flocks of birds are rare in the area. Ca. 20 % of all the birds that passed through or near the wind-farm area flew in heights comparable to the rotor-swept zone. However, more than 40 % of the raptors and waders passed through in that zone, which implies a collision risk. These two groups of birds have shown to be particularly prone to collisions with rotor blades in other studies.

  18. Bird surveys at Stokes Point and Philips Bay, Yukon in 1983. No. 40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L; Aiudi, G M

    1988-01-01

    The distribution, abundance, and habitat preferences of birds were studied at Stokes Point, Phillips Bay and King Point in the northern Yukon in 1983. These data were gathered to assist in decisions about future development of a port to support marine drilling activities in the Beaufort Sea. Nesting bird densities at Stokes Point were similar to those found elsewhere on the Yukon Coastal Plain due to the similarity in habitat. The lagoon at Stokes Point was locally important to molting ducks. Several species occurred in higher densities at Phillips Bay than elsewhere on the Plain, mainly due to the deltas and spits created by rivers flowing into the Bay. These deltas were locally important to such species as molting non-breeding tundra swans, Canada geese, and ducks. During ground surveys in June, habitat was classified into 13 types and the nesting density for each bird species calculated for each habitat type. Overall bird densities were more than 3 times higher in lowland than in upland habitats. Passerine densities and species were highest in the tall shrub type of habitat found primarily in stream and river valleys. The Yukon Coastal Plain is an important nesting area for the stilt sandpiper, which has a limited breeding range. The Plain is also nationally important for nesting long-billed dowitchers and yellow wagtails, both fairly common in the study area but with very limited breeding distribution within Canada. The Plain is also internationally important to fall staging snow geese. 38 refs., 17 figs., 35 tabs.

  19. In vivo measurement of aerodynamic weight support in freely flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2014-11-01

    Birds dynamically change the shape of their wing during the stroke to support their body weight aerodynamically. The wing is partially folded during the upstroke, which suggests that the upstroke of birds might not actively contribute to aerodynamic force production. This hypothesis is supported by the significant mass difference between the large pectoralis muscle that powers the down-stroke and the much smaller supracoracoideus that drives the upstroke. Previous works used indirect or incomplete techniques to measure the total force generated by bird wings ranging from muscle force, airflow, wing surface pressure, to detailed kinematics measurements coupled with bird mass-distribution models to derive net force through second derivatives. We have validated a new method that measures aerodynamic force in vivo time-resolved directly in freely flying birds which can resolve this question. The validation of the method, using independent force measurements on a quadcopter with pulsating thrust, show the aerodynamic force and impulse are measured within 2% accuracy and time-resolved. We demonstrate results for quad-copters and birds of similar weight and size. The method is scalable and can be applied to both engineered and natural flyers across taxa. The first author invented the method, the second and third authors validated the method and present results for quadcopters and birds.

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory: an integrated scientific program supporting research and conservation of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) was established in 1920 after ratification of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act with the United Kingdom in 1918. During World War II, the BBL was moved from Washington, D.C., to what is now the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC). The BBL issues permits and bands to permittees to band birds, records bird band recoveries or encounters primarily through telephone and Internet reporting, and manages more than 72 million banding records and more than 4.5 million records of encounters using state-of-the-art technologies. Moreover, the BBL also issues bands and manages banding and encounter data for the Canadian Bird Banding Office (BBO). Each year approximately 1 million bands are shipped from the BBL to banders in the United States and Canada, and nearly 100,000 encounter reports are entered into the BBL systems. Banding data are essential for regulatory programs, especially migratory waterfowl harvest regulations. The USGS BBL works closely with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to develop regulations for the capture, handling, banding, and marking of birds. These regulations are published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In 2006, the BBL and the USFWS Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM) began a comprehensive revision of the banding regulations. The bird banding community has three major constituencies: Federal and State agency personnel involved in the management and conservation of bird populations that include the Flyway Councils, ornithological research scientists, and avocational banders. With increased demand for banding activities and relatively constant funding, a Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) was chartered and reviewed the BBL program in 2005. The final report of the Committee included six major goals and 58 specific recommendations, 47 of which have been addressed by the BBL. Specifically, the Committee recommended the BBL continue to support science

  1. A survey of temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltvold, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    Many different techniques for measuring temperature have been surveyed and are discussed. The concept of temperature and the physical phenomena used in temperature measurement are also discussed. Extensive tables are presented in which the range and accuracy of the various techniques and other related data are included. (author)

  2. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1991-03-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, B.J.; Dickson, D.L.; Dickson, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua; Dai, Feiyan; Liu, Zili; Yuan, Feizhou; Zhao, Siyue; Xiang, Xun; Zou, Fengcai; Zeng, Bangquan; Fan, Yating; Duan, Gang

    2014-02-03

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log₂. The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China' s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present survey have significant public health concerns.

  5. Embryonic eggshell thickness erosion: A literature survey re-assessing embryo-induced eggshell thinning in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Hałupka, Lucyna

    2015-01-01

    Although eggshell thinning has been described mainly in the context of environmental pollution, it can also be the effect of reproductive changes induced by a developing embryo. On the basis of a literature survey of 25 bird species (26 published papers) we reviewed data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in three groups of birds: precocials, semi-precocials and altricials. The average EET at the equator of the eggs was 6.4% (median = 4.7%). Our review did not confirm a general prediction of elevated EET at the egg equator in precocial species: altricial birds exhibited the highest EET (average = 12.0%), followed by precocials (7.6%) and semi-precocials (4.2%). We make certain critical recommendations based on the results of this study. Studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness should examine intrinsic factors affecting shell properties of avian eggs, like thickness, which are the result of anatomical or reproductive changes. - Highlights: • We reviewed literature data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in birds. • The average EET at the equator of the eggs of 25 bird species was 6.4%. • Altricial birds exhibited the highest EET, followed by precocials and semi-precocials. • All studies on variation in eggshell thickness should take EET into consideration. - Our study emphasizes the need to consider embryo-induced eggshell thinning in studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness

  6. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy I. Wellicome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grassland bird species continue to decline steeply across North America. Road-based surveys such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS are often used to estimate trends and population sizes and to build species distribution models for grassland birds, although roadside survey counts may introduce bias in estimates because of differences in habitats along roadsides and in off-road surveys. We tested for differences in land cover composition and in the avian community on 21 roadside-based survey routes and in an equal number of adjacent off-road walking routes in the grasslands of southern Alberta, Canada. Off-road routes (n = 225 point counts had more native grassland and short shrubs and less fallow land and road area than the roadside routes (n = 225 point counts. Consequently, 17 of the 39 bird species differed between the two route types in frequency of occurrence and relative abundance, measured using an indicator species analysis. Six species, including five obligate grassland species, were more prevalent at off-road sites; they included four species listed under the Canadian federal Species At Risk Act or listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada: Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii, Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii, the Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus, and McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii. The six species were as much as four times more abundant on off-road sites. Species more prevalent along roadside routes included common species and those typical of farmland and other human-modified habitats, e.g., the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris, the Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia, and the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus. Differences in avian community composition between roadside and off-road surveys suggest that the use of BBS data when generating population estimates or distribution models may overestimate certain common species and underestimate others of conservation

  7. Comparing the results of recall surveys and standardized searches in understanding bird-window collisions at houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year a large number of birds die when they collide with windows. The actual number is difficult to ascertain. Previous attempts to estimate bird-window collision rates in Canada relied heavily on a prior citizen-science study that used memory-based surveys. Such an approach to data collection has many potential biases. We built upon this study and its recommendations for future research by creating a citizen-science program that actively searched for collision evidence at houses and apartments for an extended period with the objective to see how standardized approaches to data collection compared with memory recall. Absolute collision estimates as well as relative differences were compared between residence types in the two studies, and we found considerable differences in absolute values for collisions but similar rankings of collision rates between residence types. Collision recall rates in our study (56.5% were very similar those in the prior 2012 study, where 50.5% of participants remembered a bird colliding with a window at some time in the past. Fatality estimates, however, were 1.4 times higher in the 2012 study than in our study based on standardized searches. Rural houses with a bird feeder consistently had the highest number of collisions. This suggests that memory recall surveys may be a useful tool for understanding the relative importance of different risk factors causing bird-window collisions.

  8. Radioactivity measurements on migrating birds (Turdus philomelos) captured in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, E.; Roldan, C.; Cervera, J.; Ferrero, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated

  9. Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    Using Jamin-Lebedeff interference microscopy, we measured the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of butterfly wing scales and bird feathers. The refractive index values of the glass scales of the butterfly Graphium sarpedon are, at wavelengths 400, 500 and 600 nm, 1.572, 1.552 and 1.541,

  10. Using the North American Breeding Bird Survey to assess broad-scale response of the continent's most imperiled avian community, grassland birds, to weather variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzo, Jessica; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Allstadt, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Avian populations can respond dramatically to extreme weather such as droughts and heat waves, yet patterns of response to weather at broad scales remain largely unknown. Our goal was to evaluate annual variation in abundance of 14 grassland bird species breeding in the northern mixed-grass prairie in relation to annual variation in precipitation and temperature. We modeled avian abundance during the breeding season using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the U.S. Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17) from 1980 to 2012. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to fit models and estimate the candidate weather parameters standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized temperature index (STI) for the same year and the previous year. Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) responded positively to within-year STI (β = 0.101), and Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii) responded negatively to within-year STI (β = −0.161) and positively to within-year SPI (β = 0.195). The parameter estimates were superficially similar (STI β = −0.075, SPI β = 0.11) for Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), but the best-selected model included an interaction between SPI and STI. The best model for both Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) and Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) included the additive effects of within-year SPI (β = −0.032 and β = −0.054, respectively) and the previous-year's SPI (β = −0.057 and −0.02, respectively), although for Vesper Sparrow the lag effect was insignificant. With projected warmer, drier weather during summer in the Badlands and Prairies BCR, Baird's and Grasshopper sparrows may be especially threatened by future climate change.

  11. A Stakeholder Survey on Live Bird Market Closures Policy for Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces. Combining efforts of anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and veterinarians can be useful to elucidate the drivers behind poultry traders’ reactions and better understanding the barriers to implementing risk mitigation measures. In this paper, we present results from a stakeholder survey of LBM stakeholders in Vietnam. Our qualitative data show that trading outside formal markets is very likely to occur in the event of a temporary LBM market closure. Our data show that the poultry value chain in Vietnam remains highly flexible, with traders willing and able to trade poultry in many possible locations. Our results indicate that simplification of the poultry value chain along with strict enforcement, engagement of stakeholders, and adequate communication would be a necessary prerequisite before market closure could be an effective policy.

  12. A Stakeholder Survey on Live Bird Market Closures Policy for Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Thuy; Fearnley, Lyle; Dinh, Xuan Tung; Tran, Thi Tram Anh; Tran, Trong Tung; Nguyen, Van Trong; Tago, Damian; Padungtod, Pawin; Newman, Scott H; Tripodi, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs) play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs) including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces. Combining efforts of anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and veterinarians can be useful to elucidate the drivers behind poultry traders' reactions and better understanding the barriers to implementing risk mitigation measures. In this paper, we present results from a stakeholder survey of LBM stakeholders in Vietnam. Our qualitative data show that trading outside formal markets is very likely to occur in the event of a temporary LBM market closure. Our data show that the poultry value chain in Vietnam remains highly flexible, with traders willing and able to trade poultry in many possible locations. Our results indicate that simplification of the poultry value chain along with strict enforcement, engagement of stakeholders, and adequate communication would be a necessary prerequisite before market closure could be an effective policy.

  13. Passerine morphology: external measurements of approximately one-quarter of passerine bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-05-01

    Studies of community organization and clade diversification that include functional traits have become an important component of the analysis of ecological and evolved systems. Such studies frequently are limited by availability of consistently collected data. Here, I present a data set including eight measurements of the external morphology of 1642 species, roughly one-quarter of all passerine birds (Aves: Order Passeriformes), from all parts of the world, characterizing the relative proportions of the wing, tail, legs, and beak. Specimens were measured opportunistically over the past 40 years in museums in the United States and Europe. Numbers of individuals measured per species vary from one to dozens in some cases. Measurements for males and females of sexually size-dimorphic species are presented separately. The measurements include total length, the lengths of the wing, tail, tarsus, and middle toe, and the length, breadth, and depth of the beak. Particular attention was paid to obtaining a broad representation of passerine higher taxa, with special interest in small families and subfamilies of passerines, as well as species produced by evolutionary radiations of birds in archipelagoes, including the Galapagos, Hawaii, and the Lesser Antilles. Taxonomy follows the Taxonomy in Flux (TIF) checklist as well as the World Bird List of the International Ornithological Council. Geographic distributions are summarized from Edwards's Coded List of Birds of the World. Coverage of taxa and geographic regions varies and reflects the changing interests of the author over the past four decades. North American and South American species are particularly well represented in the sample, as well as species belonging to the families Tyrannidae, Furnariidae, Thamnophilidae, Mimidae, Sturnidae, Fringillidae, Parulidae, Icteridae, Cardinalidae, and Thraupidae. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Influence of call broadcast timing within point counts and survey duration on detection probability of marsh breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol recommends point counts consisting of a 5-min passive observation period, meant to be free of broadcast bias, followed by call broadcasts to entice elusive species to reveal their presence. Prior to this protocol, some monitoring programs used point counts with broadcasts during the first 5 min of 10-min counts, and have since used 15-min counts with an initial 5-min passive period (P1 followed by 5 min of broadcasts (B and a second 5-min passive period (P2 to ensure consistency across years and programs. Influence of timing of broadcasts within point counts and point count duration, however, have rarely been assessed. Using data from 23,973 broadcast-assisted 15-min point counts conducted throughout the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region between 2008 and 2016 by Bird Studies Canada's Marsh Monitoring Program and Central Michigan University's Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program, we estimated detection probabilities of individuals for 14 marsh breeding bird species during P1B compared to BP2, P1 compared to P2, and P1B compared to P1BP2. For six broadcast species and American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus, we found no significant difference in detection during P1B compared to BP2, and no significant difference in four of the same seven species during P1 compared to P2. We observed small but significant differences in detection for 7 of 14 species during P1B compared to P1BP2. We conclude that differences in timing of broadcasts causes no bias based on counts from entire 10-minute surveys, although P1B should be favored over BP2 because the same amount of effort in P1B avoids broadcast bias in all broadcast species, and 10-min surveys are superior to 15-min surveys because modest gains in detection of some species does not warrant the additional effort. We recommend point counts consisting of 5 min of passive observation followed by broadcasts, consistent with the standardized

  15. Market survey of level measurement equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In a market survey of level measurement equipment from 42 manufacturers, which is based on different principles of measurement and which is used for different applications, the data of the various manufacturers is compiled. (orig./HP) [de

  16. A brief survey of the birds in Kumbira Forest, Gabela, Angola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In January 2004 we conducted a rapid assessment of the avifauna of the Kumbira Forest, situated in the Gabela Important Bird Area (IBA) of the Angolan Escarpment. We recorded 112 species in the Kumbira Forest, four of them globally threatened, and another 46 species in the surrounding area. We report on the breeding ...

  17. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  18. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    A breeding bird survey in the Istranca (Yıldız) mountains of Turkish Thrace seawards to the Black sea was conducted May–August 2009. Eighty-eight days of field work in 697 locations generated novel breeding evidence for several species. The survey provided the first certain evidence of Wood Warbl...

  19. Serologic survey of birds for West Nile Flavivirus in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Honza, Marcel; Janková, J.; Chytil, J.; Marec, František; Sitko, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2008), s. 659-666 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : virus West Nile * virus Usutu * Flaviviridae * mosquito -borne viruses * birds Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2008

  20. Large-scale wind energy and birds in Friesland: A survey of the possible hindrance for birds of the project Windstreek: Environmental Effect Report Windstreek, Base report A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, L.M.J.; Spaans, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    For several alternative sites in the Dutch province Friesland, where it is planned to install 500 kW and 1 MW wind turbines on a large scale (the Windstreek project), the possible hindrance for breeding birds, stopping birds and migratory birds has been investigated. First an overview is given of basic data from the literature and experts in the field with regard to the possible hindrances for birds and the situation of the birds in the areas considered. Next, several criteria are used to determine which locations are the most suitable sites for placing the wind turbines. For the 500 kW wind turbines (worst case) the suitability differs strongly per site. The variation is the largest for the option of decentralized sites. Realization of 200 MW large-scale generated wind power is the least unfavourable option, regarding the effects on birds, by means of decentralized sites. The super-structure option Afsluitdijk-Waddenkust and the Project Memorandum alternative are for that matter the least favourable options. The combined alternative and the super-structure Middelzeetrechter take the in-between position. The 1MW variants of the alternatives score better than the similar 500 kW options. The hindrance for birds can be reduced further by applying two-bladed rotors instead of three-bladed rotors and to adjust the site. 20 figs., 9 tabs., 2 appendices, 42 refs

  1. Measurement, variation, and scaling of osteocyte lacunae: a case study in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emic, Michael D; Benson, Roger B J

    2013-11-01

    Basic issues surrounding osteocyte biology are still poorly understood, including the variability of osteocyte morphology within and among bones, individuals, and species. Several studies have suggested that the volume or shape of osteocytes (or their lacunae) is related to bone and/or organismal growth rate or metabolism, but the nature of this relationship, if any, is unclear. Furthermore, several studies have linked osteocyte lacuna volume with genome size or growth rate and suggested that osteocyte lacuna volume is unrelated to body size. Herein the scaling of osteocyte lacuna volume with body mass, growth and basal metabolic rates, genome size, and red blood cell size is examined using a broad sample of extant birds within a phylogenetic framework. Over 12,000 osteocyte lacuna axes were measured in a variety of bones from 34 avian and four non-avian dinosaur species. Osteocyte lacunae in parallel-fibered bone are scalene ellipsoids; their morphology and volume cannot be reliably estimated from any single thin section, and using a prolate ellipsoid model to estimate osteocyte lacuna volume results in a substantial (ca. 2-7 times) underestimate relative to true lacunar volume. Orthogonal thin sections reveal that in birds, even when only observing parallel-fibered, primary, cortical bone, intra-skeletal variation in osteocyte lacuna volume and shape is very high (volumes vary by a factor of 5.4 among different bones), whereas variation among homologous bones of the same species is low (1.2-44%; mean=12%). Ordinary and phylogenetically informed bivariate and multiple regressions demonstrate that in birds, osteocyte volume scales significantly but weakly with body mass and mass-specific basal metabolic rate and moderately with genome size, but not with erythrocyte size. Avian whole-body growth rate and osteocyte lacuna volume are weakly and inversely related. Finally, we present the first three-dimensionally calculated osteocyte volumes for several non

  2. Measurement of smoking: surveys and some recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, R H; Rosen, T J; Williams, C

    1982-01-01

    A survey of smoking cessation researchers found considerable disagreement in the measurement procedures used to determine treatment outcome. The survey investigated (1) the duration of the measurement interval used to determine abstinence and smoking rate; (2) procedures for classifying people who smoke after treatment but are abstinent at follow-up; and (3) procedures for classifying people who use marijuana or tobacco products other than cigarettes. The marked disagreement among researchers' survey responses was compounded by the failure of their published articles to explain how smoking had been measured and scored. The Discussion identifies long-term abstinence as the most critical problem; its measurement was least consistent procedurally across studies yet most important for comparing them. Recommendations are made for establishing measurement and reporting conventions.

  3. Measuring and exposures from National Media Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media ...... surveys themselves that might invalidate or give unreliable measures, both when measuring a single exposure and accumulated exposures. Four media types will be discussed: TV, radio, print and the internet.......Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media...

  4. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available , while the best measurements of dark energy models will come from galaxy autocorrelation function analyses. Using a combination of the EvolutionaryMap of the Universe (EMU) and WODAN to provide a full-sky survey, it will be possible to measure the dark...

  5. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  6. Measuring the gut microbiome in birds: Comparison of faecal and cloacal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videvall, Elin; Strandh, Maria; Engelbrecht, Anel; Cloete, Schalk; Cornwallis, Charlie K

    2018-05-01

    The gut microbiomes of birds and other animals are increasingly being studied in ecological and evolutionary contexts. Numerous studies on birds and reptiles have made inferences about gut microbiota using cloacal sampling; however, it is not known whether the bacterial community of the cloaca provides an accurate representation of the gut microbiome. We examined the accuracy with which cloacal swabs and faecal samples measure the microbiota in three different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (ileum, caecum, and colon) using a case study on juvenile ostriches, Struthio camelus, and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that faeces were significantly better than cloacal swabs in representing the bacterial community of the colon. Cloacal samples had a higher abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and fewer Clostridia relative to the gut and faecal samples. However, both faecal and cloacal samples were poor representatives of the microbial communities in the caecum and ileum. Furthermore, the accuracy of each sampling method in measuring the abundance of different bacterial taxa was highly variable: Bacteroidetes was the most highly correlated phylum between all three gut sections and both methods, whereas Actinobacteria, for example, was only strongly correlated between faecal and colon samples. Based on our results, we recommend sampling faeces, whenever possible, as this sample type provides the most accurate assessment of the colon microbiome. The fact that neither sampling technique accurately portrayed the bacterial community of the ileum nor the caecum illustrates the difficulty in noninvasively monitoring gut bacteria located further up in the gastrointestinal tract. These results have important implications for the interpretation of avian gut microbiome studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  8. Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda:Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; Kuchta, Roman; Salgado-Madonado, Guillermo

    2002-07-01

    A survey of adults of dilepidid tapeworms (Cyclophyllidea) from piscivorous birds from Mexico is presented on the basis of the taxonomic evaluation of freshly collected and voucher specimens. The following species are reported (first records from Mexico marked with an asterisk): Cyclustera capito (Rudolphi, 1819); *C. ibisae (Schmidt & Bush, 1972); *Dendrouterina ardeae Rausch, 1955; *D. herodiae Fuhrmann, 1912; *D. papillifera (Fuhrmann, 1908); Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1819); *Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855); Paradilepis caballeroi Rysavy & Macko, 1973; Paradilepis sp.; Parvitaenia cochlearii Coil, 1955; and Valipora mutabilis Linton, 1927. Dendrouteria herodiae is reported from America for the first time. New definitive hosts are Phalacrocorax olivaceus for C. capito, N. cheilancristrotus and P. caballeroi; Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula for G. auritus; and E. thula for D. herodiae. Data on the morphology of the rostellar hooks of all species, their hosts and distribution in Mexico are provided.

  9. Bird nesting and droppings control on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report provides a comprehensive literature survey of permanent and temporary deterrents to nesting and roosting, a : discussion of risks to human health and safety from exposure to bird nests and droppings and recommended protective measures, : ...

  10. Filling the gaps: Using count survey data to predict bird density distribution patterns and estimate population sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierdsema, H.; van Loon, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    Birds play an increasingly prominent role in politics, nature conservation and nature management. As a consequence, up-to-date and reliable spatial estimates of bird distributions over large areas are in high demand. The requested bird distribution maps are however not easily obtained. Intensive

  11. Digital Accessible Knowledge and well-inventoried sites for birds in Mexico: baseline sites for measuring faunistic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Townsend Peterson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Faunal change is a basic and fundamental element in ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology, yet vanishingly few detailed studies have documented such changes rigorously over decadal time scales. This study responds to that gap in knowledge, providing a detailed analysis of Digital Accessible Knowledge of the birds of Mexico, designed to marshal DAK to identify sites that were sampled and inventoried rigorously prior to the beginning of major global climate change (1980. Methods We accumulated DAK records for Mexican birds from all relevant online biodiversity data portals. After extensive cleaning steps, we calculated completeness indices for each 0.05° pixel across the country; we also detected ‘hotspots’ of sampling, and calculated completeness indices for these broader areas as well. Sites were designated as well-sampled if they had completeness indices above 80% and >200 associated DAK records. Results We identified 100 individual pixels and 20 broader ‘hotspots’ of sampling that were demonstrably well-inventoried prior to 1980. These sites are catalogued and documented to promote and enable resurvey efforts that can document events of avifaunal change (and non-change across the country on decadal time scales. Conclusions Development of repeated surveys for many sites across Mexico, and particularly for sites for which historical surveys document their avifaunas prior to major climate change processes, would pay rich rewards in information about distributional dynamics of Mexican birds.

  12. Digital Accessible Knowledge and well-inventoried sites for birds in Mexico: baseline sites for measuring faunistic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Faunal change is a basic and fundamental element in ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology, yet vanishingly few detailed studies have documented such changes rigorously over decadal time scales. This study responds to that gap in knowledge, providing a detailed analysis of Digital Accessible Knowledge of the birds of Mexico, designed to marshal DAK to identify sites that were sampled and inventoried rigorously prior to the beginning of major global climate change (1980). We accumulated DAK records for Mexican birds from all relevant online biodiversity data portals. After extensive cleaning steps, we calculated completeness indices for each 0.05° pixel across the country; we also detected 'hotspots' of sampling, and calculated completeness indices for these broader areas as well. Sites were designated as well-sampled if they had completeness indices above 80% and >200 associated DAK records. We identified 100 individual pixels and 20 broader 'hotspots' of sampling that were demonstrably well-inventoried prior to 1980. These sites are catalogued and documented to promote and enable resurvey efforts that can document events of avifaunal change (and non-change) across the country on decadal time scales. Development of repeated surveys for many sites across Mexico, and particularly for sites for which historical surveys document their avifaunas prior to major climate change processes, would pay rich rewards in information about distributional dynamics of Mexican birds.

  13. How well do regional or national Breeding Bird Survey data predict songbird population trends at an intact boreal site?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S. Machtans

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to monitor boreal songbird trends was initiated in 1998 in a relatively undisturbed and remote part of the boreal forest in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Eight years of point count data were collected over the 14 years of the study, 1998-2011. Trends were estimated for 50 bird species using generalized linear mixed-effects models, with random effects to account for temporal (repeat sampling within years and spatial (stations within stands autocorrelation and variability associated with multiple observers. We tested whether regional and national Breeding Bird Survey (BBS trends could, on average, predict trends in our study area. Significant increases in our study area outnumbered decreases by 12 species to 6, an opposite pattern compared to Alberta (6 versus 15, respectively and Canada (9 versus 20. Twenty-two species with relatively precise trend estimates (precision to detect > 30% decline in 10 years; observed SE ≤ 3.7%/year showed nonsignificant trends, similar to Alberta (24 and Canada (20. Precision-weighted trends for a sample of 19 species with both reliable trends at our site and small portions of their range covered by BBS in Canada were, on average, more negative for Alberta (1.34% per year lower and for Canada (1.15% per year lower relative to Fort Liard, though 95% credible intervals still contained zero. We suggest that part of the differences could be attributable to local resource pulses (insect outbreak. However, we also suggest that the tendency for BBS route coverage to disproportionately sample more southerly, developed areas in the boreal forest could result in BBS trends that are not representative of range-wide trends for species whose range is centred farther north.

  14. Hospital safety climate surveys: measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeanette; Sarac, Cakil; Flin, Rhona

    2010-12-01

    Organizational safety culture relates to behavioural norms in the workplace and is usually assessed by safety climate surveys. These can be a diagnostic indicator on the state of safety in a hospital. This review examines recent studies using staff surveys of hospital safety climate, focussing on measurement issues. Four questionnaires (hospital survey on patient safety culture, safety attitudes questionnaire, patient safety climate in healthcare organizations, hospital safety climate scale), with acceptable psychometric properties, are now applied across countries and clinical settings. Comparisons for benchmarking must be made with caution in case of questionnaire modifications. Increasing attention is being paid to the unit and hospital level wherein distinct cultures may be located, as well as to associated measurement and study design issues. Predictive validity of safety climate is tested against safety behaviours/outcomes, with some relationships reported, although effects may be specific to professional groups/units. Few studies test the role of intervening variables that could influence the effect of climate on outcomes. Hospital climate studies are becoming a key component of healthcare safety management systems. Large datasets have established more reliable instruments that allow a more focussed investigation of the role of culture in the improvement and maintenance of staff's safety perceptions within units, as well as within hospitals.

  15. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  16. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  17. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  18. Bird Surveys at DARHT Before and During Operations: Comparison of Species Abundance and Composition and Trace Element Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez, D. C. Keller, C. D. Hathcock

    2007-11-30

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Mitigation Action Plan specifies the comparison of baseline conditions in biotic and abiotic media with those collected after operations have started. Operations at DARHT at Los Alamos National Laboratory started in 2000. In this study, the abundance and composition of birds collected near the DARHT facility from 2003 through 2006 were determined and compared to a preoperational period (1999). In addition, the levels of radionuclides and other inorganic chemicals in birds were compared to regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). The number and diversity of bird species generally increased over preoperational levels with the greatest number of birds (412) and species (46) occurring in 2005. The most common bird species collected regardless of time periods were the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), the Virginia's warbler (Vermivora virginiae), the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli), and the western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). Most radionuclides, with the exception of uranium-234 and uranium-238, in (whole body) birds collected after operations began were either not detected or below RSRLs. Uranium-234 and uranium-238 concentrations in a few samples were far below screening levels and do not pose a potential unacceptable dose to the birds. In contrast, many inorganic chemicals, particularly arsenic and silver, in birds collected before and after operations began were in higher concentrations than RSRLs. Because birds (skin plus feathers) collected in the years before operations began contained higher levels of arsenic and silver than RSRLs and because there was no evidence of these metals in soil and sediment directly around the DARHT facility, the elevated levels of these metals in birds during early operations are probably not related to DARHT operations. Arsenic and silver in birds, however

  19. Surveys of forest bird populations found in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the district of Puna, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, J.D.; Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Nielsen, B.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents data on the distribution and status of forest bird species found within the vicinity of proposed geothermal resource development on the Island of Hawaii. Potential impacts of the proposed development on the native bird populations found in the project are are addressed

  20. Surveys of forest bird populations found in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the district of Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, J.D.; Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Nielsen, B.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents data on the distribution and status of forest bird species found within the vicinity of proposed geothermal resource development on the Island of Hawaii. Potential impacts of the proposed development on the native bird populations found in the project are are addressed.

  1. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  2. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  3. Levantamento das aves marinhas no percurso Rio de Janeiro: Bahia (Brasil A survey of the marine birds in the route Rio de Janeiro: Bahía (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Pacheco Coelho

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine birds were surveyed between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, latitudes 24º44'S and 17º50'S, from July to September 1984. Sixteen species were recorded belonging to six families, with most sightings occurring between 24º44'S and 22º3$'S. Data suggest two distinct communities, the more southerly one is represented by Daption capense and the one further north by Puffinus gravis.

  4. A survey report: how hospitals measure liquidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O; Massar, G S

    1983-11-01

    Liquidity is an important financial concept that is widely understood although not authoritatively defined. In many situations the actual assessment of liquidity is based on the relationship of current assets and current liabilities. Nationally, a decline in traditional measures of liquidity such as current and quick ratios has occurred for both general industry and the hospital industry. There are a variety of possible explanations for this trend, but one of special interest in this article was the effect of financial reporting practices. A recent Principles & Practices Board survey of Financial Analysis Service subscribers indicated that there is a potential for underreporting working capital, (current assets less current liabilities), in the hospital industry. However, this does not necessarily imply that the recent decline in liquidity measures is in any way due to reporting practices. No information about changes in reporting practices was obtained in this study. Finally, the results of the study do suggest that examination of more than one liquidity indicator is useful. Specifically, restricting attention to just the current ratio could be misleading. In this vein, it is interesting to note that six measures of liquidity are used in the FAS. All may provide insight into an accurate assessment of liquidity.

  5. Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: red list indices for birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart H M Butchart

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid destruction of the planet's biodiversity has prompted the nations of the world to set a target of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. However, we do not yet have an adequate way of monitoring progress towards achieving this target. Here we present a method for producing indices based on the IUCN Red List to chart the overall threat status (projected relative extinction risk of all the world's bird species from 1988 to 2004. Red List Indices (RLIs are based on the number of species in each Red List category, and on the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status. The RLI for all bird species shows that their overall threat status has continued to deteriorate since 1988. Disaggregated indices show that deteriorations have occurred worldwide and in all major ecosystems, but with particularly steep declines in the indices for Indo-Malayan birds (driven by intensifying deforestation of the Sundaic lowlands and for albatrosses and petrels (driven by incidental mortality in commercial longline fisheries. RLIs complement indicators based on species population trends and habitat extent for quantifying global trends in the status of biodiversity. Their main weaknesses are that the resolution of status changes is fairly coarse and that delays may occur before some status changes are detected. Their greatest strength is that they are based on information from nearly all species in a taxonomic group worldwide, rather than a potentially biased subset. At present, suitable data are only available for birds, but indices for other taxonomic groups are in development, as is a sampled index based on a stratified sample from all major taxonomic groups.

  6. Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Ofer; Suto, Yasushi

    2004-01-01

    Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious dark energy (or Einstein's cosmological constant). We describe several methodologies of using galaxy redshift surveys as cosmological probes, and then summarize the recent results from the existing surveys. Finally we present our views on the future of redshift surveys in the era of precision cosmology.

  7. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  8. Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahav Ofer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious dark energy (or Einstein's cosmological constant. We describe several methodologies of using galaxy redshift surveys as cosmological probes, and then summarize the recent results from the existing surveys. Finally we present our views on the future of redshift surveys in the era of precision cosmology.

  9. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  10. Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, R.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2002), s. 171-182 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : cestodes * parasites of birds * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2002

  11. Birds surveyed in the harvested and unharvested areas of a reduced-impact logged forestry concession, located in the lowland subtropical humid forests of the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felton, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a larger study of reduced-impactlogging effects on bird community composition,we surveyed birds from December to Februaryduring the 2003-2004 wet-season within harvestedand unharvested blocks of the La Chonta forestryconcession, Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.The logged forest was harvested using reduced-impactlogging techniques between one and fouryears previously. During point count surveys, weidentified 5062 individual birds, belonging to 155species, and 33 families. We provide a list of birdspecies found within the harvested andunharvested blocks of the concession for thebenefit of other researchers assessing theresponses of Neotropical avifauna to disturbance,and to facilitate increased understanding of thediverse bird assemblages found within thelowland subtropical humid forests of Bolivia.

