WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveys current literature

  1. [Diagnostic and therapeutic management of primary and recurrent patellar dislocations - analysis of a nationwide survey and the current literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlweck, J; Quack, V; Arbab, D; Spreckelsen, C; Tingart, M; Lüring, C; Rath, B

    2013-08-01

    Patellar dislocations are a common injury of the knee joint. During patella dislocations injuries of soft-tissue structures can occur that can destabilise the patella and lead to recurrent dislocations. There are also congenital pathologies that predispose to patella dislocations. In the current literature, diagnostics and treatment of patellar dislocations are frequently discussed. Therefore the aim of our survey was to analyse and summarise actual diagnostic and therapeutic strategies regarding primary and recurrent patella dislocations. An online questionnaire form was sent to 735 orthopaedic and/or trauma departments in Germany. The departments were invited to participate in an anonymous survey concerning diagnostics and treatment of primary and recurrent patellar dislocations. The questionnaire consisted of multiple choice questions and was divided into three sections. The first section included questions concerning the department structure. The second part contained questions regarding diagnostics and treatment of primary patella dislocations. The third part involved diagnostic and treatment strategies for recurrent patella dislocations. A systematic review of outcome after treatment of patellar dislocation was performed and discussed with the results of the survey. 245 hospitals (33.3 %) returned the questionnaire. Among the participants were 23 % orthopaedic surgery departments, 32 % trauma surgery departments and 45 % combined departments. 12 % were university hospitals and 53 % academic teaching hospitals. Clinical examination was performed by nearly all participants after primary and recurrent patella dislocations. MRI was used as diagnostic tool in 81 % after primary patella dislocation and in 85 % after recurrent patella dislocation. Conventional X-rays were performed in 58 % (primary) and 51 % (recurrent patella dislocations). Computed tomography scans for measurement of the tuberositas tibiae-trochlea groove distance were used in 35 % after recurrent

  2. Bibliography: Current world literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This bibliography is compiled by clinicians from the journals listed at the end of this publication. It is based on literature entered into our database between 1 March 2008 and 28 February 2009 (articles are generally added to the database about two and a half months after publication). In addition, the bibliography contains every paper annotated by reviewers; these references were obtained from a variety of bibliographic databases and published between the beginning of the review period and the time of going to press. The bibliography has been grouped into topics that relate to the reviews in this issue.

  3. Bibliography. Current world literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This bibliography is compiled by clinicians from the journals listed at the end of this publication. It is based on literature entered into our database between 1 March 2008 and 28 February 2009 (articles are generally added to the database about two and a half months after publication). In addition, the bibliography contains every paper annotated by reviewers; these references were obtained from a variety of bibliographic databases and published between the beginning of the review period and the time of going to press. The bibliography has been grouped into topics that relate to the reviews in this issue.

  4. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  5. Selective Survey of MARC Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockard, Joan

    1971-01-01

    Significant nonduplicative literature on MARC and BNB-MARC is surveyed and characterized. Time lag in publication and the proliferation of ephemera are noted. Two categories of the literature are identified: reports in many formats by individuals and groups associated officially with MARC, and publications of MARC users or observers. (61…

  6. Pregnancy and melanoma: a European-wide survey to assess current management and a critical literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, S; Longo, C; Dika, E; Fortes, C; Pasquali, S; Nagore, E; Glass, D; Robert, C; Eggermont, A M; Testori, A; Quaglino, P; Nathan, P; Argenziano, G; Puig, S; Bataille, V

    2017-01-01

    Management of melanoma during pregnancy can be extremely challenging. The reported incidence of melanoma in pregnancy ranges from 2.8 to 5.0 per 100 000 pregnancies. There are no guidelines for the management of melanoma during pregnancy. The survey was designed to investigate the opinions of melanoma physicians on decision making in relation to pregnancy and melanoma. A clinical scenario-based survey on management of pregnancy in melanoma was distributed all over Europe via the membership of the EORTC and other European melanoma societies. A total of 290 questionnaires were returned with a larger participation from southern Europe. A large heterogeneity was found for the answers given in the different clinical scenarios with 50% of the answers showing discordance, especially regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy during pregnancy. Discordant answers were also found for the counselling of women about a potential delay in getting pregnant after a high-risk melanoma (35% for a 2 year wait minimum vs. 57% no waiting needed), while for thin melanomas, as expected, there was more concordance with 70% of the physicians recommending no delay. Fifteen per cent of physicians recommended an abortion in stage II melanoma during the third month of pregnancy. Twenty per cent of the responders advised against hormonal replacement therapy in melanoma patients. The management of melanoma during pregnancy varies widely in Europe. At present, there is a lack of consensus in Europe, which may lead to very important decisions in women with melanoma, and guidelines are needed. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  8. Exploring Female Representation in Current Adolescent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Lea; Rhodes, John W.

    This descriptive study analyzed the portrayal of females as protagonists in adolescent literature published 1989-1993. A review of literature showed that 85 percent of main characters in stories for young children were male and that sexism still existed in books for young people. For this study the literature survey instrument used in the initial…

  9. Literature survey results: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Staying current by searching the veterinary literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2011-01-01

    The body of knowledge in veterinary medicine and the biomedical sciences continues to grow logarithmically, and learning about new developments in veterinary medicine requires successful navigation of recently published literature worldwide. This article examines how veterinarians can use different types of automated services from databases and publishers to search the current and past literature, access articles, and manage references that are found.

  11. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  12. 1979-80 Literature Electives Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Art

    1980-01-01

    A group of 66 college English departments was surveyed regarding their most popular literature courses. Most popular were courses in Shakespeare, science fiction, film, fiction, United States literature, and modern and contemporary literature. The most popular writing courses were creative, technical/business, and advanced composition. (DF)

  13. Representation of authors and editors from countries with different human development indexes in the leading literature on tropical medicine: survey of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-05-22

    To assess the current international representation of members of editorial and advisory boards and authors in the leading peer reviewed literature on tropical medicine. Systematic review. Country affiliations, as classified by the human development index, of editorial and advisory board members of all tropical medicine journals referenced by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) as of late 2003 and of all contributing authors of full articles published in the six leading journals on tropical medicine in 2000-2. Sixteen (5.1%) of the 315 editorial and advisory board members from the 12 ISI referenced journals on tropical medicine are affiliated to countries with a low human development index and 223 (70.8%) to countries with a high index. Examination of the 2384 full articles published in 2000-2 in the six highest ranking tropical medicine journals showed that 48.1% of contributing authors are affiliated to countries with a high human development index, whereas the percentage of authors from countries with a low index was 13.7%. Articles written exclusively by authors from low ranked countries accounted for 5.0%. Our data indicate that research collaborations between a country with a high human development index and one that has either a medium or a low index are common and account for 26.5% and 16.1% of all full articles, respectively. Current collaborations should be transformed into research partnerships, with the goals of mutual learning and institutional capacity strengthening in the developing world.

  14. [Burnout: survey of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Donatella; Cassitto, Maria Grazia; Gugiari, Maria Chiara; Conway, P M

    2013-01-01

    Past clinical research has provided varied and sometimes diverging descriptions of burnout. As burnout is still prevalent in today's workplaces, actions are required mainly at the primary but also at the secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. In this literature review, the concept of burnout is reread through the lens of positive psychology and the most established theoretical models in the field. A common view is seemingly emerging that characterizes burnout as a condition of alienation, loss of motivation and low autonomy resulting from an unbridgeable gap in the personal and/or organizational resources that one has to invest in building a stimulating and rewarding professional career, full of significant relationships that give meaningfulness to one's life project. Establishing clinical criteria for burnout, as it is the case in some European countries, couldfacilitate the identification of the syndrome and the estimation of its prevalence in Italian work organizations.

  15. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  16. Near infrared face recognition: A literature survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, Sajad; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, U. U.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-17 ISSN 1574-0137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Literature survey * Biometrics * Face recognition * Near infrared * Illumination invariant Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0461834.pdf

  17. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) is a continuous, multipurpose survey of a representative national sample of the Medicare population. There are two...

  18. Wind Energy literature survey no. 26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    , Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy...

  19. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    , Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems, along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy...

  20. Wind Energy literature survey no. 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    , Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy...

  1. Wind Energy literature survey no. 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    , Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy...

  2. Wind Energy literature survey no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    , Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy...

  3. Wind Energy literature survey no. 27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    , Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy...

  4. Wind Energy literature survey no. 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    , Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy...

  5. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  6. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... is limitedexclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separatedinto broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the categorythought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  7. Wind Energy literature survey no. 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    , Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research...... to journals not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  8. Wind Energy literature survey no. 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  9. Wind energy literature survey no. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  10. Wind energy literature survey no. 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  11. Wind Energy literature survey no. 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  12. Wind Energy literature survey no. 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  13. Wind energy literature survey no. 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals, including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  14. Wind energy literature survey no. 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  15. Wind Energy literature survey no. 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    , Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  16. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  17. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  18. Wind Energy literature survey no. 22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    , Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  19. Wind energy literature survey no. 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  20. Wind Energy literature survey no. 29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    , Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  1. Wind Energy literature survey no. 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    , Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and so on. The list is limited exclusively......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  2. Wind Energy literature survey no. 32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  3. Current Awareness Services for Electronic Journal Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Yaqub

    2006-01-01

    Current awareness services are the services that provide information about the latest books, articles, events and news in a field. Nowadays, there are many sources of information and the volume of new research is so huge that keeping oneself up to date is a big task. Current awareness services help us to match current awareness news and information to our needs. They can save the effort of scanning and browsing journals, bulletins, newsletters and web sites.

  4. Australian survey on current practices for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Kylie L; Pogson, Elise M; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Boxer, Miriam M; Yap, Mei Ling; Delaney, Geoff P; Metcalfe, Peter; Holloway, Lois

    2015-12-01

    Detailed, published surveys specific to Australian breast radiotherapy practice were last conducted in 2002. More recent international surveys specific to breast radiotherapy practice include a European survey conducted in 2008/2009 and a Spanish survey conducted in 2009. Radiotherapy techniques continue to evolve, and the utilisation of new techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), is increasing. This survey aimed to determine current breast radiotherapy practices across Australia. An online survey was completed by 50 of the 69 Australian radiation therapy treatment centres. Supine tangential beam whole breast irradiation remains the standard of care for breast radiotherapy in Australia. A growing number of institutions are exploring prone positioning and IMRT utilisation. This survey demonstrated a wide variation in the benchmarks used to limit and report organ at risk doses, prescribed dose regimen, and post-mastectomy bolus practices. This survey also indicated, when compared with international literature, that there may be less interest in or uptake of external beam partial breast irradiation, prone positioning, simultaneous integrated boost and breath hold techniques. These are areas where further review and research may be warranted to ensure Australian patients are receiving the best care possible based on the best evidence available. This survey provides insight into the current radiotherapy practice for breast cancer in Australia. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  5. The Aalborg Survey / Part 4 - Literature Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    ) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 4 - Literature Study The 4th part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the spring 2012 and consists primarily of a literature search and bibliographical listings of literature by the three...... specific authors: William Hollingsworth Whyte (1917-1999), Jan Gehl (b. 1936) and Erving Goffman (1922-1982), as well as literature on the topics of ‘plazas’, ‘squares’, ‘parks’, ‘young people’s use of urban space’ and ’GPS’. Secondarily, there has been made a bibliographical listing of publications...

  6. A literature survey on industrialized bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to aid the writer in understanding and retaining material in preparation for a project on the industrialization of bridge construction. However, it was believed that the results of the survey would be informative to oth...

  7. The Development of an Emotional Response to Literature Measure: The Affective Response to Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on theories of emotional intelligence, adult education, psychology of reading, and emotions and literature, this study was designed to develop and validate the Affective Response to Literature Survey (ARLS), a psychological instrument used to measure an emotional response to literature. Initially, 27 items were generated by a review of…

  8. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs

  9. Gasohol sourcebook - Literature survey and abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremisinoff, N. P.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

    A review is provided of biomass and bioconversion technology literature, giving particular attention to gasohol and related fuels. Literature cited and reviewed covers a variety of subjects such as properties of biomass, overviews of bioconversion technologies, toxic and hazardous properties of alcohols, and sources of biomass. Source listings and selected abstracts are provided back to 1965. Both U.S. government reports and journal publications are listed. Foreign publications are also included. A listing is presented of both U.S. and foreign patents on various subjects related to bioconversion technology and gasohol production. Ethanol and methanol production is considered along with automotive and other fuel uses, the production of chemical feedstocks, and the economics of alcohol production.

  10. Green Cloud Computing: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Diana Radu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a dynamic field of information and communication technologies (ICTs, introducing new challenges for environmental protection. Cloud computing technologies have a variety of application domains, since they offer scalability, are reliable and trustworthy, and offer high performance at relatively low cost. The cloud computing revolution is redesigning modern networking, and offering promising environmental protection prospects as well as economic and technological advantages. These technologies have the potential to improve energy efficiency and to reduce carbon footprints and (e-waste. These features can transform cloud computing into green cloud computing. In this survey, we review the main achievements of green cloud computing. First, an overview of cloud computing is given. Then, recent studies and developments are summarized, and environmental issues are specifically addressed. Finally, future research directions and open problems regarding green cloud computing are presented. This survey is intended to serve as up-to-date guidance for research with respect to green cloud computing.

  11. Technology assessments in transportation: survey of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    A survey and an evaluation of recent studies of transportation systems done in a technology-assessment framework were undertaken as the basis for a detailed statement of work for a US Department of Energy technology assessment of transportation energy-conservation strategies. Several bibliographies were searched and numerous professionals in the field of technology assessment were contacted regarding current work. Detailed abstracts were prepared for studies judged to be sufficiently broad in coverage of impacts assessed, yet detailed in coverage of all or part of the nation's transportation systems. Some studies were rich in data but not comprehensive in their analytical approach; brief abstracts were prepared for these. An explanation of the criteria used to screen the studies, as well as abstracts of 37 reports, are provided in this compendium of transportation-technology-assessment literature.

  12. A literature survey on numerical heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. M.

    1982-12-01

    Technical papers in the area of numerical heat transfer published from 1977 through 1981 are reviewed. The journals surveyed include: (1) ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, (2) International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, (3) AIAA Journal, (4) Numerical Heat Transfer, (5) Computers and Fluids, (6) International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, (7) SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, and (8) Journal of Computational Physics. This survey excludes experimental work in heat transfer and numerical schemes that are not applied to equations governing heat transfer phenomena. The research work is categorized into the following areas: (A) conduction, (B) boundary-layer flows, (C) momentum and heat transfer in cavities, (D) turbulent flows, (E) convection around cylinders and spheres or within annuli, (F) numerical convective instability, (G) radiation, (H) combustion, (I) plumes, jets, and wakes, (J) heat transfer in porous media, (K) boiling, condensation, and two-phase flows, (L) developing and fully developed channel flows, (M) combined heat and mass transfer, (N) applications, (O) comparison and properties of numerical schemes, and (P) body-fitted coordinates and nonuniform grids.

  13. Prioritizing Student Skill Development in the Small College Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalata, Kristianne

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes the successes and challenges of skills-based literature survey courses in the small liberal arts college setting of Westminster College (New Wilmington, PA). It considers the overall purpose of the survey in the skills-based English curriculum and then focuses on the integration of literary theory and creative writing as means…

  14. A Survey of Computer Science Capstone Course Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Robert F., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we surveyed literature related to undergraduate computer science capstone courses. The survey was organized around course and project issues. Course issues included: course models, learning theories, course goals, course topics, student evaluation, and course evaluation. Project issues included: software process models, software…

  15. A survey of computer science capstone course literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Robert F., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we surveyed literature related to undergraduate computer science capstone courses. The survey was organized around course and project issues. Course issues included: course models, learning theories, course goals, course topics, student evaluation, and course evaluation. Project issues included: software process models, software process phases, project type, documentation, tools, groups, and instructor administration. We reflected on these issues and thecomputer science capstone course we have taught for seven years. The survey summarized, organized, and synthesized the literature to provide a referenced resource for computer science instructors and researchers interested in computer science capstone courses.