  12. Survey of patterns, levels, and trends of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms and bird eggs from representative German ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdel, Heinz; Müller, Josef; Jürling, Heinrich; Bartel-Steinbach, Martina; Koschorreck, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) covering particularly the years 1994-1996, 2000-2002, and 2006-2009 were analyzed for perfluorinated compounds (PFC; mainly C4-C13 carboxylic and sulfonic acids) to gain an overview on current PFC levels and patterns in marine, limnetic, and terrestrial biota; to assess their concentrations in different trophic levels; and to investigate whether risk management measures for PFC are successful. Specimens, either standardized annual pooled samples (blue mussels, eelpout liver, bream liver, pigeon eggs) or individual single samples (cormorant eggs, rook eggs), were collected for the German ESB program from representative sampling sites according to documented guidelines. After appropriate extraction, PFC were quantified under ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation by HPLC/MS-MS with isotopically labeled internal standards. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.2-0.5 ng/g. Data are reported on a wet weight basis. In most samples the predominant PFC was perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). However, in marine mussels from North and Baltic Seas, PFOS levels were mostly below the LOQ, but low residues of PFOS amide were found which declined in recent years. Livers of eelpout showed maximum concentrations of 15-25 ng/g PFOS in the period 2000-2002 and low amounts of perfluoropentanoate in all years. Beside PFOS (median 48 ng/g) several PFC could be determined in cormorant eggs sampled in 2009 from a Baltic Sea site. For a freshwater ecosystem, current PFC burdens for cormorant eggs were even higher (median 400 ng/g PFOS). Livers of bream from rivers showed concentrations of 130-260 ng/g PFOS, but for bream from a reference lake levels were only about 6 ng/g. In contrast to cormorants, eggs of rook and feral pigeon from terrestrial ecosystems displayed only low PFC burdens (up to 6 ng/g PFOS). Generally, PFC levels were lower in marine than in freshwater biota. PFC burdens were higher in biota from the ESB-North Sea sites than

  13. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  14. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Christy A.; Elliott, John E.; Ormerod, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in δ 13 C (C. cinclus) or δ 15 N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  15. On the use of 10-minute point counts and 10-species lists for surveying birds in lowland Atlantic Forests in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid and continuous deforestation, recent bird surveys in the Atlantic Forest are following rapid assessment programs to accumulate significant amounts of data during short periods of time. During this study, two surveying methods were used to evaluate which technique rapidly accumulated most species (> 90% of the estimated empirical value at lowland Atlantic Forests in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Birds were counted during the 2008-2010 breeding seasons using 10-minute point counts and 10-species lists. Overall, point counting detected as many species as lists (79 vs. 83, respectively, and 88 points (14.7 h detected 90% of the estimated species richness. Forty-one lists were insufficient to detect 90% of all species. However, lists accumulated species faster in a shorter time period, probably due to the nature of the point count method in which species detected while moving between points are not considered. Rapid assessment programs in these forests will rapidly detect more species using 10-species lists. Both methods shared 63% of all forest species, but this may be due to spatial and temporal mismatch between samplings of each method.

  16. Measuring Sexual Violence on Campus: Climate Surveys and Vulnerable Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke; Jones, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2014 "Not Alone" report on campus sexual assault, the use of climate surveys to measure sexual violence on campuses across the United States has increased considerably. The current study utilizes a quasi meta-analysis approach to examine the utility of general campus climate surveys, which include a measure of sexual violence,…

  17. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  18. Measuring customer satisfaction using SERQUAL survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Tajzadeh Namin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is on assessing the quality of services of Tehran’s Saman bank and the available gap between customer’s expectation and perception. Also the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and each dimension of service quality (ie: reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance and empathy and ranking them accordingly, is investigated. The statistical population of this research is consisted of Tehran’s Saman bank customers. The research methods of this study are descriptive-survey as well as correlation. The statistical approaches of this study are correlation, t-student as well as Friedman tests. The results from a sample of 276, shows the service quality dimensions affect customers' perception based on SERQUAL. In addition, there are significant relationship between customers' perception and their satisfaction of the offered services. However, there are negative gaps between customers' perception and their level of expectation.

  19. The influence of small urban parks characteristics on bird diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasmani, Zanariah; Ravn, Hans Peter; van den Bosch, Cecil C.Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    using the combined field survey method of structured observation and field measurements. The measured variables were divided into three broad categories of physical characteristics, species richness and human factors. Bird species richness and abundance were used as the indicators for assessing...... biodiversity. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were conducted to analyse the relationships between variables and to identify which variables had a significant effect on bird species richness and abundance. The results demonstrated that park area and vegetation variables (e.g. the percentage...... of tree canopy cover, open grass/ground, native-exotic plants) are the important predictors of bird species richness and abundance. The percentage of canopy covers (negative relation) and park area (positive relation) are the best predictors of bird species richness in small urban parks. Meanwhile...

  20. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available is to measure the cosmo- logical parameters of particular current interest. Among the biggest challenges in cosmology is to determine whether the standard � cold dark matter (CDM) model and its general relativity (GR) con- text are correct, or whether we need a... as a function of redshift and the bias of different source populations as a function of red- shift. These are required in order to make predictions for cosmo- logical probes, such as the autocorrelation function and the cross- correlation of radio...

  1. Survey of Type I ELM dynamics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A W; Asakura, N; Boedo, J A; Becoulet, M; Counsell, G F; Eich, T; Fundamenski, W; Herrmann, A; Horton, L D; Kamada, Y; Kirk, A; Kurzan, B; Loarte, A; Neuhauser, J; Nunes, I; Oyama, N; Pitts, R A; Saibene, G; Silva, C; Snyder, P B; Urano, H; Wade, M R; Wilson, H R

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Type I edge localized mode (ELM) dynamics measurements from a number of tokamaks, including ASDEX-Upgrade, DIII-D, JET, JT-60U and MAST, with the goal of providing guidance and insight for the development of ELM simulation and modelling. Several transport mechanisms are conjectured to be responsible for ELM transport, including convective transport due to filamentary structures ejected from the pedestal, parallel transport due to edge ergodization or magnetic reconnection and turbulent transport driven by the high edge gradients when the radial electric field shear is suppressed. The experimental observations are assessed for their validation, or conflict, with these ELM transport conjectures

  2. Nematode parasites of Brazilian pelecaniformes and trogoniformes birds: a general survey with new records for the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Júlio Vicente

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with the identification of one hundred and seventy-one samples of nematodes recovered from Brazilian birds collected by Lauro Travassos and his staff, between 1921-1960. Aprocta travassossi Caballero, 1938, Aprocta sp., Baruscapillaria appendiculata (Freitas, 1933 Moravec, 1982, Contracaecum plagiaticium Lent & Freitas, 1948, C. spiculigerum (Rudolphi, 1809 Railliet & Henry, 1912, Contracaecum sp., Cyrnea (C. semilunaris (Molin, 1860 Seurat, 1914, Oxyspirura sp., Paronchocerca ibanezi (Freitas, Vicente & Pinto, 1970 Anderson &. Bain, 1976, Porrocaecum sp., Procyrnea sp., Skrjabinura spiralis Gnédina, 1933, Subulura acutissima Molin, 1860, S. bentocruzi Barreto, 1919, S. travassossi Barreto, 1919, Subulura sp. and Tetrameres sp. were studied. Contracaecum spiculigerum and Aprocta travassossi are redescribed and referred for the first time in South America. New host records were established for most of the species.

  3. Errors in practical measurement in surveying, engineering, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.A.; Morris, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses statistical measurement, error theory, and statistical error analysis. The topics of the book include an introduction to measurement, measurement errors, the reliability of measurements, probability theory of errors, measures of reliability, reliability of repeated measurements, propagation of errors in computing, errors and weights, practical application of the theory of errors in measurement, two-dimensional errors and includes a bibliography. Appendices are included which address significant figures in measurement, basic concepts of probability and the normal probability curve, writing a sample specification for a procedure, classification, standards of accuracy, and general specifications of geodetic control surveys, the geoid, the frequency distribution curve and the computer and calculator solution of problems

  4. MEASUREMENT OF FRICTIONAL PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS DURING A VENTILATION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.S. Prosser, PE; I.M. Loomis, PE, PhD

    2003-01-01

    During the course of a ventilation survey, both airflow quantity and frictional pressure losses are measured and quantified. The measurement of airflow has been extensively studied as the vast majority of ventilation standards/regulations are tied to airflow quantity or velocity. However, during the conduct of a ventilation survey, measurement of airflow only represents half of the necessary parameters required to directly calculate the airway resistance. The measurement of frictional pressure loss is an often misunderstood and misapplied part of the ventilation survey. This paper compares the two basic methods of frictional pressure drop measurements; the barometer and the gauge and tube. Personal experiences with each method will be detailed along with the authors' opinions regarding the applicability and conditions favoring each method

  5. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  6. Tritium water as a marker for the measurement of body water turnover rates in desert livestock, rodent and bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Ghosh, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated water has been used for estimating body water turnover rates (BWTRs) in desert livestock, rodent and birds. BWTRs in relation to adaption of these animal species to desert environment have been discussed. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutuk, H.; Guemues, H.; Turhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kizilirmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg -1 , respectively. 137 Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg -1 . From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated. (authors)

  8. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuk, Halil; Gümüs, Hasan; Turhan, Seref

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kızılırmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (137)Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg(-1). From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated.

  9. A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Seok Choi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.

  10. Detectability in Audio-Visual Surveys of Tropical Rainforest Birds: The Influence of Species, Weather and Habitat Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexander S.; Marques, Tiago A.; Shoo, Luke P.; Williams, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Indices of relative abundance do not control for variation in detectability, which can bias density estimates such that ecological processes are difficult to infer. Distance sampling methods can be used to correct for detectability, but in rainforest, where dense vegetation and diverse assemblages complicate sampling, information is lacking about factors affecting their application. Rare species present an additional challenge, as data may be too sparse to fit detection functions. We present analyses of distance sampling data collected for a diverse tropical rainforest bird assemblage across broad elevational and latitudinal gradients in North Queensland, Australia. Using audio and visual detections, we assessed the influence of various factors on Effective Strip Width (ESW), an intuitively useful parameter, since it can be used to calculate an estimate of density from count data. Body size and species exerted the most important influence on ESW, with larger species detectable over greater distances than smaller species. Secondarily, wet weather and high shrub density decreased ESW for most species. ESW for several species also differed between summer and winter, possibly due to seasonal differences in calling behavior. Distance sampling proved logistically intensive in these environments, but large differences in ESW between species confirmed the need to correct for detection probability to obtain accurate density estimates. Our results suggest an evidence-based approach to controlling for factors influencing detectability, and avenues for further work including modeling detectability as a function of species characteristics such as body size and call characteristics. Such models may be useful in developing a calibration for non-distance sampling data and for estimating detectability of rare species. PMID:26110433

  11. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  12. Individual Social Capital and Its Measurement in Social Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With its popularity has come an unresolved issue about social capital: is it an individual or a collective property, or both? Many researchers take it for granted that social capital is collective, but most social surveys implicitly measure social capital at the individual level. After reviewing the definitions by Bourdieu, Coleman, and Putnam, I become to agree with Portes that social capital can be an individual asset and should be firstly analyzed as such; if social capital is to be analyzed as a collective property, then the analysis should explicitly draw on a clear definition of individual social capital. I thus define individual social capital as the features of social groups or networks that each individual member can access and use for obtaining further benefits. Four types of features are identified (basic, specific, generalized, and structural, and example formulations of survey questions are proposed. Following this approach, I then assess some survey questions organized under five themes commonly found in social surveys for measuring social capital: participation in organizations, social networks, trust, civic participation, and perceptions of local area. I conclude that most of these themes and questions only weakly or indirectly measure individual social capital; therefore, they should be strengthened with the conceptual framework proposed in this paper and complemented with the items used in independent surveys on social networks.

  13. Measuring Nonresponse Bias in a Cross-Country Enterprise Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bańkowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonresponse is a common issue affecting the vast majority of surveys. Efforts to convince those unwilling to participate in a survey might not necessary result in a better picture of the target population and can lead to higher, not lower, nonresponse bias.We investigate the impact of non-response in the European Commission & European Central Bank Survey on the Access to Finance of Enterprises (SAFE, which collects evidence on the financing conditions faced by European SMEs compared with those of large firms. This survey, conducted by telephone bi-annually since 2009 by the ECB and the European Commission, provides a valuable means to search for this kind of bias, given the high heterogeneity of response propensities across countries.The study relies on so-called “Representativity Indicators” developed within the Representativity Indicators of Survey Quality (RISQ project, which measure the distance to a fully representative response. On this basis, we examine the quality of the SAFE Survey at different stages of the fieldwork as well as across different survey waves and countries. The RISQ methodology relies on rich sampling frame information, which is however partly limited in the case of the SAFE. We also assess the representativeness of the SAFE particular subsample created by linking the survey responses with the companies’ financial information from a business register; this sub-sampling is another potential source of bias which we also attempt to quantify. Finally, we suggest possible ways how to improve monitoring of the possible nonresponse bias in the future rounds of the survey.

  14. Measurement of Ethnic Background in Cross-national School Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Krølner, Rikke; Páll, Gabrilla

    2011-01-01

    Indicators such as country of birth and language spoken at home have been used as proxy measures for ethnic background, but the validity of these indicators in surveys among school children remains unclear. This study aimed at comparing item response and student-parent agreement on four questions...

  15. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  16. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  17. Coordinated bird monitoring: Technical recommendations for military lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Manning, Ann; Fischer, Richard; Eberly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is subject to several rules and regulations establishing responsibilities for monitoring migratory birds. The Sikes Act requires all military installations with significant natural resources to prepare and implement Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs). These plans guide the conservation and long-term management of natural resources on military lands in a manner that is compatible with and sustains the military mission. An INRMP also supports compliance with all legal requirements and guides the military in fulfilling its obligation to be a good steward of public land.The management and conservation of migratory birds is addressed in installation INRMPs. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate and disclose the potential environmental impacts of their proposed actions. More recently, DoD signed an MOU (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/EO13186_MOU-DoD.pdf) for migratory birds, under Executive Order 13186, with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in July 2006 and a Migratory Bird Rule (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/MigBirdFINALRule_FRFeb2007.pdf) was passed by Congress in February 2007. The Migratory Bird Rule addresses the potential impacts of military readiness activities on populations of migratory birds and establishes a process to implement conservation measures if and when a military readiness activity is expected to have a significant adverse impact on a population of migratory bird species (as determined through the NEPA process). The MOU states that for nonmilitary readiness activities, prior to initiating any activity likely to affect populations of migratory birds DoD shall (1) identify the migratory bird species likely to occur in the area of the proposed action and determine if any species of concern could be affected by the activity, and (2) assess and document, using NEPA when applicable, the effect of the proposed action on species of concern. By

  18. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had meat or egg) production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  19. Production of plastic scintillation survey meter for clearance verification measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Tomii, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    In the Nuclear Science Research Institute, the decommissioning of various nuclear facilities is carried out according to the plan for meeting the midterm goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). An increase in the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas will be expected along with the dismantlement of nuclear facilities in the future. The radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas has been carried out in small-scale nuclear facilities including the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). However, the radiation measurement with an existing measuring device was difficult in effects of radiation from radioactive materials that remains in buried piping. On the other hand, there is no experience that the clearance verification measurement is executed in the JAEA. The generation of a large amount of clearance object will be expected along with the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the future. The plastic scintillation survey meter (hereafter, 'PL measuring device') was produced to apply to the clearance verification measurement and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. The basic characteristic test and the actual test were confirmed using the PL measuring device. As a result of these tests, it was found that the evaluation value of radioactivity with the PL measuring device was accuracy equal with the existing measuring device. The PL measuring device has feature of the existing measuring device with a light weight and easy operability. The PL measuring device can correct the gamma ray too. The PL measuring device is effective to the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. (author)

  20. Experimental Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method to Find the Mass Properties of an Iron Bird Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander W.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Fladung, William A.; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    The mass properties of an aerospace vehicle are required by multiple disciplines in the analysis and prediction of flight behavior. Pendulum oscillation methods have been developed and employed for almost a century as a means to measure mass properties. However, these oscillation methods are costly, time consuming, and risky. The NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center has been investigating the Dynamic Inertia Measurement, or DIM method as a possible alternative to oscillation methods. The DIM method uses ground test techniques that are already applied to aerospace vehicles when conducting modal surveys. Ground vibration tests would require minimal additional instrumentation and time to apply the DIM method. The DIM method has been validated on smaller test articles, but has not yet been fully proven on large aerospace vehicles.

  1. TT detector description and implementation of the survey measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Salzmann, C

    2008-01-01

    The TT geometry in the software has been updated to comply with the latest technical drawings. The main difference is in the description of the beam pipe insulation, where the amount of material has increased from $7.5\\%$ to $15.4\\%$ of $X_0$. Mother volumes are added to decrease the CPU consumption and finally several scans are made to compare the material budget between the DC06 geometry and the new 2008 geometry. In addition, the survey measurements of the TT detector have been analysed. These measurements can be subdivided into surveys of the detector box, photogrammetry of the balconies and metrology of the half-modules. The offsets with the nominal geometry are implemented in the alignment condition database.

  2. Digital Accessible Knowledge and well-inventoried sites for birds in Mexico: baseline sites for measuring faunistic change

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Navarro-Sig?enza, Adolfo G.; Mart?nez-Meyer, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Background Faunal change is a basic and fundamental element in ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology, yet vanishingly few detailed studies have documented such changes rigorously over decadal time scales. This study responds to that gap in knowledge, providing a detailed analysis of Digital Accessible Knowledge of the birds of Mexico, designed to marshal DAK to identify sites that were sampled and inventoried rigorously prior to the beginning of major global climate change (1980). M...

  3. Measuring Substance Use and Misuse via Survey Research: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews unfinished business regarding the assessment of substance use behaviors by using survey research methodologies, a practice that dates back to the earliest years of this journal's publication. Six classes of unfinished business are considered including errors of sampling, coverage, non-response, measurement, processing, and ethics. It may be that there is more now that we do not know than when this work began some 50 years ago.

  4. Measuring redshift-space distortions using photometric surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ashley; Percival, Will; Crocce, M.; Cabre, A.; Gaztanaga, E.

    2011-01-01

    We outline how redshift-space distortions (RSD) can be measured from the angular correlation function w({\\theta}), of galaxies selected from photometric surveys. The natural degeneracy between RSD and galaxy bias can be minimized by comparing results from bins with top-hat galaxy selection in redshift, and bins based on the radial position of galaxy pair centres. This comparison can also be used to test the accuracy of the photometric redshifts. The presence of RSD will be clearly detectable ...

  5. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  6. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  7. Measurements with the new PHE neutron survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.S.; Tanner, R.J.; Hager, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    A novel design of survey instrument has been developed to accurately estimate ambient dose equivalent from neutrons with energies in the range from thermal to 20 MeV. The device features moderating and attenuating layers to ease measurement of fast and intermediate energy neutrons, combined with guides that channel low-energy neutrons to the single, central detector. A prototype of this device has been constructed and exposed to a set of calibration fields: the resulting measured responses are presented and discussed here, and compared against Monte Carlo data. A simple simulated workplace neutron field has also been developed to test the device. Measured response data have been determined for a prototype design of neutron survey instrument, using facilities at PHE and NPL. In general, the results demonstrated good directional invariance and agreed well with data obtained by Monte Carlo modelling, raising confidence in the accuracy of the response characteristics expected for the device. A simple simulated workplace field has also been developed and characterised, and the performance of the device assessed in it: agreement between measured and modelled results suggests that the device would behave as anticipated in real workplace fields. These performances will be investigated further in the future, as the design makes the transition from a research prototype to a commercially available instrument. (authors)

  8. A Survey on Security-Aware Measurement in SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networking (SDN is one of the most prevailing networking paradigms in current and next-generation networks. Basically, the highly featured separation of control and data planes makes SDN a proper solution towards many practical problems that challenge legacy networks, for example, energy efficiency, dynamic network configuration, agile network measurement, and flexible network deployment. Although the SDN and its applications have been extensively studied for several years, the research of SDN security is still in its infancy. Typically, the SDN suffers from architecture defect and OpenFlow protocol loopholes such as single controller problem, deficiency of communication verification, and network resources constraint. Hence, network measurement is a fundamental technique of protecting SDN against the above security threats. Specifically, network measurement aims to understand and quantify a variety of network behaviors to facilitate network management and monitoring, anomaly detection, network troubleshooting, and the establishment of security mechanisms. In this paper, we present a systematic survey on security-aware measurement technology in SDN. In particular, we first review the basic architecture of SDN and corresponding security challenges. Then, we investigate two performance measurement techniques in SDN, namely, link latency and available bandwidth measurements. After that, we further provide a general overview of topology measurement in SDN including intradomain and interdomain topology discovering techniques. Finally, we list three interesting future directions of security-aware measurement in SDN followed by giving conclusion remarks.

  9. Bird observations in Severnaya Zemlya, Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de ext. Korte, J.; Volkov, A.E; Gavrilo, M.V

    Fieldwork in different parts of Severnaya Zemlya in 1985, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and aerial surveys in 1994 revealed a limited bird fauna with a total of 17 breeding species. The most numerous breeding birds are cliff-nesting seabirds, comprising little auk (Alle alle), 10 000-80 000 pairs; kittiwake

  10. Response of bird community structure to habitat management in piñon-juniper woodland-sagebrush ecotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Grace, James B.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Leu, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have been expanding their range across the intermountain western United States into landscapes dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) shrublands. Management actions using prescribed fire and mechanical cutting to reduce woodland cover and control expansion provided opportunities to understand how environmental structure and changes due to these treatments influence bird communities in piñon-juniper systems. We surveyed 43 species of birds and measured vegetation for 1–3 years prior to treatment and 6–7 years post-treatment at 13 locations across Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. We used structural equation modeling to develop and statistically test our conceptual model that the current bird assembly at a site is structured primarily by the previous bird community with additional drivers from current and surrounding habitat conditions as well as external regional bird dynamics. Treatment reduced woodland cover by >5% at 80 of 378 survey sites. However, habitat change achieved by treatment was highly variable because actual disturbance differed widely in extent and intensity. Biological inertia in the bird community was the strongest single driver; 72% of the variation in the bird assemblage was explained by the community that existed seven years earlier. Greater net reduction in woodlands resulted in slight shifts in the bird community to one having ecotone or shrubland affinities. However, the overall influence of woodland changes from treatment were relatively small and were buffered by other extrinsic factors. Regional bird dynamics did not significantly influence the structure of local bird communities at our sites. Our results suggest that bird communities in piñon-juniper woodlands can be highly stable when management treatments are conducted in areas with more advanced woodland development and at the level of disturbance measured in our study.

  11. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, A. H.; Abido, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs), when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research. PMID:24701191

  12. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  13. Cosmic shear measurements with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present measurements of weak gravitational lensing cosmic shear two-point statistics using Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. We demonstrate that our results are robust to the choice of shear measurement pipeline, either ngmix or im3shape, and robust to the choice of two-point statistic, including both real and Fourier-space statistics. Our results pass a suite of null tests including tests for B-mode contamination and direct tests for any dependence of the two-point functions on a set of 16 observing conditions and galaxy properties, such as seeing, airmass, galaxy color, galaxy magnitude, etc. We use a large suite of simulations to compute the covariance matrix of the cosmic shear measurements and assign statistical significance to our null tests. We find that our covariance matrix is consistent with the halo model prediction, indicating that it has the appropriate level of halo sample variance. We also compare the same jackknife procedure applied to the data and the simulations in order to search for additional sources of noise not captured by the simulations. We find no statistically significant extra sources of noise in the data. The overall detection significance with tomography for our highest source density catalog is 9.7σ. Cosmological constraints from the measurements in this work are presented in a companion paper

  14. Weak lensing Study in VOICE Survey I: Shear Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liping; Liu, Dezi; Radovich, Mario; Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Covone, Giovanni; Vaccari, Mattia; Amaro, Valeria; Brescia, Massimo; Capaccioli, Massimo; De Cicco, Demetra; Grado, Aniello; Limatola, Luca; Miller, Lance; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Pignata, Giuliano

    2018-06-01

    The VST Optical Imaging of the CDFS and ES1 Fields (VOICE) Survey is a Guaranteed Time program carried out with the ESO/VST telescope to provide deep optical imaging over two 4 deg2 patches of the sky centred on the CDFS and ES1 pointings. We present the cosmic shear measurement over the 4 deg2 covering the CDFS region in the r-band using LensFit. Each of the four tiles of 1 deg2 has more than one hundred exposures, of which more than 50 exposures passed a series of image quality selection criteria for weak lensing study. The 5σ limiting magnitude in r- band is 26.1 for point sources, which is ≳1 mag deeper than other weak lensing survey in the literature (e.g. the Kilo Degree Survey, KiDS, at VST). The photometric redshifts are estimated using the VOICE u, g, r, i together with near-infrared VIDEO data Y, J, H, Ks. The mean redshift of the shear catalogue is 0.87, considering the shear weight. The effective galaxy number density is 16.35 gal/arcmin2, which is nearly twice the one of KiDS. The performance of LensFit on such a deep dataset was calibrated using VOICE-like mock image simulations. Furthermore, we have analyzed the reliability of the shear catalogue by calculating the star-galaxy cross-correlations, the tomographic shear correlations of two redshift bins and the contaminations of the blended galaxies. As a further sanity check, we have constrained cosmological parameters by exploring the parameter space with Population Monte Carlo sampling. For a flat ΛCDM model we have obtained Σ _8 = σ _8(Ω _m/0.3)^{0.5} = 0.68^{+0.11}_{-0.15}.

  15. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...- 2010 average (3.4 0.03 million). As expected, residual water from summer 2010 precipitation remained in... preliminary 2010 Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program (HIP) estimate of harvest was 84,900 birds. In... trend in the population indices between 1966 and 2010. According to HIP surveys, the preliminary harvest...

  16. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... million). Residual water remains in the Parklands and these were classified as fair to good. Most of the... stabilized at around 100,000 birds; the preliminary 2009 Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program (HIP... and 2009. According to HIP surveys, the preliminary harvest estimate for 2009 was 66,100 white-winged...

  17. An assesment of measurement invariance between online and mail surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutskens, E.C.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the latest trends in marketing research is the increasing use of online surveys, which offer lower costs and faster responses. Yet, critics question whether data collected via online surveys are equivalent to data collected via traditional mail surveys. Since existing evidence from the

  18. A GIS-based model of Serengeti grassland bird species | Gottschalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted on the Serengeti Plains, Tanzania, combining (1) records from a bird survey, (2) local measurements of vegetation structure and precipitation, and (3) a habitat map derived from a Landsat satellite image classification. The question of whether ground-based or satellite data explained more of the ...

  19. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumescent liposuction report performance measurement initiative: national survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, William; Cox, Sue Ellen; Kuznets, Naomi; Coleman, William P

    2004-07-01

    This study was created by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement to measure clinical performance and improvement opportunities for physicians and ambulatory health-care organizations. Data were collected prospectively between February 2001 and August 2002. Thirty-nine study centers participated, and 688 patients who had tumescent liposuction were surveyed and followed for 6 months. The objective was to determine patient satisfaction with tumescent liposuction and examine current liposuction practice and the safety of tumescent liposuction in a representative cohort of patients. The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement collected prospective data from February 2001 to August 2002 from 68 organizations registered for this study. Ultimately 39 organizations submitted 688 useable cases performed totally with local anesthesia, "tumescent technique." The overall clinical complication rate found in the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement study was 0.7% (5 of 702). There was a minor complication rate of 0.57%. The major complication rate was 0.14% with one patient requiring hospitalization. Seventy-five percent of the patients reported no discomfort during their procedures. Of the 59% of patients who responded to a 6-month postoperative survey, 91% were positive about their decision to have liposuction (rating of 4 or 5 on a scale of 1-5) and 84% had high levels (4 or 5 on a scale of 1-5) of overall satisfaction with the procedure. Our findings are consistent with others in that tumescent liposuction is a safe procedure with a low complication rate and high patient satisfaction.

  1. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  2. The adequacy of measures of gender roles attitudes: a review of current measures in omnibus surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jessica Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    The measures of attitudes toward gender roles included in many representative international and national omnibus surveys were developed mostly in the 1970s and 1980s with a focus on the male breadwinner model. This article deals with the issue of whether the measures provided in these omnibus surveys need to be adjusted to specific social changes. A review of these measures has found that adjustments have occurred in a limited way that focused on the role of women and disregarded the role of men. Furthermore, most of these measures only examined the traditional roles of men and women. More egalitarian role models have not been considered sufficiently. In addition, most items that have been measured are phrased in a general form and, for example, do not specify parents' employment or the ages of children. A specification of these aspects of measurement would help to clarify the conceptual meaning of the results and increase the possibility of more accurately analyzing gender role attitudes over time.

  3. Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Ticks Collected from Birds in Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H. Nicholls; S.M. Callister

    1996-01-01

    In a tick-spirochete survey conducted from fall 1989 through fall 1992 in northwestern Wisconsin, 4,256 birds (composed of 91 species) were examined for ticks. Infestations were recorded for 400 birds (composed of 30 species). Of 1,184 ticks taken from 335 birds (composed of 26 species), 60 (5%) Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) from eight species of birds were...

  4. Measuring fertility through mobile‒phone based household surveys: Methods, data quality, and lessons learned from PMA2020 surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonjoung Choi; Qingfeng Li; Blake Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Background: PMA2020 is a survey platform with resident enumerators using mobile phones. Instead of collecting full birth history, total fertility rates (TFR) have been measured with a limited number of questions on recent births. Employing new approaches provides opportunities to test and advance survey methods. Objective: This study aims to assess the quality of fertility data in PMA2020 surveys, focusing on bias introduced from the questionnaire and completeness and distribution of birth...

  5. Biosecurity and bird movement practices in upland game bird facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Katharine E; Hill, Ashley E; Keefe, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2011-06-01

    Since 1996, the emergence of Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has spurred great concern for the global poultry industry. In the United States, there is concern over the potential of a foreign avian disease incursion into the country. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as upland game bird facilities in the United States, may serve as a potential source of avian disease introduction to other bird populations including the commercial poultry industry, backyard flocks, or wildlife. In order to evaluate how to prevent disease transmission from these facilities to other populations, we examined biosecurity practices and bird movement within the upland game bird industry in the United States. Persons that held a current permit to keep, breed, or release upland game birds were surveyed for information on biosecurity practices, flock and release environments, and bird movement parameters. Biosecurity practices vary greatly among permit holders. Many facilities allow for interaction between wild birds and pen-reared birds, and there is regular long-distance movement of live adult birds among facilities. Results suggest that upland game bird facilities should be targeted for biosecurity education and disease surveillance efforts.

  6. Quantitative Laughter Detection, Measurement, and Classification-A Critical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Sarah; Sessa, Salvatore; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    The study of human nonverbal social behaviors has taken a more quantitative and computational approach in recent years due to the development of smart interfaces and virtual agents or robots able to interact socially. One of the most interesting nonverbal social behaviors, producing a characteristic vocal signal, is laughing. Laughter is produced in several different situations: in response to external physical, cognitive, or emotional stimuli; to negotiate social interactions; and also, pathologically, as a consequence of neural damage. For this reason, laughter has attracted researchers from many disciplines. A consequence of this multidisciplinarity is the absence of a holistic vision of this complex behavior: the methods of analysis and classification of laughter, as well as the terminology used, are heterogeneous; the findings sometimes contradictory and poorly documented. This survey aims at collecting and presenting objective measurement methods and results from a variety of different studies in different fields, to contribute to build a unified model and taxonomy of laughter. This could be successfully used for advances in several fields, from artificial intelligence and human-robot interaction to medicine and psychiatry.

  7. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  8. Measuring the Accuracy of Survey Responses using Administrative Register Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Lassen, David Dreyer; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how Danish administrative register data can be combined with survey data at the person level and be used to validate information collected in the survey. Register data are collected by automatic third party reporting and the potential errors associated with the two data sources...

  9. Comparing econometric and survey-based methodologies in measuring offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    such as the national or regional level. Most macro analyses are based on proxies and trade statistics with limitations. Drawing on unique Danish survey data, this article demonstrates how survey data can provide important insights into the national scale and impacts of offshoring, including changes of employment...

  10. Estimating the Impact of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bird strikes have the potential to cause severe damage to aircraft. Therefore, measures to reduce the risk of bird strikes are performed at airports. However, this risk is not limited to the airport but is increased in the arrival and departure corridors as well. Consequently, a significant amount

  11. Population trends of Goričko agricultural landscape birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denac Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to numerous bird surveys in the past 20 years, the avifauna of Goričko is relatively well known. For some species, the very first national ecological researches were conducted in this area. The article summarizes all bird surveys so far. It presents population trends of farmland species which is one of the most threatened bird groups in Europe. Most of the qualifying species of this habitat that are protected within the Natura 2000 network have suffered a decline at Goričko, specifically Quail Coturnix coturnix, Scops Owl Otus scops, Hoopoe Upupa epops, Woodlark Lullula arborea and White Stork Ciconia ciconia. The number of breeding pairs of the latter has not changed, but its fecundity has decreased. Furthermore, populations of other farmland bird species have decreased, for example Skylark Alauda arvensis, Stonechat Saxicola rubicola, Serin Serinus serinus and Common Linnet Linaria cannabina, as well as butterfly populations and tracts of grassland habitat types. National agricultural and nature conservation policies are evidently inefficient in protecting the biodiversity of Goričko. The most probable cause for bird population decline is agricultural intensification, which manifests itself at Goričko as disappearance and intensification of meadows, land consolidation, degradation of traditional orchards and use of pesticides. As a result of land consolidation hedges, uncultivated strips between fields, individual trees and bushes and minority habitat types are disappearing, whereas the surface of arable fields is increasing. Nature conservation measures performed by the Public Institute Goričko Nature Park with the support of DOPPS – BirdLife Slovenia volunteers seem to be efficient, but are spatially and temporally constrained. For this reason, they cannot serve as a substitute for insufficient systemic financing which could be improved by substantive and financial reform of the agri-environmental scheme. Currently, a negligible

  12. WT Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    A new method for monitoring of bird collisions has been developed using video and audio registrations that are triggered by sound and vibration measurements. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. After the successful proof of principle and evaluation on small land-based turbines the system is now being designed for offshore wind farms. Currently the triggering system and video and audio registration are being tested on large land-based wind turbines using bird dummies. Tests of three complete prototype systems are planned for 2005.

  13. WT-Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H.J. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    A new method for registration of bird collisions has been developed using video cameras and microphones combined with event triggering by acoustic vibration measurement. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. Currently a prototype system is being tested on an offshore-scale land-based wind turbine using bird dummies. After these tests we planned to perform endurance tests on other land-based turbines under offshore-like conditions.

  14. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  15. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into 'active' drill hole methods, and 'passive' indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial 'leak' of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm -1 , temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  16. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  17. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pet’s health Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases. If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption: Contact your veterinarian. Inform the pet ...

  18. Audubon Bird Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are a student reader, "The Story of Birds," a leaders' guide, a large colored Audubon bird chart, and a separate guide for the chart. The student reader is divided into eleven sections which relate to the various physical and behavioral features of birds such as feathers, feeding habits as related to the shape of bills and feet, nests,…

  19. Experimental Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method to Find the Mass Properties of an Iron Bird Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, N. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, M. C. [CDM Smith (United States); Haines, A. M. [Xcel Engineering, Inc.(United States); Evans, J. W. [Tennessee WIldlife Resources Agency (WRA), Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950-2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species--approximately 10% of the total number of species observed--have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. Kelly [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, Murray [CDM Smith, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haines, Angelina [Xcel Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, James W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, Robert Trent [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950 2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species approximately 10% of the total number of species observed have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  2. Species Diversity and Bird Feed in Residential Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinoto; Suhesti, Eni

    2017-12-01

    Bird is one component of the ecosystem which has an important role in supporting the occurrence of an organism's life cycle. Therefore, the presence of birds in an area is important, because it can affect the existence and distribution of plant species. The purpose of this study is to calculate the diversity of bird species and identify the source of bird feed in the compound. This study was conducted by field surveys in the residential complex. In addition to the birds as a research object vegetation as habitat / foraging birds were also observed. Data were analyzed by using the bird diversity index, richenes index, bundance index, dominance analysis, analysis of bird distribution and analysis of the level of meeting types, while vegetation will be analyzed based on the type and part of what is eaten by birds. In Pandau Jaya housing complex, found as many as 12 species of birds which consists of seven families. Bird species often present is Cucak Kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster) of 20 individuals, Bondol Peking (Lonchura punctulata) 14 individuals and Perkutut Jawa (Geopelia striata) 10 individuals. Bird species diversity (H ‘) in Pandau Jaya housing complex is still relatively moderate with a value of 2.27, while the Evenness Index (E) of 0.91 and Richenes Index (R) of 2.45. Types of vegetation as a food source, among others: mango, guava, cherry, jackfruit, ketapang, coconut, areca, palm, banana, papaya, flowers and grasses.

  3. Towards predicting wading bird densities from predicted prey densities in a post-barrage Severn estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goss-Custard, J.D.; McGrorty, S.; Clarke, R.T.; Pearson, B.; Rispin, W.E.; Durell, S.E.A. le V. dit; Rose, R.J.; Warwick, R.M.; Kirby, R.

    1991-01-01

    A winter survey of seven species of wading birds in six estuaries in south-west England was made to develop a method for predicting bird densities should a tidal power barrage be built on the Severn estuary. Within most estuaries, bird densities correlated with the densities of widely taken prey species. A barrage would substantially reduce the area of intertidal flats available at low water for the birds to feed but the invertebrate density could increase in the generally more benign post-barrage environmental conditions. Wader densities would have to increase approximately twofold to allow the same overall numbers of birds to remain post-barrage as occur on the Severn at present. Provisional estimates are given of the increases in prey density required to allow bird densities to increase by this amount. With the exception of the prey of dunlin, these fall well within the ranges of densities found in other estuaries, and so could in principle be attained in the post-barrage Severn. An attempt was made to derive equations with which to predict post-barrage densities of invertebrates from easily measured, static environmental variables. The fact that a site was in the Severn had a significant additional effect on invertebrate density in seven cases. This suggests that there is a special feature of the Severn, probably one associated with its highly dynamic nature. This factor must be identified if the post-barrage densities of invertebrates are to be successful predicted. (author)

  4. Threshold responses of forest birds to landscape changes around exurban development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount and configuration (arrangement for forest and forest-edge species around North America Breeding Bird Survey (BBS stops between 1986 and 2009. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect change points in species occurrence at two spatial extents (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results show that exurban development reduced forest cover and increased habitat fragmentation around BBS stops. Forest birds responded nonlinearly to most measures of habitat loss and fragmentation at both the local and landscape extents. However, the strength and even direction of the response changed with the extent for several of the metrics. The majority of forest birds' responses could be predicted by their habitat preferences indicating that management practices in exurban areas might target the maintenance of forested habitats, for example through easements or more focused management for birds within existing or new protected areas.

  5. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  7. Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria. ... Randomly selected 54 poultry bird marketers were surveyed in 5 major markets. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a Structural Equation Modelling ... satisfaction (5 dimensions), and leadership and transformational issues (7 dimensions). ... and customers directly. ... Further into the future, some experts predict that the majority of all survey research ...... In addition, the perceived questionnaire length.

  9. Measuring corruption in Europe: Public opinion surveys and composite indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chábová, Kristýna

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2017), s. 1877-1900 ISSN 0033-5177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015066 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Corruption * Surveys * Quantitative * Europe Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.094, year: 2016

  10. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  11. Birds of Sabaragamuwa University campus, Buttala, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Surasinghe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a bird survey in the Sabaragamuwa University premises in southeastern Sri Lanka between 2001 and 2004. We recorded 145 bird species, representing 17 orders and 51 families from the campus. The birdlife included Red-faced Malkoha, a globally Vulnerable species and four Near Threatened taxa. The university premises suffer from severe habitat alteration largely owing to fire, filling-up of aquatic habitats, resource over-extraction, improper waste management, invasion by exotic species and livestock grazing. Several conservation measures, including habitat management strategies such as restoration of riparian vegetation, and wetlands, increasing plant diversity in home gardens and prevention of secondary successions in grasslands are recommended to protect the campus environment and to conserve its avifaunal diversity.

  12. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  13. Avifaunal diversity and bird community responses to man-made habitats in St. Coombs Tea Estate, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey on birds was conducted at St. Coombs Tea Estate, Talawakelle, Sri Lanka with the objective of assessing the avifaunal diversity of a given tea plantation ecosystem. Bird populations were sampled in man-made habitats such as home garden, wetland, tea plantation, Eucalyptus plantation and small scale reservoir. Hundred-and-twenty counts were made for each habitat and in addition, activities of birds, feeding habits and food recourses were also observed. A total of 87 species, including 11 endemic and 11 migrant species of birds, was recorded, which included one globally threatened species, Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra and 16 nationally threatened species. A majority of the bird species were observed in home gardens (75%, followed by reservoirs (57%, wetlands (48%, tea plantations (43% and in Eucalyptus plantations (23%. Home gardens support bird diversity while the species richness of endemic bird species increases thereby enabling these findings to be used as guidelines in long term conservational practices. Several conservation measures such as increasing plant diversity, introduction of shade trees and prevention of fire are recommended to conserve and enhance avifaunal diversity in tea plantations.

  14. The Army Communications Objectives Measurement System (ACOMS): Survey Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    tiveness, assessments of advertising strategy efficiencies, management of the advertising program, and planning and development of new marketing strategies... advertising strategy and market segmentation. The ACOMS development effort has focused on specifying the design and analysis plan for the survey...second set of goals involves the use of ACOMS data to assess the Army’s advertising strategy . ACOMS is examining the extent to which the Army’s in

  15. The birds of Blyth Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, D.; Carver, H.; Little, B.; Lawrence, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Blyth Harbour Wind Farm, constructed upon an exposed pier, is not a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is designated to become a RAMSAR location because of the presence of a significant population of the Purple Sandpiper. A study of the effect of the wind farm on the birds was started before the wind farm was constructed and is ongoing. Initial evidence of how the wind turbines have affected the 110 varieties of birds recorded within the harbour will be presented and compared to previous research carried out in Europe and the USA. Methodology has included intensive beach surveys, visits to wind farms in the UK and USA and consultations with wildlife advisory bodies. The study will continue until 1996. (Author)

  16. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  17. Impacts of Sublethal Mercury Exposure on Birds: A Detailed Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Margaret C; Cristol, Daniel A

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant known to accumulate in, and negatively affect, fish-eating and oceanic bird species, and recently demonstrated to impact some terrestrial songbirds to a comparable extent. It can bioaccumulate to concentrations of >1 μg/g in tissues of prey organisms such as fish and insects. At high enough concentrations, exposure to mercury is lethal to birds. However, environmental exposures are usually far below the lethal concentrations established by dosing studies.The objective of this review is to better understand the effects of sublethal exposure to mercury in birds. We restricted our survey of the literature to studies with at least some exposures >5 μg/g. The majority of sublethal effects were subtle and some studies of similar endpoints reached different conclusions. Strong support exists in the literature for the conclusion that mercury exposure reduces reproductive output, compromises immune function, and causes avoidance of high-energy behaviors. For some endpoints, notably certain measures of reproductive success, endocrine and neurological function, and body condition, there is weak or contradictory evidence of adverse effects and further study is required. There was no evidence that environmentally relevant mercury exposure affects longevity, but several of the sublethal effects identified likely do result in fitness reductions that could adversely impact populations. Overall, 72% of field studies and 91% of laboratory studies found evidence of deleterious effects of mercury on some endpoint, and thus we can conclude that mercury is harmful to birds, and the many effects on reproduction indicate that bird population declines may already be resulting from environmental mercury pollution.

  18. Disentangling how landscape spatial and temporal heterogeneity affects Savanna birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Price

    Full Text Available In highly seasonal tropical environments, temporal changes in habitat and resources are a significant determinant of the spatial distribution of species. This study disentangles the effects of spatial and mid to long-term temporal heterogeneity in habitat on the diversity and abundance of savanna birds by testing four competing conceptual models of varying complexity. Focussing on sites in northeast Australia over a 20 year time period, we used ground cover and foliage projected cover surfaces derived from a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, rainfall data and site-level vegetation surveys to derive measures of habitat structure at local (1-100 ha and landscape (100-1000s ha scales. We used generalised linear models and an information theoretic approach to test the independent effects of spatial and temporal influences on savanna bird diversity and the abundance of eight species with different life-history behaviours. Of four competing models defining influences on assemblages of savanna birds, the most parsimonious included temporal and spatial variability in vegetation cover and site-scale vegetation structure, suggesting savanna bird species respond to spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity at both the broader landscape scale and at the fine-scale. The relative weight, strength and direction of the explanatory variables changed with each of the eight species, reflecting their different ecology and behavioural traits. This study demonstrates that variations in the spatial pattern of savanna vegetation over periods of 10 to 20 years at the local and landscape scale strongly affect bird diversity and abundance. Thus, it is essential to monitor and manage both spatial and temporal variability in avian habitat to achieve long-term biodiversity outcomes.

  19. Disentangling how landscape spatial and temporal heterogeneity affects Savanna birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bronwyn; McAlpine, Clive A; Kutt, Alex S; Ward, Doug; Phinn, Stuart R; Ludwig, John A

    2013-01-01

    In highly seasonal tropical environments, temporal changes in habitat and resources are a significant determinant of the spatial distribution of species. This study disentangles the effects of spatial and mid to long-term temporal heterogeneity in habitat on the diversity and abundance of savanna birds by testing four competing conceptual models of varying complexity. Focussing on sites in northeast Australia over a 20 year time period, we used ground cover and foliage projected cover surfaces derived from a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, rainfall data and site-level vegetation surveys to derive measures of habitat structure at local (1-100 ha) and landscape (100-1000s ha) scales. We used generalised linear models and an information theoretic approach to test the independent effects of spatial and temporal influences on savanna bird diversity and the abundance of eight species with different life-history behaviours. Of four competing models defining influences on assemblages of savanna birds, the most parsimonious included temporal and spatial variability in vegetation cover and site-scale vegetation structure, suggesting savanna bird species respond to spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity at both the broader landscape scale and at the fine-scale. The relative weight, strength and direction of the explanatory variables changed with each of the eight species, reflecting their different ecology and behavioural traits. This study demonstrates that variations in the spatial pattern of savanna vegetation over periods of 10 to 20 years at the local and landscape scale strongly affect bird diversity and abundance. Thus, it is essential to monitor and manage both spatial and temporal variability in avian habitat to achieve long-term biodiversity outcomes.

  20. Bayesian galaxy shape measurement for weak lensing surveys - III. Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.; Heymans, C.; Kitching, T. D.; van Waerbeke, L.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Mellier, Y.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Coupon, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Vafaei, S.; Velander, M.

    2013-03-01

    A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 deg2 of multi-colour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'AB noise ratio νSN ≳ 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disc plus bulge) models to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with Bayesian marginalization over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking into account imaging distortion and the alignment of the multiple measurements. We discuss the effects of noise bias on the likelihood distribution of galaxy ellipticity. Two sets of image simulations that mirror the observed properties of CFHTLenS have been created to establish the method's accuracy and to derive an empirical correction for the effects of noise bias.

  1. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  2. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  3. Measuring Impact of Stabilization Initiatives Survey Data (MISTI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The raw data from the Measuring Impact of Stabilization Initiatives (MISTI) project is the largest and most comprehensive evaluations of stabilization interventions...

  4. A survey on multiproperty measurement techniques of solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    The term 'multiproperty measurement' has not as yet been widely used. It is defined as the simultaneous (or continuous) measurement of several properties of material using one sample and one set of equipment. It is highly advantageous to measure several properties of a sample simultaneously. Various aspects of the nature of a substance can be clarified by evaluating its nature in terms of many properties. In particular, advanced techniques for measuring thermal properties of material are needed in the fields of atomic energy industry, aerospace industry, energy industry, electronics industry and academic community. Conventional thermal property measurement techniques which can be applied to multiproperty measurement or minute test sample measurement are outlined focusing on measurement of the thermal conductivity (axial flow method, radial flow method, plate method, unsteady state heating coil method, direct current heating method), specific heat (adiabatic method, drop calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, AC calorimetric method, pulse heating method, and laser heating method), thermal diffusivity (laser-flash method), and emissivity (separated black body method, incorporated black body method). (N,K.)

  5. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  6. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  7. The Use of PCs, Smartphones, and Tablets in a Probability-Based Panel Survey : Effects on Survey Measurement Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Toepoel, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Respondents in an Internet panel survey can often choose which device they use to complete questionnaires: a traditional PC, laptop, tablet computer, or a smartphone. Because all these devices have different screen sizes and modes of data entry, measurement errors may differ between devices. Using

  8. U.S. Naval Unit Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey, Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    all Soldiers. The BHNAS and MHAT surveys have yielded valuable information regarding the effects of combat and deployment on service members...and Barriers to Care • Amount of Sleep and Sleep Deficit • Sleep Difficulties • Military Specialty • Positive Effects of Assignment • Contribution...nonopioid prescription painkillers was added; (3) the definition of “constantly and frequent” was omitted in the question; and (4) the NUBHNAS

  9. A survey on the measure of combat readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  10. A Survey on Wireless Transmitter Localization Using Signal Strength Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nurminen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of deployed transmitters’ (Tx locations in a wireless network improves many aspects of network management. Operators and building administrators are interested in locating unknown Txs for optimizing new Tx placement, detecting and removing unauthorized Txs, selecting the nearest Tx to offload traffic onto it, and constructing radio maps for indoor and outdoor navigation. This survey provides a comprehensive review of existing algorithms that estimate the location of a wireless Tx given a set of observations with the received signal strength indication. Algorithms that require the observations to be location-tagged are suitable for outdoor mapping or small-scale indoor mapping, while algorithms that allow most observations to be unlocated trade off some accuracy to enable large-scale crowdsourcing. This article presents empirical evaluation of the algorithms using numerical simulations and real-world Bluetooth Low Energy data.

  11. Measuring fertility through mobile‒phone based household surveys: Methods, data quality, and lessons learned from PMA2020 surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjoung Choi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: PMA2020 is a survey platform with resident enumerators using mobile phones. Instead of collecting full birth history, total fertility rates (TFR have been measured with a limited number of questions on recent births. Employing new approaches provides opportunities to test and advance survey methods. Objective: This study aims to assess the quality of fertility data in PMA2020 surveys, focusing on bias introduced from the questionnaire and completeness and distribution of birth month and year, and to estimate TFR adjusted for identified data quality issues. Methods: To assess underestimation from the questionnaire, we simulated births that would be counted using the PMA2020 questionnaires compared to births identified from full birth history. We analyzed the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in ten countries where PMA2020 surveys have been implemented. We assessed the level of reporting completeness for birth month and year and heaping of birth month, analyzing 39 PMA2020 surveys. Finally, TFR were calculated and adjusted for biases introduced from the questionnaire and heaping in birth month. Results: Simple questions introduced minor bias from undercounting multiple births, which was expected and correctable. Meanwhile, incomplete reporting of birth month was relatively high, and the default value of January in data collection software systematically moved births with missing months out of the reference period. On average across the 39 surveys, TFR increased by 1.6Š and 2.4Š, adjusted for undercounted multiple births and heaping on January, respectively. Contribution: This study emphasizes the importance of enumerator training and provides critical insight in software programming in surveys using mobile technologies.

  12. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  13. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  14. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-01-01

    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS

  15. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Flather, C.H.; Pollock, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing fragmentation of natural areas and a dramatic reduction of forest cover in several parts of the world, quantifying the impact of such changes on species richness and community dynamics has been a subject of much concern. Here, we tested whether in more fragmented landscapes there was a lower number of area-sensitive species and higher local extinction and turnover rates, which could explain higher temporal variability in species richness. To investigate such potential landscape effects at a regional scale, we merged two independent, large-scale monitoring efforts: the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Land Use and Land Cover Classification data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We used methods that accounted for heterogeneity in the probability of detecting species to estimate species richness and temporal changes in the bird communities for BBS routes in three mid-Atlantic U.S. states. Forest breeding bird species were grouped prior to the analyses into area-sensitive and non-area-sensitive species according to previous studies. We tested predictions relating measures of forest structure at one point in time (1974) to species richness at that time and to parameters of forest bird community change over the following 22-yr-period (1975-1996). We used the mean size of forest patches to characterize landscape structure, as high correlations among landscape variables did not allow us to disentangle the relative roles of habitat fragmentation per se and habitat loss. As predicted, together with lower species richness for area-sensitive species on routes surrounded by landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size, we found higher mean year-to-year rates of local extinction. Moreover, the mean year-to-year rates of local turnover (proportion of locally new species) for area-sensitive species were also higher in landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size. These associations were not observed for the non-area-sensitive species group. These

  16. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  17. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  18. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  19. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  20. GPS survey in long baseline neutrino-oscillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Noumi, H; Inagaki, T; Hasegawa, T; Katoh, Y; Kohama, M; Kurodai, M; Kusano, E; Maruyama, T; Minakawa, M; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Sakuda, M; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K H; Yamanoi, Y; 10.1109/TNS.2004.836042

    2004-01-01

    We made a series of surveys to obtain neutrino beam line direction toward SuperKamiokande (SK) at a distance of 250 km for the long- baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK. We found that the beam line is directed to SK within 0.03 mr and 0.09 mr (in sigma) in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. During beam operation, we monitored the muon distribution from secondary pions produced at the target and collected by a magnetic horn system. We found that the horn system functions like a lens of a point-to- parallel optics with magnification of approximately -100 and the focal length of 2.3 m. Namely, a small displacement of the primary beam position at the target is magnified about a factor -100 at the muon centroid, while the centroid position is almost stable against a change of the incident angle of the primary beam. Therefore, the muon centroid can be a useful monitor of the neutrino beam direction. We could determine the muon centroid within 6 mm and 12 mm in horizontal and vertical ...

  1. Measuring neutrino masses with a future galaxy survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    that the minimum mass sum of sum m_nu ~ 0.06 eV in the normal hierarchy can be detected at 1.5 sigma to 2.5 sigma significance, depending on the model complexity, using a combination of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements in conjunction with CMB temperature and polarisation observations from Planck....... With better knowledge of the galaxy bias, the significance of the detection could potentially reach 5.4 sigma. Interestingly, neither Planck+shear nor Planck+galaxy alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined effect of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements that breaks......) in the parameter estimation is induced by fitting inaccurate models of the neutrino mass splittings to the mock data, nor does the goodness-of-fit of these models suffer any significant degradation relative to the true one (Delta chi_eff ^2

  2. Long-term variation in the winter resident bird community of Guanica Forest, Puerto Rico: lessons for measuring and monitoring species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Faaborg; Katie M. Dugger; Wayne J. Arendt

    2007-01-01

    Because the winter season is potentially limiting for migratory birds, understanding their nonbreeding distributional patterns is essential. At a given site, patterns of species occurrence and abundance may vary over time and, within a species, wintering strategies may vary with regard to the degree that individuals are site-faithful both within and between winters. We...

  3. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  4. Survey by measurement of urban environmental radiation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Kitahara, Akiharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Sugiura, Shiroharu; Shindo, Kotaro

    1984-01-01

    In the evaluation of the effect of radiation on the population of Tokyo Metropolis, it is necessary to know the external exposure due to natural radiation. Radiation dose rate has been measured on the ground (parks, etc.), paved roads (sidewalks), buildings, and transportation facilities (subways). The average values of cosmic ray and ground radiation were 8.8 x 10 -10 C/kg.h and 6.5 x 10 -10 C/kg.h, respectively. The radiation dose rate on roads differed largely with the structural materials, thickness, etc. The radiation in wooden buildings was almost similar to surrounding natural radiation. In high-rise buildings, there was not much difference from floor to floor. The natural radiation in subways depends largely on the depth. (Mori, K.)

  5. Measurement of radon concentration in water using the portable radon survey meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S; Mori, N; Shimo, M; Fukushi, M; Ohnuma, S

    2011-07-01

    A measurement method for measuring radon in water using the portable radon survey meter (RnSM) was developed. The container with propeller was used to stir the water samples and release radon from the water into the air in a sample box of the RnSM. In this method, the measurement of error would be water was >20 Bq l(-1).

  6. Survey of the Applications and Uses of Unobtrusive Measures in Fields of Social Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Harold L; Thelin, John

    This report is a summary of an 8-week pilot study of the current uses of unobtrusive measures in the various fields of social services. Unobtrusive measures are simply clues, traces, signs, patterns, or records that allow the indirect or inferential evaluation of phenomena. The survey suggests that unobtrusive measures have long been widely used…

  7. The Effects of Survey Timing on Student Evaluation of Teaching Measures Obtained Using Online Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelami, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Teaching evaluations are an important measurement tool used by business schools in gauging the level of student satisfaction with the educational services delivered by faculty. The growing use of online teaching evaluations has enabled educational administrators to expand the time period during which student evaluation of teaching (SET) surveys…

  8. Measuring transportation at a human scale: An intercept survey approach to capture pedestrian activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Robert James

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian travel data are critical for measuring and analyzing sustainable transportation systems. However, traditional household travel surveys and analysis methods often ignore secondary modes, such as walking from a street parking space to a store entrance or walking from a bus stop to home. New data collection and analysis techniques are needed, especially in areas where walking is common. This paper describes an intercept survey methodology used to measure retail pharmacy customer trave...

  9. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  10. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  11. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results

  13. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results.

  14. Comparing Two Inferential Approaches to Handling Measurement Error in Mixed-Mode Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buelens Bart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays sample survey data collection strategies combine web, telephone, face-to-face, or other modes of interviewing in a sequential fashion. Measurement bias of survey estimates of means and totals are composed of different mode-dependent measurement errors as each data collection mode has its own associated measurement error. This article contains an appraisal of two recently proposed methods of inference in this setting. The first is a calibration adjustment to the survey weights so as to balance the survey response to a prespecified distribution of the respondents over the modes. The second is a prediction method that seeks to correct measurements towards a benchmark mode. The two methods are motivated differently but at the same time coincide in some circumstances and agree in terms of required assumptions. The methods are applied to the Labour Force Survey in the Netherlands and are found to provide almost identical estimates of the number of unemployed. Each method has its own specific merits. Both can be applied easily in practice as they do not require additional data collection beyond the regular sequential mixed-mode survey, an attractive element for national statistical institutes and other survey organisations.

  15. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  16. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  17. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Freeman J [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  18. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2010-01-01

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  19. Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mineau

    Full Text Available Common agricultural birds are in decline, both in Europe and in North America. Evidence from Europe suggests that agricultural intensification and, for some species, the indirect effects of pesticides mediated through a loss of insect food resource is in part responsible. On a state-by-state basis for the conterminous Unites States (U.S., we looked at several agronomic variables to predict the number of grassland species increasing or declining according to breeding bird surveys conducted between 1980 and 2003. Best predictors of species declines were the lethal risk from insecticide use modeled from pesticide impact studies, followed by the loss of cropped pasture. Loss of permanent pasture or simple measures of agricultural intensification such as the proportion of land under crop or the proportion of farmland treated with herbicides did not explain bird declines as well. Because the proportion of farmland treated with insecticides, and more particularly the lethal risk to birds from the use of current insecticides feature so prominently in the best models, this suggests that, in the U.S. at least, pesticide toxicity to birds should be considered as an important factor in grassland bird declines.

  20. Plant species of Okhla Bird Sanctuary: a wetland of Upper Gangetic Plains, India [with erratum

    OpenAIRE

    Manral, Upma; Raha, Angshuman; Solanki, Ridhima; Hussain, Syed; Babu, Mattozbiyil; Mohan, Dhananjai; Veeraswami, Gopi; Sivakumar, K.; Talukdar, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    The Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS), a man-modified floodplain wetland having high human impact, is located in an urbanized landscape. Its location in the Central Asian Flyway of migratory birds makes it an ideal transit and wintering ground for birds. This paper describes the vegetation composition and significance of the Sanctuary as a bird habitat. A floristic survey was carried out from winter 2009 to spring 2010 while preparing a management plan for OBS. 192 species of plants belonging to 46 ...

  1. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  2. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  3. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  4. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  5. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  6. Grassland birds wintering at U.S. Navy facilities in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Bryan, Pearce D.; Ruddy, Amanda J.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland birds have undergone widespread decline throughout North America during the past several decades. Causes of this decline include habitat loss and fragmentation because of conversion of grasslands to cropland, afforestation in the East, brush and shrub invasion in the Southwest and western United States, and planting of exotic grass species to enhance forage production. A large number of exotic plant species, including grasses, have been introduced in North America, but most research on the effects of these invasions on birds has been limited to breeding birds, primarily those in northern latitudes. Research on the effects of exotic grasses on birds in winter has been extremely limited.This is the first study in southern Texas to examine and compare winter bird responses to native and exotic grasslands. This study was conducted during a period of six years (2003–2009) on United States Navy facilities in southern Texas including Naval Air Station–Corpus Christi, Naval Air Station–Kingsville, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Waldron, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Orange Grove, and Escondido Ranch, all of which contained examples of native grasslands, exotic grasslands, or both. Data from native and exotic grasslands were collected and compared for bird abundance and diversity; ground cover, vegetation density, and floristic diversity; bird and vegetation relationships; diversity of insects and arachnids; and seed abundance and diversity. Effects of management treatments in exotic grasslands were evaluated by comparing numbers and diversity of birds and small mammals in mowed, burned, and control areas.To determine bird abundance and bird species richness, birds were surveyed monthly (December–February) during the winters of 2003–2008 in transects (100 meter × 20 meter) located in native and exotic grasslands distributed at all five U.S. Navy facilities. To compare vegetation in native and exotic grasslands, vegetation characteristics were measured

  7. Effect of diet phase change, dietary Ca and P level and phytase on bird performance and real-time gizzard pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S A; Dunne, J; Mottram, T; Bedford, M R

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a novel capsule technique was used to capture real-time pH readings from the gizzard over several hours, in response to different dietary treatments. 1. The first experiment was a preliminary study into capsule administration and pH recordings using 9 male Ross 308 broilers from 20 d. In the second experiment, broilers (576) were fed in two phases (0-21 and 21-42 d) with 4 treatment groups; low and adequate Ca and AvP diets with and without Quantum Blue phytase (1500 FTU/kg). Capsules were administered to 8 birds from each treatment group, pre and post diet phase change, with readings captured over a 2.5 h period. 2. Phytase addition improved body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds fed low dietary Ca, while having no significant effect on birds fed adequate Ca diets. Unexpectantly, diets with higher Ca levels gave a lower average gizzard pH compared to the low Ca diet. Phytase addition, irrespective of Ca level, increased average gizzard pH. Fluctuations in gizzard pH (0.6-3.8) were observed across all treatment groups. Higher frequencies of pH readings below pH 1.0 were seen in birds fed an adequate Ca diet and with phytase supplementation of a low Ca diet. 3. These results signify the potential use of capsule techniques to monitor real-time pH changes. The implication on gastric protein and fibre hydrolysis as a result of large fluctuations in pH should be considered.

  8. Measuring teamwork in health care settings: a review of survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.

  9. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional and phylogenetic structure of island bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xingfeng; Cadotte, Marc W; Zeng, Di; Baselga, Andrés; Zhao, Yuhao; Li, Jiaqi; Wu, Yiru; Wang, Siyu; Ding, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Biodiversity change in anthropogenically transformed habitats is often nonrandom, yet the nature and importance of the different mechanisms shaping community structure are unclear. Here, we extend the classic Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) to account for nonrandom processes by incorporating species traits and phylogenetic relationships into a study of faunal relaxation following habitat loss and fragmentation. Two possible mechanisms can create nonrandom community patterns on fragment islands. First, small and isolated islands might consist of similar or closely related species because they are environmentally homogeneous or select for certain shared traits, such as dispersal ability. Alternatively, communities on small islands might contain more dissimilar or distantly related species than on large islands because limited space and resource availability result in greater competitive exclusion among species with high niche overlap. Breeding birds were surveyed on 36 islands and two mainland sites annually from 2010 to 2014 in the Thousand Island Lake region, China. We assessed community structure of breeding birds on these subtropical land-bridge islands by integrating species' trait and evolutionary distances. We additionally analysed habitat heterogeneity and variance in size ratios to distinguish biotic and abiotic processes of community assembly. Results showed that functional-phylogenetic diversity increased with island area, and decreased with isolation. Bird communities on the mainland were more diverse and generally less clustered than island bird communities and not different than randomly assembled communities. Bird communities on islands tend to be functionally similar and phylogenetically clustered, especially on small and isolated islands. The nonrandom decline in species diversity and change in bird community structure with island area and isolation, along with the relatively homogeneous habitats on small islands, support the environmental

  11. Post-construction monitoring for birds and bats : an examination of methods and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, D.; Korpijaakko, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) stipulates that bird and bat monitoring studies should be conducted following the construction of most wind turbine projects in Canada. The objectives of the monitoring studies are to verify the accuracy of the environmental assessment; determine the effectiveness of any measures taken to mitigate the adverse environmental effects of a project; and to evaluate the cumulative effects on species diversity and numbers. This presentation discussed post-construction monitoring for birds and bats and provided an examination of methods and issues. It emphasized why post-construction monitoring is important. Environmental effects that were examined in the presentation were changes in breeding birds; changes in passage migrants or wintering birds; changes in bat activity; and mortality monitoring/carcass surveys. The key issues regarding the design and implementation of post-construction monitoring programs include variation in field and analytical methods; protocols implemented that can add uncertainty and bias to estimates of mortality; and comparisons of project-specific results with other projects. Other topics that were addressed included federal requirements; provincial requirements; post-construction surveys and carcass searches; search efficiency and analysis. The presentation concluded with a discussion regarding the need for standardization. figs.

  12. Post-construction monitoring for birds and bats : an examination of methods and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebner, D.; Korpijaakko, C. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) stipulates that bird and bat monitoring studies should be conducted following the construction of most wind turbine projects in Canada. The objectives of the monitoring studies are to verify the accuracy of the environmental assessment; determine the effectiveness of any measures taken to mitigate the adverse environmental effects of a project; and to evaluate the cumulative effects on species diversity and numbers. This presentation discussed post-construction monitoring for birds and bats and provided an examination of methods and issues. It emphasized why post-construction monitoring is important. Environmental effects that were examined in the presentation were changes in breeding birds; changes in passage migrants or wintering birds; changes in bat activity; and mortality monitoring/carcass surveys. The key issues regarding the design and implementation of post-construction monitoring programs include variation in field and analytical methods; protocols implemented that can add uncertainty and bias to estimates of mortality; and comparisons of project-specific results with other projects. Other topics that were addressed included federal requirements; provincial requirements; post-construction surveys and carcass searches; search efficiency and analysis. The presentation concluded with a discussion regarding the need for standardization. figs.

  13. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two

  14. Can i just check...? Effects of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Jäckle, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to

  15. The failing measurement of attitudes: How semantic determinants of individual survey responses come to replace measures of attitude strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Egeland, Thore

    2018-01-12

    The traditional understanding of data from Likert scales is that the quantifications involved result from measures of attitude strength. Applying a recently proposed semantic theory of survey response, we claim that survey responses tap two different sources: a mixture of attitudes plus the semantic structure of the survey. Exploring the degree to which individual responses are influenced by semantics, we hypothesized that in many cases, information about attitude strength is actually filtered out as noise in the commonly used correlation matrix. We developed a procedure to separate the semantic influence from attitude strength in individual response patterns, and compared these results to, respectively, the observed sample correlation matrices and the semantic similarity structures arising from text analysis algorithms. This was done with four datasets, comprising a total of 7,787 subjects and 27,461,502 observed item pair responses. As we argued, attitude strength seemed to account for much information about the individual respondents. However, this information did not seem to carry over into the observed sample correlation matrices, which instead converged around the semantic structures offered by the survey items. This is potentially disturbing for the traditional understanding of what survey data represent. We argue that this approach contributes to a better understanding of the cognitive processes involved in survey responses. In turn, this could help us make better use of the data that such methods provide.