  16. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  17. How to Use Current Medical Literature and APA Format Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Robin

    Directives and guidance in obtaining current medical literature are provided in this publication with special emphasis given to locating material in the Portland, Oregon area. The uses and types of periodical indexes are identified and periodical index citation examples are indicated. Explanations are offered on: (1) how to conduct an effective…

  18. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; de León, Julia; Morate, David; de Prá, Mario; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Campins, Humberto; Ali-Lagoa, Victor

    2017-10-01

    in the inner and outer belt.In this work, we present the current state of the PRIMASS survey, and we include major results from the data already analyzed. Finally, we will draft the plans for the future.

  19. vWorld Capability Development Support: Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    methods as prescribed by AGARD (1980). vWorld Capability Development Support Literature Survey 24 June 2014 1 5457-002 Version 02 1 INTRODUCTION...search, the CAE Team collaborated with the Scientific Authority (SA) to agree upon the process, the dimensions (i.e., keywords and databases ) and...responsibilities. The SA provided direction regarding key literature to be reviewed; Conducted the search of publicly accessible databases using approved

  20. Childhood obesity: current literature, policy and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sefer, E; Ben-Natan, M; Ehrenfeld, M

    2009-06-01

    In most of the industrialized world, a childhood obesity epidemic is evident, with the numbers rising each year. To discuss the current literature in relation to childhood obesity and to provide health practitioners, especially nurses, with the fundamental knowledge that is imperative in the recognition of children who are at risk and thereby tailor appropriate interventions. Databases that were accessed for current literature included CINAHL, Science Direct and ProQuest. Keywords used in the search included obesity, childhood, health, relevant national statistics, policy and health risks. The literature was confined to the past 10 years with emphasis on the past 5 years. The 50 most pertinent papers from a variety of countries were chosen, and 35 papers that represented key areas of relevance were selected as the basis of this article. This selection of papers dictated the key areas of discussion such as the acknowledged factors in childhood obesity. Although childhood obesity may be related to specific cultural and national circumstances, universal themes emerged from the literature review. These include social factors, exercise, advertising, public policy and the importance of partnerships in policy. Any country that has a high rate or increasing rate of childhood obesity must acknowledge core factors that contribute to this serious health problem. Furthermore, public policy and community partnerships that include all health professionals have a responsibility in the prevention of childhood obesity. This can be implemented through education, research and advocacy of all nurses involved with children and families.

  1. Solid Waste/Disease Relationships, A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thrift G.

    Presented is a comprehensive survey of the literature on the relationships between disease and solid wastes. Diseases are grouped on the basis of waste type or disease vector, such as chemical waste, human fecal waste, animal fecal waste, rodent-borne disease, mosquito-borne disease and miscellaneous communicable disease. The following format is…

  2. Interactive Whiteboards in Education: A Literature Scoping Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, Candice; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Interactive whiteboards are increasing in popularity and prevalence in education. A scoping survey was performed to ascertain the types of documents available from academic databases on the use of interactive whiteboards with school-aged children. More than half of all the identified documents were grey literature: that is, comprised of…

  3. Von Willebrand factor for menorrhagia: a survey and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, M V; Machin, N; Malec, L M; James, A H; Kessler, C M; Konkle, B A; Kouides, P A; Neff, A T; Philipp, C S; Brambilla, D J

    2016-05-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common congenital bleeding disorder. In women, menorrhagia is the most common bleeding symptom, and is disabling with iron deficiency anaemia, high health cost and poor quality of life. Current hormonal and non-hormonal therapies are limited by ineffectiveness and intolerance. Few data exist regarding von Willebrand factor (VWF), typically prescribed when other treatments fail. The lack of effective therapy for menorrhagia remains the greatest unmet healthcare need in women with VWD. Better therapies are needed to treat women with menorrhagia. We conducted a survey of US haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) and a literature review using medical subject heading (MeSH) search terms 'von Willebrand factor,' 'menorrhagia' and 'von Willebrand disease' to assess the use of VWF in menorrhagia. Analysis was by descriptive statistics. Of 83 surveys distributed to HTC MDs, 20 (24.1%) provided sufficient data for analysis. Of 1321 women with VWD seen during 2011-2014, 816 (61.8%) had menorrhagia, for which combined oral contraceptives, tranexamic acid and desmopressin were the most common first-line therapies for menorrhagia, whereas VWF was third-line therapy reported in 13 women (1.6%). Together with data from 88 women from six published studies, VWF safely reduced menorrhagia in 101 women at a dose of 33-100 IU kg(-1) on day 1-6 of menstrual cycle. This represents the largest VWD menorrhagia treatment experience to date. VWF safely and effectively reduces menorrhagia in women with VWD. A prospective clinical trial is planned to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Impact of Horizontal Mergers on Competition: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay SARICA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have been devoted to the effects of horizontal mergers on competition. This survey intends to review some selected studies about the effects of competition on horizontal mergers with a special attention given the horizontal integration. One of the important results obtained from this literature survey is that the findings of many researches have largely been controversial due to the different approaches and the time periods used in their studies. In these studies, even though it has been proved that horizontal mergers have negative effects on competition, it is not possible to make any precise comment on the dimension of this effect.

  5. A survey of literature on automated storage and retrieval systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodbergen, K.J.; Vis, I.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RSs) are warehousing systems that are used for the storage and retrieval of products in both distribution and production environments. This paper provides an overview of literature from the past 30 years. A comprehensive explanation of the current state of

  6. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  7. A survey of current practices in management of Hirschsprung's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was designed using survey Monkey® to determine current clinical and operative management of patients with HD by consultant paediatric surgeons practicing in the Nigeria. The paediatric surgeons were notified by E-mail, which included a link to the survey on survey ...

  8. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  9. Perioperative temperature control: Survey on current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogly, N; Alsina, E; de Celis, I; Huercio, I; Dominguez, A; Gilsanz, F

    2016-04-01

    Prevention of perioperative hypothermia decreases morbidity and mortality, as well as hospital costs. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of implementation of protocols in 3 tertiary Spanish University Hospitals. A survey among anaesthesiologists assessed estimated importance and clinical practice in terms of prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Results were compared depending on their experience. Ptotal of 116 anaesthesiologists answered the survey, of whom 48 (41.3%) were residents, 32 (27.6%) were staff with less than 10 years of experience, and 36 (31.1%) staff with 10 years or more of experience, In a 0-10 importance scale, prevention of hypothermia was scored 7.49±1,79, with no difference between groups (P=.58). Younger staff were more concerned of the end surgery temperature than other colleagues (P=.02). The most usual practice was a combination warming the intravenous fluids and an electric blanket (55%). Only 20% of the anaesthesiologists monitored temperature intra-operatively, even though 75% considered it an important parameter. No unit had a written protocol for prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Despite the absence of prevention protocols, the anaesthesiologists were aware of the importance maintaining a normal peri-operative temperature, but this awareness is still not enough to influence their perioperative management to diagnose and prevent hypothermia. A harmonisation of practice at local, regional and national level could improve this practice in the future. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Survey of the literature on mechanoluminescence from 1605 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, P; Chandra, B P

    2014-12-01

    Mechanoluminescence (ML) is a type of luminescence induced by any mechanical action on solids. The light emissions induced by elastic deformation, plastic deformation and fracture of solids are called elastico ML (EML), plastico ML (PML) and fracto ML (FML), respectively. Whereas nearly 50% of all organic molecular solids and inorganic salts exhibit FML, only a few solids exhibit EML and PML. The EML and FML of certain solids are so intense that they can be seen during daylight with the naked eye. Mechanolumnescence has a great potential for use in different types of mechano-optical devices such as stress sensors, damage sensors, impact sensors, fracture sensors and safety management monitoring systems. This article reports a survey of the literature from 1605 to 2013. Mechanoluminescence is studied by physicists, chemists, material scientists, geologists, medical scientists, engineers and technologists, among others and researchers will certainly benefit from the literature survey on ML given here. In addition, the field of mechanoluminescence may attract the interest of many new researchers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Superresolution imaging: a survey of current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, G.; Gil, E.; Šroubek, F.; Flusser, J.; Miravet, C.; Rodríguez, F. B.

    2008-08-01

    Imaging plays a key role in many diverse areas of application, such as astronomy, remote sensing, microscopy, and tomography. Owing to imperfections of measuring devices (e.g., optical degradations, limited size of sensors) and instability of the observed scene (e.g., object motion, media turbulence), acquired images can be indistinct, noisy, and may exhibit insuffcient spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, several external effects blur images. Techniques for recovering the original image include blind deconvolution (to remove blur) and superresolution (SR). The stability of these methods depends on having more than one image of the same frame. Differences between images are necessary to provide new information, but they can be almost unperceivable. State-of-the-art SR techniques achieve remarkable results in resolution enhancement by estimating the subpixel shifts between images, but they lack any apparatus for calculating the blurs. In this paper, after introducing a review of current SR techniques we describe two recently developed SR methods by the authors. First, we introduce a variational method that minimizes a regularized energy function with respect to the high resolution image and blurs. In this way we establish a unifying way to simultaneously estimate the blurs and the high resolution image. By estimating blurs we automatically estimate shifts with subpixel accuracy, which is inherent for good SR performance. Second, an innovative learning-based algorithm using a neural architecture for SR is described. Comparative experiments on real data illustrate the robustness and utilization of both methods.

  12. New beginnings in Zulu literature | Mathonsi | Current Writing: Text ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay seeks to present and explore new works in Zulu literature. We consider what is innovative about these works in terms of the changes that have taken place in South Africa generally and in Zulu society in particular. Although we focus on Zulu literature, our observations will be found to have general applicability ...

  13. Minimum Clinically Important Difference: Current Trends in the Spine Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Andrew S; Copay, Anne G; Olmscheid, Neil; Campbell, David; Walker, J Brock; Chutkan, Norman

    2017-07-15

    Review of the 2011 to 2015 minimum clinically important difference (MCID)-related publications in Spine, Spine Journal, Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine, and European Spine Journal. To summarize the various determinations of MCID and to analyze its usage in the spine literature of the past 5 years in order to develop a basic reference to help practitioners interpret or utilize MCID. MCID represents the smallest change in a domain of interest that is considered beneficial to a patient or clinician. The many sources of variation in calculated MCID values and inconsistency in its utilization have resulted in confusion in the interpretation and use of MCID. All articles from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed. Only clinical science articles utilizing patient reported outcome scores (PROs) were included in the analysis. A keyword search was then performed to identify articles that used MCID. MCID utilization in the selected papers was characterized and recorded. MCID was referenced in 264/1591 (16.6%) clinical science articles that utilized PROs: 22/264 (8.3%) independently calculated MCID values and 156/264 (59.1%) used previously published MCID values as a gauge of their own results. Despite similar calculation methods, there was a two- or three-fold range in the recommended MCID values for the same instrument. Half the studies recommended MCID values within the measurement error. Most studies (97.2%) using MCID to evaluate their own results relied on generic MCID. The few studies using specific MCID (MCID calculated for narrowly defined indications or treatments) did not consistently match the characteristics of their sample to the specificity of the MCID. About 48% of the studies compared group averages instead of individual scores to the MCID threshold. Despite a clear interest in MCID as a measure of patient improvement, its current developments and uses have been inconsistent. N/A.

  14. Cartilage failures. Systematic literature review, critical survey analysis, and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Andriolo, Luca; Balboni, Federica; Marcacci, Maurilio; Kon, Elizaveta

    2015-12-01

    While midterm results of matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) are now available, less attention has been paid to the evaluation of failures of this surgical approach. Aim of this study was to analyse how "failures" are generally defined in cartilage surgery, in order to understand how the survival rate may change according to different definitions of failure. A systematic review on MACT in the knee was conducted to report failure rates as well as different failure definitions in the available literature. Afterwards, we analysed the survival curve at 8.5-year follow-up of a survey of 193 patients treated with MACT. Using different definitions to identify failures, we compared how the survival rate changed according to the different definitions of failure. The systematic review on 93 papers showed that the average failure rate reported on 3,289 patients was 5.2 % at a mean 34 months of follow-up. However, 41 studies (44.1 %) did not even consider this aspect, and failures were variously defined, thus generating confusing data that make a meta-analysis or a study comparison meaningless. The failure analysis of the MACT survey showed that the survival curve changed significantly depending on the definition applied; in fact, the failure rate ranged from 3.6 to 33.7 %. According to a critical literature and survey analysis, we proposed a combined surgical- and improvement-based definition which led to a failure rate of 25.9 % at midterm/long-term follow-up. Nowadays, failure definitions of cartilage treatments differ in scientific articles, thus generating confusion and heterogeneous data even when applied to the same cohort of patients. While the literature analysis shows a low number of failures, this study demonstrated that if properly addressed with a comprehensive definition, the real failure rate of cartilage surgical procedures in the knee is higher than previously reported. Recognizing failures would give a better understanding and a more

  15. Surveying clinicians by web: current issues in design and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, Jennifer; Jones, Nathan R; Piché, Tara; Stevenson, John

    2013-09-01

    The versatility, speed, and reduced costs with which web surveys can be conducted with clinicians are often offset by low response rates. Drawing on best practices and general recommendations in the literature, we provide an evidence-based overview of methods for conducting online surveys with providers. We highlight important advantages and disadvantages of conducting provider surveys online and include a review of differences in response rates between web and mail surveys of clinicians. When administered online, design-based features affect rates of survey participation and data quality. We examine features likely to have an impact including sample frames, incentives, contacts (type, timing, and content), mixed-mode approaches, and questionnaire length. We make several recommendations regarding optimal web-based designs, but more empirical research is needed, particularly with regard to identifying which combinations of incentive and contact approaches yield the highest response rates and are the most cost-effective.

  16. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  17. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  18. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and ...

  19. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  20. Procoagulants and anticoagulants in fetal blood. A literature survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Uszyński

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In intrauterine life, hemostasis is maintained by the same components as in extrauterine life (blood platelets, coagulation and fibrinolysis systems, involvement of the vascular wall; in the fetus, however, these components show significant differences of a quantitative/qualitative nature. In the present study, we surveyed the literature on the coagulation system in the fetus. We focused on the velocity of development of the coagulation system, being reflected in the increased concentration of all procoagulants and anticoagulants (a rise from approximately 20% in the middle of pregnancy to about 60% or more in the period of labor; exceptions: factors V, VIII and XIII which in the labor period reach the adult level and screening test results (prothrombin time, aPTT - activated prothrombin time, and thrombin time. Reference values were given for the 19-38 weeks of pregnancy and the labor term. Biochemical features of fetal fibrinogen and PIVKA factors were also discussed. The role of activated protein C (APC in the maintenance of balance between procoagulants and anticoagulants was postulated as well as the role of APC in the formation of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI.

  1. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer YILMAZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ransportation has a great role in logistics. Many researchers have studied on transportation and vehicle routing problems. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat is a special subject for logistics. Causalities due to the accidents caused by trucks carrying hazardous materials will be intolerable. Many researchers have studied on risk assessment of hazmat transportation to find ways for reducing hazardous material transportation risks. Some researchers have studied routing of hazmat trucks. The emergency response models and network design problems for hazmat transportation were also studied by some researchers. The transportation of hazmats can also be classified according to the mode of transport. Mainly roads are used for hazmat transportation but some shipments are intermodal. There has been a great amount of effort spent to find convenient ways for hazmat transportation. In this study, a literature survey for the articles about hazmat transportation is prepared. After pointing out the importance of hazmat transportation by the example of US hazmat transportation data, the studies on hazmat transportation since 2005 have been examined. Totally 88 articles are classified as risk, routing, routing and scheduling, emergency response, network design and accident analysis. What can be studied in future researches is pointed out.Keywords: Hazardous materials, Network design, Transportation, Routing, Risk assessment

  2. Indirect costs of obesity: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogdon, J G; Finkelstein, E A; Hylands, T; Dellea, P S; Kamal-Bahl, S J

    2008-09-01

    This study reviews the recent literature on the relationship between obesity and indirect (non-medical) costs. Medline and Web of Science searches were conducted to identify published studies from 1992 to present that report indirect costs by obesity status; 31 studies were included. The indirect costs were grouped into six categories: costs associated with absenteeism, disability, premature mortality, presenteeism, workers' compensation, and total indirect costs. Compared with non-obese workers, obese workers miss more workdays due to illness, injury, or disability. Costs of premature mortality vary substantially across countries. The results for presenteeism and workers' compensation were mixed. More research is needed to determine obesity's causal role in increasing indirect costs, especially for workers' compensation and presenteeism. Cohort and longitudinal study designs should be a priority.

  3. Continuous improvement in the Netherlands: A survey-based study into the current practices of continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, H.G.A.; op de Weegh, S.; Gieskes, J.F.B.; Schuring, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous Improvement is a well-known and consolidated concept in literature and practice and is considered vital in today¿s business environment. In 2003 a survey, as part of the international CINet survey, has been performed in the Netherlands in order to gain insight into the current practices

  4. The Mallory body: theories on development and pathological significance (Part 2 of a literature survey)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    Drawing on data from a previously published literature survey on the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body, we discuss current theories on its development in a pro et contra manner. Conclusions have been largely left open to the interpretations of the reader because many...... be found with disease severity or duration in alcoholic liver diseases. The roles of vitamin A deficiency and protein-calorie malnutrition are circumstantial. Drugs known to have calcium-antagonist properties and the physiological characteristics of the stress-response protein ubiquitin support the concept...

  5. Usability in telemedicine systems-A literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, B; van Beijnum, B J F; Hermens, H J

    2016-09-01

    The rapid development of sensors and communication technologies enable the growth of new innovative services in healthcare, such as Telemedicine. An essential ingredient in the development of a telemedicine system and its final acceptance by end users are usability studies. The principles of usability engineering, evaluations and telemedicine are well established, and it may contribute to the adoption and eventually deployment of such systems and services. An in-depth usability analysis, including performance and attitude measures, requires knowledge about available usability techniques, and is depending on the amount of resources. Therefore it is worth investigating how usability methods are applied in developing telemedicine systems. Our hypothesis is: with increasing research and development of telemedicine systems, we expect that various usability methods are more equally employed for different end-user groups and applications. A literature survey was conducted to find telemedicine systems that have been evaluated for usability or ease of use. The elements of the PICO framework were used as a basis for the selection criteria in the literature search. The search was not limited by year. Two independent reviewers screened all search results first by title, and then by abstract for inclusion. Articles were included up to May 2015. In total, 127 publications were included in this survey. The number of publications on telemedicine systems significantly increased after 2008. Older adults and end-users with cardiovascular conditions were among largest target end-user groups. Remote monitoring systems were found the most, in 90 publications. Questionnaires are the most common means for evaluating telemedicine systems, and were found in 88 publications. Questionnaires are used frequently in studies focusing on cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson's disease and older adult conditions. Interviews are found the most in publications related to stroke. In total 71% of the

  6. The current state of telemonitoring: a comment on the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephane

    2005-02-01

    Telemonitoring, is defined as the use of information technology to monitor patients at a distance. This literature review suggests that the most promising applications for telemonitoring is for chronic illnesses such as cardiopulmonary disease, asthma, and heart failure in the home. Fetal heart rate monitoring and infant cardiopulmonary functions have also been monitored at a distance, as well as coagulation, or the level of activity of elderly people, assessed by the intelligent home monitoring devices. Hospitals, clinics, and prisons all have used telemonitoring, as have ambulances equipped with systems connected to the receiving hospital. Telemonitoring allows reduction of chronic disease complications thanks to a better follow-up; provides health care services without using hospital beds; and reduces patient travel, time off from work, and overall costs. Several systems have proven to be cost effective. Telemonitoring is also a way of responding to the new needs of home care in an ageing population. Real-time monitoring of patients in ambulances reduces the time to initiate treatment and allows the emergency crew to be better prepared. The obstacles to telemonitoring development include the initial costs of systems, physician licensing, and reimbursement. In the future, virtual reality, immersive environments, haptic feedback and nanotechnology promise new ways in improving the capabilities of telemonitoring.

  7. Acupuncture in IVF: A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, A; Shah, A; Gudi, A; Homburg, R

    2014-10-01

    Women's choice to delay fertility due to various reasons is making subfertility a growing problem and increased use of IVF as a last resort. Despite advances in the technology, IVF success remains low, especially in older women. Hence, many of these women need to undergo several cycles of IVF and are faced with unprecedented anxiety and frustration. In desperation, they resort to anything that might increase the success of their IVF treatment. Acupuncture has gained popularity among the various complementary medicines available and many go privately to have acupuncture while undergoing IVF. Since 1999, in spite of multiple trials and systematic reviews, the beneficial effect of acupuncture in improving the success of IVF remains unproven and debatable. As clinicians, we face the dilemma of what to suggest to our patients when asked about having acupuncture during IVF, given that different meta-analyses have come to different conclusions. Hence, this review is conducted with the aim to summarise the available literature and provide a better insight into this complex and controversial topic.

  8. Malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy: a survey of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy: a survey of current practice amongst general practitioners in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... The data were entered into a personal computer and analysed using SPSS for windows version 10.0 and presented as frequency tables and percentages. Results: Of the 90 questionnaires, ...

  9. Mobile Libraries, Design and Construction: A Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, C. R.; And Others

    Forty-one country libraries in Wales, Scotland and England were surveyed in 1970 in an attempt to establish current practice in the design and construction of mobile libraries. This report is the first step of the Branch and Mobile Libraries Group of the Library Association to establish standards for mobile library design and construction. The…

  10. Current trends of liposuction in India: Survey and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methil, Bijoy

    2015-01-01

    Liposuction is the commonest aesthetic procedure performed by Indian plastic surgeons. However, there exists substantial disparity amongst Indian surgeons about guidelines concerning liposuction. To address this disparity, a nationwide email survey (Association of Plastic Surgeons of India [APSI] database) was started in December 2013 and continued for 5 months. The survey was developed with software from www.fluidsurveys.com. The study was designed to cover most aspects of patient selection, perioperative management, technical considerations, postoperative management and complications. This is the first survey to be conducted in India for an extremely popular procedure. It is also one of the most exhaustive surveys that have been conducted in terms of the topics covered. One hundred and eighteen surgeons (including a majority of the cosmetic surgery stalwarts in the country) completed the survey. As expected, the results show a disparity in most parameters but also consolidation on some issues. Liposuction is considered extremely safe (86.1%). The majority of surgeons (70.3%) aspirated >5 L at onetime. The majority (80.2%) felt that the limits for liposuction should be relative and not absolute. The survey highlights lack of standardization with respect to infiltration solutions. The commonest complications observed were contour irregularities, followed by seroma and inadequate skin redrape. The amount of aspirate is the only factor, which achieves statistical significance with respect to major complications. A review of the current evidence and recommendations has been incorporated, along with an in depth analysis of the survey.

  11. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: A survey of recent literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Samar, P.; Cox, H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic...... efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can...... as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two...

  12. Literature Survey on the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Low-Alloy Steels in High Temperature Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.P

    2002-02-01

    The present report is a summary of a literature survey on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour/ mechanisms in low-alloy steels (LAS) in high-temperature water with special emphasis to primary-pressure-boundary components of boiling water reactors (BWR). A brief overview on the current state of knowledge concerning SCC of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel and piping steels under BWR conditions is given. After a short introduction on general aspects of SCC, the main influence parameter and available quantitative literature data concerning SCC of LAS in high-temperature water are discussed on a phenomenological basis followed by a summary of the most popular SCC models for this corrosion system. The BWR operating experience and service cracking incidents are discussed with respect to the existing laboratory data and background knowledge. Finally, the most important open questions and topics for further experimental investigations are outlined. (author)

  13. Uterine arteriovenous malformations: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivell, Rosalie M; Reid, Kym M; Mellor, Amy

    2005-11-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. AVMs often present with intractable bleeding and commonly are seen in association with pregnancy and uterine trauma. Ultrasound is the most common form of initial investigation, and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are being used with greater frequency. Despite this, angiography remains the gold standard for diagnostic evaluation. Embolization has become a more acceptable form of treatment and allows more invasive forms of treatment, particularly hysterectomy, to be avoided. Numerous medical therapies have also been used in the management of patients with uterine AVM. Reports of successful pregnancies after diagnosis and treatment of a uterine AVM are still uncommon, but increasingly good outcomes are being reported after successful treatment of a confirmed uterine AVM. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the many and varied clinical manifestations of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM), summarize the best ways to manage an acute hemorrhage from an AVM, and identify the current best way to diagnose an AVM.

  14. Management of acute haemarthrosis in haemophilia A without inhibitors: literature review, European survey and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, C; De Moerloose, P; Fischer, K; Holstein, K; Klamroth, R; Lambert, T; Lavigne-Lissalde, G; Perez, R; Richards, M; Dolan, G

    2011-05-01

    Acute haemarthrosis is a frequent type of bleeding in individuals with haemophilia. Delayed and/or inadequate treatment can trigger a series of pathological changes within the joint, leading to a painful and disabling arthropathy. The early management of intra-articular bleeding has the potential to prevent chronic joint disease and may include a combination of factor replacement, rest, ice, rehabilitation and, in certain cases, joint aspiration. Little data are, however, available regarding the optimal management of acute haemarthrosis, especially with respect to replacement therapy and the use of adjunctive therapies (aspiration, avoidance of weight bearing and immobilization, as well as the use of anti-inflammatory medication and embolization). To provide more insight into the management of acute haemarthrosis in patients with haemophilia, a literature review was conducted. Concomitantly, current management was surveyed in 26 European haemophilia comprehensive care centres representing 15 different countries. The review highlights the need for future robust studies to better define the appropriate replacement therapy and the role of adjunctive therapies such as aspiration. The survey reveals much heterogeneity in the management of acute haemarthrosis across the EU. Within the constraints discussed, treatment recommendations are presented that reflect the literature, current practice and the clinical experience of the European Haemophilia Therapy Standardisation Board (EHTSB). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A Survey of Current e-Business (E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Vance Kerr

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is a dynamic part of the business scene and there have been many examples of success and failures of e-commerce and e-business ventures. A survey was administered asking questions about industries understanding of current e-business (e-government practices in Australia. The object of the survey was to provide a benchmark of current practice. The results of this survey could have a major impact on academic curricula. The survey was sent to 671 Australian Businesses and was addressed to the Chief Information Officer. Only twenty four usable questionnaires were returned and while it is accepted that this is a limited sample, disturbing trends have appeared with respect to the lack of strategic planning for information technology use particularly in medium sized businesses in Australia. In addition, relationships between key factors associated with the business objectives for their IT infrastructure and the benefits of the organisation’s Extranet, Intranet and Internet initiatives were identified.

  16. Utility survey of requirements for a HTS fault current limiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Nygaard; Jørgensen, P.; Østergaard, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The application of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL) in the electric utility sector will clearly dependent on to what extent the needs and requirements of electric utilities can be met by the ongoing development of SFCL technology. This paper considers a questionnaire survey of which...... needs and expectations the Danish electric utilities have to this new technology. A bus-tie application of SFCL in a distribution substation with three parallel-coupled transformers is discussed...

  17. Network Neutrality : A Survey of the Economic Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the small but growing economic literature on network neutrality. It considers a number of possible departures from network neutrality, in particular termination fees, second-degree price discrimination, and vertical foreclosure.

  18. Bimodal Programming: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siburt, Hannah W; Holmes, Alice E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical practice in approaches to bimodal programming in the United States. To be specific, if clinicians are recommending bimodal stimulation, who programs the hearing aid in the bimodal condition, and what method is used for programming the hearing aid? An 11-question online survey was created and sent via email to a comprehensive list of cochlear implant programming centers in the United States. The survey was sent to 360 recipients. Respondents in this study represented a diverse group of clinical settings (response rate: 26%). Results indicate little agreement about who programs the hearing aids, when they are programmed, and how they are programmed in the bimodal condition. Analysis of small versus large implant centers indicated small centers are less likely to add a device to the contralateral ear. Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear, there is inconsistency in the current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in the current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches.

  19. Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The present paper shows the results of a literature survey aimed at exploring how the indoor environment in buildings affects human comfort. The survey was made to gather data that can be useful when new concepts of controlling the indoor environment are developed. The following indoor...... environmental conditions influencing comfort in the built environment were surveyed: thermal, visual and acoustic, as well as air quality. The literature was surveyed to determine which of these conditions were ranked by building users as being the most important determinants of comfort. The survey also...

  20. Assessing the Economics of Dengue: Results from a Systematic Review of the Literature and Expert Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna; Garcia, Cristina; Lefcourt, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The economics of dengue is complex and multifaceted. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide a critical overview of the issues related to dengue economics research and to form a background with which to address the question of cost. Three literature databases were searched [PubMed, Embase and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS)], covering a period from 1980 to 2013, to identify papers meeting preset inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality on the basis of a quality checklist developed for this purpose. An expert survey was designed to identify priority areas in dengue economics research and to identify gaps between the methodology and actual practice. Survey responses were combined with the literature review findings to determine stakeholder priorities in dengue economics research. The review identified over 700 papers. Forty-two of these papers met the selection criteria. The studies that were reviewed presented results from 32 dengue-endemic countries, underscoring the importance of dengue as a global public health problem. Cost analyses were the most common, with 21 papers, followed by nine cost-effectiveness analyses and seven cost-of-illness studies, indicating a relatively strong mix of methodologies. Dengue annual overall costs (in 2010 values) ranged from US$13.5 million (in Nicaragua) to $56 million (in Malaysia), showing cost variations across countries. Little consistency exists in the way costs were estimated and dengue interventions evaluated, making generalizations around costs difficult. The current evidence suggests that dengue costs are substantial because of the cost of hospital care and lost earnings. Further research in this area will broaden our understanding of the true economic impact of dengue.

  1. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  2. Quartz exposure in agriculture: literature review and South African survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanepoel, A.J.; Rees, D.; Renton, K.; Swanepoel, C.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Gardiner, K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the published literature on respirable quartz exposure and associated disease in agricultural related settings systematically and to describe personal respirable dust and quartz measurements collected on a sandy soil farm in the Free State province of South Africa. METHODS: The

  3. A literature review and survey of childhood pneumonia etiology studies: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Zunera; Kwong, Yuenting D; Levine, Orin S; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Scott, J Anthony G; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2012-04-01

    The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project is the largest multicountry etiology study of childhood pneumonia since the Board on Science and Technology in International Development studies of the 1980s. However, it is not the only recent or ongoing pneumonia etiology study, and even with seven sites, it cannot capture all epidemiologic settings in the developing world. Funding providers, researchers and policymakers rely on the best available evidence to strategically plan programs, new research directions and interventions. We aimed to describe the current landscape of recent pneumonia etiology studies in children under 5 years of age in the developed and developing world, as ascertained by a literature review of relevant studies with data since the year 2000 and a survey of researchers in the field of childhood pneumonia. We collected information on the study population, study design, case definitions, laboratory samples and methods and identified pathogens. A literature review identified 88 studies with child pneumonia etiology results. As of June 2010, our survey of researchers identified an additional 65 ongoing and recently completed child pneumonia etiology studies. This demonstrates the broad existing context into which the PERCH study must be placed. However, the landscape analysis also reveals a multiplicity of case definitions, levels of clinician involvement, facility types, specimen collection, and laboratory techniques. It reinforces the need for the standardization of methods and analyses for present and future pneumonia etiology studies in order to optimize their cumulative potential to accurately describe the microbial causes of childhood pneumonia.