  16. Improving ability measurement in surveys by following the principles of IRT: The Wordsum vocabulary test in the General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken; Haertel, Edward; Krosnick, Jon A; Malhotra, Neil

    2012-09-01

    Survey researchers often administer batteries of questions to measure respondents' abilities, but these batteries are not always designed in keeping with the principles of optimal test construction. This paper illustrates one instance in which following these principles can improve a measurement tool used widely in the social and behavioral sciences: the GSS's vocabulary test called "Wordsum". This ten-item test is composed of very difficult items and very easy items, and item response theory (IRT) suggests that the omission of moderately difficult items is likely to have handicapped Wordsum's effectiveness. Analyses of data from national samples of thousands of American adults show that after adding four moderately difficult items to create a 14-item battery, "Wordsumplus" (1) outperformed the original battery in terms of quality indicators suggested by classical test theory; (2) reduced the standard error of IRT ability estimates in the middle of the latent ability dimension; and (3) exhibited higher concurrent validity. These findings show how to improve Wordsum and suggest that analysts should use a score based on all 14 items instead of using the summary score provided by the GSS, which is based on only the original 10 items. These results also show more generally how surveys measuring abilities (and other constructs) can benefit from careful application of insights from the contemporary educational testing literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical, chemical, net haul, bird surveys, and other observations (BIOMASS data) from the British Antarctic Survey FIBEX and SIBEX Projects from 01 November 1980 to 30 April 1985 (NODC Accession 9400053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession includes observations of physical, chemical, and biomass properties from three field experiments conducted by the British Antarctic Survey: the First...

  18. Will kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements enhance the science return from galaxy redshift surveys?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Okumura, Teppei [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Spergel, David N., E-mail: nao.s.sugiyama@gmail.com, E-mail: tokumura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton NJ 08544-0010 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Yes. Future CMB experiments such as Advanced ACTPol and CMB-S4 should achieve measurements with S/N of > 0.1 for the typical host halo of galaxies in redshift surveys. These measurements will provide complementary measurements of the growth rate of large scale structure f and the expansion rate of the Universe H to galaxy clustering measurements. This paper emphasizes that there is significant information in the anisotropy of the relative pairwise kSZ measurements. We expand the relative pairwise kSZ power spectrum in Legendre polynomials and consider up to its octopole. Assuming that the noise in the filtered maps is uncorrelated between the positions of galaxies in the survey, we derive a simple analytic form for the power spectrum covariance of the relative pairwise kSZ temperature in redshift space. While many previous studies have assumed optimistically that the optical depth of the galaxies τ{sub T} in the survey is known, we marginalize over τ{sub T}, to compute constraints on the growth rate f and the expansion rate H . For realistic survey parameters, we find that combining kSZ and galaxy redshift survey data reduces the marginalized 1-σ errors on H and f to ∼50-70% compared to the galaxy-only analysis.

  19. Urban and rural habitats differ in number and type of bird feeders and in bird species consuming supplementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Skórka, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-10-01

    Bird feeding is one of the most widespread direct interactions between man and nature, and this has important social and environmental consequences. However, this activity can differ between rural and urban habitats, due to inter alia habitat structure, human behaviour and the composition of wintering bird communities. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km(2) each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 towns and cities across Poland (in each urban area, we surveyed 3 squares and also 3 squares in nearby rural areas). At each count, we noted the number of bird feeders, the number of bird feeders with food, the type of feeders, additional food supplies potentially available for birds (bread offered by people, bins) and finally the birds themselves. In winter, urban and rural areas differ in the availability of food offered intentionally and unintentionally to birds by humans. Both types of food availability are higher in urban areas. Our findings suggest that different types of bird feeder support only those species specialized for that particular food type and this relationship is similar in urban and rural areas.

  20. French citizens monitoring ordinary birds provide tools for conservation and ecological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Julliard, Romain; Couvet, Denis

    2012-10-01

    Volunteer-based standardized monitoring of birds has been widely implemented in Europe and North America. In France, a breeding bird survey is running since 1989 and offers keen birdwatchers to count spring birds annually during 5 min exactly on 10 fix points within a randomly selected square. The first goal of such breeding bird surveys is to measure temporal trends in order to detect possible species declines. Combining annual indices of species sharing ecological affinities or a protected/red list status further provides biodiversity indicators for policy makers. Because the sampling effort is similar among sites, and because the initial selection of monitored sites is random, the temporal trends can be considered representative of national trends, and spatial comparisons of the obtained metrics are possible. Species abundance, community richness but also community specialization and average trophic level can be estimated for each site and each year and further related to the wide range of habitat and landscape characteristics and to agricultural or forestry practices. The large number of sites allows overcoming the opposition between adaptive and passive monitoring, making such schemes fitted to adaptive monitoring. This provides opportunities to determine which type of management or practices favour biodiversity. The comparison of population fate or community dynamics across a wide range of climates and temperatures, e.g. from southern to northern Europe, revealed how European birds are already affected by climate change. Bird communities are shifting northwards, but at a slower rate than temperatures, while bird populations have larger growth rates away from their hot thermal limit. Finally, such large-scale long-term monitoring data on a complete taxonomic group (Aves) is original and offers the opportunity to compare different measures of biological diversity, such as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity. Such a citizen science scheme is an

  1. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  2. Quantification of bird-to-bird and bird-to-human infections during 2013 novel H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Wu, Jianhong; Fang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Lou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    From February to May, 2013, 132 human avian influenza H7N9 cases were identified in China resulting in 37 deaths. We developed a novel, simple and effective compartmental modeling framework for transmissions among (wild and domestic) birds as well as from birds to human, to infer important epidemiological quantifiers, such as basic reproduction number for bird epidemic, bird-to-human infection rate and turning points of the epidemics, for the epidemic via human H7N9 case onset data and to acquire useful information regarding the bird-to-human transmission dynamics. Estimated basic reproduction number for infections among birds is 4.10 and the mean daily number of human infections per infected bird is 3.16*10-5 [3.08*10-5, 3.23*10-5]. The turning point of 2013 H7N9 epidemic is pinpointed at April 16 for bird infections and at April 9 for bird-to-human transmissions. Our result reveals very low level of bird-to-human infections, thus indicating minimal risk of widespread bird-to-human infections of H7N9 virus during the outbreak. Moreover, the turning point of the human epidemic, pinpointed at shortly after the implementation of full-scale control and intervention measures initiated in early April, further highlights the impact of timely actions on ending the outbreak. This is the first study where both the bird and human components of an avian influenza epidemic can be quantified using only the human case data.

  3. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  4. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The measurement of low pay in the UK labour force survey

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Chris; Stuttard, Nigel; Beissel-Durrant, Gabriele; Jenkins, James

    2003-01-01

    Consideration of the National Minimum Wage requires estimates of the distribution of hourly pay. The UK Labour Force Survey (LFS) is a key source of such estimates. The approach most frequently adopted by researchers has been to measure hourly earnings from several questions on pay and hours. The Office for National Statistics is now applying a new approach, based on an alternative more direct measurement introduced in March 1999. These two measures do not produce identical values and this pa...

  6. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  7. A Comparison of Survey Measures and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure causes several adverse physical health outcomes. Conceptual differences in survey measures of 'psychosocial' (SHS exposure from smokers in an individual's life) and 'physical' (environments where an individual is exposed to SHS) SHS exposure exist. Few studies have examined the association between psychosocial and physical SHS exposures measures in comparison to biomarkers of SHS exposure. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was examined among a convenience sample of 20 adults. Data included survey items on SHS exposure and hair nicotine and saliva cotinine levels. Spearman analysis was used to assess correlations among variables. Medium and strong correlations were found among SHS exposure measures with the exception of saliva cotinine levels. Strong correlations were found among and between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. Hair nicotine levels had medium strength associations with only perceived frequency of SHS exposure. As psychosocial measures of exposure were associated with biomarkers, such measures (particularly perceived frequency of SHS exposure) should be added to surveys in addition to physical SHS exposure measures to enhance accuracy of SHS measurement. Future explorations with robust sample sizes should further examine the strength of relationship between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... heard per route from the Mourning Dove Call-count Survey (CCS), doves seen per route from the CCS, birds... recovery and harvest data. Harvest and hunter participation are estimated from the HIP. The CCS-heard data... management units. Over the long term, trends based on CCS-heard and CCS-seen data were consistent in the CMU...

  9. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... a primary emphasis on such species as mourning and white-winged dove. Late seasons begin about... migratory bird surveys and assigned the following OMB control numbers: 1018-0010--Mourning Dove Call Count... bag limit is 10 mourning or white-winged doves, singly, or in the aggregate. For the late season, the...

  10. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  11. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  12. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  13. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  14. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  15. Measurement issues associated with using survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul S; Fisher, T Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Researchers using survey data matched with administrative data benefit from the rich demographic and economic detail available from survey data combined with detailed programmatic data from administrative records. The research benefits of using these matched data are too numerous to mention. But there are drawbacks as well, and those drawbacks have received less systematic attention from researchers. We focus on survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration and address the strengths and weaknesses of each in four specific areas: (1) program participation and benefits, (2) disability and health information, (3) earnings, and (4) deferred compensation. We discuss the implications of these strengths and weaknesses for decisions that researchers must make regarding the appropriate data source and definition for the concepts in question. From this discussion, some general conclusions are drawn about measurement issues associated with using matched survey and administrative data for research, policy evaluation, and statistics.

  16. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  17. Wind power and bird kills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-12-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.

  18. Psychometric evaluation of an inpatient consumer survey measuring satisfaction with psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Glorimar; Schacht, Lucille

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of consumers' satisfaction in psychiatric settings is important because it has been correlated with improved clinical outcomes and administrative measures of high-quality care. These consumer satisfaction measurements are actively used as performance measures required by the accreditation process and for quality improvement activities. Our objectives were (i) to re-evaluate, through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the structure of an instrument intended to measure consumers' satisfaction with care in psychiatric settings and (ii) to examine and publish the psychometric characteristics, validity and reliability, of the Inpatient Consumer Survey (ICS). To psychometrically test the structure of the ICS, 34 878 survey results, submitted by 90 psychiatric hospitals in 2008, were extracted from the Behavioral Healthcare Performance Measurement System (BHPMS). Basic descriptive item-response and correlation analyses were performed for total surveys. Two datasets were randomly created for analysis. A random sample of 8229 survey results was used for EFA. Another random sample of 8261 consumer survey results was used for CFA. This same sample was used to perform validity and reliability analyses. The item-response analysis showed that the mean range for a disagree/agree five-point scale was 3.10-3.94. Correlation analysis showed a strong relationship between items. Six domains (dignity, rights, environment, empowerment, participation, and outcome) with internal reliabilities between good to moderate (0.87-0.73) were shown to be related to overall care satisfaction. Overall reliability for the instrument was excellent (0.94). Results from CFA provided support for the domains structure of the ICS proposed through EFA. The overall findings from this study provide evidence that the ICS is a reliable measure of consumer satisfaction in psychiatric inpatient settings. The analysis has shown the ICS to provide valid and

  19. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Raninen, Jonas; Pennay, Amy; Dietze, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Survey data remain a crucial means for monitoring alcohol consumption, but there has been limited work done to ensure that surveys adequately capture changes in per-capita consumption in Australia. In this study, we explore how trends in consumption from two major Australian surveys compare with an official measure of per-capita consumption between 2001 and 2014 and examine age-specific trends in drinking. Data were from five waves of the cross-sectional National Health Survey (total n = 113 279) and 12 waves of the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Study (average n = 12 347). Overall and age-specific estimates of annual alcohol consumption were derived and compared with official per-capita consumption and previous analyses of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey. In terms of overall consumption, both surveys broadly reflected trends in per-capita consumption, especially the decline that has been observed since 2007/2008. Age-specific trends were broadly similar, with the recent decline in consumption clearly concentrated among teenagers and young adults. The main Australian monitoring surveys remain useful monitoring tools for alcohol consumption in Australia. There is consistent evidence that the recent declines in Australian per-capita consumption have been driven by sharp falls in drinking among young people, a trend that requires further study. [Livingston M, Callinan S, Raninen J, Pennay A, Dietze PM. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronek, Pelagia; Makuch, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface). The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement).

  1. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawronek Pelagia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface. The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement.

  2. BUSINESS SURVEY LIQUIDITY MEASURE AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Business survey liquidity measure is one of the modifications of the uniform EU business survey methodology applied in Croatia. Consequent liquidity problem have been, since socialist times, one of the major problem for Croatia's business. The problem rapidly increased between 1995 and 2000 and now it again represents the main difficulty for the Croatian economy. In order to improve the forecasting properties of business survey liquidity measure, some econometric models ware applied. Based on the regression analysis we concluded that the changes in the liquidity variable can predict the direction of changes in industrial production with one quarter lead. The results also show that liquidity can be a proxy of the Industrial Confidence Indicator in the observed period. The empirical analysis was performed using quarterly data covering the period from the first quarter 2005 to the fourth quarter 2011. The data sources were Privredni vjesnik (a business magazine in Croatia and the Croatian Bureau of Statistics.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Survey of Personal Beliefs: a rational-emotive measure of irrational thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, T P; Kassinove, H; Dill, C A

    1989-01-01

    A test consistency and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the Survey of Personal Beliefs, a new measure of irrational thinking based on rational-emotive personality theory. The survey, which was logically derived, includes a general rationality factor and subscales measuring five hypothesized core categories of irrational beliefs. Subjects included a nonclinical sample of 130 men and 150 women, with a mean age of 46. Results indicated that the Survey of Personal Beliefs had satisfactory total and scale reliability. The confirmatory analyses supported a higher order factor model including 5 first-order factors ( awfulizing, self-directed shoulds, other-directed shoulds, low frustration tolerance, and self-worth) and 1 second-order or general factor.

  4. Bias in patient satisfaction surveys: a threat to measuring healthcare quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsch, Felipe; Evans, David K; Macis, Mario; Wang, Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys are an increasingly common element of efforts to evaluate the quality of healthcare. Many patient satisfaction surveys in low/middle-income countries frame statements positively and invite patients to agree or disagree, so that positive responses may reflect either true satisfaction or bias induced by the positive framing. In an experiment with more than 2200 patients in Nigeria, we distinguish between actual satisfaction and survey biases. Patients randomly assigned to receive negatively framed statements expressed significantly lower levels of satisfaction (87%) than patients receiving the standard positively framed statements (95%-pquality of health services. Providers and policymakers wishing to gauge the quality of care will need to avoid framing that induces bias and to complement patient satisfaction measures with more objective measures of quality.

  5. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3` NaI detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.; Ugletveit, F.; Floe, L.; Mikkelborg, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3` NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of {sup 137}Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3` NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au).

  7. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3' NaI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.; Ugletveit, F.; Floe, L.; Mikkelborg, O.

    1997-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3' NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of 137 Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3' NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au)

  8. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3` NaI detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E; Ugletveit, F; Floe, L; Mikkelborg, O [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3` NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of {sup 137}Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3` NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au).

  9. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  10. Proposing a survey instrument for measuring operational, formal, information and strategic Internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies prove to be very suitable to provide a realistic view of people's Internet skills. However, their cost and time are a strong limitation for large-scale data gathering. A useful addition to the measurement of Internet skills would be the development of survey questions for

  11. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Nest Site Characteristics of Cavity Nesting Birds in Central Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery D. Brawn; Bernice Tannenbaum; Keith E. Evans

    1984-01-01

    Two study sites in central Missouri oak-hickory forests were searched for nest sites of cavity nesting birds. Researchers located and measured 133 nests of 11 species. Cavity nesting bird habitat selection is affected by both snag characteristics and vegetation structure.

  13. Europe's last Mesozoic bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a

  14. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  15. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  16. Fish, birds and flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbings, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    The article in your animal physics special issue on the use of magnetic field sensing in bird navigation (November 2012 pp38-42) reminded me of a comment made regarding a paper that I presented in the US many years ago.

  17. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  18. Eating Like a Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Chris; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on the adaptations of shorebird beaks for a variety of habitats and food sources, and the effect of toxic chemicals in the food chain on the birds. In activity A, students discover how shorebirds are…

  19. Ultraviolet signals in birds are special.

    OpenAIRE

    Hausmann, Franziska; Arnold, Kathryn E; Marshall, N Justin; Owens, Ian P F

    2003-01-01

    Recent behavioural experiments have shown that birds use ultraviolet (UV)-reflective and fluorescent plumage as cues in mate choice. It remains controversial, however, whether such UV signals play a special role in sexual communication, or whether they are part of general plumage coloration. We use a comparative approach to test for a general association between sexual signalling and either UV-reflective or fluorescent plumage. Among the species surveyed, 72% have UV colours and there is a si...

  20. Bird diversity in northern Myanmar and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Xia; Kyaw, Myint; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Jiang-Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Le; Swa, Kyaw; Quan, Rui-Chang

    2017-09-18

    We conducted four bird biodiversity surveys in the Putao area of northern Myanmar from 2015 to 2017. Combined with anecdotal information collected between 2012 and 2015, we recorded 319 bird species, including two species ( Arborophila mandellii and Lanius sphenocercus ) previously unrecorded in Myanmar. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae), babblers (Timaliidae), pigeons and doves (Columbidae), and pheasants and partridges (Phasianidae) were the most abundant groups of birds recorded. Species richness below 1 500 m a. s. l. was higher than species richness at higher elevations. Our results suggest that the current protected areas in this region should be expanded to lower elevations to cover critical conservation gaps.

  1. Bird diversity in northern Myanmar and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Xia; Kyaw, Myint; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Jiang-Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Le; Swa, Kyaw; Quan, Rui-Chang

    2017-01-01

    We conducted four bird biodiversity surveys in the Putao area of northern Myanmar from 2015 to 2017. Combined with anecdotal information collected between 2012 and 2015, we recorded 319 bird species, including two species (Arborophila mandellii and Lanius sphenocercus) previously unrecorded in Myanmar. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae), babblers (Timaliidae), pigeons and doves (Columbidae), and pheasants and partridges (Phasianidae) were the most abundant groups of birds recorded. Species richness below 1 500 m a. s. l. was higher than species richness at higher elevations. Our results suggest that the current protected areas in this region should be expanded to lower elevations to cover critical conservation gaps. PMID:29181901

  2. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or drive the birds away. However, the droppings of the birds provide a rich source of fertilizer and this ... birds of India are under severe threat and require urgent protection. he~ries'(Box 1), can ... there will be no fish and then suddenly a school.

  3. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  4. Patients With Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthritis Have Quantifiable Characteristic Expectations That Can Be Measured With a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lana; Hashmi, Sohaib Z; Nguyen, Joseph; Lee, Steve K; Weiland, Andrew J; Mancuso, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    Although patient expectations associated with major orthopaedic conditions have shown clinically relevant and variable effects on outcomes, expectations associated with thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis have not been identified, described, or analyzed before, to our knowledge. We asked: (1) Do patients with thumb CMC arthritis express characteristic expectations that are quantifiable and have measurable frequency? (2) Can a survey on expectations developed from patient-derived data quantitate expectations in patients with thumb CMC arthritis? The study was a prospective cohort study. The first phase was a 12-month-period involving interviews of 42 patients with thumb CMC arthritis to define their expectations of treatment. The interview process used techniques and principles of qualitative methodology including open-ended interview questions, unrestricted time, and study size determined by data saturation. Verbatim responses provided content for the draft survey. The second phase was a 12-month period assessing the survey for test-retest reliability with the recruitment of 36 participants who completed the survey twice. The survey was finalized from clinically relevant content, frequency of endorsement, weighted kappa values for concordance of responses, and intraclass coefficient and Cronbach's alpha for interrater reliability and internal consistency. Thirty-two patients volunteered 256 characteristic expectations, which consisted of 21 discrete categories. Expectations with similar concepts were combined by eliminating redundancy while maintaining original terminology. These were reduced to 19 items that comprised a one-page survey. This survey showed high concordance, interrater reliability, and internal consistency, with weighted kappa values between 0.58 and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.39-0.78; p Patients with thumb CMC arthritis volunteer a characteristic and quantifiable set of expectations. Using responses recorded verbatim from patient interviews, a clinically

  5. Reduced-Item Food Audits Based on the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Susan N; Menzies, Tim J; Colburn, Trina A; Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The community food environment may contribute to obesity by influencing food choice. Store and restaurant audits are increasingly common methods for assessing food environments, but are time consuming and costly. A valid, reliable brief measurement tool is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate reduced-item food environment audit tools for stores and restaurants. Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys for stores (NEMS-S) and restaurants (NEMS-R) were completed in 820 stores and 1,795 restaurants in West Virginia, San Diego, and Seattle. Data mining techniques (correlation-based feature selection and linear regression) were used to identify survey items highly correlated to total survey scores and produce reduced-item audit tools that were subsequently validated against full NEMS surveys. Regression coefficients were used as weights that were applied to reduced-item tool items to generate comparable scores to full NEMS surveys. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008-2013. The reduced-item tools included eight items for grocery, ten for convenience, seven for variety, and five for other stores; and 16 items for sit-down, 14 for fast casual, 19 for fast food, and 13 for specialty restaurants-10% of the full NEMS-S and 25% of the full NEMS-R. There were no significant differences in median scores for varying types of retail food outlets when compared to the full survey scores. Median in-store audit time was reduced 25%-50%. Reduced-item audit tools can reduce the burden and complexity of large-scale or repeated assessments of the retail food environment without compromising measurement quality. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  7. Measure and category a survey of the analogies between topological and measure spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Oxtoby, John C

    1980-01-01

    In this edition, a set of Supplementary Notes and Remarks has been added at the end, grouped according to chapter. Some of these call attention to subsequent developments, others add further explanation or additional remarks. Most of the remarks are accompanied by a briefly indicated proof, which is sometimes different from the one given in the reference cited. The list of references has been expanded to include many recent contributions, but it is still not intended to be exhaustive. John C. Oxtoby Bryn Mawr, April 1980 Preface to the First Edition This book has two main themes: the Baire category theorem as a method for proving existence, and the "duality" between measure and category. The category method is illustrated by a variety of typical applications, and the analogy between measure and category is explored in all of its ramifications. To this end, the elements of metric topology are reviewed and the principal properties of Lebesgue measure are derived. It turns out that Lebesgue integration is not es...

  8. Using Christmas Bird Count data in analysis of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific credibility of Christmas Bird Count (CBC) results depend on the development and implementation of appropriate methods of statistical analysis. The key to any successful analysis of CBC data is to begin with a careful review of how the limitations of the data are likely to influence the results of the analysis, then to choose methods of analysis that accommodate as much as possible the limitations of the survey. For our analyses of CBC data, we develop a flexible model for effort adjustment and use information from the data to guide the selection of the best model. We include geographic structuring to accommodate the regional variation in number of samples, use a model that allows for overdispersed poisson data appropriate for counts, and employ empirical Bayes procedures to accommodate differences in quality of information in regional summaries. This generalized linear model approach is very flexible, and can be applied to a variety of studies focused on factors influencing wintering bird populations. In particular, the model can be easily modified to contain covariates, allowing for assessment of associations between CBC counts and winter weather, disturbance, and a variety of other environmental factors. These new survey analysis methods have added value in that they provide insights into changes in survey design that can enhance the value of the information. The CBC has been extremely successful as a tool for increasing public interest in birding and bird conservation. Use of the information for bird conservation creates new demands on quality of information, and it is important to maintain a dialogue between users of the information, information needs for the analyses, and survey coordinators and participants. Our work as survey analysts emphasizes the value and limitations of existing data, and provides some indications of what features of the survey could be modified to make the survey a more reliable source of bird population data. Surveys

  9. Response Burden in Official Business Surveys: Measurement and Reduction Practices of National Statistical Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavdaž Mojca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Response burden in business surveys has long been a concern for National Statistical Institutes (NSIs for three types of reasons: political reasons, because response burden is part of the total administrative burden governments impose on businesses; methodological reasons, because an excessive response burden may reduce data quality and increase data-collection costs; and strategic reasons, because it affects relations between the NSIs and the business community. This article investigates NSI practices concerning business response burden measurement and reduction actions based on a survey of 41 NSIs from 39 countries. Most NSIs monitor at least some burden aspects and have implemented some actions to reduce burden, but large differences exist between NSIs’ methodologies for burden measurement and actions taken to reduce burden. Future research should find ways to deal with methodological differences in burden conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement, and provide insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of burden-reduction actions.

  10. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Investigating Measures of Social Context on 2 Population-Based Health Surveys, Hawaii, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobutsky, Ann M; Baker, Kathleen Kromer; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2015-12-17

    Measures from the Social Context Module of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used on 2 population-based health surveys in Hawaii to explicate the role of the nonmedical and social determinants of health; these measures were also compared with conventional socioeconomic status (SES) variables. Results showed that the self-reported SES vulnerabilities of food and housing insecurity are both linked to demographic factors and physical and mental health status and significant when controlling for the conventional measures of SES. The social context module indicators should be increasingly used so results can inform appropriate interventions for vulnerable populations.

  12. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  13. Measures of gender role attitudes under revision: The example of the German General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jessica Gabriele

    2018-05-01

    Using the example of the German General Social Survey, this study describes how measures of gender role attitudes can be revised. To date measures have focused on the traditional male breadwinner model. However, social developments in female labor force participation, education, and family structure suggest that a revision and adjustment of existing measures are required. First, these measures need to be supplemented with items that represent more egalitarian models of division of labor and the role of the father in the family. Second, the phrasing of existing items needs to be revised. The results of this study indicate that especially regarding the amount of working hours and the age of children, a specification is needed. This study presents a revised measure, to facilitate analyses over time. This revised measure represents two factors: one referring to traditional and one to modern gender role attitudes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Practical and theoretical basis for performing redox-measurements in compacted bentonite. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Muurinen, A.

    2008-12-01

    This report reviews the state-of-the-art with regard to redox measurements, especially in compacted water saturated bentonite, but also in natural systems like sediments and ground waters. Both theoretical and practical aspects of redox measurements are discussed, as well as some basic concepts like terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) and oxidative capacity (OXC). The problems associated with the interpretation of measured electrode potentials are treated. Despite many practical and theoretical difficulties, redox measurements continue to be carried out by researchers all over the world. The over-all conclusion from the literature survey is that fruitful redox-measurements can be performed in compacted bentonite. Irrespective of whether the measured redox potentials are absolute or not, the use of electrodes provide a valuable tool for studying, e.g., long-term changes in the pore water of compacted bentonite and/or the diffusion of oxygen into a bentonite. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of innovation in South Africa: An analysis of survey metrics and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso T. Manzini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The National System of Innovation (NSI is an important construct in South Africa’s policy discourse as illustrated in key national planning initiatives, such as the National Development Plan. The country’s capacity to innovate is linked to the prospects for industrial development leading to social and economic growth. Proper measurement of innovation activity is therefore crucial for policymaking. In this study, a constructive analytical critique of the innovation surveys that are conducted in South Africa is presented, the case for broadening current perspectives of innovation in the national policy discourse is reinforced, the significance of a broad perspective of innovation is demonstrated and new metrics for use in the measurement of the performance of the NSI are proposed. Current NSI survey instruments lack definition of non-technological innovation. They emphasise inputs rather than outputs, lack regional and sectoral analyses, give limited attention to innovation diffusion and are susceptible to respondent interpretation. Furthermore, there are gaps regarding the wider conditions of innovation and system linkages and learning. In order to obtain a comprehensive assessment of innovation in South Africa, there is a need to sharpen the metrics for measuring non-technological innovation and to define, account for and accurately measure the ‘hidden’ innovations that drive the realisation of value in management, the arts, public service and society in general. The new proposed indicators, which are mostly focused on innovation outputs, can be used as a basis for plugging the gaps identified in the existing surveys.

  16. Radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers for survey of radioactive contamination in wide area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikara; Ito, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is important to examine distribution of environmental contamination due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and to confirm the effect of decontamination works. We have applied radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers (PSFs) in the survey of contamination in wide area including residential, farmland, forests, etc. In the measurements system, two scintillation lights that emitted at an incidence of a radiation transmit to photomultiplier tubes at the both end of PSFs. The position where scintillation light emitted is obtained from the detection time difference of each photomultiplier tube. The distribution of light emission quantity indicates the distribution of radiation incident in a PSF which is corresponds to the distribution of dose-rate. The radiation detection system using the PSFs has been applied to the radiation distribution measurement on grounds, trees, etc. The results show a good agreement with point data measured by survey meters using sodium iodide scintillators. As the PSFs which have water resistance, they have been successfully applied to the radiation distribution measurement in the river. We have also succeeded in measuring two-dimensional distribution of radiation by measuring the count rate while moving to the fiber at a constant speed. (author)

  17. The effects of climate change on terrestrial birds of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David King; Deborah M. Finch

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of avian responses to climate change is of interest for a number of reasons. First, because birds are relatively easy to identify and measure and their responses to environmental perturbation are relatively well known, they are useful as indicators of ecological change (1). Furthermore, birds are of conservation interest in their own right. Bird...

  18. The role of community participation in the control of bird hazards at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of measures to prevent bird hazards from occurring. One of the most important methods of bird hazard control involves participation of local communities around the airport. This paper illustrates the different ways in which the airport works with the community to control bird collisions with aircraft at Entebbe International ...

  19. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  20. Windmills and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, N W; Poulsen, E

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this study is an investigation of potential conflicts between windmills and birds. Emphasis is on frightening, collision risk and biotopic changes due to windmill systems. The study is based on the environment of Koldby and Nibe windmills (South Jutland). Biotopic changes were not observed around the existing windmills. Drainage of mill grounds at Nibe had probably no effect on water level in the area around; a longer observation is necessary to draw any decisive conclusions.(EG).

  1. Two survey meters for measuring low γ-ray dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Two low-level survey meters have been developed which have numerical displays. The first is of the light-emitting diode (LED) type. The second is a liquid crystal display (LCD). The design of both instruments is described and results of measurements of performance are presented. They measure γ dose rates from background up to 2 mrad/h (20 μGy/h) for γ-rays in the energy range 0.05-1.25 MeV. They can be used at temperatures between -20 deg C and +50 deg C. Statistical accuracy and battery life both depend upon a number of factors and this dependence is shown. A later section describes the intended application of the survey meters. An appendix describes the circuit adjustments which are necessary and when they must be made. (author)

  2. Classification of Birds and Bats Using Flight Tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; Matzner, Shari; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2015-05-01

    Classification of birds and bats that use areas targeted for offshore wind farm development and the inference of their behavior is essential to evaluating the potential effects of development. The current approach to assessing the number and distribution of birds at sea involves transect surveys using trained individuals in boats or airplanes or using high-resolution imagery. These approaches are costly and have safety concerns. Based on a limited annotated library extracted from a single-camera thermal video, we provide a framework for building models that classify birds and bats and their associated behaviors. As an example, we developed a discriminant model for theoretical flight paths and applied it to data (N = 64 tracks) extracted from 5-min video clips. The agreement between model- and observer-classified path types was initially only 41%, but it increased to 73% when small-scale jitter was censored and path types were combined. Classification of 46 tracks of bats, swallows, gulls, and terns on average was 82% accurate, based on a jackknife cross-validation. Model classification of bats and terns (N = 4 and 2, respectively) was 94% and 91% correct, respectively; however, the variance associated with the tracks from these targets is poorly estimated. Model classification of gulls and swallows (N ≥ 18) was on average 73% and 85% correct, respectively. The models developed here should be considered preliminary because they are based on a small data set both in terms of the numbers of species and the identified flight tracks. Future classification models would be greatly improved by including a measure of distance between the camera and the target.

  3. Measuring physical and mental health using the SF-12: implications for community surveys of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Timothy D; Rodgers, Bryan; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2006-09-01

    The effects of using different approaches to scoring the SF-12 summary scales of physical and mental health were examined with a view to informing the design and interpretation of community-based survey research. Data from a population-based study of 7485 participants in three cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were used to examine relationships among measures of physical and mental health calculated from the same items using the SF-12 and RAND-12 approaches to scoring, and other measures of chronic physical conditions and psychological distress. A measure of physical health constructed using the RAND-12 scoring showed a monotonic negative association with psychological distress as measured by the Goldberg depression and anxiety scales. However, a non-monotonic association was evident in the relationship between SF-12 physical health scores and distress, with very high SF-12 physical health scores corresponding with high levels of distress. These relationships highlight difficulties in interpretation that can arise when using the SF-12 summary scales in some analytical contexts. It is recommended that community surveys that measure physical and mental functioning using the SF-12 items generate summary scores using the RAND-12 protocol in addition to the SF-12 approach. In general, researchers should be wary of using factor scores based on orthogonal rotation, which assumes that measures are uncorrelated, to represent constructs that have an actual association.

  4. The Measurement of Central Bank Autonomy; Survey of Models, Indicators, and Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard J Laurens; Marco Arnone; Jean-François Segalotto

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the literature on the measurement of central bank autonomy. We distinguish inputs that constitute the building blocks in the literature, and the literature that builds on them. Issues including sensitivity analysis, robustness, and endogeneity are discussed. The review shows that empirical evidence regarding the beneficial effects of central bank autonomy is substantial, although some technical issues still remain for further research. In particular, central ba...

  5. Measurement of Food Safety Culture using Survey and Maturity Profiling Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Lone; Griffiths, Mansel; Maclaurin, Tanya; Chapman, Ben; Wallace, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture is defined by dimensions and characteristics that can be used to measure food safety culture in food manufacturing through a food safety maturity model. Maturity models from quality, health care, and information technology have been used since early 1970 and this work presents a novel food safety culture maturity model with five capability areas and food safety pinpointed behaviours specific to functions and levels in a food manufacturing company. A survey tool linked t...