  4. A Literature Review and Survey of Childhood Pneumonia Etiology Studies: 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Yuenting D.; Levine, Orin S.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Scott, J. Anthony G.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project is the largest multicountry etiology study of childhood pneumonia since the Board on Science and Technology in International Development studies of the 1980s. However, it is not the only recent or ongoing pneumonia etiology study, and even with seven sites, it cannot capture all epidemiologic settings in the developing world. Funding providers, researchers and policymakers rely on the best available evidence to strategically plan programs, new research directions and interventions. We aimed to describe the current landscape of recent pneumonia etiology studies in children under 5 years of age in the developed and developing world, as ascertained by a literature review of relevant studies with data since the year 2000 and a survey of researchers in the field of childhood pneumonia. We collected information on the study population, study design, case definitions, laboratory samples and methods and identified pathogens. A literature review identified 88 studies with child pneumonia etiology results. As of June 2010, our survey of researchers identified an additional 65 ongoing and recently completed child pneumonia etiology studies. This demonstrates the broad existing context into which the PERCH study must be placed. However, the landscape analysis also reveals a multiplicity of case definitions, levels of clinician involvement, facility types, specimen collection, and laboratory techniques. It reinforces the need for the standardization of methods and analyses for present and future pneumonia etiology studies in order to optimize their cumulative potential to accurately describe the microbial causes of childhood pneumonia. PMID:22403223

  5. Tactical lighting in special operations medicine: survey of current preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, Christopher J; Enzenauer, Robert W; Eisnor, Derek L; Laporta, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Success in Special Operations Forces medicine (SOFMED) is dependent on maximizing visual capability without compromising the provider or casualty position when under fire. There is no single ideal light source suitable for varied SOFMED environments. We present the results of an online survey of Special Operations Medical Operators in an attempt to determine strengths and weaknesses of current systems. There was no consensus ideal hue for tactical illumination. Most Operators own three or more lights, and most lights were not night vision compatible. Most importantly, nearly 25% of respondents reported that lighting issues contributed to a poor casualty outcome; conversely, a majority (50 of 74) stated their system helped prevent a poor outcome. Based on the results of this initial survey, we can affirm that the design and choice of lighting is critical to SOFMED success. We are conducting ongoing studies to further define ideal systems for tactical applications including field, aviation, and marine settings. 2013.

  6. Questionnaire Construction Manual Annex. Questionnaires: Literature Survey and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    study of retail images using adjectives and phrases as endpoints. Bipolar Nominally Contrasting Adjectives and Phrases crammed merchandise ,- well spaced... merchandise bright store - dull store ads frequently seen by you - ads infrequently seen by you low quality products - high quality products well...images for supermarkets , department stores, shoe stores, and discount stores using a semantic differential format. This indicates that survey

  7. A comprehensive survey of current and former college students with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W; Shefyck, Allison; Reichow, Brian

    2015-03-01

    There is a paucity of research concerning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) pursuing higher education. This study sought to augment this gap in the literature by surveying individuals with ASD who are currently college students or who have previously attended college. Thirty-five individuals completed an online survey. These individuals reported receiving extensive academic supports that enabled their academic success. Their reported difficulties in the social and emotional domains received less support. In addition, not all areas of campus life were supportive, as study abroad and career service offices were reported to not understand individuals with ASD. Overall, the results of this survey indicate the importance of self-advocacy and the need for institutions of higher education to provide comprehensive supports for individuals with ASD in the academic, social, and emotional domains in order to effectively integrate this group into the campus environment.

  8. Literature Survey and Preliminary Evaluation of Streambank Protection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    Department of Transporta-tion, Washington, D. C. k. Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 1. American Forestry Association, Washington, D. C. m...of Interior, Office of Water Research and Tech- nology, Washington, D. C.; Performed by University of Illinois, State Water Survey Division, Urbana ...No. 78, Engineering Series No. 6, Forestry Series No. 14, 1 Apr 1942, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Albuquerque, N. Mex

  9. DDC 10 Year Requirements and Planning Study. Literature Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-17

    experts in : nfc •lTauto trAis- 4.r in trdcr to determine their de4irabilitv, feasibilitv, and probable tirmt The literature murvey covered sone 68...the Registration end Ciessisfication of Potential Contractors for Access to UK." In: Waldron. etlea J. aid IF. Ravmme L~f, ids. -ILL=jat plaamio System...jmt a dvi s Aij. 4,p 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 1 -er a r w;- ,d erv t - e m d" r o t" r ,l-t-m n f n Ittlng 1II o(CM h ileAeu~ MA sciemtlete will hae acces to

  10. Wake Survey of a Marine Current Turbine Under Steady Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen

    2016-11-01

    A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine was tested in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross section. Separate wind tunnel testing has shown the foil section used on the turbine to be Reynolds number independent with respect to lift at the experimental parameters of tow carriage speed (Utow = 1 . 68 m/s) and tip speed ratio (TSR = 7). The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft, and to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed into a single field of investigation. Results include streamwise and vertical ensemble average velocity fields averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, as well as higher-order statistics. Turbine tip vortex centers were identified and plotted showing increasing aperiodicity with wake age. keywords: horizontal axis marine current turbine, particle image velocimetry, towing tank, wake survey

  11. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  12. Gender trends in dental practice patterns. A review of current U.S. literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, T A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews three recent reports of national gender trends in dental practice patterns. Although the three independent cross-sectional studies were conducted at different points in time, used different sampling strategies, and used similar but independent survey instruments, findings were consistent across studies. In summary: Women dentists are less likely to be married and have fewer children. Women are more likely to assume child rearing and household responsibilities. Women are less likely to be practice owners. Women worked slightly fewer hours per week and weeks per year, and were more likely to take a leave of absence for illness or child rearing. However, women dentists demonstrate a far greater professional work commitment than was previously reported in the literature. Women earn significantly less income from the practice of dentistry, even after controlling for age, practice ownership, hours worked per week, and other personal characteristics. The most current "Gender Wage Gap" estimates range from 57.7% for specialists to 75.4% for general practitioners (8). delta.

  13. Current leadership training in dermatology residency programs: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, David S; Soldanska, Magdalena; Anderson, Bryan; Miller, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Residents and physicians frequently find themselves in leadership roles. Current residency curricula focus on the development of clinical knowledge and technical skills. A previous survey of Penn State Dermatology graduates demonstrated the perceived need and benefit of a formalized leadership curriculum in this selected group. We sought to identify and measure the perceived need and benefit of formalized leadership training and investigate opinions regarding leadership theory from the perspective of dermatology residency program directors and chief residents nationally. A survey containing 26 questions related to leadership theory and training were mailed to all US dermatology residency programs. In all, 91% of program directors and chief residents agreed that leadership skills could be taught through observation and training. A total of 78% of respondents agreed that leadership training is important during dermatology residency training. In all, 66% agreed that a formalized leadership curriculum would help residents become better resident supervisors and physicians. Only 13% reported having a formalized leadership curriculum. Participants most frequently reported learning leadership through observation and modeled behavior. A total of 15% of chief residents believed their faculty did not effectively model leadership, whereas only 2% of the program directors believed the same (P = .01). In all, 62% (68/109) of programs surveyed returned at least one response from the program director or chief resident. A total of 39% (42/109) had responses from both the program director and the chief resident. Because of the voluntary nature of the survey, response bias could not be excluded. Most program directors and chief residents believe leadership skills can be cultivated through observation and training. Leadership curriculum is not part of most residency programs. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modern Arabic Literature 1800-1970: A Bibliographical Survey of Works in English. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoma, Salih J.

    This bibliographical survey of modern Arabic literature, 1800-1970, has two main purposes: (1) to assess the manner in which Arabic literature is received, viewed or evaluated in Western (primarily English) sources, and (2) to determine the gaps, points of emphasis or directions which characterize Western scholarship in the field. The 891 entries…

  15. A Literature Survey on Cost-Effectiveness of Proton Beam Therapy in the Management of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reiazi, Reza; Norozi, Amir; Etedadialiabadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proton therapy has currently used to treat brain, spinal and prostate cancers, as well as Breast cancer. Proponents have cited the modality?s ability to spare healthy tissue, but critics have claimed the benefit gained from its use has not validated its cost in comparison with photon therapy. The aim of this study was evaluation of proton therapy cost effectiveness versus photon therapy, in the Breast Cancer management through a literature survey. Evidence Acquisition: Standard searc...

  16. Survey of the year 2005 commercial optical biosensor literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Rebecca L; Myszka, David G

    2006-01-01

    We identified 1113 articles (103 reviews, 1010 primary research articles) published in 2005 that describe experiments performed using commercially available optical biosensors. While this number of publications is impressive, we find that the quality of the biosensor work in these articles is often pretty poor. It is a little disappointing that there appears to be only a small set of researchers who know how to properly perform, analyze, and present biosensor data. To help focus the field, we spotlight work published by 10 research groups that exemplify the quality of data one should expect to see from a biosensor experiment. Also, in an effort to raise awareness of the common problems in the biosensor field, we provide side-by-side examples of good and bad data sets from the 2005 literature. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Long-range oil and gas forecasting methodologies: literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherniavsky, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    Performance of long-range energy system analyses requires the capability to project conventional domestic oil and gas supplies in the long term. The objective of the Long-range Forecasting Methodology project is to formulate an approach to this problem which will be compatible with the principal tool employed by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy for long-range energy system analyses, the Long-term Energy Analysis Package (LEAP). This paper reports on projection methodologies that have appeared in the literature, evaluates them in terms of their applicability to the LEAP framework, and discusses the principal determinants of conventional domestic oil and gas supply in the long run.

  18. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

  19. German crowd-investing platforms: Literature review and survey

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, David; Ohmer, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of the current German crowd-investing market drawing on a data-set of 31 crowd-investing platforms including the analysis of 265 completed projects. While crowd-investing market still only represents a niche in the German venture capital market, there is potential for an increase in both market volume and in average project investment. The market share is distributed among a few crowd-investing platforms with high entry barriers for new platforms...

  20. Mobile Phone Surveys for Collecting Population-Level Estimates in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dustin G; Pereira, Amanda; Farrenkopf, Brooke A; Labrique, Alain B; Pariyo, George W; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    National and subnational level surveys are important for monitoring disease burden, prioritizing resource allocation, and evaluating public health policies. As mobile phone access and ownership become more common globally, mobile phone surveys (MPSs) offer an opportunity to supplement traditional public health household surveys. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current landscape of MPSs to collect population-level estimates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Primary and gray literature from 7 online databases were systematically searched for studies that deployed MPSs to collect population-level estimates. Titles and abstracts were screened on primary inclusion and exclusion criteria by two research assistants. Articles that met primary screening requirements were read in full and screened for secondary eligibility criteria. Articles included in review were grouped into the following three categories by their survey modality: (1) interactive voice response (IVR), (2) short message service (SMS), and (3) human operator or computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Data were abstracted by two research assistants. The conduct and reporting of the review conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 6625 articles were identified through the literature review. Overall, 11 articles were identified that contained 19 MPS (CATI, IVR, or SMS) surveys to collect population-level estimates across a range of topics. MPSs were used in Latin America (n=8), the Middle East (n=1), South Asia (n=2), and sub-Saharan Africa (n=8). Nine articles presented results for 10 CATI surveys (10/19, 53%). Two articles discussed the findings of 6 IVR surveys (6/19, 32%). Three SMS surveys were identified from 2 articles (3/19, 16%). Approximately 63% (12/19) of MPS were delivered to mobile phone numbers collected from previously administered household surveys. The majority of MPS (11

  1. German crowd-investing platforms: Literature review and survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grundy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the current German crowd-investing market drawing on a data-set of 31 crowd-investing platforms including the analysis of 265 completed projects. While crowd-investing market still only represents a niche in the German venture capital market, there is potential for an increase in both market volume and in average project investment. The market share is distributed among a few crowd-investing platforms with high entry barriers for new platforms although platforms that specialise in certain sectors have managed to successfully enter the market. German crowd-investing platforms are found to promote mainly internet-based enterprises (36% followed by projects in real estate (24% and green projects (19%, with the median money raised 100,000 euro.

  2. Do Neuroscience Journals Accept Replications? A Survey of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy W. K. Yeung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports in neuroscience, especially those concerning brain-injury and neuroimaging, have revealed low reproducibility of results within the field and urged for more replication studies. However, it is unclear if the neuroscience journals welcome or discourage the submission of reports on replication studies. Therefore, the current study assessed the explicit position of neuroscience journals on replications.Methods: A list of active neuroscience journals publishing in English was compiled from Scopus database. These journal websites were accessed to read their aims and scope and instructions to authors, and to assess if they: (1 explicitly stated that they accept replications; (2 did not state their position on replications; (3 implicitly discouraged replications by emphasizing on the novelty of the manuscripts; or (4 explicitly stated that they reject replications. For journals that explicitly stated they accept or reject replications, their subcategory within neuroscience and their 5-year impact factor were recorded. The distribution of neuroscience replication studies published was also recorded by searching and extracting data from Scopus.Results: Of the 465 journals reviewed, 28 (6.0% explicitly stated that they accept replications, 394 (84.7% did not state their position on replications, 40 (8.6% implicitly discouraged replications by emphasizing on the novelty of the manuscripts, and 3 (0.6% explicitly stated that they reject replications. For the 28 journals that explicitly welcomed replications, three (10.7% stated their position in the aims and scope, whereas 25 (89.3% stated in within the detailed instructions to authors. The five-year impact factor (2015 of these journals ranged from 1.655 to 10.799, and nine of them (32.1% did not receive a 5-year or annual impact factor in 2015. There was no significant difference in the proportions of journals explicitly welcomed replications (journals with vs. without impact

  3. Survey on current practices for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Dünser, Martin W; Duranteau, Jacques; Horn, Janneke; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    To investigate current practices and timing of neurological prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the 8000 members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine during September and October 2012. The survey had 27 questions divided into three categories: background data, clinical data, decision-making and consequences. A total of 1025 respondents (13%) answered the survey with complete forms in more than 90%. Twenty per cent of respondents practiced outside of Europe. Overall, 22% answered that they had national recommendations, with the highest percentage in the Netherlands (>80%). Eighty-nine per cent used induced hypothermia (32-34 °C) for comatose cardiac arrest patients, while 11% did not. Twenty per cent had separate prognostication protocols for hypothermia patients. Seventy-nine per cent recognized that neurological examination alone is not enough to predict outcome and a similar number (76%) used additional methods. Intermittent electroencephalography (EEG), brain computed tomography (CT) scan and evoked potentials (EP) were considered most useful. Poor prognosis was defined as cerebral performance category (CPC) 3-5 (58%) or CPC 4-5 (39%) or other (3%). When prognosis was considered poor, 73% would actively withdraw intensive care while 20% would not and 7% were uncertain. National recommendations for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest are uncommon and only one physician out of five uses a separate protocol for hypothermia treated patients. A neurological examination alone was considered insufficient to predict outcome in comatose patients and most respondents advocated a multimodal approach: EEG, brain CT and EP were considered most useful. Uncertainty regarding neurological prognostication and decisions on level of care was substantial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  5. The Use of Current Media in Literature and Composition at the Community College Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Jody

    Current media--films, videos, television programs, advertising in both print and television, and newspaper and magazine articles--can be successfully employed in college literature and composition classes, enhancing the learning environment by involving those students who might otherwise show disinterest. For example, a unit on pornography,…

  6. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  7. Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

  8. Current trends in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: an internet-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abd Alrahman; Alhunaidi, Omar; Aziz, Mohamed; Omar, Mohamed; Al-Kandari, Ahmed M.; El-Nahas, Ahmed; El-Shazly, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to report current practices of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) among endourologists. Methods: An internet survey was administered to Endourological Society members. Responders were distributed into three groups according to the number of PCNL cases per year (100). PCNL technical details as well as opinions regarding specific clinical case scenarios were evaluated and compared between groups. Results: We received 300 responses from 47 different countries. Prone position was used in 77% of cases, while 16% used supine position and only 7% used modified lateral decubitus. Most endourologists performed their own access. There were no significant differences between the three groups regarding patient position (p = 0.1), puncture acquisition by urologist or radiologist (p = 0.2) and fluoroscopic puncture technique (p = 0.2). Endourologists with high annual PCNL practice (>100) had least probability to utilize nephrostomy tube (p = 0.0005) or use balloon dilator (p = 0.0001). They also had the highest probability of performing mini-PERC (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The majority of endourologists performing PCNL obtain their own access. Prone positioning is predominant, while totally tubeless PCNL are uncommon. Mini-PERC is gaining more popularity among endourologists. Most endourologists follow the guidelines for their choice of treatment modality in different sizes and locations of upper tract calculi. PMID:28932275

  9. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  10. Current hair mercury levels in Japanese: survey in five districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Akira; Matsumoto, Miyuki; Yamaguchi, Masako; Hachiya, Noriyuki

    2003-03-01

    To understand the current Japanese hair mercury levels, we planned a survey of hair mercury among the general populations of different regions in Japan. The present paper, as the first report of the survey, summarized the results obtained in five districts, Minamata, Kumamoto, Tottori, Wakayama and Chiba. Hair samples were collected at beauty salons, barbershops and primary schools in each district with questionnaires on age, sex, amount and species of fish usually consumed, hair-dyed and artificial hair waving "permanent wave." The total mercury levels of 3686 hair samples collected were analyzed by an oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation method. The geometric mean of the total mercury concentration was significantly higher in males than in females, i.e., 2.55 microg/g and 1.43 microg/g, respectively. The sex difference was also observed on hair samples without artificial waving, i.e., 2.64 microg/g and 1.64 microg/g, respectively. The geometric mean in each district varied from 2.23 to 4.79 microg/g for males and from 1.23 to 2.50 microg/g for females. The average hair mercury levels were highest in Chiba among the five districts both in males and females. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation of the mercury level with age, sex, amount of daily fish consumption, tuna and bonito as usually consumed fish, artificial waving and Chiba as a residential area. In the laboratory experiment, we found that the treatment of hair samples with a lotion for artificial waving caused a 30%-reduction in the mercury content. Furthermore, longitudinal hair analysis showed a marked difference in the concentration between the hair root and the tip of the hair taken from artificially waved females; higher values were observed at the hair root. These results suggested that artificial waving significantly removes hair mercury and that hair analysis at the hair root should be necessary to estimate an accurate methylmercury exposure for waved persons.