  6. Conserving the birds of Uganda's Banana-Coffee Arc: Land Sparing and Land Sharing Compared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulme, Mark F.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing...... (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species...... explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small farmers....

  7. Probing primordial non-Gaussianity via iSW measurements with SKA continuum surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Doré, Olivier, E-mail: alvise@jhu.edu, E-mail: olivier.dore@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Bacon, David J.; Maartens, Roy, E-mail: David.Bacon@port.ac.uk, E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth P01 3FX (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Planck CMB experiment has delivered the best constraints so far on primordial non-Gaussianity, ruling out early-Universe models of inflation that generate large non-Gaussianity. Although small improvements in the CMB constraints are expected, the next frontier of precision will come from future large-scale surveys of the galaxy distribution. The advantage of such surveys is that they can measure many more modes than the CMB—in particular, forthcoming radio surveys with the Square Kilometre Array will cover huge volumes. Radio continuum surveys deliver the largest volumes, but with the disadvantage of no redshift information. In order to mitigate this, we use two additional observables. First, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect—the cross-correlation of the radio number counts with the CMB temperature anisotropies—helps to reduce systematics on the large scales that are sensitive to non-Gaussianity. Second, optical data allows for cross-identification in order to gain some redshift information. We show that, while the single redshift bin case can provide a σ(f{sub NL}) ∼ 20, and is therefore not competitive with current and future constraints on non-Gaussianity, a tomographic analysis could improve the constraints by an order of magnitude, even with only two redshift bins. A huge improvement is provided by the addition of high-redshift sources, so having cross-ID for high-z galaxies and an even higher-z radio tail is key to enabling very precise measurements of f{sub NL}. We use Fisher matrix forecasts to predict the constraining power in the case of no redshift information and the case where cross-ID allows a tomographic analysis, and we show that the constraints do not improve much with 3 or more bins. Our results show that SKA continuum surveys could provide constraints competitive with CMB and forthcoming optical surveys, potentially allowing a measurement of σ(f{sub NL}) ∼ 1 to be made. Moreover, these measurements would act as a useful check

  8. Nepal’s National Red List of Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Inskipp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the Nepal National Bird Red Data Book were to provide comprehensive and up-to-date accounts of all the bird species found in Nepal, assess their status applying the IUCN Guidelines at Regional Levels, identify threats to all bird species and recommend the most practical measures for their conservation.  It is hoped that the Bird RDB will help Nepal achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity target of preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status.  As population changes of Nepal’s birds have been studied for only a few species, assessments of species’ national status were mainly made by assessing changes in distribution.  Species distribution maps were produced for all of Nepal’s bird species except vagrants and compared to maps that were produced in 1991 using the same mapping system.  Of the 878 bird species recorded, 168 species (19% were assessed as nationally threatened. These comprise 68 (40% Critically Endangered species, 38 (23% Endangered species and 62 (37% Vulnerable species.  A total of 62 species was considered Near Threatened and 22 species Data Deficient.  Over 55% of the threatened birds are lowland grassland specialists, 25% are wetland birds and 24% tropical and sub-tropical broadleaved forest birds.  Larger birds appear to be more threatened than smaller birds with 98 (25% non-passerine species threatened and 67 (14% passerine species.  Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are the most important threats.  Other threats include chemical poisoning, over-exploitation, climate change, hydropower, invasive species, intensification of agriculture, disturbance, and limited conservation measures and research.  Measures to address these threats are described.  It was also concluded that re-assessments of the status of certain bird groups carried out every five years and the setting up of a national online system for storing and reporting

  9. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  10. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Rothery

    Full Text Available Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.

  11. Use of created snags by cavity‐nesting birds across 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Amy M.; Hagar, Joan; Rivers, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Snags are important habitat features for many forest‐dwelling species, so reductions in the number of snags can lead to the loss of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Intentional snag creation is often used in managed forests to mitigate the long‐term declines of naturally created snags, yet information regarding the use of snags by wildlife across long timescales (>20 yr) is lacking and prevents a complete understanding of how the value of created snags change through time. We used a long‐term experiment to assess how harvest treatment (i.e., small‐patch group selection, 2‐story, and clearcut) and snag configuration (i.e., scattered and clustered) influenced nesting in and foraging on 25–27‐year‐old Douglas‐fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) snags by cavity‐nesting birds. In addition, we compared our contemporary measures of bird use to estimates obtained from historical surveys conducted on the same group of snags to quantify how bird use changed over time. Despite observing created snags for >750 hours across 2 consecutive breeding seasons, we found limited evidence of nesting activity. Only 11% of created snags were used for breeding, with nesting attempts by 4 bird species (n = 36 nests); however, we detected 12 cavity‐nesting species present on our study sites. Furthermore, nearly all nests (94%) belonged to the chestnut‐backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens), a weak cavity‐excavating species that requires well‐decayed wood for creating nest cavities. Our surveys also recorded few observations of birds using created snags as foraging substrates, with only 1 foraging event recorded for every 20 hours of observation. We detected 82% fewer nests and recorded 7% fewer foraging observations during contemporary field work despite spending >7.5 times more effort observing created snags relative to historical surveys. We conclude that 25–27‐year‐old created Douglas‐fir snags provided limited opportunities for nesting and foraging by

  12. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2016-01-01

    responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......-squares linear regression models were developed, predicting objectively measured exposures from selected predictors in the questionnaire. RESULTS: A full prediction model based on age, gender, body mass index, job group, self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA), and self-reported occupational sedentary...

  13. Documentation of the U.S. Geological Survey Oceanographic Time-Series Measurement Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Martini, Marinna A.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Butman, Bradford

    2008-01-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Oceanographic Time-Series Data Collection (previously named the USGS Oceanographic Time-Series Measurement Database) contains oceanographic observations made as part of studies designed to increase understanding of sediment transport processes and associated dynamics. Analysis of these data has contributed to more accurate prediction of the movement and fate of sediments and other suspended materials in the coastal ocean. The measurements were collected primarily by investigators at the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) and colleagues, beginning in 1975. Most of the field experiments were carried out on the U.S. continental shelf and slope.

  14. Bird associations with shrubsteppe plant communities at the proposed reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, C.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides information on te seasonal use of shrubsteppe vegetation by bird species at the RRL. Bird abundance and distribution were studied at the RRL to ensure that the DOE monitored migratory bird species pursuant to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and to assess potential impacts of site characterization activities on bird populations. Birds were counted on two transects that together sampled an areas of 1.39 km/sup 2/. The relative abundance of birds, species richness, seasonal distribution, and the association of breeding shrubsteppe birds with major vegetation types were determined from Janurary through December 1987. Only 38 species were counted during 82 surveys. Total bird density during the nesting season (March-June) was 42.96 birdskm/sup 2/ and the density for the entire year was 26.74 birdskm/sup 2/. The characteristic nesting birds in shrubsteppe habitats were western meadowlark, sage sparrow, burrowing owl, mourning dove, horned lark, long-billed curlew, lark sparrow, and loggerhead shrike. Western meadowlark and sage sparrows were the most abundant breeding birds with an average density of 11.25 and 7.76 birdskm/sup 2/, respectively. Seasonal distribution of birds varied with species, but most species were present from March to September. Distribution and abunandance of nesting birds were correlated with habitat type. About 63% of the habitat surveyed was sagebrush, 26% was cheatgrass, and 11% was spiny hopsage. Sagebrush habitat supproted a greeater total bird density than cheatgrass or hopsage habitats. Sage sparrows were closely associated with sagebrush habitats, while western meadowlarks showed no strong habitat affinities. 22 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  16. Testing measurement equivalence of experienced holiday quality: Evidence on built-in bias in the Flash Eurobarometer survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we evaluate the degree of measurement equivalence between countries and over time for a measure of experienced holiday quality that has repeatedly been included in a public opinion survey series of high policy relevance: the Flash Eurobarometer survey series (2014–2016). The

  17. Measuring sexual function in community surveys: development of a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Among the many psychometric measures of sexual (dys)function, none is entirely suited to use in community surveys. Faced with the need to include a brief and non-intrusive measure of sexual function in a general population survey, a new measure was developed. Findings from qualitative research with men and women in the community designed to inform the conceptual framework for this measure are presented. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews with individuals recruited from a general practice, an HIV/AIDS charity, and a sexual problems clinic were conducted. From their accounts, 31 potential criteria of a functional sex life were identified. Using evidence from qualitative data and the existing literature, and applying a set of decision rules, the list was reduced to 13 (eight for those not in a relationship), and a further eight criteria were added to enable individuals to self-rate their level of function and indicate the severity of difficulties. These criteria constitute a conceptual framework that is grounded in participant perceptions; is relevant to all, regardless of sexual experience or orientation; provides opportunity to state the degree of associated distress; and incorporates relational, psychological, and physiological aspects. It provides the conceptual basis for a concise and acceptable measure of sexual function.

  18. Measuring patient safety culture in Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chi; Li, Hung-Hui

    2010-06-07

    Patient safety is a critical component to the quality of health care. As health care organizations endeavour to improve their quality of care, there is a growing recognition of the importance of establishing a culture of patient safety. In this research, the authors use the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) questionnaire to assess the culture of patient safety in Taiwan and attempt to provide an explanation for some of the phenomena that are unique in Taiwan. The authors used HSOPSC to measure the 12 dimensions of the patient safety culture from 42 hospitals in Taiwan. The survey received 788 respondents including physicians, nurses, and non-clinical staff. This study used SPSS 15.0 for Windows and Amos 7 software tools to perform the statistical analysis on the survey data, including descriptive statistics and confirmatory factor analysis of the structural equation model. The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSOPSC survey was 64%, slightly higher than the average positive response rate for the AHRQ data (61%). The results showed that hospital staff in Taiwan feel positively toward patient safety culture in their organization. The dimension that received the highest positive response rate was "Teamwork within units", similar to the results reported in the US. The dimension with the lowest percentage of positive responses was "Staffing". Statistical analysis showed discrepancies between Taiwan and the US in three dimensions, including "Feedback and communication about error", "Communication openness", and "Frequency of event reporting". The HSOPSC measurement provides evidence for assessing patient safety culture in Taiwan. The results show that in general, hospital staffs in Taiwan feel positively toward patient safety culture within their organization. The existence of discrepancies between the US data and the Taiwanese data suggest that cultural uniqueness should be taken into

  19. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenda Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile, but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones. Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  20. Competitiveness of firms, performance and customer orientation measures – empirical survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Klapalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to presents results from two empirical surveys concerning selected factors which can be connected to customer orientation, performance and competitiveness of firms. The purpose of the surveys was also to reveal potential differences between sectors arising from not only the different influences of internal but as well as external environment. A survey instrument was developed to analyse the relationship between several variables measuring customer orientation of surveyed firms and between these factors and level of financial performance. Several statistical methods were applied to analyse the data, specifically descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test using financial performance for clustering firms and for assessment of potential differences of customer orientation criteria evaluation and Spearman rank correlation coefficients to assess the linear bivariate relationship between customer orientation variables. The results of ANOVA show that only the innovativeness is distinctive distinguishing criteria in conformity with the indicators of financial prosperity and that there are some differences between companies from two groups of sectors within the managers’ perception of customer orientation criteria performance.

  1. Hawai`i forest bird monitoring database: Database dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Genz, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1981, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (now U.S. Geological Survey – Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center [USGS-PIERC]) conducted systematic surveys of forest birds and plant communities on all the main Hawaiian Islands, except O‘ahu, as part of the Hawai‘i Forest Bird Surveys (HFBS). Results of this monumental effort have guided conservation efforts and provided the basis for many plant and bird recovery plans and land acquisition decisions in Hawai‘i. Unfortunately, these estimates and range maps are now seriously outdated, hindering modern conservation decision-making and recovery planning. HFBIDP staff work closely with land managers and others to identify the location of bird populations in need of protection. In addition, HFBIDP is able to assess field collection methods, census areas, and survey frequency for their effectiveness. Survey and geographical data are refined and released in successive versions, each more inclusive, detailed, and accurate than the previous release. Incrementally releasing data gives land managers and survey coordinators reasonably good data to work with early on rather than waiting for the release of ‘perfect’ data, ‘perfectly’ analyzed. Consequently, summary results are available in a timely manner.

  2. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  3. Optimizing measurements of cluster velocities and temperatures for CCAT-prime and future surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Avirukt; de Bernardis, Francesco; Niemack, Michael D.

    2018-02-01

    Galaxy cluster velocity correlations and mass distributions are sensitive probes of cosmology and the growth of structure. Upcoming microwave surveys will enable extraction of velocities and temperatures from many individual clusters for the first time. We forecast constraints on peculiar velocities, electron temperatures, and optical depths of galaxy clusters obtainable with upcoming multi-frequency measurements of the kinematic, thermal, and relativistic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects. The forecasted constraints are compared for different measurement configurations with frequency bands between 90 GHz and 1 THz, and for different survey strategies for the 6-meter CCAT-prime telescope. We study methods for improving cluster constraints by removing emission from dusty star forming galaxies, and by using X-ray temperature priors from eROSITA. Cluster constraints are forecast for several model cluster masses. A sensitivity optimization for seven frequency bands is presented for a CCAT-prime first light instrument and a next generation instrument that takes advantage of the large optical throughput of CCAT-prime. We find that CCAT-prime observations are expected to enable measurement and separation of the SZ effects to characterize the velocity, temperature, and optical depth of individual massive clusters (~1015 Msolar). Submillimeter measurements are shown to play an important role in separating these components from dusty galaxy contamination. Using a modular instrument configuration with similar optical throughput for each detector array, we develop a rule of thumb for the number of detector arrays desired at each frequency to optimize extraction of these signals. Our results are relevant for a future "Stage IV" cosmic microwave background survey, which could enable galaxy cluster measurements over a larger range of masses and redshifts than will be accessible by other experiments.

  4. Measuring coverage in MNCH: tracking progress in health for women and children using DHS and MICS household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Hancioglu

    Full Text Available Household surveys are the primary data source of coverage indicators for children and women for most developing countries. Most of this information is generated by two global household survey programmes-the USAID-supported Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. In this review, we provide an overview of these two programmes, which cover a wide range of child and maternal health topics and provide estimates of many Millennium Development Goal indicators, as well as estimates of the indicators for the Countdown to 2015 initiative and the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. MICS and DHS collaborate closely and work through interagency processes to ensure that survey tools are harmonized and comparable as far as possible, but we highlight differences between DHS and MICS in the population covered and the reference periods used to measure coverage. These differences need to be considered when comparing estimates of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health indicators across countries and over time and we discuss the implications of these differences for coverage measurement. Finally, we discuss the need for survey planners and consumers of survey results to understand the strengths, limitations, and constraints of coverage measurements generated through household surveys, and address some technical issues surrounding sampling and quality control. We conclude that, although much effort has been made to improve coverage measurement in household surveys, continuing efforts are needed, including further research to improve and refine survey methods and analytical techniques.

  5. Development of measurement apparatus for high resolution electrical surveys; Komitsudo denki tansa sokuteiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, H; Matsuda, Y; Shiokawa, Y [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchino, Y [Cosmic Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the enforcement of the {rho}a-{rho}u survey method which is a type of high-density electrical survey, a multichannel resistivity measuring instrument has been developed. This instrument, in addition to the above, conducts resistivity tomography and various other kinds of high-density electrical survey. A potential produced by a low frequency rectangular current of 1Hz or lower outputted by the transmitter of this instrument is received and measured by the receiver connected to electrodes positioned at 100 or less locations. The receiver comprises a scanner that automatically switches from electrode to electrode, conditioner that processes signals, and controller. A transmitter of the standard design outputs a maximum voltage of 800V and maximum current of 2A, making a device suitable for probing 50 to several 100m-deep levels. The receiver is operated by a personal computer that the controller is provided with. The newly-developed apparatus succeeded in presenting high-precision images of the result of a {rho}a-{rho}u analysis for an apparent resistivity section and of the underground structure, verifying the high quality of the data collected by this apparatus. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Measures of large-scale structure in the CfA redshift survey slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lapparent, V.; Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Variations of the counts-in-cells with cell size are used here to define two statistical measures of large-scale clustering in three 6 deg slices of the CfA redshift survey. A percolation criterion is used to estimate the filling factor which measures the fraction of the total volume in the survey occupied by the large-scale structures. For the full 18 deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, f is about 0.25 + or - 0.05. After removing groups with more than five members from two of the slices, variations of the counts in occupied cells with cell size have a power-law behavior with a slope beta about 2.2 on scales from 1-10/h Mpc. Application of both this statistic and the percolation analysis to simulations suggests that a network of two-dimensional structures is a better description of the geometry of the clustering in the CfA slices than a network of one-dimensional structures. Counts-in-cells are also used to estimate at 0.3 galaxy h-squared/Mpc the average galaxy surface density in sheets like the Great Wall. 46 refs

  7. AAN Epilepsy Quality Measures in clinical practice: a survey of neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasade, Vibhangini S; Spanaki, Marianna; Iyengar, Revathi; Barkley, Gregory L; Schultz, Lonni

    2012-08-01

    Epilepsy Quality Measures (EQM) were developed by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) to convey standardization and eliminate gaps and variations in the delivery of epilepsy care (Fountain et al., 2011 [1]). The aim of this study was to identify adherence to these measures and other emerging practice standards in epilepsy care. A 15-item survey was mailed to neurologists in Michigan, USA, inquiring about their practice patterns in relation to EQM. One hundred thirteen of the 792 surveyed Michigan Neurologists responded (14%). The majority (83% to 94%) addressed seizure type and frequency, reviewed EEG and MRI, and provided pregnancy counseling to women of childbearing potential. Our survey identified gaps in practice patterns such as counseling about antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects and knowledge about referral for surgical therapy of intractable epilepsy. Statistical significance in the responses on the AAN EQM was noted in relation to number of years in practice, number of epilepsy patients seen, and additional fellowship training in epilepsy. Practice patterns assessment in relation to other comorbidities revealed that although bone health and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy are addressed mainly in patients at risk, depression is infrequently discussed. The findings in this study indicate that additional educational efforts are needed to increase awareness and to improve quality of epilepsy care at various points of health care delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  9. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr; Elbaum, B; Coulter, A

    2010-01-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  10. Questionnaire survey report on measurement of radioactivity in working environment of radioisotopes facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    To look over the current measurement of radioactivity concentration in working environment of many radioisotopes facilities, a questionnaire survey was carried out under the auspices of the Planning Committee of the Japan Society of Radiation Safety Management. 64 responses were obtained in 128 radiation facilities, which the questionnaires were sent to. The main results were obtained by aggregate analysis of the answers for questionnaires as the followings. Major nuclides subject to measurement were 3 H, 14 C, 32 P and 125 I Sampling of radioisotopes in air was mainly performed using collectors like dust samplers and HC-collectors. Liquid scintillation counters and gamma counters were used to measure β and γ radioactivity contained in airborne particles or gas samples. Contamination by radioactivity was not detected in 55% facilities surveyed, but in 40% facilities at the same level as or at lower levels than a hundredth part of the regulated concentration limit of each nuclide. Almost all facilities is found to consider that the measurement of radioactivity concentration in working environments is not always necessary. (author)

  11. Rapid Survey For Measuring The Level And Causes Of Maternal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of problem of maternal mortality in a given population? Objective: 1. To evolve a rapid survey methodology aimed at measuring maternal mortality ratio. 2. To find out the probable medical causes of maternal deaths and behavioural factors associated with them. Study Design: cross- sectional. Setting: Urban and rural areas of district Mohindergarh, Haryana. Participants: Members of families in which a maternal death had taken place in last 12 months. Sample size: All 275 deaths among women 15-44 years occurring in the district from 1st April 95 to 31st March 96. Study variables: Age, gravida, parity, literacy, caste, land holding, health care facilities, distance from health centers, mode of conveyance. Statistical Analysis: Rates and ratios. Results: Maternal mortality ratio was estimated to be 275 per 100,000 live births (298 rural and 82 urban. Major causes of death were â€" sepsis(30%, haemorrhage (21%, abortion(5%, eclampsia (3% and obstructed labour(3%. Twenty-nine causes of deaths occurred at home and 26% on way to hospital. Out of 59(93.7% cases who could avail medical consultation, 61% arranged it within five hours after onset of symptoms, and 78% availed two, 21% three, and 11% four consulations. The survey was completed in three months at a cost of Rs. 54,000. Recommendations: Such rapid surveys should be carried out periodically (every 4-5 years to monitor the progress in maternal health. Staff of heath deptt. Should be involved in carrying out these surveys. This will not only help in reducing cost of the survey but information about specific problems of maternal mortality in the area can be utilized by health staff for taking appropriate action to improve maternal health care.

  12. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  13. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindi, Renee; Cohen, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates among adults aged 65 or older from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to assess the impact of a recently added Medicare probe question on the validity of these estimates. Data sources Linked 2005 NHIS and Master Beneficiary Record and Payment History Update System files from the Social Security Administration (SSA). Study design We compared Medicare coverage reported on NHIS with “benchmark” benefit records from SSA. Principal findings With the addition of the probe question, more reports of coverage were captured, and the agreement between the NHIS-reported coverage and SSA records increased from 88% to 95%. Few additional overreports were observed. Conclusions Increased accuracy of the Medicare coverage status of NHIS participants was achieved with the Medicare probe question. Though some misclassification remains, data users interested in Medicare coverage as an outcome or correlate can use this survey measure with confidence. PMID:24800138

  14. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  15. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  19. Evaluation of a survey tool to measure safety climate in Australian hospital pharmacy staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Chen, Timothy F; Fois, Romano A; Ashcroft, Darren M; Lalor, Daniel J

    Safety climate evaluation is increasingly used by hospitals as part of quality improvement initiatives. Consequently, it is necessary to have validated tools to measure changes. To evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency of a survey tool to measure Australian hospital pharmacy patient safety climate. A 42 item cross-sectional survey was used to evaluate the patient safety climate of 607 Australian hospital pharmacy staff. Survey responses were initially mapped to the factor structure previously identified in European community pharmacy. However, as the data did not adequately fit the community pharmacy model, participants were randomly split into two groups with exploratory factor analysis performed on the first group (n = 302) and confirmatory factor analyses performed on the second group (n = 305). Following exploratory factor analysis (59.3% variance explained) and confirmatory factor analysis, a 6-factor model containing 28 items was obtained with satisfactory model fit (χ 2 (335) = 664.61 p  0.643) and model nesting between the groups (Δχ 2 (22) = 30.87, p = 0.10). Three factors (blame culture, organisational learning and working conditions) were similar to those identified in European community pharmacy and labelled identically. Three additional factors (preoccupation with improvement; comfort to question authority; and safety issues being swept under the carpet) highlight hierarchical issues present in hospital settings. This study has demonstrated the validity of a survey to evaluate patient safety climate of Australian hospital pharmacy staff. Importantly, this validated factor structure may be used to evaluate changes in safety climate over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring the health of the Indian elderly: evidence from National Sample Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahal Ajay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparable health measures across different sets of populations are essential for describing the distribution of health outcomes and assessing the impact of interventions on these outcomes. Self-reported health (SRH is a commonly used indicator of health in household surveys and has been shown to be predictive of future mortality. However, the susceptibility of SRH to influence by individuals' expectations complicates its interpretation and undermines its usefulness. Methods This paper applies the empirical methodology of Lindeboom and van Doorslaer (2004 to investigate elderly health in India using data from the 52nd round of the National Sample Survey conducted in 1995-96 that includes both an SRH variable as well as a range of objective indicators of disability and ill health. The empirical testing was conducted on stratified homogeneous groups, based on four factors: gender, education, rural-urban residence, and region. Results We find that region generally has a significant impact on how women perceive their health. Reporting heterogeneity can arise not only from cut-point shifts, but also from differences in health effects by objective health measures. In contrast, we find little evidence of reporting heterogeneity due to differences in gender or educational status within regions. Rural-urban residence does matter in some cases. The findings are robust with different specifications of objective health indicators. Conclusions Our exercise supports the thesis that the region of residence is associated with different cut-points and reporting behavior on health surveys. We believe this is the first paper that applies the Lindeboom-van Doorslaer methodology to data on the elderly in a developing country, showing the feasibility of applying this methodology to data from many existing cross-sectional health surveys.

  1. Geophysical surveying in the Sacramento Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and measurement of peat thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M. S.; Kundariya, N.; Hayashi, K.; Srinivas, A.; Burnham, M.; Oikawa, P.

    2017-12-01

    Near surface geophysical surveys were conducted in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and to provide estimates of peat thickness for use in carbon models. Delta islands have experienced 3-8 meters of subsidence during the past century due to oxidation and compaction of peat. Projected sea level rise over the next century will contribute to an ongoing landward shift of the freshwater-saltwater interface, and increase the risk of flooding due to levee failure or overtopping. Seismic shear wave velocity (VS) was measured in the upper 30 meters to determine Uniform Building Code (UBC)/ National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class. Both seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were employed to estimate peat thickness. Seismic surface wave surveys were conducted at eight sites on three islands and GPR surveys were conducted at two of the sites. Combined with sites surveyed in 2015, the new work brings the total number of sites surveyed in the Delta to twenty.Soil boreholes were made at several locations using a hand auger, and peat thickness ranged from 2.1 to 5.5 meters. Seismic surveys were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method and the microtremor array method (MAM). On Bouldin Island, VS of the surficial peat layer was 32 m/s at a site with pure peat and 63 m/s at a site peat with higher clay and silt content. Velocities at these sites reached a similar value, about 125 m/s, at a depth of 10 m. GPR surveys were performed at two sites on Sherman Island using 100 MHz antennas, and indicated the base of the peat layer at a depth of about 4 meters, consistent with nearby auger holes.The results of this work include VS depth profiles and UBC/NEHRP site classifications. Seismic and GPR methods may be used in a complementary fashion to estimate peat thickness. The seismic surface wave method is a relatively robust method and more effective than GPR in many areas with high clay

  2. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Julie A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Methods Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. Results In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. Conclusions The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence

  3. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  4. Survey on quality control measurements for nuclear medicine imaging equipment in Finland in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpela, Helinae; Niemelae, Jarkko

    2008-01-01

    Routine quality control (QC) is an essential requirement in nuclear medicine (NM) in order to ensure optimal functioning of equipment. To harmonise the routine QC of NM imaging equipment in Finnish hospital s (planar gamma cameras, SPECT, coincidence gamma cameras, PET), the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) will publish guidelines on QC in collaboration with several hospital physicists. Recommendations will be provided on routine QC measurements and on the frequency of testing. It is also planned to provide recommendations for the acceptance criteria when assessing different performance parameters for NM imaging equipment. In order to determine what performance parameters of NM equipment are currently measured in hospitals, how frequently they are measured and what acceptance criteria are used, a survey was carried out on the QC of NM equipment in Finland during 2006. (author)

  5. The measurement invariance of job diagnostic survey (JDS) across three university student groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gomez, M.; Marin-Garcia, J.A.; Girado Omeara, M.

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to apply a multigroup confirmatory analysis to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of the adapted version of the Job Diagnosis Survey (JDS) as a measurement tool that analyses the relationship between the features of teaching methodologies with university students’ motivation and satisfaction across data collected on different degrees and academic years. Design/methodology/approach: Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using a multigroup structural equation model, using the program EQS 6.1 to test the invariance of the adapted version of JDS in a sample constituted by 535 student of a Spanish public university. The assessment of invariance included the levels of configural, metric, scalar, covariance and latent variables invariance. Several goodness-of-fit measures were assessed... (Author)

  6. Relationship between bird-of-prey decals and bird-window collisions on a Brazilian university campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Brisque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bird-window collisions are a dramatic cause of bird mortality globally. In Latin America, statistics are generally very scarce and/or inaccessible so the frequency of such incidents is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, civilians have applied preventive methods (e.g. adhesive bird-of-prey decals sparsely but, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated their effectiveness in Brazil. Here, we estimated the mortality rate of bird-window collisions and tested the effectiveness of bird-of-prey decals at preventing such accidents. We undertook daily searches for bird carcasses, presumably resulting from window collisions, near all buildings on a university campus over seven months. Adhesive bird-of-prey decals were then applied to the two buildings with the highest mortality rates and surveys continued for over 12 more months. The mortality rates before and after the application of decals and between seasons were then compared using Friedman test. We recorded 36 collisions, 29 around the two buildings with the highest collision rates 19 prior and 10 after our intervention with associated collision rates of 0.08 and 0.04 collisions/day. Although mortality was reduced by almost half, this difference was not statistically significant. The Blue-black grassquit, Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766, and Ruddy ground dove, Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1810 suffered the highest number of collisions, followed by the Rufous-collared sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis (P. L. Statius Müller, 1776. Our bird-of-prey decals and efforts were insufficient to prevent or dramatically reduce the number of bird-window collisions. Therefore, we recommend that different interventions be used and additional long-term studies undertaken on their efficacy.

  7. Establishment of a procedure to calculate the measurement uncertainties in radiation survey meters calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoli, J.E.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Sao Paulo calibrates more than one thousand gamma ray survey meters a year; beside other kinds of radiotherapy, radiodiagnostic and radiation protection instruments. It has a standard (600 cm 3 ) cylinder ionization chamber (Nuclear Enterprises Ltd. model 2511/3) traceable to the Brazilian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) whose instruments are traceable to the BIPM. Annually the beam dosimetry is performed using this chamber and the results are used as the true values for calibration purposes. The uncertainties present in every direct or indirect measurement during the calibration procedure must be evaluated for purposes of laboratory quality control. All calculation steps in the propagation of errors are presented in this work staging from the ionization chamber charge measured with the standard instrument. Such a propagation was made in space and time, considering even the environmental quantities uncertainties. The propagation was necessary in space, because the ionization chamber measurements were performed at only one space position. The time propagation was essential due to the fact that the activity is a peculiar physical quantity which changes with time according to precise relations for a specific radionuclide. The clear indication of every measurement uncertainty is always important to quantify the quality of this measurement. Nowadays the achievement of calibration laboratory quality systems requires the expression of all uncertainties and the procedure used to evaluate it. An example of this procedure in the case of the calibration of a typical portable radiation survey meter is presented. The direct exposure rate instrument measurement was compared with the true value given by the standard instrument properly propagated and all quantities used have their uncertainties shown. (author)

  8. The accuracy of surface-contamination measurements; survey of UK hospitals, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In response to a number of concerns expressed at both national and international levels, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) conducted a survey of UK hospitals and associated Regional Radiation Protection Services. Sources of surface contamination were distributed and participants were requested to measure these and interpret the relevant responses in terms of emission and activity per unit area. The analysis of the returns demonstrates that the vast majority of results was significantly in error and that the quality of radiation protection may be impaired. (author)

  9. Nonprobability Web Surveys to Measure Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes in the General Population: A Comparison With a Probability Sample Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. Objective The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. Results For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Conclusions Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web

  10. Effects of Tide Stage on the Use of Salt Marshes by Wading Birds in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine how tide stage affects wading bird abundance, behavior, and foraging in three Narragansett Bay salt marshes (RI), we conducted surveys at 10-min intervals—across the full tidal range—during six days at each marsh in July/September of 2006. The wading bird community ...

  11. Cavity-nesting bird abundance in thinned versus unthinned Massachusetts oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J.E. Welsh; William M. Healy; Richard M. DeGraaf

    1992-01-01

    Cavity-nesting birds provide significant benefits to forest communities, but timber management techniques may negatively affect cavity-nesting species by reducing the availability of suitable nest and foraging sites. We surveyed cavity-nesting birds from transects in eight Massachusetts oak stands to examine the effect of thinning with retention of snag and wildlife...

  12. Measuring Diversity and Inclusion in Academic Medicine: The Diversity Engagement Survey (DES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Sharina D.; Jordan, C. Greer; Allison, Jeroan J.; Fink Ogawa, Lisa M.; Castillo-Page, Laura; Conrad, Sarah; Nivet, Marc A.; Plummer, Deborah L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To produce a physician and scientific workforce capable of delivering high quality, culturally competent health care and research, academic medical centers must assess their capacity for diversity and inclusion and respond to identified opportunities. Thus, the Diversity Engagement Survey (DES) is presented as a diagnostic and benchmarking tool. Method The 22-item DES connects workforce engagement theory with inclusion and diversity constructs. Face and content validity were established based on decades of previous work to promote institutional diversity. The survey was pilot tested at a single academic medical center and subsequently administered at 13 additional academic medical centers. Cronbach alphas assessed internal consistency and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) established construct validity. Criterion validity was assessed by observed separation in scores for groups traditionally recognized to have less workforce engagement. Results The sample consisted of 13,694 individuals at 14 medical schools from across the U.S. who responded to the survey administered between 2011– 2012. The Cronbach alphas for inclusion and engagement factors (range: 0.68 to 0.85), CFA fit indices, and item correlations with latent constructs, indicated an acceptable model fit and that questions measured the intended concepts. DES scores clearly distinguished higher and lower performing institutions. The DES detected important disparities for black, women, and those who did not have heterosexual orientation. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the DES is a reliable and valid instrument for internal assessment and evaluation or external benchmarking of institutional progress in building inclusion and engagement. PMID:26466376

  13. Measuring determinants of career satisfaction of anesthesiologists: validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Anoushka M; Diaz, James H; Scher, Corey S; Beyl, Robbie A; Nair, Singh R; Kaye, Alan David

    2013-06-01

    To measure the parameter of job satisfaction among anesthesiologists. Survey instrument. Academic anesthesiology departments in the United States. 320 anesthesiologists who attended the annual meeting of the ASA in 2009 (95% response rate). The anonymous 50-item survey collected information on 26 independent demographic variables and 24 dependent ranked variables of career satisfaction among practicing anesthesiologists. Mean survey scores were calculated for each demographic variable and tested for statistically significant differences by analysis of variance. Questions within each domain that were internally consistent with each other within domains were identified by Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.7. P-values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Cronbach's alpha analysis showed strong internal consistency for 10 dependent outcome questions in the practice factor-related domain (α = 0.72), 6 dependent outcome questions in the peer factor-related domain (α = 0.71), and 8 dependent outcome questions in the personal factor-related domain (α = 0.81). Although age was not a variable, full-time status, early satisfaction within the first 5 years of practice, working with respected peers, and personal choice factors were all significantly associated with anesthesiologist job satisfaction. Improvements in factors related to job satisfaction among anesthesiologists may lead to higher early and current career satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Conceptual Model and Survey Instrument to Measure Conscientious Objection to Abortion Provision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Florence Harris

    Full Text Available Conscientious objection to abortion, clinicians' refusal to perform legal abortions because of their religious or moral beliefs, has been the subject of increasing debate among bioethicists, policymakers, and public health advocates in recent years. Conscientious objection policies are intended to balance reproductive rights and clinicians' beliefs. However, in practice, clinician objection can act as a barrier to abortion access-impinging on reproductive rights, and increasing unsafe abortion and related morbidity and mortality. There is little information about conscientious objection from a medical or public health perspective. A quantitative instrument is needed to assess prevalence of conscientious objection and to provide insight on its practice. This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to measure conscientious objection to abortion provision.A literature review, and in-depth formative interviews with stakeholders in Colombia were used to develop a conceptual model of conscientious objection. This model led to the development of a survey, which was piloted, and then administered, in Ghana.The model posits three domains of conscientious objection that form the basis for the survey instrument: 1 beliefs about abortion and conscientious objection; 2 actions related to conscientious objection and abortion; and 3 self-identification as a conscientious objector.The instrument is intended to be used to assess prevalence among clinicians trained to provide abortions, and to gain insight on how conscientious objection is practiced in a variety of settings. Its results can inform more effective and appropriate strategies to regulate conscientious objection.