  11. Results of a survey on current surgical smoke control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ben E; Reiman, Robert E

    2008-04-01

    Researchers at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, conducted a simple, web-based survey of AORN members to evaluate surgical smoke control practices. Survey respondents from various medical specialties and facilities throughout North America indicated their facilities' level of compliance with established surgical smoke control measures. Survey results indicate that many facilities have not implemented best practices for protecting patients and health care workers from surgical smoke hazards, especially smoke created during electrosurgical, electrocautery, and diathermy procedures. (c) AORN, Inc, 2008.

  12. Challenges faced by current Galactic planetary nebula surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, David J.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the demographics of the Galactic planetary nebula (PN) population is an important goal to further our understanding of this intriguing phase of stellar evolution. The Galactic population has more than doubled in number over the last 15 years, particularly from narrowband Hα surveys along the plane. In this review I will summarise these results, with emphasis on the time interval since the last IAU Symposium. These primarily optical surveys are not without their limitations and new surveys for PNe in the infrared similarly face a number of challenges. I will discuss the need for multi-wavelength approaches to discovery and analysis. The desire to have accurate volume-limited samples of Galactic PNe at our disposal is emphasised, which will be impacted with new data from the Gaia satellite mission. We need robust surveys of PNe and their central stars, especially volume-limited surveys, in order to clarify and quantify their evolutionary pathways.

  13. Essential literature for the chiropractic profession: a survey of chiropractic research leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based clinical practice (EBCP) is an accepted practice for informed clinical decision making in mainstream health care professions. EBCP augments clinical experience and can have far reaching effects in education, policy, reimbursement and clinical management. The proliferation of published research can be overwhelming—finding a mechanism to identify literature that is essential for practitioners and students is desirable. The purpose of this study was to survey leaders in the chiropractic profession on their opinions of essential literature for doctors of chiropractic, faculty, and students to read or reference. Methods Deployment of an IRB exempted survey occurred with 68 academic and research leaders using SurveyMonkey®. Individuals were solicited via e-mail in August of 2011; the study closed in October of 2011. Collected data were checked for citation accuracy and compiled to determine multiple responses. A secondary analysis assessed the scholarly impact and Internet accessibility of the recommended literature. Results Forty-three (43) individuals consented to participate; seventeen (17) contributed at least one article of importance. A total of 41 unique articles were reported. Of the six articles contributed more than once, one article was reported 6 times, and 5 were reported twice. Conclusions A manageable list of relevant literature was created. Shortcomings of methods were identified, and improvements for continued implementation are suggested. A wide variety of articles were reported as “essential” knowledge; annual or bi-annual surveys would be helpful for the profession. PMID:24289298

  14. Literature Survey Concerning State of the Art and Surface Generation in High Speed Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    This report constitutes a short description of a literature survey concerning the state of the art and latest achievements on the rather new and powerful technology of high speed milling and its modelling, particularly looking at modelling of the generated surfaces. This task has been conducted...

  15. Low alloy additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium: a literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, R.L.

    1980-12-31

    A survey of the literature has been made on the experimental results of small additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium. Information is also included on the constitution, mechanical properties, heat treatment, and deformation of various binary and ternary alloys. 42 references, 24 figures, 13 tables.

  16. Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Research Surveys: Evidence from the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fricker, Ronald D. Jr.; Schonlau, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    London: SAGE Publications. Reprinted from Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Research Surveys: Evidence from the Literature, Field Methods, 14, 347-367. The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/152582202237725

  17. Identifying Transition Teacher Competencies through Literature Review and Surveys of Experts and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert L.; Callow-Heusser, Catherine A.; Horrocks, Erin L.; Hoffmann, Audrey N.; Kupferman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    We first conducted a synthesis of literature to identify essential transition teacher competencies to guide curriculum development for a personnel preparation program. The synthesis yielded a list of 67 competencies needed by transition teachers. Using the 67 competencies, we next created an electronic survey in which respondents were asked to…

  18. Properties of concrete at very low temperatures : A survey of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Veen, V.

    1987-01-01

    This literature survey is focussed on the behaviour of concrete at very low temperatures down to -196°C. To give the reader some theoretical background, first the mechanisms of freezing and frost damage are discussed. Based on these mechanisms, reasonable explanations can be given for the

  19. Current management of open fractures: results from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, Denis; Matthes, Gerrit; Napp, Matthias; Lange, Jörn; Hinz, Peter; Spitzmüller, Romy; Ekkernkamp, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Open fractures are orthopaedic emergencies that carry a high risk for infection, non-union and soft tissue complications. Evidence-based treatment is impeded by the lack of high-quality evidence-based studies. The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the current practice of open fracture management in Germany and to determine major differences in treatment. Surgeons were asked to complete an online questionnaire consisting of 45 items developed by an expert consensus. The first part covered questions on general principles of open fracture management. The second part included questions on soft tissue management, the preferred method of initial surgical stabilisation, microbiological testing, employment of pulsatile lavage and local antibiotics, antibiotic regimen, second-look operations, and blood testing. Of 653 respondents, 364 (65 %) completed the first part and 314 (48 %) completed the second part of the online survey. 55 % answered that a standard operating procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with open fractures exists in their hospital. Only 25 % leave pre-hospitalisation applied dressings intact until arrival of the patient in the operating room, and 40 % make this decision depending on information provided by pre-hospitalisation emergency personnel. 84 % participants exclude the use of antibiotic-coated implants in the treatment of open fractures. The favoured stabilisation method in Gustilo type I fractures is definitive internal osteosynthesis and primary wound closure for 61 % of respondents. In Gustilo type II (74 %) and type III fractures (93 %), temporary external fixation is preferred. High-pressure pulsatile lavage is used by 22 % responding surgeons in Gustilo type I fractures, 53 % for type II fractures and 67 % for type III fractures. Open fracture management differs considerably among surgeons in Germany. Further studies are needed to deliver high-quality evidence concerning primary fracture stabilisation, soft

  20. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney-Lang, E.; Auyeung, B.; Escudero, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. • BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. • A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. • Indirect studies discovered

  1. Rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair: a survey of current UK practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Chris; Bateman, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Rotator cuff disorders, including rotator cuff tears, are common and can be treated conservatively or surgically. Data suggest that the incidence of surgery to repair the rotator cuff is rising. Despite this rise, the most effective approach to postoperative rehabilitation, a critical component of the recovery process, is not well developed. The present study aimed to describe current practice in the UK in relation to rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair. An electronic survey was developed and disseminated to UK based physiotherapists and surgeons involved with rotator cuff repair. One hundred valid responses were received. Although there is a degree of variation, current practice for the majority of respondents consists of sling immobilization for 4 weeks to 6 weeks. During this time, passive movement would be commenced before active movement is introduced towards the end of this phase. Resisted exercise begins 7 weeks to 12 weeks postoperatively, alongside return to light work. A progressive resumption of function, including manual work and sport, is advised from approximately 13 weeks. In the context of the current literature, it might be suggested that the current approach to rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair for the majority of respondents is somewhat cautious and has not progressed for over a decade.

  2. Taxonomic Review of Classical and Current Literature on the Perennial American Family Forest Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Straka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in American forest policy has been the small forest ownership problem. Early in the twentieth century, it was called the farm forestry problem, later, the nonindustrial private forest problem, and today, the family forest problem. Family forest owners are thought to manage their lands in a suboptimal manner resulting in low forest productivity relative to other ownership groups. This can lead to future timber supply problems. The exact nature of the problem, especially its social and economic basis, was a common subject of early forestry research studies. This article includes many of the major nonindustrial private forest or family forest studies, from early to current, and classifies them both by themes used by other authors and categories that relate to major research areas in the current literature. A major focus of this literature deals with promoting management on family forest holdings and possible land management incentives and disincentives. Natural trends in family forest ownership, like parcelization, also impact upon forest management opportunities. By developing a taxonomy that classifies these studies by research objective, methodology, owner motivation, and problem definition, this article serves to organize the family forest literature in a manner that provides a temporal framework for better understanding the historical motivation for and development of family forest research in the United States.

  3. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Energy and society: a conceptual mapping. A preliminary literature survey. [142 references cited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    This literature survey relates energy to four broad categories of social research: Part One--The Diffusion of Innovations; Part Two--Community Studies; Part III--Culture Contact Studies; and Part IV--Energy and Society. The purpose of the report is twofold: to provide a nonexhaustive literature overview for each of these four categories of social science research; and to suggest how such research contributes to the study of energy-society interactions and how future research might be directed toward improving this developing body of knowledge. 143 references.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening: A Survey of Current Practice Amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the absence of a national screening programme, any hope of minimising death from invasive cervical carcinoma in Nigeria is through increased opportunistic ... Study Design, Setting and Subjects: A self-administered, questionnaire survey of 113 Nigerian gynaecologists who attended the Annual General Meeting and ...

  6. Postural Control Impairments in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Critical Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Ghanouni, Parisa; Shayestehfar, Monir; Ghaheri, Banafsheh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Motor impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been frequently reported. In this review, we narrow our focus on postural control impairments to summarize current literature for patterns, underlying mechanisms, and determinants of posture in this population. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted through Medline, ISI web of Knowledge, Scopus and Google Scholar to include studies between 1992 and February 2013. Results: Individuals with ASD have problems in maintaining postural control in infancy that well persists into later years. However, the patterns and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Conclusions: Examining postural control as an endophenotype or early diagnostic marker of autism is a conceptual premise which should be considered in future investigations. At the end of the review, methodological recommendations on the assessment of postural control have also been provided. PMID:25520765

  7. Postural control impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a critical review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Ghanouni, Parisa; Shayestehfar, Monir; Ghaheri, Banafsheh

    2014-09-01

    Motor impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been frequently reported. In this review, we narrow our focus on postural control impairments to summarize current literature for patterns, underlying mechanisms, and determinants of posture in this population. A literature search was conducted through Medline, ISI web of Knowledge, Scopus and Google Scholar to include studies between 1992 and February 2013. Individuals with ASD have problems in maintaining postural control in infancy that well persists into later years. However, the patterns and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Examining postural control as an endophenotype or early diagnostic marker of autism is a conceptual premise which should be considered in future investigations. At the end of the review, methodological recommendations on the assessment of postural control have also been provided.

  8. An international survey on the current use of electroacupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, David; Bovey, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Despite many research publications, it is unclear how widely electroacupuncture (EA) and related modalities are used in everyday practice. It is also uncertain who uses them, for what conditions, and with what results. We aimed to survey practitioners about their use of and training in EA. We also sought to determine how much the open-access English-language database at http://www.electroacupunctureknowledge.com (EAK) is used, or might be used in the future, if updated. A survey was developed using several rounds of consultation with a focus group and others. Professional acupuncture membership organisations were contacted to assess their willingness to notify their members. The survey was tested before its launch. Thirty-four professional organisations agreed to participate, together with two research bodies and six UK training institutes. Potentially, around 50 000 professionals practising acupuncture knew about the survey, to which there were 768 responses. Data were analysed for respondent demographics. Around 70% used EA, but <25% used related electrotherapy modalities. Men were more likely than women to use more than one modality. Only around 7% of respondents used non-traditional acupuncture modalities without prior training. However, awareness and usage of the EAK database was low, although around 80% of respondents stated they might use the database in the future, primarily to improve clinical practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest survey on EA and related modalities ever conducted. As such, its results are likely to be of interest to acupuncture and other practitioners (whether or not they use EA), patients, policymakers, and funding agencies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Continuous improvement in The Netherlands: a survey-based study into current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, H.G.A.; op de Weegh, S.; Gieskes, J.F.B.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous Improvement (CI) is a well-known and consolidated concept in management literature and practice, and is considered vital in today's business environment. In 2003, a survey, which is part of the international CINet survey, was conducted in The Netherlands in order to gain insight into

  10. An Australian survey of current practice regarding radiation treatment records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manderson, C.; Berry, M.; Gebski, V [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Dept of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-01

    Thirty one Radiation Oncology Departments were surveyed to assess the structure and content of their external photon beam treatment sheets. A master index of standard data items was compiled from previously published recommendations and the frequency of recording these items was tabulated. A wide variation in practice was observed. The data highlights the need for agreed common data recording for quality assurance, outcome analysis and participation in clinical trials. 4 tabs.

  11. Corrective shoes for children: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staheli, L T; Giffin, L

    1980-01-01

    A survey of shoe-prescribing practices for children was taken among pediatricians, orthopaedists, pediatric orthopaedists, and podiatrists. Opinions differed significantly regarding the usefulness of shoe modifications for common pediatric lower limb and foot problems. Parents' attitudes toward children's shoes were also surveyed. Pediatricians and pediatric orthopaedists tended to prescribe corrective shoes less often than did orthopaedists and podiatrists. High topped shoes are not necessary to promote normal foot development, in the opinion of 85% of those surveyed; however, high topped shoes were often recommended for infants because they slip off less easily. Preferences for Thomas heels, scaphoid pads, reverse lasts, straight lasts, wedges, torque heels, and shoe lifts for problems including flexible flat feet, metatarsus adductus, intoeing, bow legs, knock knees, and leg length inequalities were delineated among the four groups treating children's feet. The authors conclude that whereas studies show that shoe modifications are of questionable value in the problems discussed, corrective shoes are often prescribed when regular shoes would be more appropriate and economical.

  12. The effect of physical activity on mood - a review of current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Łakomski, Mateusz; Pietsch, Julia; Chłystek, Joanna; Abramczyk, Agata; Golus, Anna; Zukow, Walery

    2017-01-01

    Łakomski Mateusz, Pietsch Julia, Chłystek Joanna, Abramczyk Agata, Golus Anna, Zukow Walery. The effect of physical activity on mood - a review of current literature. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):807-815. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.822432 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4581 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.201...

  13. Does thimerosal or other mercury exposure increase the risk for autism? A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews current literature regarding the association of the pharmaceutical preservative thimerosal and other mercury exposures with the risk for autism. The evidence presented here does not support a causal association between autism and mercury exposure from the preservative thimerosal. The risk for autism from other mercury exposures such as from dental amalgam restorations or environmental mercury release into the atmosphere is ambiguous. Since mercury is a known neurotoxin, more research should be done to ensure that mercury exposure from any source does not contribute to autism.

  14. The Ethics of Computing: A Survey of the Computing-OrientedLiterature

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Timmermans, Job; Mittelstadt, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Computing technologies and artifacts are increasingly integrated intomost aspects of our professional, social, and private lives. One consequence of this growing ubiquity of computing is that it can have significant ethical implications that computing professionals need to be aware of. The relationship between ethics and computing has long been discussed. However, this is the first comprehensive survey of the mainstream academic literature of the topic. Based on a detailed qualitative analysi...

  15. Toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products: A literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority`s Environmental Research Center has been developing a means of detoxifying atrazine waste waters using TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. The toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products will probably be required information in obtaining permits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the demonstration of any photocatalytic treatment of atrazine waste waters. The following report is a literature survey of the toxicological and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products.

  16. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  17. Literature Survey on Technical Issues and Insights of Multi-Unit PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sejin; Park, Soyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The need consider the risk impact in case of multi-unit in a single site increased after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. This means that we have to consider the single-unit initiators impacting the other units and the simultaneous accidents of the multi-unit on the same site. Particularly, this kind of technical concern is serious in case of the Republic of Korea where multi-units had to be located in high-density population area due to geographical features. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) in the Republic of Korea has been trying to identify the state of the art of international and domestic regulations and techniques on multi-unit risk assessment and planning the road map for the safety researches. However, we have to say that finding a common accepted methodology along with safety criteria for multi-unit PSA was not an easy task up to now. This paper summarizes and analyzes related international and domestic journals' papers, conferences' papers and reports about the multi-unit PSA classifying categories with themes to understand the technical tendency of multi-unit PSA. In addition, some insights that were obtained from this classification have been arranged too. This paper investigated the technical trend of the multi-unit PSA as collecting of the international and domestic journals' papers, conferences papers and reports, and analyzing them. Upon the literature survey, a few statistics, technical issues, and insights were summarized. Both of the fundamental and practical researches need to find a globally accepted methodology to calculate and determine quantitative objectives for a multi-unit PSA. We want to expect that this paper can be shared to understand the current status of multi-unit PSA.

  18. Posterior fossa syndrome in adults: a new case and comprehensive survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; De Smet, Hyo Jung; Wijgerde, Ellen; Verhoeven, Jo; Crols, Roel; De Deyn, Peter P

    2013-01-01

    Although the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) can be considered as an aetiologically heterogeneous condition affecting children and adults, it most often occurs in paediatric patients after cerebellar tumour surgery. In patients with a tumoural aetiology, the syndrome is typically characterised by a short symptom-free postoperative period followed by mutism of variable duration and behavioural and affective changes. More than 200 paediatric cases have been described but reports of adult patients are extremely rare. This paper discusses PFS in adults on the basis of a comprehensive literature survey and describes the pre- and postoperative findings in a new adult patient. In the preoperative phase, cognitive, behavioural and affective abnormalities were identified, matching a diagnosis of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) (Schmahmann and Sherman, 1998; Schmahmann, 2004). The immediate postoperative course was characterised by prefrontal-like behavioural and affective abnormalities, peduncular hallucinations and confusion evolving to psychosis. Akinetic mutism subsequently developed, lasted for 12 days and then alternated with episodes of diminished responsiveness in which pathological laughing and crying (PLC) occurred. Akinetic mutism resolved after treatment with a non-ergoline dopamine-agonist but CCAS persisted during longitudinal follow-up. From a semiological point of view "relapsing-remitting akinetic mutism" and PLC in our patient might add relevant information to current insights in the clinical expression of the PFS. As evidenced by a close parallelism between single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and clinical findings, CCAS as well as PFS seem to reflect functional disruption of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in cognitive, behavioural and affective functions. These findings may indicate that both syndromes share overt semiological resemblances and a common pathophysiological substrate. Consequently, CCAS and PFS may both

  19. Use of Buprenorphine in treatment of refractory depression-A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Cornel N; Glass, Oliver M; Penders, Thomas M

    2017-04-01

    Current treatment strategies for depressive disorders have limited efficacy, leaving many patients unimproved or with significant residual symptoms. The development of additional treatments represent a significant unmet need for providers. Several lines of evidence suggest that the opioid system may be involved in regulation of mood and incentives salience. Intervention based on modifying central opioid receptors may represent a novel approach to treatment of depressive disorders among those unresponsive to accepted treatments. We searched the English language literature using keywords: Buprenorphine AND Major Depression; Buprenorphine AND Bipolar Depression; Buprenorphine AND Affective Disorders. Use of low dose buprenorphine as augmentation of pharmacotherapy for depression has shown promise in several reported studies. Effect size of available randomized controlled studies is comparable if not greater than most accepted augmentation strategies. Review of available literature on the use of buprenorphine in individuals with treatment resistant depression demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of depressive disorders. Further prospective randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of buprenorphine as an adjunct for depression refractory to current pharmacotherapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Materials and Methods: We searched the published English literature and the PubMed (TM for published series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′ (RPN using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Results: The search yielded 15 major selected series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s, as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. Conclusions: RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T 1 renal neoplasm(s. It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.

  1. Survey of Current Practice of Labour Analgesia Among Obstetricians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Labour pain has been described as the worst possible pain known to mankind. It is more excruciating than cancer pain, phantom pain or toothache. Failure to relieve pain of any cause has been regarded as a violation of fundamental human rights. This study aimed to evaluate the current obstetrics analgesia practice ...

  2. Current management of anorectal malformation in Egypt: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 82 responses represent 74.5% of the 110 fully-trained pediatric surgeons currently working in Egypt. Sixty-one (74.4 %) of responders used invertogram for preoperative diagnosis of ARM. A further seven (8.5%) combined invertogram with perineal ultrasonography or MRI. The remaining 14 (17.1%) used either perineal ...

  3. Periscopic Survey of Current Library and Information Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is theoretical, more of a firsthand experience of what the author has observed as the current trends in Nigerian library and information science education and practice. The trends observed are increased ICT component in library schools curricula, increasing resort to the use of ICTs, which has also given rise to the ...

  4. Survey of Digital Feedback Systems in High Current Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-06-06

    In the last decade demand for brightness in synchrotron light sources and luminosity in circular colliders led to construction of multiple high current storage rings. Many of these new machines require feedback systems to achieve design stored beam currents. In the same time frame the rapid advances in the technology of digital signal processing allowed the implementation of these complex feedback systems. In this paper I concentrate on three applications of feedback to storage rings: orbit control in light sources, coupled-bunch instability control, and low-level RF control. Each of these applications is challenging in areas of processing bandwidth, algorithm complexity, and control of time-varying beam and system dynamics. I will review existing implementations as well as comment on promising future directions.

  5. Health informatics in UK Medical Education: an online survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Sarah; Taylor, Paul; Banerjee, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Health informatics has growing importance in clinical practice with successive General Medical Council recommendations. However, prior data suggest that undergraduate medical education largely neglects this area. An up-to-date, UK-wide view of health informatics training in medical schools is required. An online survey was developed using current guidance and recommendations of UK professional bodies. Senior academic staff and health informatics educators at all 34 UK medical schools were invited to complete the survey. Quantitative and qualitative data regarding health informatics in the undergraduate medical curriculum. A total of 26/34 (76%) of UK medical schools responded and 23 provided full information. Aspects most frequently mentioned were literature searching and research governance. Seventeen per cent of respondents felt there was little or no HI training, although clinical record keeping was addressed by all medical schools. Pedagogies used to teach health informatics were self-directed learning (78%) to lecture based (70%), seminars (70%), informal teaching in clinical settings (57%) and problem-based learning (22%). Health informatics was usually integrated vertically and horizontally across the curriculum (76%). Assessment and updates of the health informatics curriculum are limited (57 and 41%, respectively). Thirty-two per cent of respondents reported a low level of confidence among students to use health informatics as doctors. In the most up-to-date survey of health informatics teaching in UK medical schools, there are three major findings. First, the proportion of health informatics in the medical undergraduate curriculum is low. Second, there was variation in content, pedagogy and timing across medical schools. Third, health informatics is rarely assessed and course content is not regularly updated. There is a role for national guidelines and further research in this area of the curriculum which is rapidly gaining in prominence.

  6. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of “semantically-ambiguous words” (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution. PMID:24889119

  7. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-02-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of "semantically-ambiguous words" (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution.

  8. The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal marijuana has already been legalized in over 23 states with more considering legalization. Despite the trend toward legalization, to date, there has been no systematic review of the existing literature for the efficacy of medicinal marijuana for many of the conditions for which it is proposed to treat. This study seeks to understand the current literature regarding the use of medicinal marijuana in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched until April 2014 for articles outlining outcomes of case files, control studies, and observational studies regarding the efficacy of medicinal marijuana in treating PTSD. Various combinations of the following search terms were used: marijuana, medicinal marijuana, cannabis, cannabinoid, PTSD, efficacy, trial, and neurobiology. Full text of each article was reviewed, and those directly addressing the question of efficacy of medicinal marijuana on PTSD symptomatology were included. Data were extracted from a total of 46 articles. Analysis revealed that most reports are correlational and observational in basis with a notable lack of randomized, controlled studies. Many of the published studies suggest a decrease in PTSD symptoms with marijuana use. Though the directionality of cannabis use and PTSD could not be fully differentiated at this time, there appears to also be a correlation between PTSD and problematic cannabis use. Despite this finding, there is a growing amount of neurobiological evidence and animal studies suggesting potential neurologically based reasons for the reported efficacy. Posttraumatic stress disorder is 1 of the approved conditions for medicinal marijuana in some states. While the literature to date is suggestive of a potential decrease in PTSD symptomatology with the use of medicinal marijuana, there is a notable lack of large-scale trials, making any final conclusions difficult to confirm at this time.

  9. Survey on current hydrotherapy use among North American burn centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Peter G; Loiselle, Frederick B; Nickerson, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The authors have reviewed hydrotherapy practices in North American burn centers and described the epidemiology of hydrotherapy-associated nosocomial infections. A web-based survey was distributed to the directors of all burn care facilities listed by the American Burn Association. Questions addressed aspects of practice, including the method, additives, disposable liners, decontamination practices, nosocomial pathogens, and perceptions regarding the "ideal" method of hydrotherapy. The response rate was 44%, 59 of 142 centers, or 827 of 1900 beds. Hydrotherapy is regularly used by 83% of centers. Among these centers, 10% use exclusively immersion hydrotherapy (IH), 54% use exclusively shower cart hydrotherapy (SCH), and 35% use a combination of IH and SCH. Disposable liners are used at 80% of centers. Tap water alone is used by 51% of centers, 27% add detergent, 16% chlorhexidine, and 7% povidone-iodine. The majority of centers (57%) do not routinely culture their hydrotherapy equipment, 20% culture weekly, 7% monthly, and 17% less than once per month. Directors believe that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus are the most common nosocomial pathogens, followed by Acinetobacter species and Candida albicans. The relative frequency of occurrence of the first three pathogens did not vary with regard to the hydrotherapy method used. Given the opportunity to redesign, 45% of burn unit directors would implement SCH only, 42% a combination of SCH and IH, 2% exclusively IH, and 11% no hydrotherapy or bedside irrigation only. The prevalence of hydrotherapy use at North American burn centers has decreased since 1990 (83% vs 95%), yet continues to be used at the majority of centers. The use of IH has also declined (55% vs 81%). The trend away from the exclusive use of IH will likely continue, because more centers incorporate showering methods.

  10. Genetic testing in ALS: A survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alice; McLaughlin, Russell L; Heverin, Mark; Thorpe, Owen; Abrahams, Sharon; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-03-07

    To determine the degree of consensus among clinicians on the clinical use of genetic testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the factors that determine decision-making. ALS researchers worldwide were invited to participate in a detailed online survey to determine their attitudes and practices relating to genetic testing. Responses from 167 clinicians from 21 different countries were analyzed. The majority of respondents (73.3%) do not consider that there is a consensus definition of familial ALS (FALS). Fifty-seven percent consider a family history of frontotemporal dementia and 48.5% the presence of a known ALS genetic mutation as sufficient for a diagnosis of FALS. Most respondents (90.2%) offer genetic testing to patients they define as having FALS and 49.4% to patients with sporadic ALS. Four main genes (SOD1, C9orf72, TARDBP, and FUS) are commonly tested. A total of 55.2% of respondents would seek genetic testing if they had personally received a diagnosis of ALS. Forty-two percent never offer presymptomatic testing to family members of patients with FALS. Responses varied between ALS specialists and nonspecialists and based on the number of new patients seen per year. There is a lack of consensus among clinicians as to the definition of FALS. Substantial variation exists in attitude and practices related to genetic testing of patients and presymptomatic testing of their relatives across geographic regions and between experienced specialists in ALS and nonspecialists. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  11. The current state of Lean implementation in health care: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksinska, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current state of implementation of Lean production in health care. The study focuses on the definition of Lean in health care and implementation process, barriers, challenges, enablers, and outcomes of implementing Lean production methods in health care. A comprehensive search of the literature concerning the implementation of Lean production in health care was used to generate a synthesis of the literature around the chosen research questions. Lean production in health care is mostly used as a process improvement approach and focuses on 3 main areas: (1) defining value from the patient point of view, (2) mapping value streams, and (3) eliminating waste in an attempt to create continuous flow. Value stream mapping is the most frequently applied Lean tool in health care. The usual implementation steps include conducting Lean training, initiating pilot projects, and implementing improvements using interdisciplinary teams. One of the barriers is lack of educators and consultants who have their roots in the health care sector and can provide support by sharing experience and giving examples from real-life applications of Lean in health care. The enablers of Lean in health care seem not to be different from the enablers of any other change initiative. The outcomes can be divided into 2 broad areas: the performance of the health care system and the development of employees and work environment.

  12. Routine Drainage of Colorectal Anastomoses: An Evidence-Based Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Hany Emile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of prophylactic drainage after colorectal anastomoses has been long debated. This report aimed to review the current literature discussing routine drainage of colorectal anastomoses highlighting two opposite perspectives (prodrainage and antidrainage to demonstrate the clinical utility of prophylactic drainage and its proper indications. Methods. An organized literature search was conducted querying electronic databases and Google Scholar. Articles evaluating the role of routine prophylactic drainage after colorectal anastomosis were included and divided into two categories: articles supporting the use of drains (prodrainage and articles disputing routine drainage (antidrainage. Results. There were seven systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses, one Cochrane review, one randomized controlled trial, and six prospective or retrospective cohort studies. Six studies supported prophylactic drainage of colorectal anastomoses; the quality of these studies ranged between grade II and IV. Nine studies recommended against the use of prophylactic drainage, six studies were grade I, one was grade II, and two were grade IV. Conclusion. Since level I evidence studies including well-designed randomized trials and meta-analyses recommended against the use of pelvic drainage as a routine practice after colorectal anastomoses, we conclude no significant impact of routine drainage on the risk of anastomotic leakage after colorectal anastomoses.