  15. Measurement of sexual identity in surveys: implications for substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L; Bostwick, Wendy; Morales, Michele; Boyd, Carol J

    2012-06-01

    Researchers are increasingly recognizing the need to include measures of sexual orientation in health studies. However, relatively little attention has been paid to how sexual identity, the cognitive aspect of sexual orientation, is defined and measured. Our study examined the impact of using two separate sexual identity question formats: a three-category question (response options included heterosexual, bisexual, or lesbian/gay), and a similar question with five response options (only lesbian/gay, mostly lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual, only heterosexual). A large probability-based sample of undergraduate university students was surveyed and a randomly selected subsample of participants was asked both sexual identity questions. Approximately one-third of students who identified as bisexual based on the three-category sexual identity measure chose "mostly heterosexual" or "mostly lesbian/gay" on the five-category measure. In addition to comparing sample proportions of lesbian/gay, bisexual, or heterosexual participants based on the two question formats, rates of alcohol and other drug use were also examined among the participants. Substance use outcomes among the sexual minority subgroups differed based on the sexual identity question format used: bisexual participants showed greater risk of substance use in analyses using the three-category measure whereas "mostly heterosexual" participants were at greater risk when data were analyzed using the five-category measure. Study results have important implications for the study of sexual identity, as well as whether and how to recode responses to questions related to sexual identity.

  16. The Servant Leadership Survey: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Nuijten, Inge

    2011-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a multi-dimensional instrument to measure servant leadership. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Based on an extensive literature review and expert judgment, 99 items were formulated. In three steps, using eight samples totaling 1571 persons from The Netherlands and the UK with a diverse occupational background, a combined exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis approach was used. This was followed by an analysis of the criterion-related validity. FINDINGS: The final result is an eight-dimensional measure of 30 items: the eight dimensions being: standing back, forgiveness, courage, empowerment, accountability, authenticity, humility, and stewardship. The internal consistency of the subscales is good. The results show that the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) has convergent validity with other leadership measures, and also adds unique elements to the leadership field. Evidence for criterion-related validity came from studies relating the eight dimensions to well-being and performance. IMPLICATIONS: With this survey, a valid and reliable instrument to measure the essential elements of servant leadership has been introduced. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The SLS is the first measure where the underlying factor structure was developed and confirmed across several field studies in two countries. It can be used in future studies to test the underlying premises of servant leadership theory. The SLS provides a clear picture of the key servant leadership qualities and shows where improvements can be made on the individual and organizational level; as such, it may also offer a valuable starting point for training and leadership development.

  17. Measuring the Non-Observed Economy: A Survey-Based Study of Demand in the Korean Prostitution Market

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, WONSOON

    2013-01-01

    Illegal activities are by their nature difficult to measure, despite the potentially important role they play in the economy. Their inclusion in Korea’s GDP is necessary to reflect Korea’s national economy more precisely. In this paper, I use a variety of survey methods to provide an estimate of the incidence of prostitution. I estimate the demand for prostitution services in Korea by conducting stratified random sampling surveys of 671 Korean adult males. Because the survey topic was sensiti...

  18. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  19. 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations: Report on Scales and Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ormerod, Alayne

    2003-01-01

    ...: Workplace and Gender Relations Survey (2002 WGR). This report describes advances from previous surveys and presents results on scale development as obtained from 19,960 respondents to this survey...

  20. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  1. [Survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control measures in hospitals participating in the VINCat program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopena-Galindo, Nieves; Hornero-Lopez, Anna; Freixas-Sala, Núria; Bella-Cueto, Feliu; Pérez-Jové, Josefa; Limon-Cáceres, Enric; Gudiol-Munté, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    VINCat is a nosocomial infection surveillance program in hospitals in Catalonia. The aim of the study was to determine the surveillance and control measures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in these centres. An e-mail survey was carried out from January to March 2013 with questions related to the characteristics of the hospitals and their control measures for MRSA. A response was received from 53 hospitals (>500 beds: 7; 200-500 beds: 14;prevent MRSA in hospitals participating in the VINCat program. Most of the centres have an MRSA protocol, however compliance with it should be improved, especially in areas such as active detection on admission in patients at risk, hand hygiene adherence, cleaning frequency and optimising the use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) DR1-Spectral Measurements, Derived Quantities, and AGN Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; BASS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present the first catalog and data release of the Swift-BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). We analyze optical spectra of the majority of AGN (77%, 641/836) detected based on their 14-195 keV emission in the 70-month Swift BAT all-sky catalog. This includes redshift determination, absorption and emission line measurements, and black hole mass and accretion rate estimates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (74%, 473/641) with 340 measured for the first time. With ~90% of sources at z10^21.9 cm^-2. Seyfert 1.9 show a range of column densities. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN have a larger fraction of dusty host galaxies suggesting these types of AGN are missed in optical surveys. Using the most sensitive [OIII]/Hbeta and [NII]/Halpha emission line diagnostic, about half of the sources are classified as Seyferts, ~15% reside in dusty galaxies that lack an Hbeta detection, but for which the line upper limits imply either a Seyfert or LINER, ~15% are in galaxies with weak or no emission lines despite high quality spectra, and a few percent each are LINERS, composite galaxies, HII regions, or in known beamed AGN.

  3. The measurement invariance of job diagnostic survey (JDS across three university student groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Martinez-Gomez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to apply a multigroup confirmatory analysis to examine the measurement invariance (MI of the adapted version of the Job Diagnosis Survey (JDS as a measurement tool that analyses the relationship between the features of teaching methodologies with university students’ motivation and satisfaction across data collected on different degrees and academic years. Design/methodology/approach: Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using a multigroup structural equation model, using the program EQS 6.1 to test the invariance of the adapted version of JDS in a sample constituted by 535 student of a Spanish public university. The assessment of invariance included the levels of configural, metric, scalar, covariance and latent variables invariance. Several goodness-of-fit measures were assessed. Findings: The results show that measurements are equivalent at the configural, metric, covariance and latent factors invariance. Although the hypotheses of scalar invariance is rejected, results suggest that JDS is partial strict invariant and has satisfactory psychometric properties on all samples. Research limitations/implications: The sample is framed in university students aged between 18 and 30 and for a questionnaire on teaching methodology and students' satisfaction in the context of a Spanish university and the generalization to other questionnaire, or population, should be proved with specific data. Furthermore, the sample size is rather small. Originality/value: In the current process of change that is taking place in universities according to the plan developed by the European Space of Higher Education, focused on increasing the student skills, validate instruments as the satisfaction scale of JDS, are necessary to evaluate students’ satisfaction with new active methodologies. These findings are useful for researchers since they add the first sample in which the MI of a student’s satisfaction survey

  4. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  5. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  6. Improved characterisation and modelling of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Chak-Hau Michael; Kuras, Oliver; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Graham, James; Sherlock, Emma F.; Binley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Measurement errors can play a pivotal role in geophysical inversion. Most inverse models require users to prescribe or assume a statistical model of data errors before inversion. Wrongly prescribed errors can lead to over- or under-fitting of data; however, the derivation of models of data errors is often neglected. With the heightening interest in uncertainty estimation within hydrogeophysics, better characterisation and treatment of measurement errors is needed to provide improved image appraisal. Here we focus on the role of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We have analysed two time-lapse ERT datasets: one contains 96 sets of direct and reciprocal data collected from a surface ERT line within a 24 h timeframe; the other is a two-year-long cross-borehole survey at a UK nuclear site with 246 sets of over 50,000 measurements. Our study includes the characterisation of the spatial and temporal behaviour of measurement errors using autocorrelation and correlation coefficient analysis. We find that, in addition to well-known proportionality effects, ERT measurements can also be sensitive to the combination of electrodes used, i.e. errors may not be uncorrelated as often assumed. Based on these findings, we develop a new error model that allows grouping based on electrode number in addition to fitting a linear model to transfer resistance. The new model explains the observed measurement errors better and shows superior inversion results and uncertainty estimates in synthetic examples. It is robust, because it groups errors together based on the electrodes used to make the measurements. The new model can be readily applied to the diagonal data weighting matrix widely used in common inversion methods, as well as to the data covariance matrix in a Bayesian inversion framework. We demonstrate its application using extensive ERT monitoring datasets from the two aforementioned sites.

  7. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat....... In another species, environmental conditions are not a good predictor of movements, and possibly effects of timing constraints or food type play a role. Two manuscripts focus on the effects of human-induced habitat alterations on migratory behaviour. One compares the movements of partial migrants in urban...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...

  8. Development and validation of a survey to measure features of clinical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bernadette Bea; Haines, Mary; Middleton, Sandy; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Klineberg, Emily; Elliott, Elizabeth

    2016-09-30

    Networks of clinical experts are increasingly being implemented as a strategy to improve health care processes and outcomes and achieve change in the health system. Few are ever formally evaluated and, when this is done, not all networks are equally successful in their efforts. There is a need to formatively assess the strategic and operational management and leadership of networks to identify where functioning could be improved to maximise impact. This paper outlines the development and psychometric evaluation of an Internet survey to measure features of clinical networks and provides descriptive results from a sample of members of 19 diverse clinical networks responsible for evidence-based quality improvement across a large geographical region. Instrument development was based on: a review of published and grey literature; a qualitative study of clinical network members; a program logic framework; and consultation with stakeholders. The resulting domain structure was validated for a sample of 592 clinical network members using confirmatory factor analysis. Scale reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. A summary score was calculated for each domain and aggregate level means and ranges are reported. The instrument was shown to have good construct validity across seven domains as demonstrated by a high level of internal consistency, and all Cronbach's α coefficients were equal to or above 0.75. In the survey sample of network members there was strong reported commitment and belief in network-led quality improvement initiatives, which were perceived to have improved quality of care (72.8 %) and patient outcomes (63.2 %). Network managers were perceived to be effective leaders and clinical co-chairs were perceived as champions for change. Perceived external support had the lowest summary score across the seven domains. This survey, which has good construct validity and internal reliability, provides a valid instrument to use in future research related to

  9. Atmospheric conditions create freeways, detours and tailbacks for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Liechti, Felix; Vansteelant, Wouter M G

    2017-07-01

    The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments. In this review, we first introduce the most relevant microscale, mesoscale and synoptic scale atmospheric phenomena from the point of view of a migrating bird. We then provide an overview of the individual responses of migrant birds (when, where and how to fly) in relation to these phenomena. We explore the cumulative impact of individual responses to weather during migration, and the consequences thereof for populations and migratory systems. In general, individual birds seem to have a much more flexible response to weather than previously thought, but we also note similarities in migratory behaviour across taxa. We propose various avenues for future research through which we expect to derive more fundamental insights into the influence of weather on the evolution of migratory behaviour and the life-history, population dynamics and species distributions of migrant birds.

  10. Iowa Breed Bird Atlas 2, 2008-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — These are the locations of Iowa's Second Breeding Bird Atlas. Blocks are 3 by 3 miles in size. Some of the blocks are the same as those surveyed in the first BBA,...

  11. Birds and conservation significance of the Namib Desert's least ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -long Namib Desert and it remains the least known coastal wetland on a desert coast rich in shorebirds. Two surveys of the Baia dos Tigres region in 1999 and 2001 indicated a rich wetland bird diversity consisting of 25 species, with a total of ...

  12. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice between during the dry season and vegetation variables (trees, fingers, finger-rings two- hand, grazing, farming, canopy cover, ...

  13. Bird assemblage patterns in relation to anthropogenic habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using habitat stratification, birds were surveyed along transects in tidal and supralittoral sub-habitats using DISTANCE sampling protocol, and along the river by encounter rates to determine abundance and species richness. Indices of human activity as well as habitat structure parameters including ground cover, plant ...

  14. Monitoring birds, reptiles and butterflies in the St Katherine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-two bird species were recorded during transect and point count surveys of wadis in the St Katherine Protectorate in the mountainous southern region of the Sinai, Egypt. Two species are new to Egypt: Rock Nuthatch (Sitta neumeyer) and Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia). There were several other notable species: ...

  15. Fire effects on the composition of a bird community in an amazonian Savanna (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cintra

    Full Text Available The effects of fire on the composition of a bird community were investigated in an Amazonian savanna near Alter-do-Chão, Pará (Brazil. Mist-net captures and visual counts were used to assess species richness and bird abundance pre- and post-fire in an approximately 20 ha area. Visual counts along transects were used to survey birds in an approximately 2000 ha area in a nearby area. Results using the same method of ordination analysis (multidimensional scaling showed significant effects of fire in the 20 ha and 2000 ha areas and strongly suggest direct effects on bird community composition. However, the effects were different at different spatial scales and/or in different years, indicating that the effects of fire vary spatially and/or temporally. Bird community composition pre-fire was significantly different from that found post-fire. Using multiple regression analysis it was found that the numbers of burned and unburned trees were not significantly related to either bird species richness or bird abundance. Two months after the fire, neither bird species richness nor bird abundance was significantly related to the number of flowering trees (Lafoensia pacari or fruiting trees (Byrsonima crassifolia. Since fire is an annual event in Alter-do-Chão and is becoming frequent in the entire Amazon, bird community composition in affected areas could be constantly changing in time and space.

  16. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  17. Wire screens as a tool for survey measurements of the unattached radon progeny in mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janica, R.

    1996-07-01

    The radon hazard in mines is assessed by measuring the radioactivity accumulated on filters through which air is forced to flow. The filter collects both forms of the short-lived radon progeny, attached and unattached, and, therefore, the assessment is based on the measurement of the total radon progeny. Because of the special radiological significance of the unattached fraction of the short-lived radon progeny, the estimation of the radiation hazard to miners would be improved if the unattached fraction could be measured. This report describes two methods of measurement for the simultaneous determination of the unattached and the total radon progeny. The proposed methods comply with the criterion of practicality (imposed by the working conditions in the mine environment), that is, they are implemented using standard survey equipment and simple procedures. Both methods use wire screens to collect, preferentially, the unattached fraction. According to the first method, air is sampled through a wire screen and a backup filter, and the radioactivity accumulated on both the filter and the wire screen are measured separately using standard counting protocols (e.g. the Kusnetz protocol). The wire screen's efficiency for collecting the unattached radon progeny is determined, in advance, under laboratory conditions. The method assumes the validity of the collection efficiencies when the screens are used under field conditions. To avoid the uncertainty of the lab-determined collection efficiency, a new measuring method was proposed based on the sampling of air through two screens in series and a backup filter. The measurement of the ratio of the activities deposited on both screens allows an estimation of the screen collection efficiency under field conditions. Once this is done, the 'unattached fraction' and total radon progeny are determined by counting only one of the screens and the backup filter as described in the previous method. (author). 73 refs., 8 tabs., 21 figs

  18. Measuring Phenological Changes due to Defoliation of the Non-Native Species, Saltcedar (Tamarisk) Following Episodic Foliage Removal by the Beetle Diorhabda elongate and Phenological Impacts on Forage Quality for Insectivorous Birds on the Dolores River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.; Hultine, K. R.; van Riper, C.; Glenn, E. P.

    2008-12-01

    Since its introduction to the western U.S. more than a century ago, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) has become dominant or sub-dominant over many major arid, and semi-arid river systems and their tributaries. The presence of tamarisk has been cited for reducing water availability for human enterprise and biodiversity, displacing native vegetation and for reducing habitat quality for wildlife. With increasing emphasis by public and private sectors on controlling saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis) in the western US, there will likely be a dramatic change in riparian vegetation composition over the course of the next several decades. The rates at which these changes will occur, and the resultant effects on riparian insects and birds that utilize insects for food, are presently unknown. Effects on riparian vegetation communities, resulting from changes in host plant species composition, will likely include changes in plant biomass, microclimate changes, and plant species diversity. These changes could potentially have a profound impact on migratory and breeding birds within riparian corridors throughout the southwest. Recently, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a tamarisk biocontrol agent. This beetle has successfully defoliated tamarisk where it has been introduced, but there are currently no comprehensive programs in place for monitoring the rapid spread of Diorhabda, the impact of defoliation on habitat and water resources, or the long-term impact of defoliation on tamarisk. We used higher spatial resolution ASTER data and coarser MODIS data for monitoring defoliation caused by Diorhabda elongata and subsequent changes in evapotranspiration (ET). Widespread tamarisk defoliation was observed in an eastern Utah study area during summers 2007, 2008. We measured stem sap flux, leaf carbon isotope ratios, leaf area, LAI, and vegetation indices from mounted visible and infrared cameras and satellite imagery. The cameras were paired on towers installed 30

  19. A Minimally Invasive Method for Sampling Nest and Roost Cavities for Fungi: a Novel Approach to Identify the Fungi Associated with Cavity-Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel Lindner; John K. Cianchetti; Adam T. Grisé; Nicholas J. Brazee; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2014-01-01

    Relationships among cavity-nesting birds, trees, and wood decay fungi pose interesting management challenges and research questions in many systems. Ornithologists need to understand the relationships between cavity-nesting birds and fungi in order to understand the habitat requirements of these birds. Typically, researchers rely on fruiting body surveys to identify...

  20. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, A. J.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; de la Torre, S.; Garilli, B.; Bolzonella, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Percival, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    We aim to develop a novel methodology for measuring thegrowth rate of structure around cosmic voids. We identified voids in the completed VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres. We measured the cross-correlation between the centres of voids and the complete galaxy catalogue. The cross-correlation function exhibits a clear anisotropy in both VIPERS fields (W1 and W4), which is characteristic of linear redshift space distortions. By measuring the projected cross-correlation and then de-projecting it we are able to estimate the un-distorted cross-correlation function. We propose that given a sufficiently well-measured cross-correlation function one should be able to measure the linear growth rate of structure by applying a simple linear Gaussian streaming model for the redshift space distortions (RSD). Our study of voids in 306 mock galaxy catalogues mimicking the VIPERS fields suggests that VIPERS is capable of measuring β, the ratio of the linear growth rate to the bias, with an error of around 25%. Applying our method to the VIPERS data, we find a value for the redshift space distortion parameter, β = 0.423-0.108+0.104 which, given the bias of the galaxy population we use, gives a linear growth rate of f σ8 = 0.296-0.078+0.075 at z = 0.727. These results are consistent with values observed in parallel VIPERS analyses that use standard techniques. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in

  1. The Effect of Answering in a Preferred Versus a Non-Preferred Survey Mode on Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Smyth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that offering respondents their preferred mode can increase response rates, but the effect of doing so on how respondents process and answer survey questions (i.e., measurement is unclear. In this paper, we evaluate whether changes in question format have different effects on data quality for those responding in their preferred mode than for those responding in a non-preferred mode for three question types (multiple answer, open-ended, and grid. Respondents were asked about their preferred mode in a 2008 survey and were recontacted in 2009. In the recontact survey, respondents were randomly assigned to one of two modes such that some responded in their preferred mode and others did not. They were also randomly assigned to one of two questionnaire forms in which the format of individual questions was varied. On the multiple answer and open-ended items, those who answered in a non-preferred mode seemed to take advantage of opportunities to satisfice when the question format allowed or encouraged it (e.g., selecting fewer items in the check-all than the forced-choice format and being more likely to skip the open-ended item when it had a larger answer box, while those who answered in a preferred mode did not. There was no difference on a grid formatted item across those who did and did not respond by their preferred mode, but results indicate that a fully labeled grid reduced item missing rates vis-à-vis a grid with only column heading labels. Results provide insight into the effect of tailoring to mode preference on commonly used questionnaire design features.

  2. Scoping the evidence for EarlyBird and EarlyBird Plus, two United Kingdom-developed parent education training programmes for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Squibb, John-Joe; Davids, Eugene Lee; de Vries, Petrus J

    2018-03-01

    EarlyBird and EarlyBird Plus are parent education and training programmes designed by the UK National Autistic Society in 1997 and 2003, having been delivered to more than 27,000 families in 14 countries. These group-based programmes aim to (1) support parents immediately after diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, (2) empower parents, encouraging a positive perception of their child's autism spectrum disorder and (3) help parents establish good practice. In the absence of any previous comprehensive review, we performed a scoping review of all peer-reviewed publications on EarlyBird/EarlyBird Plus. A search was conducted between February and June 2016 using EbscoHost, Sabinet, SAGE Journals, Directory of Open Access Journals, BioMed Central, Scopus, ScienceDirect and grey literature. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion. In total, 18 articles were identified: 16 from the United Kingdom and 2 from New Zealand. We reviewed the context, study populations, design, outcome measures, whether focus was on parental perception, parental change or child changes and programme feasibility. Strong parental support for the acceptability but lower level evidence of efficacy of EarlyBird/EarlyBird Plus was found. Future research should consider randomised controlled trials. There is no research on EarlyBird/EarlyBird Plus in low-resource settings; therefore, we recommend broader feasibility evaluation of EarlyBird/EarlyBird Plus including accessibility, cultural appropriateness and scalability.

  3. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg 2 , and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg 2 and probes a volume of 3 h –3 Gpc 3 , making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼15%, with a bin size of δ l = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l ∼ 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat ΛCDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H 0 constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find Ω Λ = 0.73 ± 0.019 and H 0 to be 70.5 ± 1.6 s –1 Mpc –1 km. For an open ΛCDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find Ω K = 0.0035 ± 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = –1.071 ± 0.078, and H 0 to be 71.3 ± 1.7 s –1 Mpc –1 km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power

  4. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  5. Urinary bisphenol A and obesity in adults: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh T. Do

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and promote weight gain in animal studies. Recent epidemiological studies also support a link between BPA and obesity in human populations, although many were limited to a single adiposity measure or have not considered potential confounding by dietary factors. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between urinary BPA and adiposity measures in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Methods: We performed analyses using biomonitoring and directly measured anthropometric data from 4733 adults aged 18 to 79 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2011. We used multinomial and binary logistic regression models to estimate associations of urinary BPA with body mass index (BMI categories (overweight vs. under/normal weight; obesity vs. under/normal weight and elevated waist circumference (males: ≥ 102 cm; females: ≥ 88 cm, respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Linear regression analyses were also performed to assess associations between urinary BPA and continuous BMI and waist circumference measures. Results: Urinary BPA was positively associated with BMI-defined obesity, with an odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002–2.37 in the highest (vs. lowest BPA quartile (test for trend, p = .041. Urinary BPA was not associated with elevated waist circumference defined using standard cut-offs. Additionally, each natural-log unit increase in urinary BPA concentration was associated with a 0.33 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.10–0.57 increase in BMI and a 1.00 cm (95% CI: 0.34–1.65 increase in waist circumference. Conclusion: Our study contributes to the growing body of evidence that BPA is positively associated with obesity. Prospective studies with repeated measures are needed to address temporality and improve exposure classification.

  6. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  7. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  8. SNOW THICKNESS ON AUSTRE GRØNFJORDBREEN, SVALBARD, FROM RADAR MEASUREMENTS AND STANDARD SNOW SURVEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Lavrentiev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Comparison of two methods of measurements of snow cover thickness on the glacier Austre Grønfjordbreen, Svalbard was performed in the spring of 2014. These methods were the radar (500 MHz observations and standard snow surveys. Measurements were conducted in 77 different points on the surface of the glacier. A good correlation (R2 = 0.98 was revealed. In comparison with the data of snow surveys, the radar measurements show a similar but more detailed pattern of the distribution of the snow cover depth. The discrepancy between the depths of snow cover on maps plotted from data of both methods did not exceed 30 cm in most parts of the glacier. The standard error of interpolation of the radar data onto the entire glacier surface amounts, on average, to 18 cm. This corresponds to the error of radar measurements of 18.8% when an average snow depth is about 160 cm and 9.4% at its maximum thickness of 320 cm. The distance between the measurement points at which the spatial covariance of the snow depth disappears falls between 236 and 283 m along the glacier, and between 117 and 165 m across its position. We compared the results of radar measurements of the pulse-delay time of reflections from the base of the snow cover with the data of manual probe measurements at 10 points and direct measurements of snow depth and average density in 12 snow pits. The average speed of radio waves propagation in the snow was determined as Vcr = 23.4±0.2 cm ns−1. This magnitude and the Looyenga and Kovacs formulas allowed estimating the average density of snow cover ρL = 353.1±13.1 kg m−3 and ρK = 337.4±12.9 kg m−3. The difference from average density measured in 12 pits ρav.meas = 387.4±12.9 kg m−3 amounts to −10.8% and −14.8%. In 2014, according to snow and radar measurements, altitudinal gradient of snow accumulation on the glacier Austre Grønfjordbreen was equal to 0.21 m/100 m, which is smaller than the

  9. Double ionization chamber survey meter for the separate measurement of penetrating and non-penetrating dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The full capabilities of an advanced 8-bit microprocessor have been utilized in construction of a wide range, multiplexing survey meter based on dual electrometers and ionization chambers. The ionization chambers are constructed of modular conducting and non-conducting parts in such a way that the angular dependence for measurement of beta radiation is controlled by design. Display functions for the high range instrument include logarithmic or linear analog display, digital display of rate or dose, SI or English units, optionally for either total, penetrating, or non-penetrating dose. The instrument is presently configured to operate in the range 0.1 R/hr to 50,000 R/hr in support of the requirements of Regulatory Guide 19.7

  10. The KMOS Deep Survey: Dynamical Measurements of Star-Forming Galaxies at z 3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Owen; Cirasuolo, Michele; Harrison, Chris; McLure, Ross; Dunlop, James; Swinbank, Mark; Johnson, Helen; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Sharples, Ray

    2017-07-01

    This poster present dynamical measurements from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Deep Survey (KDS), which is comprised of 78 typical star-forming galaxies at z = 3.5 in the mass range 9.0 isolated. The results suggest that the rotation-dominated galaxies in the sample are offset to lower velocities at fixed stellar mass and have higher velocity dispersions than star-forming galaxies in the local and intermediate redshift universe. Only 1/3 of the galaxies in the sample are dominated by rotation, which hints that random motions are playing an increasingly significant role in supporting the dynamical mass in the systems. When searching for evolution in scaling relations, such as the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation, it is important to take these random motions into account.

  11. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  12. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  13. Measuring Work Ability with Its Antecedents: Evaluation of the Work Ability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Jan-Bennet; Deller, Jürgen

    2017-07-24

    Purpose The revised version of the Work Ability Survey (WAS-R) assesses work ability on several sub-scales at the intersection of personal and organizational capacity, thus adding to the measurement of work ability by integrating the holistic model. It, therefore, improves on two features of the current standard measurement tool of work ability, the Work Ability Index (WAI): (1) a ceiling effect and (2) limited detail due to a focus on physical health and personal capacity. Method In two samples (n 1  = 1093, n 2  = 359), psychometric properties and the structure of the WAS-R were analyzed. To evaluate construct validity, inter-correlations of the WAS-R and WAI, sickness absence, expected and desired retirement age, and post-retirement work intention were calculated. Results The WAS-R was found to be distributed closer to normality than the WAI. The structural analyses yielded acceptable results for the hypothesized model. The WAS-R was adequately correlated with the WAI, negatively with sickness absence, and positively with desired retirement age. Conclusions The WAS-R extends the measurement of work ability, reflecting organizations' work demands. Its broad sub-scales lead to high acceptance of the results within the participating companies. In particular, the organizational capacity scales can be used to guide interventions aiming at organizational characteristics to improve work ability.

  14. Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh eForouzan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs explained by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health care system of Tehran. Utilising the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Autonomy, quality of basic amenities and clear communication were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  15. Angular Baryon Acoustic Oscillation measure at z=2.225 from the SDSS quasar survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, E.; Bernui, A.; Carvalho, G. C.; Novaes, C. P.; Xavier, H. S.

    2018-04-01

    Following a quasi model-independent approach we measure the transversal BAO mode at high redshift using the two-point angular correlation function (2PACF). The analyses done here are only possible now with the quasar catalogue from the twelfth data release (DR12Q) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, because it is spatially dense enough to allow the measurement of the angular BAO signature with moderate statistical significance and acceptable precision. Our analyses with quasars in the redshift interval z in [2.20,2.25] produce the angular BAO scale θBAO = 1.77° ± 0.31° with a statistical significance of 2.12 σ (i.e., 97% confidence level), calculated through a likelihood analysis performed using the theoretical covariance matrix sourced by the analytical power spectra expected in the ΛCDM concordance model. Additionally, we show that the BAO signal is robust—although with less statistical significance—under diverse bin-size choices and under small displacements of the quasars' angular coordinates. Finally, we also performed cosmological parameter analyses comparing the θBAO predictions for wCDM and w(a)CDM models with angular BAO data available in the literature, including the measurement obtained here, jointly with CMB data. The constraints on the parameters ΩM, w0 and wa are in excellent agreement with the ΛCDM concordance model.

  16. Nanoparticle usage and protection measures in the manufacturing industry--a representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Kaspar; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Addressing the risks of nanoparticles requires knowledge about release into the environment and occupational exposure. However, such information currently is not systematically collected; therefore, this risk assessment lacks quantitative data. The goal was to evaluate the current level of nanoparticle usage in Swiss industry as well as health, safety, and environmental measures, and the number of potentially exposed workers. A representative, stratified mail survey was conducted among 1626 clients of the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (SUVA), which insures 80,000 manufacturing firms, representing 84% of all Swiss manufacturing companies (947 companies answered the survey for a 58.3% response rate). The extrapolation to all Swiss manufacturing companies results in 1309 workers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1073 to 1545) potentially exposed to nanoparticles in 586 companies (95% CI: 145 to 1027). This corresponds to 0.08% of workers (95% CI: 0.06% to 0.09%) and to 0.6% of companies (95% CI: 0.2% to 1.1%). The industrial chemistry sector showed the highest percentage of companies using nanoparticles (21.2%). Other important sectors also reported nanoparticles. Personal protection equipment was the predominant protection strategy. Only a few applied specific environmental protection measures. This is the first nationwide representative study on nanoparticle use in the manufacturing sector. The information gained can be used for quantitative risk assessment. It can also help policymakers design strategies to support companies developing a safer use of nanomaterial. Noting the current low use of nanoparticles, there is still time to proactively introduce protective methods. If the predicted "nano-revolution" comes true, now is the time to take action.

  17. Relationship between Performance of Quantity Surveying Students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Nathaniel Ayinde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the educational sector over the century have devoted substantial resources in seeking ways of improving students’ academic performance, yet, the desired improved academic performance has not been achieved. By appraising the relationship between the performance of Quantity Surveying (QS students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement courses; the study identified a major curriculum drafting deficiency in the QS programmes in Nigeria which if addressed could help achieve the much needed improved students’ academic performance. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the performance of QS students in Building construction and construction Measurement Courses; and to determine whether a relationship exist in the performances of QS students in the two subject areas. Purposive sampling technique was used to select Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State for the study. Random sampling technique was used to select 241 students who provide data for the study. Close ended questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and data was analyzed using frequency, percentile and correlation analysis. Finding indicates that 43% of the respondents on the average put up good performances in Building Construction Courses while only 19% of the respondents on the average had good grades in Construction Measurement Courses. Results also showed that a significant relationship exist between the performance of QS students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement courses as 83.3% (five out of six pair courses shows significant positive linear correlation. The study recommends that a quick curriculum re-adjustment should be initiated so as to enhance improved academic performance by QS Students especially in Construction Measurement courses.

  18. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...

  19. Robird : a robotic bird of prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan; Straatman, Wessel; Nijenhuis, Nico; Venner, Cornelis H.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Ever since the start of aviation, birds and airplanes have posed a mutual risk: Birds are killed when struck by aircraft, but, in return, bird strikes cause billions in damage to the aviation industry. Airports employ bird-control methods such as audiovisual deterrents (like scarecrows, lasers, and

  20. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  1. 'WORLD OF BIRDS' WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and activities of the 'World of Birds' Wildlife. Sanctuary, near Cape Town, are .... For the time being the benefit for school outings will be mainly visual ... feed, sing, display, build nests, incubate, feed chicks - and even fight.

  2. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty). It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Ma...