  13. Mindfulness interventions in the workplace: A critique of the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Stephanie D; Tuckey, Michelle R

    2017-04-01

    There is growing research interest regarding the significance of mindfulness in the workplace. Within this body of knowledge, research investigating the effects of mindfulness interventions on employee health and well-being has strong practical implications for organizations. A sound understanding of the current state of the workplace mindfulness intervention literature will help inform the suitability of these interventions within the workplace domain, and how to improve the conduct and communication of intervention-oriented research. Accordingly, in this article, we systematically review 40 published articles of mindfulness interventions in the workplace to identify ways in which these interventions could be improved, and how to overcome methodological concerns that threaten study validity. Studies selected for review were published peer-reviewed, primary empirical research studies written in English, with a focus on a workplace mindfulness intervention. We discuss a range of issues evident within this body of literature, including conceptualizations of mindfulness; the adaptation of protocols to work settings; internal validity in relation to random allocation and control conditions; the use of manipulation checks; attrition, adherence, acceptability, and maintenance of interventions; utilizing objective cognitive measures; examining organizational and well-being outcomes; and establishing boundary conditions. Overall, this review provides a resource to inform scholars to advance this line of inquiry and practitioners who are considering implementing a mindfulness intervention for employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  15. Current Debates on Variability in Child Welfare Decision-Making: A Selected Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Keddell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers selected drivers of decision variability in child welfare decision-making and explores current debates in relation to these drivers. Covering the related influences of national orientation, risk and responsibility, inequality and poverty, evidence-based practice, constructions of abuse and its causes, domestic violence and cognitive processes, it discusses the literature in regards to how each of these influences decision variability. It situates these debates in relation to the ethical issue of variability and the equity issues that variability raises. I propose that despite the ecological complexity that drives decision variability, that improving internal (within-country decision consistency is still a valid goal. It may be that the use of annotated case examples, kind learning systems, and continued commitments to the social justice issues of inequality and individualisation can contribute to this goal.

  16. Primary cardiac sarcoma: reports of two cases and a review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Isaac

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary cardiac sarcomas are rare tumors with an unfavourable prognosis. Complete surgical resection is currently the only mode of therapy proven to show any benefit. We report the cases of two patients presenting with features of obstruction and embolism and a presumed diagnosis of left atrial myxoma. At operation they were unexpectedly found to have large tumours raising strong suspicions of malignancy. Due to the extensive involvement of intracardiac structures with little possibility of reconstruction together with poor general condition of the patient, debulking was deemed to be the only viable option. Subsequent histology confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoma in both patients. Surgery produced immediate and effective symptom relief. The first patient died four months after the operation and second patient is still alive at 12 months after her operation. A brief review of literature on cardiac sarcoma is presented.

  17. Treatment of pediculosis capitis: a critical appraisal of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Hermann

    2014-10-01

    Pediculosis capitis is the most common ectoparasitic disease in children in industrialized countries and extremely common in resource-poor communities of the developing world. The extensive use of pediculicides with a neurotoxic mode of action has led to the development and spread of resistant head lice populations all over the world. This triggered the development of compounds with other modes of action. The current literature on treatment approaches of head lice infestation was searched, and published randomized controlled trials were critically analyzed. The following compounds/family of compounds were identified: spinosad, a novel compound with a new neurotoxic mode of action, isopropyl myristate, 1,2-octanediol, ivermectin, plant-based products, and dimeticones. The efficacy and safety of these compounds are reviewed and recommendations for the treatment of pediculosis capitis in individuals as well as the interruption of ongoing epidemics are provided.

  18. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis: Current criteria for diagnosis and differentiation (Clinical case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Mendelevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a 44-year-old male patient with an about 6-year history of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. The major clinical symptoms were characterized by headache, exophthalmos, and blindness in one eye. The data for differential diagnosis of the disease are given. The current literature on the clinical manifestations of hypertrophic pachymeningitis, its differential diagnosis, and the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is reviewed. Diagnostic difficulties at the stage of a clinical observation are due to the nonspecificity of neurological manifestations and the need for a comprehensive examination to detect a somatic disease. MRI can diagnose the disease-specific phenomenon of damage to the meninges, which calls for further careful differentiation. Clinicians must be familiar with alternative differential diagnosis, as a rapid specific therapeutic approach will help avoid long-term or irreversible neurological complications.

  19. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Finnegan, Michelle; Hooks, Todd; Grieve, Rob

    2016-10-01

    This edition of the overview of the current myofascial pain literature includes 24 studies, case reports and systematic and narrative reviews. Surprisingly, five of the 24 papers were difficult to read and interpret mostly because of a poor mastery of the English language. It is somewhat surprising that journal editors and reviewers would accept papers that are needlessly difficult to read and not direct the authors to language services or others who could improve the quality of the writings. Of course, it is exciting that researchers and clinicians from all over the world continue to focus on myofascial pain and attempt to shed new light on the complexity of the problem to improve the clinical decision-making process and eventually clinical approaches and outcomes. There were no new papers on manual therapies, but many focused on dry needling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Sarcopenia on Survival and Complications in Surgical Oncology: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOGLEKAR, SAVITA; NAU, PETER N.; MEZHIR, JAMES J.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the subclinical loss of skeletal muscle and strength and has been extensively studied in both the cancer and surgical literature. Specifically, sarcopenia has gained significant recognition as an important prognostic factor for both complications and survival in cancer patients. Herein, we review the current literature to date highlighting the specific impact of sarcopenia in patients undergoing oncologic procedures. PMID:26310812

  1. An Investigation of the Variety and Complexity of Statistical Methods Used in Current Internal Medicine Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Roshni; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines require internal medicine residents to develop skills in the interpretation of medical literature and to understand the principles of research. A necessary component is the ability to understand the statistical methods used and their results, material that is not an in-depth focus of most medical school curricula and residency programs. Given the breadth and depth of the current medical literature and an increasing emphasis on complex, sophisticated statistical analyses, the statistical foundation and education necessary for residents are uncertain. We reviewed the statistical methods and terms used in 49 articles discussed at the journal club in the Department of Internal Medicine residency program at Texas Tech University between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. We collected information on the study type and on the statistical methods used for summarizing and comparing samples, determining the relations between independent variables and dependent variables, and estimating models. We then identified the typical statistics education level at which each term or method is learned. A total of 14 articles came from the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 11 from the New England Journal of Medicine, 6 from the Annals of Internal Medicine, 5 from the Journal of the American Medical Association, and 13 from other journals. Twenty reported randomized controlled trials. Summary statistics included mean values (39 articles), category counts (38), and medians (28). Group comparisons were based on t tests (14 articles), χ2 tests (21), and nonparametric ranking tests (10). The relations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed with simple regression (6 articles), multivariate regression (11), and logistic regression (8). Nine studies reported odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and seven analyzed test performance using sensitivity and specificity calculations

  2. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  3. Physics behind the magnetic hysteresis loop--a survey of misconceptions in magnetism literature

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, H W F

    2003-01-01

    An extensive survey of misinterpretations and misconceptions concerning presentation of the hysteresis loop for ferromagnetic materials occurring in undergraduate textbooks has recently been carried out. As a follow-up, this article provides similar examples, now drawn from recent magnetism literature. The distinction between the two notions of 'coercivity' referred to the B vs. H curve and the M vs. H curve, which turn out to be often confused in textbooks is elucidated. Various misinterpretations and conceptual problems revealed by our survey of recent magnetism-related scientific journals are summarized. In order to counteract the misinterpretations in question, some real examples of hysteresis loops showing the correct characteristics have also been identified in this search. Various ways of presenting units for the same physical quantity, i.e. the SI or cgs units as well as both units mixed, have been revealed in the regular articles. This is a worrying factor, which calls for a concerted action at the l...

  4. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thobekani Lose; Zinzi Nxopo; Eugine Maziriri; Welcome Madinga

    2016-01-01

    .... However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses...

  5. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  6. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  7. Intercultural Communicative Competence: A Brief Review of Current Thinking and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kermani Kojour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to review current thinking and understanding of the issue of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC especially in foreign language education contexts. There are serious stances on the part of scholars in foreign language contexts, which must be given some serious thinking and consideration in order to uncover the hidden agendas regarding ICC. After all, it seems still unclear in English as a Foreign Language (EFL contexts whether to try to improve the way of thinking regarding the perspective of current intercultural communicative competence, whether there should be a separation of the cultural values from the target language and only integrate language learners’ native culture with the target language. Given the development of technology and globalization, what is the right thing to do? This is a serious issue which needs much attention and contemplation by the interested scholars. By presenting the existing gaps in the literature, the paper maneuvers on the challenging notes on benefiting from culture in English Language Teaching (ELT and, on the other hand, dividing language and culture by merely elaborating on the communicative aspect of language learning and teaching. The study puts the audience into question that although recent views are focusing on taking English as an international means of communication, there exist serious beliefs regarding the separation of language and culture, which demands more thinking and probably serious revisions.

  8. Tibial shaft fractures - management and treatment options. A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, G; Strohm, P C; Südkamp, N P; Hammer, T O

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of tibial shaft fractures is still discussed controversial. In the present study current literature was reviewed with the objective to demonstrate current recommendations concerning tibial shaft fractures. Tibial shaft fractures are often caused by high-energy trauma with severe concomitant soft-tissue injuries. Solid bone union without hypertrophy, fast mobilization and full range of motion without further soft-tissue damages are the aims of the therapy. Non-displaced tibial shaft fractures in patients with good compliance can be treated conservatively. Deep venous thrombosis, compartment syndrome, soft tissue injury and chronic regional pain syndrome are the major risks of conservative treatment and need to be required. Operative treatment can be performed with several different implants. Intramedullary nailing with a huge biomechanical stability seems to be the implant of choice. Only rare indications for plate osteosynthesis can be found. The use of external fixation has declined even though external fixation is still the implant of choice in first line treatment of multiple trauma according to the damage control principles. Open fractures with precarious blood supply and weak soft tissue covering are vulnerable to complications and remain a challenge for every treating surgeon. Reconstruction of axis, length and rotation is essential for a good outcome. The choice of technique depends on fracture localization, type of fracture, history of concomitant disorders and soft tissue damage.

  9. Mindfulness-based mobile applications: literature review and analysis of current features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; García-Campayo, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria-a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of "walking meditation," and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools (17/108, 15.7%), audio tracks (15/108, 13

  10. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd; Layton, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The number of publications about myofascial pain and trigger points (TrP) seems to increase every year. In the current overview we include 27 articles published in past months. The Basic Review section includes articles about the presence and characteristics of TrPs in various neck and shoulder muscles, the correlation between referred pain from active TrPs and knee osteoarthritis, and an anatomical study exploring whether the location of TrPs may be related to the nerve innervation of muscles. Zuil-Escobar and colleagues from Spain considered the intra-rater reliability of the identification of latent TrPs in several leg muscles and the possible correlation of TrP and the presence of a lower medial longitudinal arch. In the section on manual approaches, contributing author Rob Grieve and colleagues continue their studies of TrPs in the lower extremity muscles, while Méndez-Rebolledo and colleagues studied the impact of cross taping and compression. Dry needling (DN) continues to be a topic of interest. We included twelve papers addressing a wide range of topics, such as the effectiveness and safety of DN, and the impact of DN on proprioception, spasticity, and fibromyalgia. Two papers investigated the utilization of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and laser on TrPs, The final section on other clinical studies and reviews includes 8 papers. The studies originated in thirteen different countries with Spain leading the charts with 7 contributions to the literature, followed by Brazil with four. As we have mentioned in previous editions of this literature overview, many studies suffer from very small sample sizes, which makes it difficult to reach definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, myofascial pain continues to be a topic of interest to researchers and clinicians around the globe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Opioid and Benzodiazepine Weaning in Pediatric Patients: Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Norman E; Plake, Kimberly S

    2017-11-01

    Pediatric opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal are avoidable complications of pain and sedation management that is well described in the literature. To prevent withdrawal from occurring, practitioners regularly use a steady decrease of pain and sedation medications, also known as a weaning or tapering schedule. The weaning schedule is highly variable based on clinician preference and is usually dependent on the clinician. The purposes of this review are to evaluate the current literature on the process of opioid and benzodiazepine weaning in pediatric patients and to assess the various standardized protocols used to decrease withdrawal occurrences. We conducted a search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Academic Search Premier, and PsycInfo databases. Studies were included if they described a wean or taper in pediatric patients aged 18 years or younger. Studies describing neonatal abstinence syndrome were excluded from the review. A total of 97 studies published between 2000 and 2014 were retrieved; of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated for selection of withdrawal assessment tool, wean protocol summary, preferred weaning agents, benzodiazepine withdrawal, and wean-at-home regimen. The most common opioid-weaning protocol approaches described a 10-20% dose decrease per day. Benzodiazepine weaning was not regularly standardized or described. The use of a standardized opioid-weaning protocol reduced withdrawal rates compared with nonstandardized weaning plans. Benzodiazepine weaning was inconsistently evaluated and may have affected study outcomes. Identified areas of improvement include the use of newer withdrawal assessment tools validated in the older pediatric population and standardized withdrawal assessment and reporting. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  12. GLOBEC NEP Northern California Current Cetacean Survey Data, NH0005, 0007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Northern California Current Cetacean Survey Data from R/V New Horizon cruises NH0005 and 0007....

  13. The transmision of values in literature. From oral tradition to the current LIJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etxaniz, X.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As Calvino said, literature is an instrument for society’s self-consciousness, but at the same time, literature transfers some values. From the oral traditional literature up to nowadays literature, some ideas and values have been shaping the reader’s education. For that reason, the work of mediators is very important in order to promote critical thought and ethical consciousness.

  14. A Survey of Current and Projected Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Michael T.; Cartwright, Brenda Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study surveyed current and projected ethical dilemmas of rehabilitation counselors. Method: As a mixed-methods approach, the study used both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results: Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 116 (55.0%) reported an ethical dilemma. Based on the descriptions, common themes involved roles…

  15. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  16. Weathering characteristics of potential solar reflector materials: a survey of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, H.L.; Lind, M.A.

    1978-09-01

    A review of the available literature on the weatherability/durability of materials with possible applications in solar reflectors is summarized. A number of techniques used to weather solar materials are reviewed. These include both natural and simulated weathering. Little correlation has been shown to exist between natural and accelerated weathering, and much work needs to be done before results of accelerated aging tests can be used with confidence to predict material lifetimes under outdoors exposure conditions. Some of the techniques used to measure or monitor material degradation are discussed. Emphasis in the literature has been placed chiefly on mechanical properties or appearance oriented measurements. The need is apparent for more detailed optical measurements of materials properties that are directly useful in engineering design. Although a great deal of literature is available on the materials described in the survey, there is very little solid data on the properties important for solar applications. A brief discussion of some of the applicable data on polymeric materials and glass is presented and referenced. The importance of cleaning solar materials is emphasized and some attempts at modeling degradation are discussed.