  3. Physical activity attenuates the mid-adolescent peak in insulin resistance but by late adolescence the effect is lost: a longitudinal study with annual measures from 9-16 years (EarlyBird 66).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Brad S; Hosking, Joanne; Henley, William E; Jeffery, Alison N; Mostazir, Mohammod; Voss, Linda D; Wilkin, Terence J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to test whether the mid-adolescent peak in insulin resistance (IR) and trends in other metabolic markers are influenced by long-term exposure to physical activity. Physical activity (7 day ActiGraph accelerometry), HOMA-IR and other metabolic markers (glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, lipids and BP) were measured annually from age 9 years to 16 years in 300 children (151 boys) from the EarlyBird study in Plymouth, UK. The activity level of each child was characterised, with 95% reliability, by averaging their eight annual physical activity measures. Age-related trends in IR and metabolic health were analysed by multi-level modelling, with physical activity as the exposure measure (categorical and continuous) and body fat percentage (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and pubertal status (according to age at peak height velocity and Tanner stage) as covariates. The peak in IR at age 12-13 years was 17% lower (p adolescents independently of body fat percentage and pubertal status. However, this difference diminished progressively over the next 3 years and had disappeared completely by the age of 16 years (e.g. difference was -14% at 14 years, -8% at 15 years and +1% at 16 years; 'physical activity × age(2), interaction, p adolescence in the more active group. Our finding that physical activity attenuates IR during mid-adolescence may be clinically important. It remains to be established whether the temporary attenuation in IR during this period has implications for the development of diabetes in adolescence and for future metabolic health generally.

  4. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ..., and by what means such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...

  5. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ..., carriage, or export of any * * * bird, or any part, nest, or egg'' of migratory game birds can take place... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird...

  6. Informed Design of Mixed-Mode Surveys : Evaluating mode effects on measurement and selection error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klausch, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341427306

    2014-01-01

    “Mixed-mode designs” are innovative types of surveys which combine more than one mode of administration in the same project, such as surveys administered partly on the web (online), on paper, by telephone, or face-to-face. Mixed-mode designs have become increasingly popular in international survey

  7. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Salum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880, fear disorders (n = 108, distress disorders (n = 76, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143 and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56. Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  8. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni A; DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Pan, Pedro Mario; Gadelha, Ary; Brietzke, Elisa; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Mari, Jair J; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM) comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM) was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880), fear disorders (n = 108), distress disorders (n = 76), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143) and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56). A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment) encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report) exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  9. How social processes distort measurement: the impact of survey nonresponse on estimates of volunteer work in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Katharine G; Presser, Stanley; Helms, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that both the large variability in survey estimates of volunteering and the fact that survey estimates do not show the secular decline common to other social capital measures are caused by the greater propensity of those who do volunteer work to respond to surveys. Analyses of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS)--the sample for which is drawn from the Current Population Survey (CPS)--together with the CPS volunteering supplement show that CPS respondents who become ATUS respondents report much more volunteering in the CPS than those who become ATUS nonrespondents. This difference is replicated within subgroups. Consequently, conventional adjustments for nonresponse cannot correct the bias. Although nonresponse leads to estimates of volunteer activity that are too high, it generally does not affect inferences about the characteristics of volunteers.

  10. Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Peters, Valerie E; Weygandt, P Logan; Jimenez, Carlos; Villegas, Pedro; O'Connor, Barry; Yabsley, Michael J; Garcia, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Carroll, C Ron

    2013-06-01

    Shade-grown coffee plantations are often promoted as a conservation strategy for wild birds. However, these agro-ecosystems are actively managed for food production, which may alter bird behaviors or interactions that could change bird health, compared to natural forest. To examine whether there is a difference between the health parameters of wild birds inhabiting shade-grown coffee plantations and natural forest, we evaluated birds in Costa Rica for (1) their general body condition, (2) antibodies to pathogens, (paramyxovirus and Mycoplasma spp.), and (3) the prevalence and diversity of endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. We measured exposure to Mycoplasma spp. and paramyxovirus because these are pathogens that could have been introduced with domestic poultry, one mechanism by which these landscapes could be detrimental to wild birds. We captured 1,561 birds representing 75 species. Although seasonal factors influenced body condition, we did not find bird general body condition to be different. A total of 556 birds of 31 species were tested for antibodies against paramyxovirus-1. Of these, five birds tested positive, four of which were from shade coffee. Out of 461 other tests for pathogens (for antibodies and nucleotide detection), none were positive. Pterolichus obtusus, the feather mite of chickens, was found on 15 birds representing two species and all were from shade-coffee plantations. Larvated eggs of Syngamus trachea, a nematode typically associated with chickens, were found in four birds captured in shade coffee and one captured in forest. For hemoparasites, a total of 1,121 blood smears from 68 bird species were examined, and only one species showed a higher prevalence of infection in shade coffee. Our results indicate that shade-coffee plantations do not pose a significant health risk to forest birds, but at least two groups of pathogens may deserve further attention: Haemoproteus spp. and the diversity and identity of endoparasites.

  11. Validation of the Child HCAHPS survey to measure pediatric inpatient experience of care in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyneel, Luk; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Buyse, Gunnar; Casteels, Kristina; Lommers, Barbara; Vandersmissen, Jo; Van Eldere, Johan; Van Geet, Chris; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2017-07-01

    The recently developed Child HCAHPS provides a standard to measure US hospitals' performance on pediatric inpatient experiences of care. We field-tested Child HCAHPS in Belgium to instigate international comparison. In the development stage, forward/backward translation was conducted and patients assessed content validity index as excellent. The draft Flemish Child HCAHPS included 63 items: 38 items for five topics hypothesized to be similar to those proposed in the US (communication with parent, communication with child, attention to safety and comfort, hospital environment, and global rating), 10 screeners, a 14-item demographic and descriptive section, and one open-ended item. A 6-week pilot test was subsequently performed in three pediatric wards (general ward, hematology and oncology ward, infant and toddler ward) at a JCI-accredited university hospital. An overall response rate of 90.99% (303/333) was achieved and was consistent across wards. Confirmatory factor analysis largely confirmed the configuration of the proposed composites. Composite and single-item measures related well to patients' global rating of the hospital. Interpretation of different patient experiences across types of wards merits further investigation. Child HCAHPS provides an opportunity for systematic and cross-national assessment of pediatric inpatient experiences. Sharing and implementing international best practices are the next logical step. What is Known: • Patient experience surveys are increasingly used to reflect on the quality, safety, and centeredness of patient care. • While adult inpatient experience surveys are routinely used across countries around the world, the measurement of pediatric inpatient experiences is a young field of research that is essential to reflect on family-centered care. What is New: • We demonstrate that the US-developed Child HCAHPS provides an opportunity for international benchmarking of pediatric inpatient experiences with care through parents

  12. LH2 Target Design & Position Survey Techniques for the MUSE experiment for Precise Proton Radius Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pottier, Luc; Roy, Pryiashee; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Raymond, Richard; Steinberg, Noah; Rossi de La Fuente, Erick; MUSE (MUon proton Scattering Experiment) Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The proton radius puzzle is a currently unresolved problem which has intrigued the scientific community, dealing with a 7 σ discrepancy between the proton radii determined from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron scattering measurements. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) aims to resolve this puzzle by performing the first simultaneous elastic scattering measurements of both electrons and muons on the proton, which will allow the comparison of the radii from the two interactions with reduced systematic uncertainties. The data from this experiment is expected to provide the best test of lepton universality to date. The experiment will take place at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland in 2018. An essential component of the experiment is a liquid hydrogen (LH2) cryotarget system. Our group at the University of Michigan is responsible for the design, fabrication and installation of this system. Here we present our LH2 target cell design and fabrication techniques for successful operation at 20 K and 1 atm, and our computer vision-based target position survey system which will determine the position of the target, installed inside a vacuum chamber, with 0.01 mm or better precision at the height of the liquid hydrogen target and along the beam direction during the experiment.

  13. Dyslipidemia prevalence, treatment, control, and awareness in the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Michel; Shields, Margot; Tremblay, Mark S; Connor Gorber, Sarah

    2013-04-24

    The most recent Canadian population-level data on lipid levels are from 1992. This study presents current estimates of Canadians with dyslipidemia, the proportion aware of their condition, and the proportion being treated and below target values. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009) assessed the prevalence, awareness and treatment of dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC/HDL-C ratio ≥5; measured LDL-C ≥3.5 mmol/L; or taking lipid-modifying medications. The 2009 guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia were used to define low, moderate or high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and treatment initiation and targets. Forty-five percent of Canadians aged 18-79 years have dyslipidemia. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were not aware of their condition. Lipid-modifying therapy was initiated in individuals where treatment would be recommended in 49%, 20% and 54% of those at high, moderate, and low risk levels, respectively. The majority (81%) of those taking medication had their lipid levels under desirable levels, however, only 24% of those with dyslipidemia reported medication use. Overall, only 19% of those with dyslipidemia had their lipids under recommended levels. Only 41% of those taking lipid-modifying medication reached a recommended target of LDL-C dyslipidemia, who are not being treated to recommended levels. These data need to be integrated into CVD reduction recommendations and represent an important baseline for assessing progress.

  14. Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Aliya

    2006-01-01

    Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…

  15. Measuring employment precariousness in the European Working Conditions Survey: the social distribution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Vanroelen, Christophe; Vives, Alejandra; Martínez, José Miguel; Muntaner, Carles; Levecque, Katia; Benach, Joan; Louckx, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Precarious employment is becoming an increasingly important social determinant of health inequalities among workers. The way in which contemporary employment arrangements and their health consequences are addressed in empirical research is mostly based on the contract-related or employment instability dimension. A broader conceptual approach including various important characteristics of the degrading of employment conditions and relations is needed. The general objective of this paper is to empirically test a new multidimensional construct for measuring precarious employment in an existing database. Special focus is on the social distribution of precarious employment. A subsample of 21,415 participants in the EU-27 from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey-2005 was analysed. A cross-sectional study of the social distribution of precarious employment was conducted through the analysis of proportional differences according to gender, social class and credentials for the European Union as a whole and within each country. The 8 dimensions of the employment precariousness construct were represented by 11 indicators. In general, women, workers without supervisory authority, those with fewer credentials, and those living in Eastern and Southern European countries suffer the highest levels of precarious employment. Exceptionally, men, workers with supervisory authority and those with the highest credentials suffer the highest levels of long working hours, schedule unpredictability and uncompensated flexible working times. This article offers the first validation for an innovative multidimensional conceptualisation of employment precariousness applied to the analysis of existing survey data, showing the unequal distribution of precarious employment across the European labour force. This set of indicators can be useful for monitoring precarious employment.

  16. Source selection for cluster weak lensing measurements in the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Speagle, Joshua S.; Miyatake, Hironao; Umetsu, Keiichi; Leauthaud, Alexie; Murata, Ryoma; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Strauss, Michael A.; Huang, Song; Simet, Melanie; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2018-03-01

    We present optimized source galaxy selection schemes for measuring cluster weak lensing (WL) mass profiles unaffected by cluster member dilution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program (HSC-SSP). The ongoing HSC-SSP survey will uncover thousands of galaxy clusters to z ≲ 1.5. In deriving cluster masses via WL, a critical source of systematics is contamination and dilution of the lensing signal by cluster members, and by foreground galaxies whose photometric redshifts are biased. Using the first-year CAMIRA catalog of ˜900 clusters with richness larger than 20 found in ˜140 deg2 of HSC-SSP data, we devise and compare several source selection methods, including selection in color-color space (CC-cut), and selection of robust photometric redshifts by applying constraints on their cumulative probability distribution function (P-cut). We examine the dependence of the contamination on the chosen limits adopted for each method. Using the proper limits, these methods give mass profiles with minimal dilution in agreement with one another. We find that not adopting either the CC-cut or P-cut methods results in an underestimation of the total cluster mass (13% ± 4%) and the concentration of the profile (24% ± 11%). The level of cluster contamination can reach as high as ˜10% at R ≈ 0.24 Mpc/h for low-z clusters without cuts, while employing either the P-cut or CC-cut results in cluster contamination consistent with zero to within the 0.5% uncertainties. Our robust methods yield a ˜60 σ detection of the stacked CAMIRA surface mass density profile, with a mean mass of M200c = [1.67 ± 0.05(stat)] × 1014 M⊙/h.

  17. Measuring success: results from a national survey of recruitment and retention initiatives in the nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Carthon, J Margo; Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Chittams, Jesse; Park, Elizabeth; Guevara, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common components of diversity pipeline programs across a national sample of nursing institutions and determine what effect these programs have on increasing underrepresented minority enrollment and graduation. Linked data from an electronic survey conducted November 2012 to March 2013 and American Association of Colleges of Nursing baccalaureate graduation and enrollment data (2008 and 2012). Academic and administrative staff of 164 nursing schools in 26 states, including Puerto Rico in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to (1) describe organizational features of nursing diversity pipeline programs and (2) determine significant trends in underrepresented minorities' graduation and enrollment between nursing schools with and without diversity pipeline programs Twenty percent (n = 33) of surveyed nursing schools reported a structured diversity pipeline program. The most frequent program measures associated with pipeline programs included mentorship, academic, and psychosocial support. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander nursing student enrollment increased between 2008 and 2012. Hispanic/Latino graduation rates increased (7.9%-10.4%, p = .001), but they decreased among Black (6.8%-5.0%, p = .004) and Native American/Pacific Islander students (2.1 %-0.3%, p ≥ .001). Nursing diversity pipeline programs are associated with increases in nursing school enrollment and graduation for some, although not all, minority students. Future initiatives should build on current trends while creating targeted strategies to reverse downward graduation trends among Black, Native American, and Pacific Island nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  19. Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Mangan

    Full Text Available As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella and negatively through fruit damage. We conducted transect surveys, observed bird frugivory and assessed bird and insect damage with an exclosure experiment in small organic farms in western Colorado. We found that organic apple orchards in this region provide habitat for a large number of both human-adapted and human-sensitive species and that the species in orchards were relatively similar to adjacent hedgerow habitats. Habitat use did not vary as a function of orchard characteristics, and apple damage by both birds and C. pomonella was consistent within and across apple blocks that varied in size. A small subset of bird species was observed foraging on apples yet the effect of birds as agents of fruit damage appeared rather minor and birds did not reduce C. pomonella damage. Our results demonstrate that organic apple orchards have the potential to provide habitat for diverse bird communities, including species typically sensitive to human activities, with little apparent effect on production.

  20. Questionnaire survey, indoor climate measurements and energy consumption: Concerto initiative. Class1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellemose Knudsen, H.; Engelund Thomsen, K.; Bergsoee, N.C. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark); Moerck, O.; Holmegaard Andersen, K. [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as ''low-energy class 1'' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup .} Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m{sup }thermal solar system for hot water preparation. The dense low-rise housing are to be heated by a district heating network. All dwellings were to be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery and an electronic system for energy monitoring and control of the heating systems. The first houses were occupied in 2008. This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58 flats, and measurements, assessments, and a series of physical measurements of selected indoor climate parameters in 7 selected single-family houses during March 2012. (Author)

  1. Likeability of Garden Birds: Importance of Species Knowledge & Richness in Connecting People to Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Interacting with nature is widely recognised as providing many health and well-being benefits. As people live increasingly urbanised lifestyles, the provision of food for garden birds may create a vital link for connecting people to nature and enabling them to access these benefits. However, it is not clear which factors determine the pleasure that people receive from watching birds at their feeders. These may be dependent on the species that are present, the abundance of individuals and the species richness of birds around the feeders. We quantitatively surveyed urban households from towns in southern England to determine the factors that influence the likeability of 14 common garden bird species, and to assess whether people prefer to see a greater abundance of individuals or increased species richness at their feeders. There was substantial variation in likeability across species, with songbirds being preferred over non-songbirds. Species likeability increased for people who fed birds regularly and who could name the species. We found a strong correlation between the number of species that a person could correctly identify and how connected to nature they felt when they watched garden birds. Species richness was preferred over a greater number of individuals of the same species. Although we do not show causation this study suggests that it is possible to increase the well-being benefits that people gain from watching birds at their feeders. This could be done first through a human to bird approach by encouraging regular interactions between people and their garden birds, such as through learning the species names and providing food. Second, it could be achieved through a bird to human approach by increasing garden songbird diversity because the pleasure that a person receives from watching an individual bird at a feeder is dependent not only on its species but also on the diversity of birds at the feeder.

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  3. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  5. Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roel May; Jens Åström; Øyvind Hamre; Espen Lie Dahl

    2017-01-01

    Background: Concerns for bird collisions with wind turbines affect the deployment of onshore and offshore wind-power plants. To avoid delays in consenting processes and to streamline the construction and operation phase, func-tional mitigation measures are required which efficiently reduces bird mortality. Vision is the primary sensory system in birds, which for a number of species also includes the ultraviolet spectrum. Many bird species that are known to collide with offshore wind turbines are sensitive in the violet or ultraviolet spectrum. For species that are mainly active at lower ambient light levels, lighting may deter birds from the lit area. Utilizing (ultra)violet lights may in addition not disturb humans. However, we do not know whether UV-sensitive birds in flight actually respond behaviourally to UV lights. Methods: We therefore tested the efficacy of two types of lights within the violet (400 nm) and ultraviolet (365 nm) spectrum to deter birds from the lit area. These lights were placed vertically and monitored continuously between dusk and dawn using an avian radar system. Results: Relative to control nights, bird flight activity (abundance) was 27% lower when the ultraviolet light was on. Violet light resulted in a 12% decrease in overall abundance, and in addition, a vertical displacement was seen, increasing the average flight altitude by 7 m. Although temporal changes occurred, this effect persisted over the season below 40 m above sea level. Conclusions: Although the results from this pilot study are promising, we argue there still is a long way to go before a potentially functional design to mitigate collisions that has proven to be effective in situ may be in place.

  6. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  7. Do 360-degree feedback survey results relate to patient satisfaction measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David C; Gregory, Paul J; Rubash, Harry E; Harmon, Larry

    2015-05-01

    other PULSE 360 variables were correlated with CG-CAHPS ratings, but none were retained in the linear models post stepwise regression. The relationship between Quality PULSE 360 feedback scores and measures of patient satisfaction reaffirm that feedback from work team members may provide helpful information into how patients may be perceiving their physicians' behavior and vice versa. Furthermore, the findings provide tentative support for the use of team-based feedback to improve the quality of relationships with both coworkers and patients. The 360-degree survey process may offer an effective tool for physicians to obtain feedback about behavior that could directly impact practice reimbursement and reputation or potentially be used for bonuses to incentivize better team professionalism and patient satisfaction, ie, "pay-for-professionalism." Further research is needed to expand on this line of inquiry, determine which interventions can improve 360-degree and patient satisfaction scores, and explain the shared variance in physician performance that is captured in the perceptions of patients and coworkers.

  8. Summary of intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting detection probability of marsh birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Gibbs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Many species of marsh birds (rails, bitterns, grebes, etc.) rely exclusively on emergent marsh vegetation for all phases of their life cycle, and many organizations have become concerned about the status and persistence of this group of birds. Yet, marsh birds are notoriously difficult to monitor due to their secretive habits. We synthesized the published and unpublished literature and summarized the factors that influence detection probability of secretive marsh birds in North America. Marsh birds are more likely to respond to conspecific than heterospecific calls, and seasonal peak in vocalization probability varies among co-existing species. The effectiveness of morning versus evening surveys varies among species and locations. Vocalization probability appears to be positively correlated with density in breeding Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola), Soras (Porzana carolina), and Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris). Movement of birds toward the broadcast source creates biases when using count data from callbroadcast surveys to estimate population density. Ambient temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phase affected detection probability in some, but not all, studies. Better estimates of detection probability are needed. We provide recommendations that would help improve future marsh bird survey efforts and a list of 14 priority information and research needs that represent gaps in our current knowledge where future resources are best directed. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  9. Measurement Equivalence in ADL and IADL Difficulty Across International Surveys of Aging: Findings From the HRS, SHARE, and ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Judith D.; Brandt, Jason; Pezzin, Liliana E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the measurement equivalence of items on disability across three international surveys of aging. Method. Data for persons aged 65 and older were drawn from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS, n = 10,905), English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, n = 5,437), and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, n = 13,408). Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed using item response theory (IRT) methods for activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) items. Results. HRS and SHARE exhibited measurement equivalence, but 6 of 11 items in ELSA demonstrated meaningful DIF. At the scale level, this item-level DIF affected scores reflecting greater disability. IRT methods also spread out score distributions and shifted scores higher (toward greater disability). Results for mean disability differences by demographic characteristics, using original and DIF-adjusted scores, were the same overall but differed for some subgroup comparisons involving ELSA. Discussion. Testing and adjusting for DIF is one means of minimizing measurement error in cross-national survey comparisons. IRT methods were used to evaluate potential measurement bias in disability comparisons across three international surveys of aging. The analysis also suggested DIF was mitigated for scales including both ADL and IADL and that summary indexes (counts of limitations) likely underestimate mean disability in these international populations. PMID:22156662

  10. Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey on Algorithms, Measurement Techniques, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Paul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs that has developed significant research interest among academia and research community. Wireless sensor network is formed by a large number of tiny, low energy, limited processing capability and low-cost sensors that communicate with each other in ad-hoc fashion. The task of determining physical coordinates of sensor nodes in WSNs is known as localization or positioning and is a key factor in today’s communication systems to estimate the place of origin of events. As the requirement of the positioning accuracy for different applications varies, different localization methods are used in different applications and there are several challenges in some special scenarios such as forest fire detection. In this paper, we survey different measurement techniques and strategies for range based and range free localization with an emphasis on the latter. Further, we discuss different localization-based applications, where the estimation of the location information is crucial. Finally, a comprehensive discussion of the challenges such as accuracy, cost, complexity, and scalability are given.

  11. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Galaxy Sample for BAO Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocce, M.; et al.

    2017-12-17

    We define and characterise a sample of 1.3 million galaxies extracted from the first year of Dark Energy Survey data, optimised to measure Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the presence of significant redshift uncertainties. The sample is dominated by luminous red galaxies located at redshifts $z \\gtrsim 0.6$. We define the exact selection using color and magnitude cuts that balance the need of high number densities and small photometric redshift uncertainties, using the corresponding forecasted BAO distance error as a figure-of-merit in the process. The typical photo-$z$ uncertainty varies from $2.3\\%$ to $3.6\\%$ (in units of 1+$z$) from $z=0.6$ to $1$, with number densities from $200$ to $130$ galaxies per deg$^2$ in tomographic bins of width $\\Delta z = 0.1$. Next we summarise the validation of the photometric redshift estimation. We characterise and mitigate observational systematics including stellar contamination, and show that the clustering on large scales is robust in front of those contaminants. We show that the clustering signal in the auto-correlations and cross-correlations is generally consistent with theoretical models, which serves as an additional test of the redshift distributions.

  12. Sexual orientation measurement and chronic disease disparities: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M

    2018-02-01

    To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities. We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity. Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.37-7.47) and chronic bronchitis (aOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.21-5.72) than self-identified heterosexual women. Self-identified sexual minority women with a history of same-sex sexual behavior reported greater odds of arthritis (aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.74). Compared with heterosexual men, gay men reported greater odds of chronic bronchitis when sexual orientation was defined by sexual identity (aOR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.90-11.56) or 12-month sexual behavior (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.27-8.20), as did bisexual men defined by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.89). Bisexual men reported greater odds of asthma when measured by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.12-3.19), as did self-identified heterosexual men with a history of same-sex sexual behavior (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.10-4.46). How we define sexual orientation influences our understanding of chronic disease prevalence. Capturing subgroups of sexual minority people in health surveillance is essential for identifying groups most at risk and developing targeted interventions to reduce chronic disease disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  14. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  15. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  16. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  17. Measuring Altruistic Behavior in Surveys: The All-or-Nothing Dictator Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Bekkers

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study of altruistic behaviour is presented using a modification of the dictator game in a large random sample survey in the netherlands (n=1,964. In line with laboratory experiments, only 5.7% donated money. In line with other survey research on giving, generosity increased with age, education, income, trust, and prosocial value orientation.

  18. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  19. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered

  20. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  1. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  2. The MOSDEF Survey: First Measurement of Nebular Oxygen Abundance at z > 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Alice E.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Kriek, Mariska; Freeman, William R.; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L.; Leung, Gene C. K.; deGroot, Laura; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; Azadi, Mojegan; Aird, James

    2017-09-01

    We present the first spectroscopic measurement of multiple rest-frame optical emission lines at z > 4. During the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we observed the galaxy GOODSN-17940 with the Keck I/MOSFIRE spectrograph. The K-band spectrum of GOODSN-17940 includes significant detections of the [O II]λλ3726,3729, [Ne III]λ3869, and Hγ emission lines and a tentative detection of Hδ, indicating z spec = 4.4121. GOODSN-17940 is an actively star-forming z > 4 galaxy based on its K-band spectrum and broadband spectral energy distribution. A significant excess relative to the surrounding continuum is present in the Spitzer/IRAC channel 1 photometry of GOODSN-17940, due primarily to strong Hα emission with a rest-frame equivalent width of EW(Hα) = 1200 Å. Based on the assumption of 0.5 Z ⊙ models and the Calzetti attenuation curve, GOODSN-17940 is characterized by {M}* ={5.0}-0.2+4.3× {10}9 {M}⊙ . The Balmer decrement inferred from Hα/Hγ is used to dust correct the Hα emission, yielding {{SFR(H}}α )={320}-140+190 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1. These M * and star formation rate (SFR) values place GOODSN-17940 an order of magnitude in SFR above the z ˜ 4 star-forming “main sequence.” Finally, we use the observed ratio of [Ne III]/[O II] to estimate the nebular oxygen abundance in GOODSN-17940, finding O/H ˜ 0.2 (O/H)⊙. Combining our new [Ne III]/[O II] measurement with those from stacked spectra at z ˜ 0, 2, and 3, we show that GOODSN-17940 represents an extension to z > 4 of the evolution toward higher [Ne III]/[O II] (I.e., lower O/H) at fixed stellar mass. It will be possible to perform the measurements presented here out to z ˜ 10 using the James Webb Space Telescope. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of

  3. Mountain birdwatch: developing a coordinated monitoring program for high-elevation birds in the Atlantic northern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Lloyd; Julie Hart; J. Dan Lambert

    2010-01-01

    Birds occupying high-elevation forests in the northeast are perceived to be at risk from a variety of external forces, most notably the potential loss and alteration of habitat associated with global climate change and the increased deployment of wind-energy facilities. However, the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), a standardized national monitoring scheme widely used to...

  4. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  5. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  6. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2013-01-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a ΛCDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 200 , a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M 200 and in L X demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  7. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foreign exchange earnings for each national exchequer. However, recent national census records have .... Dar-es-. Salaam: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Bennun, L & Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya, Nairobi: East Africa Natural. History Society. Byaruhanga, A, Kasoma, P. & Pomeroy, D. 2001.

  8. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, R.B.; King, D.I.; DeStefano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most scrub-shrub bird species are declining in the northeastern United States, and these declines are largely attributed to regional declines in habitat availability. American Beaver (Castor canadensis; hereafter “beaver”) populations have been increasing in the Northeast in recent decades, and beavers create scrub-shrub habitat through their dam-building and foraging activities. Few systematic studies have been conducted on the value of beaver-modified habitats for scrub-shrub birds, and these data are important for understanding habitat selection of scrub-shrub birds as well as for assessing regional habitat availability for these species. We conducted surveys in 37 beaver meadows in a 2,800-km2 study area in western Massachusetts during 2005 and 2006 to determine the extent to which these beaver-modified habitats are used by scrub-shrub birds, as well as the characteristics of beaver meadows most closely related to bird use. We modeled bird abundance in relation to microhabitat-, patch-, and landscape-context variables while adjusting for survey-specific covariates affecting detectability using N-mixture models. We found that scrub-shrub birds of regional conservation concern occupied these sites and that birds responded differently to microhabitat, patch, and landscape characteristics of beaver meadows. Generally, scrub-shrub birds increased in abundance along a gradient of increasing vegetation complexity, and three species were positively related to patch size. We conclude that these habitats can potentially play an important role in regional conservation of scrub-shrub birds and recommend that conservation priority be given to larger beaver meadows with diverse vegetation structure and composition.

  9. Measuring China’s regional energy and carbon emission efficiency with DEA models: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanyi; Su, Bin; Thomson, Elspeth; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • China’s regional efficiency studies using data envelopment analysis are reviewed. • The main features of 46 studies published in 2006–2015 are summarized. • Six models are compared from the perspective of methodology and empirical results. • Empirical study of China’s 30 regional efficiency assessment in 1995–2012 is presented. - Abstract: The use of data envelopment analysis (DEA) in China’s regional energy efficiency and carbon emission efficiency (EE&CE) assessment has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper conducted a comprehensive survey of empirical studies published in 2006–2015 on China’s regional EE&CE assessment using DEA-type models. The main features used in previous studies were identified, and then the methodological framework for deriving the EE&CE indicators as well as six widely used DEA models were introduced. These DEA models were compared and applied to measure China’s regional EE&CE in 30 provinces/regions between 1995 and 2012. The empirical study indicates that China’s regional EE&CE remained stable in the 9th Five Year Plan (1996–2000), then decreased in the 10th Five Year Plan (2000–2005), and increased a bit in the 11th Five Year Plan (2006–2010). The east region of China had the highest EE&CE while the central area had the lowest. By way of conclusion, some useful points relating to model selection are summarized from both methodological and empirical aspects.

  10. The Global Survey Method Applied to Ground-level Cosmic Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.; Oleneva, V.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    The global survey method (GSM) technique unites simultaneous ground-level observations of cosmic rays in different locations and allows us to obtain the main characteristics of cosmic-ray variations outside of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of Earth. This technique has been developed and applied in numerous studies over many years by the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN). We here describe the IZMIRAN version of the GSM in detail. With this technique, the hourly data of the world-wide neutron-monitor network from July 1957 until December 2016 were processed, and further processing is enabled upon the receipt of new data. The result is a database of homogeneous and continuous hourly characteristics of the density variations (an isotropic part of the intensity) and the 3D vector of the cosmic-ray anisotropy. It includes all of the effects that could be identified in galactic cosmic-ray variations that were caused by large-scale disturbances of the interplanetary medium in more than 50 years. These results in turn became the basis for a database on Forbush effects and interplanetary disturbances. This database allows correlating various space-environment parameters (the characteristics of the Sun, the solar wind, et cetera) with cosmic-ray parameters and studying their interrelations. We also present features of the coupling coefficients for different neutron monitors that enable us to make a connection from ground-level measurements to primary cosmic-ray variations outside the atmosphere and the magnetosphere. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current version of the GSM as well as further possible developments and improvements. The method developed allows us to minimize the problems of the neutron-monitor network, which are typical for experimental physics, and to considerably enhance its advantages.

  11. Antimicrobials usage assessments in commercial poultry and local birds in North-central Nigeria: Associated pathways and factors for resistance emergence and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Haruna, A E; Muhammad, B; Lawan, M K; Isola, T O

    2018-06-01

    system (OR: 8.94; 95% CI: 5.62, 14.24) were more likely to satisfactorily influenced antimicrobials misuse in poultry farms and local bird flocks. The survey revealed low knowledge level regarding AMU in the poultry. Antimicrobials were rarely used in local bird flocks, making them likely organic and safe from AMR. It is imperative to educate farmers on judicious AMU, enforce existing veterinary legislation on antimicrobials, establish antimicrobials surveillance system, and sensitize farmers on adequate biosecurity measures and routine vaccination of farms, so as to assure food safety, food security, and public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining 137Cs and topographic surveys for measuring soil erosion/deposition patterns in a rapidly accreting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Narrow, stiff grass hedges are biological barriers designed to slow runoff and capture soils carried in runoff water. This study was designed to measure quantitatively the deposition of soil up slope of a narrow, stiff grass hedge using topographic and 137 Cs surveys. Topographic surveys made in 1991, 1995, and 1998 measured 1 to 2 cm yr -1 of recent sediment deposited up slope of the grass hedge. 137 Cs analyses of soil samples were used to determine the medium-term (45 years) soil redistribution patterns. Erosion rates and patterns determined using 137 Cs measured medium-term erosion near the hedge do not reflect the recent deposition patterns near the grass hedge measured by topographic surveys. Using the combination of topographic and 137 Cs surveys allows a better understanding of the role of grass hedges as barriers for capturing eroding soils and suggest that the recent deposition is associated with the grass hedge but that there is still a net loss of soil near the hedge position over the past 45 years. (author)

  13. Testing measurement invariance in the International Social Survey Program Health 2011 – the mental well-being scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deurzen, I.A.; Roosma, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the present contribution we address the measurement invariance of a new mental well-being scale of three items that was applied in the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) Health 2011 module. Our aim is to establish if and for how many countries (partial) scalar invariance is

  14. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radom levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in 'The householders' guide to radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. (Author)

  15. Magnitude and correlates of bird collisions at glass bus shelters in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christine M; Riding, Corey S; Loss, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife residing in urban landscapes face many human-related threats to their survival. For birds, collision with glass on manmade structures has been identified as a major hazard, causing hundreds of millions of avian fatalities in North America every year. Although research has investigated factors associated with bird-glass collision mortality at buildings, no prior studies have focused on bird fatalities at glass-walled bus shelters. Our objectives in this study were to describe the magnitude of bird-bus shelter collisions in the city of Stillwater, Oklahoma and assess potential predictors of collision risk, including characteristics of shelters (glass area) and surrounding land cover (e.g., vegetative features). We surveyed for bird carcasses and indirect collision evidence at 18 bus shelters over a five-month period. Linear regression and model selection results revealed that the amount of glass on shelters and the area of lawn within 50 m of shelters were both positively related to fatal bird collisions; glass area was also positively associated with observations of collision evidence on glass surfaces. After accounting for scavenger removal of carcasses, we estimate that a minimum of 34 birds are killed each year between May and September by collision with the 36 bus shelters in the city of Stillwater. While our study provides an initial look at bird fatalities at bus shelters, additional research is needed to generate a large-scale estimate of collision mortality and to assess species composition of fatalities at a national scale. Designing new bus shelters to include less glass and retrofitting existing shelters to increase visibility of glass to birds will likely reduce fatal bird collisions at bus shelters and thus reduce the cumulative magnitude of anthropogenic impacts to birds in cities.

  16. Stages of Biological Development across Age: An Analysis of Canadian Health Measure Survey 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Wu, Chao-Jung; Chen, Wei-Chih

    2017-01-01

    The stages of biological development are not clearly defined despite the fact that they have been used to refer to concepts such as adolescence and aging. This study aimed to (1) propose and test a framework to search for stages of representative components and determine stages of stability and transition, (2) identify stages of biological development based on health questionnaire and biomarker data, and (3) interpret the major trajectories in a health and biomarker database. This study analyzed the data on the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) interviewees from cycle 1 to 3 (2007-2013) in Canada. We selected 282 variables containing information from questionnaire and on biomarkers after removing redundant variables based on high correlation. Fifty-nine nominal variables were replaced by 122 binominal variables, leaving 345 variables for analysis. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to summarize the data and the loadings were used to interpret the PCs. A stable stage was assumed to be the age groups without significantly different values of PCs. The CHMS interviewed 16,340 Canadians. Of all, 51.25% were female. The age ranged from 6 to 79 years (mean = 34.41 years, 95% CI = 34.74-34.08). The proportions of total variance explained by the first three PCs were 12.14, 4.03, and 3.19%, respectively. The differences of the first PC were not significant, especially between age 22 and 33, 34 and 40, 41 and 45, 46 and 71, and 72 and 79 years (adjusted p  > 0.05 for all). The leading variable, in terms of the variance contributed to PC1, was time spent in physical activities, followed by variables related to alcohol consumption, and smoking. The 13 leading contributors to PC2 variances were all lung function measures. There are stages of stability and transition across all age groups based on the first PCs. The first and second PCs are related to physical development and lung function. The identification of stable stages is the first step

  17. Manual for the Portable Handheld Neutron Counter (PHNC) for Neutron Survey and the Measurement of Plutonium Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    2005-01-01

    We have designed a portable neutron detector for passive neutron scanning measurement and coincidence counting of bulk samples of plutonium. The counter will be used for neutron survey applications as well as the measurement of plutonium samples for portable applications. The detector uses advanced design 3 He tubes to increase the efficiency and battery operated shift register electronics. This report describes the hardware, performance, and calibration for the system

  18. Methodological issues in the estimation of parental time – Analysis of measures in a Canadian time-use survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cara B. Fedick; Shelley Pacholok; Anne H. Gauthier

    2005-01-01

    Extensive small scale studies have documented that when people assume the role of assisting a person with impairments or an older person, care activities account for a significant portion of their daily routines. Nevertheless, little research has investigated the problem of measuring the time that carers spend in care-related activities. This paper contrasts two different measures of care time – an estimated average weekly hours question in the 1998 Australian Survey of Disability, Ageing and...

  19. Measuring inequalities in health from survey data using self-assessed social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Valerio

    2018-03-01

    Asking participants to assess their social class may be an efficient approach to examining inequalities in heath from survey data. The present study investigated this possibility empirically by testing whether subjective class identification is related to overall health. I used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2012 and the 2014 General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey carried out among adults in the United States. The association between health and class was estimated separately by gender, race and age. The association follows a gradient pattern where health deteriorates with lower class position even after controlling for indicators typically used in research that examines class differences in health-educational attainment, family income and occupational prestige. The results largely hold when the data are stratified by gender, race and age. These findings demonstrate the empirical value of subjective class identification for assessing social inequalities in health from survey data.

  20. Survey on ground water by gamma-ray measurement in civil engineering works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, T [Nihon Norin Helicopter Co., Ltd., Tokyo

    1982-01-01

    In the fractured zones where ground water exists, the water permeability is generally large, so that the radioactive elements in the depths of the earth rise relatively easily. The high intensity of the gamma-ray from such elements is thus exhibited in the air. A survey on ground water made possible in this way by the aerial method using a helicopter is described. The method has various advantages including the free setting of courses of traverse, low-speed flying at low altitude, which raises the survey accuracy, communication with those on the ground by easy landing, and reduction in survey time. As actual instances, the following surveys are given: mountainous tunnel and water gushing, the permeability of a dam foundation, fractured zones such as collapse and landslide, and mountainous water sources.

  1. A survey on ground water by gamma-ray measurement in civil engineering works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    In the fractured zones where ground water exists, the water permeability is generally large, so that the radioactive elements in the depths of the earth rise relatively easily. The high intensity of the gamma-ray from such elements is thus exhibited in the air. A survey on ground water made possible in this way by the aerial method using a helicopter is described. The method has various advantages including the free setting of courses of traverse, low-speed flying at low altitude, which raises the survey accuracy, communication with those on the ground by easy landing, and reduction in survey time. As actual instances, the following surveys are given: mountainous tunnel and water gushing, the permeability of a dam foundation, fractured zones such as colapse and landslide, and mountainous water sources. (J.P.N.)

  2. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community ... variables on bird species diversity and richness of respective foraging guilds, and ... of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, ...

  3. Measuring medicine prices in Peru: validation of key aspects of WHO/HAI survey methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Jeanne M; Meza, Edson; Ewen, Margaret; Laing, Richard O; Stephens, Peter; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2010-04-01

    To assess the possibility of bias due to the limited target list and geographic sampling of the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) Medicine Prices and Availability survey used in more than 70 rapid sample surveys since 2001. A survey was conducted in Peru in 2005 using an expanded sample of medicine outlets, including remote areas. Comprehensive data were gathered on medicines in three therapeutic classes to assess the adequacy of WHO/HAI's target medicines list and the focus on only two product versions. WHO/HAI median retail prices were compared with average wholesale prices from global pharmaceutical sales data supplier IMS Health. No significant differences were found in overall availability or prices of target list medicines by retail location. The comprehensive survey of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, anti-diabetic, and anti-ulcer products revealed that some treatments not on the target list were costlier for patients and more likely to be unavailable, particularly in remote areas. WHO/HAI retail prices and IMS wholesale prices were strongly correlated for higher priced products, and weakly correlated for lower priced products (which had higher estimated retailer markups). The WHO/HAI survey approach strikes an appropriate balance between modest research costs and optimal information for policy. Focusing on commonly used medicines yields sufficient and valid results. Surveyors elsewhere should consider the limits of the survey data as well as any local circumstances, such as scarcity, that may call for extra field efforts.

  4. Bat and bird diversity along independent gradients of latitude and tree composition in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Yohan M; Barbaro, Luc; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Ampoorter, Evy; Nezan, Julien; Verheyen, Kris; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Species assemblages are shaped by local and continental-scale processes that are seldom investigated together, due to the lack of surveys along independent gradients of latitude and habitat types. Our study investigated changes in the effects of forest composition and structure on bat and bird diversity across Europe. We compared the taxonomic and functional diversity of bat and bird assemblages in 209 mature forest plots spread along gradients of forest composition and vertical structure, replicated in 6 regions spanning from the Mediterranean to the boreal biomes. Species richness and functional evenness of both bat and bird communities were affected by the interactions between latitude and forest composition and structure. Bat and bird species richness increased with broadleaved tree cover in temperate and especially in boreal regions but not in the Mediterranean where they increased with conifer abundance. Bat species richness was lower in forests with smaller trees and denser understorey only in northern regions. Bird species richness was not affected by forest structure. Bird functional evenness increased in younger and denser forests. Bat functional evenness was also influenced by interactions between latitude and understorey structure, increasing in temperate forests but decreasing in the Mediterranean. Covariation between bat and bird abundances also shifted across Europe, from negative in southern forests to positive in northern forests. Our results suggest that community assembly processes in bats and birds of European forests are predominantly driven by abundance and accessibility of feeding resources, i.e., insect prey, and their changes across both forest types and latitudes.

  5. Effects of wind turbines on upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, K.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Grassland passerines were surveyed during summer 1995 on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area in southwestern Minnesota to determine the relative influence of wind turbines on overall densities of upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. Birds were surveyed along 40 m fixed width transects that were placed along wind turbine strings within three CRP fields and in three CRP fields without turbines. Conservation Reserve Program grasslands without turbines and areas located 180 m from turbines supported higher densities (261.0-312.5 males/100 ha) of grassland birds than areas within 80 m of turbines (58.2-128.0 males/100 ha). Human disturbance, turbine noise, and physical movements of turbines during operation may have disturbed nesting birds. We recommend that wind turbines be placed within cropland habitats that support lower densities of grassland passerines than those found in CRP grasslands.

  6. Chronic oiling of marine birds in California by natural petroleum seeps, shipwrecks, and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Laird A; Nevins, Hannahrose; Martin, Marida; Sugarman, Susan; Harvey, James T; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-02-15

    We assessed temporal and spatial patterns of chronic oiling of seabirds in California during 2005-2010, using data on: (1) live oiled birds reported to the Oiled Wildlife Care Network (OWCN) from throughout the state, and (2) dead oiled birds found during systematic monthly beached-bird surveys in central California. A mean of 245 (± 141 SD) live miscellaneous oiled birds (not associated with known oil spills) were reported to the OWCN per year, and 0.1 oiled dead birds km(-1) per month were found on beach surveys in central California. Chemical fingerprinting of oiled feathers from a subset of these birds (n=101) indicated that 89% of samples tested were likely from natural petroleum seeps off southern and central California. There was a pronounced peak during late winter in the number of oiled birds reported in southern California, which we theorize may be related to large storm waves disturbing underwater seeps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conservation reserve program: benefit for grassland birds in the northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.E.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    During the past few decades numbers of some species of upland-nesting birds in North America have declined. Duck species such as mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), northern pintail (A. acuta) and blue-winged teal (A. discors) have declined since the early 1970s and have remained low since 1985 (Caithamer et al. 1993). Some grassland-dependent nonwaterfowl species also have declined since 1966, as indicated by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) (Robbins et al. 1986). For prairie-nesting ducks, population declines can be attributed mostly to low recruitment, partially as a result of low nest success. Klett et al. (1988) concluded that nest success (probability of ≥1 egg of clutch hatches) in much of the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region was inadequate to maintain populations of the five most common upland-nesting duck species studied, and that predators were the most important cause of nest failure. Over the years, as grassland areas have been converted to cropland, ducks have concentrated their nesting in the remaining areas of available habitat, where predators such as red fox (Vulpes vulpes), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and badger (Taxidea taxus) forage (Cowardin et al. 1983). The reasons for declining populations of grassland nonwaterfowl birds are not clear but the loss of suitable grassland-nesting habitat probably is an important factor. Currently, approximately 95 percent of the land in North Dakota is used for agricultural purposes, of which over 60 percent is used for annual crop production (Haugse 1990). Of the grassland that remains, 95 percent is used for livestock production. This probably had a severe impact on grassland bird species that seek idle grass cover for nesting. The 1985 and 1990 U.S. Farm Bills include provisions under the Food Security Act to fund a cropland-idling program called the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Over 36 million acres have been enrolled nationwide in the CRP since 1985 (Osborn 1993), and up to 25 percent of

  8. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta R Bauer

    Full Text Available Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79, we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081, but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group to

  9. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R; Braimoh, Jessica; Scheim, Ayden I; Dharma, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79), we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans) participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081), but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group) to assess gender

  10. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R.; Braimoh, Jessica; Scheim, Ayden I.; Dharma, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79), we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans) participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081), but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group) to assess gender

  11. Universal mechanisms of sound production and control in birds and mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, Coen; Rasmussen, Jeppe Have; Herbst, Christian T.

    2015-01-01

    As animals vocalize, their vocal organ transforms motor commands into vocalizations for social communication. In birds, the physical mechanisms by which vocalizations are produced and controlled remain unresolved because of the extreme difficulty in obtaining in vivo measurements. Here, we...... learning and is common to MEAD sound production across birds and mammals, including humans....

  12. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans-Saharan m......Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... in the population of the species. The papers show that adult and juvenile birds can use different migration strategies depending on time of season and prevailing conditions. Also, the fuel loads of some individuals were theoretically sufficient for a direct flight to important goal area, but whether they do so...

  13. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  14. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : bird s nest s * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  15. Notes on some Sumatran birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1948-01-01

    During the war I was able to identify some collections of birds from Sumatra, present in the Leiden Museum. These collections were brought together by E. Jacobson and W. C. van Heurn in the Padang Highlands in 1013; by W. Groeneveldt in the same area in 1914 and 1915; bij L. P. Cosquino de Bussy and

  16. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  17. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and birds has inspired poetry, art, l~terature, science and tech- nology. In Monsoon, Wilbur ... Henk Tennekes, an aerospace engineering professor at Pennsyl- vania State University, USA, has a different story to tell in his popular book The ...

  18. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  19. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by... Forces to incidentally take migratory birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The Authorization Act provided this interim authority to...

  20. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed, possessed, sold...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on... Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird...

  1. Measurement of sedentary behaviour in population health surveys: a review and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Prince

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this review was to determine the most valid and reliable questions for targeting key modes of sedentary behaviour (SB in a broad range of national and international health surveillance surveys. This was done by reviewing the SB modules currently used in population health surveys, as well as examining SB questionnaires that have performed well in psychometric testing. Methods Health surveillance surveys were identified via scoping review and contact with experts in the field. Previous systematic reviews provided psychometric information on pediatric questionnaires. A comprehensive search of four bibliographic databases was used to identify studies reporting psychometric information for adult questionnaires. Only surveys/studies published/used in English or French were included. Results The review identified a total of 16 pediatric and 18 adult national/international surveys assessing SB, few of which have undergone psychometric testing. Fourteen pediatric and 35 adult questionnaires with psychometric information were included. While reliability was generally good to excellent for questions targeting key modes of SB, validity was poor to moderate, and reported much less frequently. The most valid and reliable questions targeting specific modes of SB were combined to create a single questionnaire targeting key modes of SB. Discussion Our results highlight the importance of including SB questions in survey modules that are adaptable, able to assess various modes of SB, and that exhibit adequate reliability and validity. Future research could investigate the psychometric properties of the module we have proposed in this paper, as well as other questionnaires currently used in national and international population health surveys.

  2. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by >2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorariusat least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present.

  3. Measurement equivalence of the German Job Satisfaction Survey used in a multinational organization: implications of Schwartz's culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Borg, Ingwer; Spector, Paul E

    2004-12-01

    The authors tested measurement equivalence of the German Job Satisfaction Survey (GJSS) using structural equation modeling methodology. Employees from 18 countries and areas provided data on 5 job satisfaction facets. The effects of language and culture on measurement equivalence were examined. A cultural distance hypothesis, based on S. H. Schwartz's (1999) theory, was tested with 4 cultural groups: West Europe, English speaking, Latin America, and Far East. Findings indicated the robustness of the GJSS in terms of measurement equivalence across countries. The survey maintained high transportability across countries speaking the same language and countries sharing similar cultural backgrounds. Consistent with Schwartz's model, a cultural distance effect on scale transportability among scales used in maximally dissimilar cultures was detected. Scales used in the West Europe group showed greater equivalence to scales used in the English-speaking and Latin America groups than scales used in the Far East group. 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Measurement of sexual health in the U.S.: an inventory of nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovich, Megan B; Leichliter, Jami S; Douglas, John M

    2013-01-01

    To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health.

  5. Urban residents' perceptions of birds in the neighborhood: Biodiversity, cultural ecosystem services, and disservices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Amy Belaire; Lynne M. Westphal; Christopher J. Whelan; Emily S. Minor

    2015-01-01

    As our world becomes increasingly urbanized, cities are often where we come into contact with the natural world—not just in parks and urban nature preserves, but in more familiar places like residential yards. We conducted bird surveys and social surveys in Chicago-area residential landscapes near forest preserves (primarily in middle- and high-income areas)...

  6. EFFECT OF MEASUREMENT ERRORS ON PREDICTED COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS WITH LARGE SYNOPTIC SURVEY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, D.; Chang, C.; Kahn, S. M.; Gilmore, K.; Marshall, S. [KIPAC, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Kratochvil, J. M.; Huffenberger, K. M. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); May, M. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); AlSayyad, Y.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R. R.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Lorenz, S. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Haiman, Z.; Jernigan, J. G., E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); and others

    2013-09-01

    We study the effect of galaxy shape measurement errors on predicted cosmological constraints from the statistics of shear peak counts with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We use the LSST Image Simulator in combination with cosmological N-body simulations to model realistic shear maps for different cosmological models. We include both galaxy shape noise and, for the first time, measurement errors on galaxy shapes. We find that the measurement errors considered have relatively little impact on the constraining power of shear peak counts for LSST.

  7. Insectivorous birds eavesdrop on the pheromones of their prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Irene; Amo, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Chemical cues play a fundamental role in mate attraction and mate choice. Lepidopteran females, such as the winter moth (Operophtera brumata), emit pheromones to attract males in the reproductive period. However, these chemical cues could also be eavesdropped by predators. To our knowledge, no studies have examined whether birds can detect pheromones of their prey. O. brumata adults are part of the winter diet of some insectivorous tit species, such as the great tit (Parus major) and blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We performed a field experiment aimed to disentangle whether insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by their prey for prey location. We placed artificial larvae and a dispenser on branches of Pyrenean oak trees (Quercus pyrenaica). In half of the trees we placed an O. brumata pheromone dispenser and in the other half we placed a control dispenser. We measured the predation rate of birds on artificial larvae. Our results show that more trees had larvae with signs of avian predation when they contained an O. brumata pheromone than when they contained a control dispenser. Furthermore, the proportion of artificial larvae with signs of avian predation was greater in trees that contained the pheromone than in control trees. Our results indicate that insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by moth females to attract males, as a method of prey detection. These results highlight the potential use of insectivorous birds in the biological control of insect pests.

  8. Elevational distribution and extinction risk in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L White

    Full Text Available Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures - notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species' current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data.

  9. Radiation and Radon Survey of Akchatau (Khazakstan) and Experience with Radon Remedial Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, Y.; Molchanov, A.

    1998-01-01

    A radiation survey of the territory of Akchatau settlement has been carried out. The main factors affecting the high content of radon in dwelling houses were revealed. The experiment on isolation of under floor spaces was carried out to prevent the entry of radon-containing soil gas into living rooms. The repair works efficiency for decreasing of the radon content in hazardous houses was analysed. The survey showed a need for regulation of the value of 222 Rn exhalation on the territories planned for construction works. (author)

  10. Bird populations on the Island of Tinian: persistence despite wholesale loss of native forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Amidon, Frederick A.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2012-01-01

    Bird habitat on the island of Tinian, Mariana Islands, has been substantially altered, and only around 5% of the island has native forest today. The modern bird fauna is likely to be a subset of the original avifauna where only species tolerant to native forest loss and human disturbance have survived. Avian surveys were conducted on the island in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current densities and abundances of the remaining species, and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. During the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 11 species. Five of the nine native species and one alien bird have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopusroseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two birds (one native and one alien) were considered relatively stable. Only five birds, including the Tinian Monarch, showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Increased development on Tinian may result in increases in habitat clearing and expansion of human-dominated habitats, and declines in some bird populations would likely continue or be exacerbated with these actions. Expanded development activities on Tinian would also mean increased cargo movement between Guam and Tinian, elevating the probability of transporting the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) to Tinian, which would lead to precipitous decreases and extinctions.

  11. Planning, implementation and analysis of mine-surveying measurements to detect rock movements at the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, G.

    1991-01-01

    At the Asse pit, a former salt mine, research has been done since 1965 mainly for the ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Within this framework a mine-surveying measurement program has been developed to detect local and extensive rock movements in the mine structure and on the surface. The rock observation program consists of surface levelling, levellings in the mine structure, measurement of shaft depth, shaft sounding, position and gyroscopic measurements as well as cavity convergence and extensometer measurements. The results of that measuring program are taken into account to judge stability. The subject of this work is to analyse the position measurements by priorities to find out to which extent the results, that is the horizontal displacement components, are interpretable. Such analysis is carried out according to the rules of compensating calculation by means of strict compensation after mediating observations. (HS) [de

  12. Temperature measurement of the land-surface. Measuring methods and their application for the survey of subsoil water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allvar, T

    1979-02-01

    The variation of the water content of a landscape has been investigated. The method of measurement was the use of the radiation of heat from the land surface. The radiation was measured by an airborne infrared scanner and a manual infrared thermometer. The water content and the temperature of the soil were recorded separately. The principle of the measurement is the slow reaction of a soil with a high water content to the temperature changes between day and night. Comparison of different methods points to an association of temperatures and water content. The correlation of the results is very low so that a mapping of water content in the area of Vibydalen becomes uncertain. The experiment displays the requirements of the accuracy in measuring methods.

  13. A Survey Instrument for Measuring the Experiential Value of Employee-Tourist Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis

    In this paper, we develop and test a survey instrument that aims at estimating the experiential value of employee-tourist encounters in destination-based tourism companies, as well as the characteristics of encounters that affect such experiential value. We suggest that such an instrument can...... for their visitors, rather than simply delivering service quality....

  14. Automatic Description Generation from Images : A Survey of Models, Datasets, and Evaluation Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, Raffaella; Cakici, Ruket; Elliott, Desmond; Erdem, Aykut; Erdem, Erkut; Ikizler-Cinbis, Nazli; Keller, Frank; Muscat, Adrian; Plank, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Automatic description generation from natural images is a challenging problem that has recently received a large amount of interest from the computer vision and natural language processing communities. In this survey, we classify the existing approaches based on how they conceptualize this problem,

  15. A New Measurement and Ranking System for the UK National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, John

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous criticisms of the UK National Student Survey (NSS) institutional managers still strongly support its use in informing student choice, quality and assurance and quality enhancement activities. This article outlines a granular and nuanced benchmarking system for the NSS which provides both a "raw" score (weighted student…

  16. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not…

  17. Assessment of the Measurement Properties of the NHCAHPS Family Survey: A Rasch Scaling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), a family of survey instruments designed to capture and report people's experiences obtaining health care could soon add satisfaction as a consistent dimension of quality that skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are required to assess and report. The SNF setting…

  18. Measuring True Sales and Underreporting with Matched Firm-Level Survey and Tax-Office Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, F.; Oostendorp, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses firm-level survey data matched with official tax records to estimate the unobserved true sales of formal firms in Mongolia. Taking into account firm-level incentives to comply with taxes and a production function technology linking unobserved true sales with observable firm-level

  19. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  20. Nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Riggan, Anna E; Bulluck, Lesley P; Carlson, John C; Sabo, Roy T

    2013-03-01

    Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funnel," concentrating host-seeking mosquitoes to the few remaining nestlings. The relative abundance of mosquitoes collected by the NMT suggests that significantly more Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) /restuans (Theobald) sought nesting bird bloodmeals than were predicted by their relative abundances in CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light and gravid traps. Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex erraticus Dyar and Knab were collected in NMTs in proportion to their relative abundances in the generic traps. Temporal host funnels and nesting bird host specificity may enhance arbovirus amplification and explain observed West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus amplification periods.

  1. Understorey bird abundance and diversity before and after a forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The understorey bird species diversity before the forest was burned was substantially higher than ..... Conservation interventions are necessary and measures against forest fires are ... I would like to thank the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania for permission ... package for education and data analysis.

  2. Energetic Metabolism and Biochemical Adaptation: A Bird Flight Muscle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Pierre; Blier, Pierre U.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to measure the activity of two metabolic enzymes in crude extract from bird pectoral muscle and to relate the differences to their mode of locomotion and ecology. The laboratory is adapted to stimulate the interest of wildlife management students to biochemistry. The enzymatic activities of cytochrome…

  3. Bone histology, phylogeny, and palaeognathous birds (Aves, Palaeognathae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legendre, Lucas; Bourdon, Estelle; Scofield, Paul

    2014-01-01

    a comprehensive study in which we quantify the phylogenetic signal on 62 osteohistological features in an exhaustive sample of palaeognathous birds. We used four different estimators to measure phylogenetic signal – Pagel’s λ, Abouheif’s Cmean, Blomberg’s K, and Diniz-Filho’s phylogenetic eigenvector regressions...

  4. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  5. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  6. Measuring sport experiences in children and youth to better understand the impact of sport on health and positive youth development: designing a brief measure for population health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Clark, Heather J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; Bruner, Mark; Tamminen, Katherine

    2018-04-03

    Despite the proliferation of studies examining youth sport participation, there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the impact of youth sport participation on health and development. These gaps are not new, but have persisted due to limitations with how sport participation is measured. Much of the research to date has measured sport participation as binary (yes/no) or count measures. This has been especially true in survey-based research. Yet, at the same time, research has investigated youths' experiences in sport such as the influence of coaches, teammates, and parents. The ability to measure these experiences is constrained by the need to use a number of measures along with gaps in the content covered in existing measures. We propose to develop and test the Sport Experiences Measure: Children and Youth (SEM:CY) as a population survey-based measure that captures the salient aspects of youths' experience in sport. The SEM:CY will be developed and tested across three phases. Phase I includes qualitative research with members of the sport community and engagement with an expert group to generate and obtain feedback on the initial item pool. In Phase II will recruit two consecutive samples of students from schools to complete the draft measure. Analysis will focus on assessing the items and factor structure of the measure. Factor structure will be assessed first with exploratory factor analysis and then confirmatory factor analysis. In phase III we will test the association between the SEM:CY with a measure of perceived competence, sport anxiety, and positive youth development to assess construct validity. We will also examine whether the structure of the measure varies by age or gender. The SEM:CY measure will provide a meaningful contribution to the measurement and understanding of youth sport participation. The SEM:CY can be used as a stand-alone measure to understand youth experiences in sport programs, or in combination with other health and development

  7. Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, C M; Montevecchi, W A; Wiese, F K

    2012-08-15

    Petroleum exploration and production on the Grand Bank of eastern Canada overlaps with productive marine habitat that supports over 40 million marine birds annually. Environmental assessments for oil and gas projects in the region predict insignificant adverse effects on marine birds from oil spills, incineration in platform flares and collisions. Limited baseline data on seasonal occupancies and a failure to quantify the nature and extent of marine bird attraction to platforms and related mortality undermines these assessments. We conducted 22 surveys to offshore platforms on the Grand Bank during 1999-2003 to measure avian associations with platforms and to determine the level of monitoring needed to assess the risks to marine birds. We document seasonal shifts in marine bird occurrences and higher densities of auks (fall) and shearwaters (summer) around platforms relative to surrounding areas. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of our surveys is more robust than existing industry monitoring efforts, yet it is still inadequate to quantify the scale of marine bird associations with platforms or their associated mortality risks. Systematic observations by independent biologists on vessels and platforms are needed to generate reliable assessments of risks to marine birds. Instead, the regulatory body for offshore oil and gas in eastern Canada (Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board; C-NLOPB) supports industry self-reporting as the accepted form of environmental monitoring. Conflicting responsibilities of oil and gas regulatory agencies for both energy development and environmental monitoring are major barriers to transparency, unbiased scientific inquiry and adequate environmental protection. Similar conflicts with the oil and gas regulatory body in the United States, the former Minerals and Management Service (MMS) were identified by the U.S. President as a major contributor to the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. The

  8. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Sitters

    Full Text Available Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated

  9. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitters, Holly; York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  10. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of recent trends in CFC phaseout measures overseas; 1994 nendo shogaikoku ni okeru freon taisaku saishin doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Technical literature is referred to for the survey of recent trends in CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) phaseout in various countries overseas. The European Union will totally abolish CFC by the end of 1994 while other developed countries will totally abolish the same by the end of 1995 in compliance with the Montreal protocol. Many of the developing countries are actively striving to reduce CFC use with the help of the Multilateral Fund of Montreal. China and India have production facilities in themselves, and have not announced a phaseout program. There is a proposition for accelerating the regulation of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), but reliable substitutes for them are not yet available and their ozone layer restoring capability if used will be slight. It is feared that such will on the contrary retard CFC phaseout in developing countries. Accordingly, any abrupt acceleration of CFC phaseout implementation is inappropriate. Introduced in this report as fluorine-containing greenhouse gas-related information are a summary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the history of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change activities. According to an American survey, the aluminum industry emits 30,000 tons of CF{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and the semiconductor manufacturing industry 2,000-3,000 tons. As for SF{sub 6}, 5,000-8,000 tons are emitted mainly by the power industry. Measures for inhibiting them are being taken. (NEDO)

  11. National Beef Market Basket Survey - 2006: External fat thickness measurements and separable component determinations for beef from US retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C L; Nicholson, K L; Brooks, J C; Delmore, R J; Henning, W R; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E; Gwartney, B L; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2009-02-01

    A market basket survey for beef retail cut composition at the retail level (four stores each from two chains in each city) was conducted in 11 US cities from January to March 2006. Beef cuts (n=17,495) were measured for external fat thickness with cuts from the chuck (0.05cm), round (0.05cm), and miscellaneous (0.04cm) having less (Pmarketing purposes.

  12. An overview of human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals in the Canadian Health Measures Survey: 2007-2019.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Douglas A; Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Werry, Kate; Khoury, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is used to indicate and quantify exposure by measuring environmental chemicals, their metabolites or reaction products in biological specimens. The biomonitoring component of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) is the most comprehensive initiative providing general population HBM data in Canada. The CHMS is an ongoing cross-sectional direct measures survey implemented in 2-year cycles. It provides nationally-representative data on health, nutritional status, environmental exposures, and related risks and protective characteristics. The survey follows a robust planning, design and sampling protocol as well as a comprehensive quality assurance and quality control regime implemented for all aspect of the survey to ensure the validity of the HBM results. HBM blood and urine data are available for CHMS cycles 1 (2007-2009), 2 (2009-2011) and 3 (2012-2013). Field collection has been completed for cycle 4 (2014-2015), with cycle 5 (2016-2017) in progress and cycle 6 planning (2018-2019) being finalized. Biomonitoring results for 279 chemicals are expected over the six cycles of the CHMS (220 in individual blood, urine or hair samples, and 59 in pooled serum samples). The chemicals include metals and trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorines, flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl substances, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metabolites, environmental phenols, triclocarban, acrylamide, pesticides (e.g., triazines, carbamates, organophosphates, phenoxy, pyrethroids) and/or their metabolites, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, phthalates and alternate plasticizer metabolites, and tobacco biomarkers. Approximately one half of the chemicals measured in individual blood and urine samples over the first three cycles were detected in more than 60% of samples. CHMS biomonitoring data have been used to establish baseline HBM concentrations in Canadians; inform public health, regulatory risk

  13. Screening and contact precautions – A survey on infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in German university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena M. Biehl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the scope of infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in high-risk settings, a survey among university hospitals was conducted. Fourteen professionals from 8 sites participated. Reported policies varied largely with respect to the types of wards conducting screening, sample types used for screening and implementation of contact precautions. This variability among sites highlights the need for an evidence-based consensus of current infection control policies.

  14. Collision effects of wind-power generators and other obstacles on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewitt, Allan L; Langston, Rowena H W

    2008-01-01

    There is extensive literature on avian mortality due to collision with man-made structures, including wind turbines, communication masts, tall buildings and windows, power lines, and fences. Many studies describe the consequences of bird-strike rather than address the causes, and there is little data based on long-term, standardized, and systematic assessments. Despite these limitations, it is apparent that bird-strike is a significant cause of mortality. It is therefore important to understand the effects of this mortality on bird populations. The factors which determine avian collision risk are described, including location, structural attributes, such as height and the use of lighting, weather conditions, and bird morphology and behavior. The results of incidental and more systematic observations of bird-strike due to a range of structures are presented and the implications of collision mortality for bird populations, particularly those of scarce and threatened species susceptible to collisions, are discussed. Existing measures for reducing collision mortality are described, both generally and specifically for each type of structure. It is concluded that, in some circumstances, collision mortality can adversely affect bird populations, and that greater effort is needed to derive accurate estimates of mortality levels locally, regionally, and nationally to better assess impacts on avian populations. Priority areas for future work are suggested, including further development of remote technology to monitor collisions, research into the causes of bird-strike, and the design of new, effective mitigation measures.

  15. Comparative Phylogeography of Neotropical Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    birds, butterflies, plants , soil type, and precipitation (Whitmore and Prance 1987); (C) study populations based largely on neo-tropical lowland...Caballero, A. 1994. Developments in the prediction of effective population size. Heredity 73:657- 679. Camargo, A., R. O. De Sa, and W. R. Heyer. 2006...157-183. Hamrick, J. L., and M. J. W. Godt. 1996. Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philosophical Transactions Of

  16. Freeing Maya Angelou's Caged Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Joyce L.

    1991-01-01

    This study involves a comprehensive examination of one book, Maya Angelou's autobiographical I Know Why Why the Caged Bird Sings, since it was first published in 1970. Recognized as an important literary work, the novel is used in many middle and secondary school classrooms throughout the united States. Additionally, the work often is challenged in public schools on the grounds of its sexual and/or racial content. The purpose of this study included establishing th...

  17. Olfaction in bird dogs during hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, J B; Mohus, I; Kvesetberg, T; Walløe, L

    1996-05-01

    The ability to catch scent continuously while running, which may be an essential skill for many animals of prey, requires that ambient air flows inward through the nose also during expiration. In this study on bird dogs, the direction of air flow was detected by measuring the temperature in the air inside the nostril. While resting, nose ventilation was synchronous with lung ventilation. While searching for ground scent, the dog was sniffing at a frequency of up to 200 s-1, a strategy which may create turbulence in the nasal passages and thereby enhance transport of scent molecules to the receptors in the ethmoidal cavity. When the bird dog was searching for game while running with its head high against the wind, it maintained a continuous inward air stream through the nose for up to 40s spanning at least 30 respiratory cycles. We suggest that expiratory gas flowing at high velocity from the trachea to the mouth cavity creates a lower pressure than in the nose thus causing an inward air stream through the nose during expiration by a Bernoulli effect.

  18. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache: presenting the HARDSHIP questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Timothy J; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Andrée, Colette; Katsarava, Zaza; Ayzenberg, Ilya; Yu, Sheng-Yuan; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Herekar, Arif; Linde, Mattias; Mbewe, Edouard; Manandhar, Kedar; Risal, Ajay; Jensen, Rigmor

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. The Global Campaign against Headache is undertaking initiatives to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies. One requirement is for a survey instrument with proven cross-cultural validity. This report describes the developme...

  19. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzarino, AI; Mindell, JS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subseq...

  20. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzarino, A. I.; Mindell, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subse...