  17. Efficacy of antiviral chemotherapy for retrovirus-infected cats: What does the current literature tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-11-01

    The two feline retroviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), are global and widespread, but differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV, a lentivirus that shares many properties with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can cause an acquired immune deficiency syndrome, which predisposes cats to other infections, stomatitis, neurological disorders and tumours. Although secondary infections are common, specific opportunistic infections or acquired immunodeficiency virus-defining infections, such as those that occur with HIV, are not commonly reported in FIV-infected cats. In most naturally infected cats, FIV does not cause a severe clinical syndrome; with appropriate care, FIV-infected cats can live many years before succumbing to conditions unrelated to their FIV infection. Thus, overall survival time is not necessarily shorter than in uninfected cats, and quality of life is usually high over many years or lifelong. FeLV, an oncornavirus, is more pathogenic than FIV. Historically, it was considered to account for more disease-related deaths and clinical syndromes in cats than any other infectious agent. Recently, the prevalence and importance of FeLV have been decreasing, mainly because of testing and eradication programmes and the use of FeLV vaccines. Progressive FeLV infection can cause tumours, bone marrow suppression and immunosuppression, as well as neurological and other disorders, and leads to a decrease in life expectancy. However, with appropriate care, many FeLV-infected cats can also live several years with a good quality of life. A decision regarding treatment or euthanasia should never be based solely on the presence or absence of a retrovirus infection. Antiviral chemotherapy is of increasing interest in veterinary medicine, but is still not used commonly. This article reviews the current literature on antiviral chemotherapy in retrovirus-infected cats, focusing on drugs that are currently available on the

  18. Nasogastric tube placement and verification in children: review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Sharon Y; Lyman, Beth; Northington, LaDonna; Bartlett, Jacqueline A; Kemper, Carol

    2014-06-01

    Placement of a nasogastric enteral access device (NG-EAD), often referred to as a nasogastric tube, is common practice and largely in the domain of nursing care. Most often an NG-EAD is placed at the bedside without radiographic assistance. Correct initial placement and ongoing location verification are the primary challenges surrounding NG-EAD use and have implications for patient safety. Although considered an innocuous procedure, placement of an NG-EAD carries risk of serious and potentially lethal complications. Despite acknowledgment that an abdominal radiograph is the gold standard, other methods of verifying placement location are widely used and have success rates from 80% to 85%. The long-standing challenges surrounding bedside placement of NG-EADs and a practice alert issued by the Child Health Patient Safety Organization on this issue were the stimuli for the conception of The New Opportunities for Verification of Enteral Tube Location Project sponsored by the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Its mission is to identify and promote best practices with the potential of technology development that will enable accurate determination of NG-EAD placement for both the inpatient and outpatient pediatric populations. This article presents the challenges of bedside NG-EAD placement and ongoing location verification in children through an overview of the current state of the science. It is important for all health care professionals to be knowledgeable about the current literature, to be vigilant for possible complications, and to avoid complacency with NG-EAD placement and ongoing verification of tube location. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in fibrous dysplasia: A case report and review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole MD Riddle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicole MD Riddle1, Hideko Yamauchi2, Jamie T Caracciolo4, David Johnson2, G Douglas Letson2, Ardeshir Hakam1,3, Prudence V Smith1,2,3, Marilyn M Bui1,2,31Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Sarcoma, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, 4Department of Radiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USABackground: Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disease that has rare but clear potential for malignant transformation. The frequency is increased in polyostotic forms, McCune–Albright syndrome, Mazabraud’s syndrome, and previously irradiated sites. Rapidly progressing pain unrelated to trauma is the most concerning symptom. The early radiological features of sarcomatous transformation are moth-eaten or cystic areas of osteolysis, cortical destruction, and gradual formation of a soft tissue mass. The prognosis is unfavorable as most of the cases are in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.Methods: This case was diagnosed at a large cancer center in Florida. Pertinent clinical findings were obtained from chart review and inter-departmental consultation.Results: Histopathological examination revealed dysplastic lamellar bone with no osteoblastic rimming and “Chinese letter” shapes, areas composed of lobulated hyaline cartilage with mild to severe nuclear atypia, and areas of poorly differentiated cells with a spindled appearance, consistent with chondrosarcoma arising within fibrous dysplasia.Conclusions: Sarcomatous transformation of fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon occurrence, yet has significant importance for those with the disease. There may be difficulty with diagnosis given the symptoms and radiologic findings of benign fibrous dysplasia. We report a case of chondrosarcoma rising in fibrous dysplasia and review the current literature. This case is of interest due to the fact that the diagnosis of monostotic fibrous dysplasia was first made at the age of 59 and

  20. Planning the Minimum Time and Optimal Survey Trajectory for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in Uncertain Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Hurni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors develop an approach to a “best” time path for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles conducting oceanographic measurements under uncertain current flows. The numerical optimization tool DIDO is used to compute hybrid minimum time and optimal survey paths for a sample of currents between ebb and flow. A simulated meta-experiment is performed where the vehicle traverses the resulting paths under different current strengths per run. The fastest elapsed time emerges from a payoff table. A multi-objective function is then used to weigh the time to complete a mission versus measurement inaccuracy due to deviation from the desired survey path.

  1. Biomolecular corona on nanoparticles: a survey of recent literature and its implications in targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ryan M.; Juettner, Vanessa V.; Hong, Seungpyo

    2014-01-01

    Achieving controlled cellular responses of nanoparticles (NP) is critical for the successful development and translation of NP-based drug delivery systems. However, precise control over the physicochemical and biological properties of NPs could become convoluted, diminished, or completely lost as a result of the adsorption of biomolecules to their surfaces. Characterization of the formation of the “biomolecular” corona has thus received increased attention due to its impact on NP and protein structure as well as its negative effect on NP-based targeted drug delivery. This review presents a concise survey of the recent literature concerning the importance of the NP-biomolecule corona and how it can be utilized to improve the in vivo efficacy of targeted delivery systems. PMID:25506050

  2. Literature Survey of Copper Corrosion Modelling under Deep Geological Disposal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Kook, Dong-Hak; Lee, Min-Soo; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2008-03-15

    As a one of the solution for the spent nuclear fuel problem, deep repository research have been under way in KAERI. To raise the resistance against repository cask corrosion, copper canister was adopted for the outer material of the cask. Duration of the repository with million year order makes the copper corrosion research under the repository environment very important and the corrosion modelling which could trace the real world precisely and predict the corrosion behavior very well is subsequently necessary. With in progress of plan to manufacture unique copper cask corresponding to our country repository system, survey for the preceding research papers in recent research direction and kernel points is expected to significant. This paper arranged the representative literatures for the important corrosion mechanism which are recently published.

  3. The use of grey literature in health sciences: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberani, V; De Castro Pietrangeli, P; Mazza, A M

    1990-10-01

    The paper describes some initiatives in the field of grey literature (GL) and the activities, from 1985, of the Italian Library Association Study Group. The major categories of GL are defined; a survey that evaluates the use of GL by end users in the health sciences is described. References in selected periodicals and databases have been analyzed for the years 1987-1988 to determine the number of articles citing GL, the number of GL citations found in selected periodicals, the various types of GL found, and the number of technical reports cited and their country of origin and intergovernmental issuing organization. Selected databases were also searched to determine the presence of GL during those same years. The paper presents the first results obtained.

  4. The Mallory body: morphological, clinical and experimental studies (Part 1 of a literature survey)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    suggest a hit-and-run effect of alcohol, whereas other chronic liver diseases show evidence of gradual increase in prevalence of Mallory bodies with severity of hepatic pathology. Mallory bodies in cirrhosis do not imply alcoholic pathogenesis. Obesity, however, is associated with alcoholism and diabetes......, and Mallory bodies are only present in diabetic patients if alcoholism or obesity complicates the condition. In addition, case studies on diseases in which Mallory bodies have been identified, along with pharmacological side effects and experimental induction of Mallory bodies by various antimitotic......To aid understanding of markers of disease and predictors of outcome in alcohol-exposed systems, we undertook a literature survey of more than 700 articles to view the morphological characteristics and the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body. Mallory bodies are filaments...

  5. Biomolecular Corona on Nanoparticles: A Survey of Recent Literature and its Implications in Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Matthew Pearson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving controlled cellular responses of nanoparticles (NP is critical for the successful development and translation of NP-based drug delivery systems. However, precise control over the physicochemical and biological properties of NPs could become convoluted, diminished, or completely lost as a result of the adsorption of biomolecules to their surfaces. Characterization of the formation of the ‘biomolecular’ corona has thus received increased attention due to its impact on NP and protein structure as well as its negative effect on NP-based targeted drug delivery. This review presents a concise survey of the recent literature concerning the importance of the NP-biomolecule corona and how it can be utilized to improve the in vivo efficacy of targeted delivery systems.

  6. Biomolecular Corona on Nanoparticles: A Survey of Recent Literature and its Implications in Targeted Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ryan; Juettner, Vanessa; Hong, Seungpyo

    2014-11-01

    Achieving controlled cellular responses of nanoparticles (NP) is critical for the successful development and translation of NP-based drug delivery systems. However, precise control over the physicochemical and biological properties of NPs could become convoluted, diminished, or completely lost as a result of the adsorption of biomolecules to their surfaces. Characterization of the formation of the ‘biomolecular’ corona has thus received increased attention due to its impact on NP and protein structure as well as its negative effect on NP-based targeted drug delivery. This review presents a concise survey of the recent literature concerning the importance of the NP-biomolecule corona and how it can be utilized to improve the in vivo efficacy of targeted delivery systems.

  7. [Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation and Fast-track Rehabilitation after Knee Replacement: Faster, Better, Cheaper? A Survey and Systematic Review of Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quack, V; Ippendorf, A V; Betsch, M; Schenker, H; Nebelung, S; Rath, B; Tingart, M; Lüring, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of multidisciplinary rehabilitation after total knee replacement (TKA) is to reduce postoperative complications and costs and enable faster convalescence. The goals of fast-track rehabilitation, as a multidisciplinary concept, are to reduce the length of hospital stay and achieve early functional improvements by optimizing the perioperative setting. A literature review was carried out for the years 1960-2013. The search terms were: "rehabilitation", "training", "physiotherapy", "physical therapy", "recovery", "exercise program", "knee surgery", "TKA", "total knee replacement", "arthroplasty", "intensive", "multidisciplinary", "accelerated", "rapid" or "fast track". Only randomized controlled trials and metaanalyses were included. A survey was also performed to assess care as actually offered in orthopaedic rehabilitation clinics in North Rhine-Westphalia. A total of 729 articles were identified of which 11 studies were included. Fast-track rehabilitation can significantly reduce both the duration of hospital stay and costs after TKA. Current studies showed that a better short-/middle-term clinical outcome might be achieved with multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, a difference in the long-term outcome could not be observed. Our survey shows that most patients are admitted to a rehabilitation clinic in a state of poor general condition as well as decreased mobility and knee range of motion. Fast-track rehabilitation facilitates a shortened hospital stay as well as cost saving. It probably can be used to optimize the condition of the patient before admission to a rehabilitation facility. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps

  9. Social Work Literature Searching: Current Issues with Databases and Online Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; McQuilkan, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of a range of search facilities; and to illustrate the execution of a comprehensive literature search for qualitative evidence in social work. Context: Developments in literature search methods and comparisons of search facilities help facilitate access to the best available evidence for social workers.…

  10. Arthroscopic Treatment for Anterior Ankle Impingement: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, Ruben; Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Murawski, Christopher D.; Fraser, Ethan J.; Kennedy, John G.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2015-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic procedures used as a treatment strategy for anterior ankle impingement. A systematic literature search of the Medline, Embase (Classic), and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases was

  11. Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Bruce Eric

    This document reviews research concerning the factors affecting premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. Trends in the literature prior to 1980 are discussed briefly together with summaries of literature reviews from the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Studies from 1980 to the present are reviewed in some…

  12. MRCP vs. ERCP in the evaluation of biliary pathologies: review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoglu, Koray; Ustundag, Yucel; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Erdem, Zuhal; Karademir, Bulent; Aydemir, Selim; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2008-08-01

    Recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) techniques permit fast and correct imaging of the entire biliary tree with a high spatial resolution. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic potential of one of these new MR sequences in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) procedure and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with review of current literatures. A total of 295 patients were enrolled in this study prospectively. Of these, 11 were excluded from the study due to inadequate MRCP image quality and 15 more were excluded due to unsuccessful cannulation during ERCP. Thus, finally 269 patients (124 men and 145 women with a mean age of 57 years; range: 23-92 years) were included. The MRCP procedure was performed before the ERCP in all cases. All MRCP studies were performed with recently developed new MR technique using a heavily T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence. This TSE sequence is currently one of the most widely used multiplanar 3-D MR technique, having a high spatial resolution and fast imaging capacity. The study participants were classified into four main groups; normal into group I, stone disease into group II, tumor into group III and others into group IV. Group I consisted of 228 patients who had a normal pancreaticobiliary tree on both the MRCP and ERCP examinations. In group II there were 18 patients, for whom the MRCP had a 88.9% sensitivity and a 100% specificity for diagnosing biliary stone disease. Its positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy rates were 100%, 99.2% and 99.2%, respectively. The MRCP had a 100% sensitivity and a 100% specificity for 20 patients in group III. It also had 100% PPV, 100% NPV, and 100% total accuracy rates in this group. In three patients in group IV, the MRCP had a 100% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Its PPV, NPV and accuracy were 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. MRCP is used with increasing frequency as a non

  13. Diluent choice for subcutaneous infusion: a survey of the literature and Australian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Charne; McLeod, Fiona

    2005-02-01

    Continuous subcutaneous infusion is a method frequently used in palliative care to manage patient symptoms. To deliver the dose required and prevent subcutaneous sites from becoming inflamed and painful, the drug is often diluted in a solution, most commonly sterile water for injection or sodium chloride. The use of sterile water for injection has been recommended for cyclizine yet beyond this example there appears to be limited clinical direction regarding diluent selection. Inconsistency or lack of guidelines can be problematic if a diluent that may enhance the effectiveness of a drug compared with an alternate is not used because of lack of knowledge or guidance. This investigation considered existing literature, drug databases and directories, and involved a survey of palliative care services to examine evidence and experience relating to diluent selection. A number of inconsistencies emerged in both the literature and practice. With the exception of five drugs for which only saline was recommended, there appeared to be an inclination to use water unless contraindicated. Given an increasing reliance on this method of symptom management, the absence of formal clinical evidence or recommendations and ambiguity in relation to the use of diluents highlights the need for these deficits to be addressed as quickly as possible.

  14. Management accounting in supply chain management – literature review and survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Dobroszek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain management has been evolving at a rapid pace in economic practice as wellas in scientific research, mainly in the field of logistics and supply chains. It also constitutes a reference point for researchers specializing in accounting, especially in management accounting. As a result, in recent years there has been an increasing number of publications on this research in the world, including in Poland. So far, however, there is a lack of publications that would present comprehensively the aspects of management accounting in the context of supply chain management. Therefore, this article has the following research objective: identification of the degree of development of management accounting, in research and practice, for the purposes of supply chain management. As research methods were used:review of the content of scientific articles and surveys conducted among companies in Poland. The results of survey study and literature review revealed that the most frequently addressed issues in business and in theory include cost management and performance measurement using financial indicators. In the case of other issues addressed in the publications there are discrepancies between theory and business practice. In effect, this means the need to improve the communication and integration of these two dimensions in the context of implementation of management accounting tools and methods for supply chain management support. The results presented in the article could be the basis for further, in-depth research in this area.

  15. Determination of properties of fluids for solar-cooling applications. Literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podoll, R.T.

    1981-02-01

    A detailed literature search of the available thermodynamic data of proposed refrigerant/absorbent pairs and measurement of those data that are unmeasured or unreliable are reported. The data to be obtained for the pure fluids included: the critical temperature, pressure and volume; the vapor pressure curve; the latent heat of vaporization at the normal boiling point; the freezing point; the specific heat of the liquid and vapor; and the specific volumes of the saturated liquids and vapors. For the fluid mixtures, the data included the dew point and bubble point at four specified pressures plus the heats of mixing and specific heat at several solution compositions. Pure fluids surveyed included: ammonia, methylamine, ethylamine, chlorodifluoromethane (R-22), fluorodichloromethane (R-21), ethylene glycol, 1,4-Butanediol, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGDE), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N,N-dimethylhexanamide (DMH), N,N-dimethyldecanamide (DMD). Binary fluid mixtures surveyed included: ammonia/ethylene glycol; ammonia/1,4-butanediol; methylamine/ethylene glycol; methylamine/1,4-butanediol; ethylamine/ethylene glycol; ethylamine/1,4-butanediol; and R-22/ DGDE. (LEW)

  16. [Nursing and industry relations: literature review and conflicts of interest survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhausen, Thomas; Lins, Sabine; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Köpke, Sascha; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Langer, Gero; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Advanced competencies and tasks of nurses go along with an increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers in nurses as a marketing target. To identify nurses' attitudes, perceptions and behavior regarding industry and marketing strategies. 1) Systematic literature search in Medline via PubMed and CINAHL for international studies on nurses' conflict of interests towards pharmaceutical companies; 2) analysis of a survey with PhD students from two Nursing Science doctoral programs. The review including 16 publications published between 1999 and 2014 and the survey among 82 PhD students revealed comparable results. The majority of nurses already had contact with pharmaceutical companies. Nurses are often uncritical in their attitudes, and suggestibility is claimed to be low. The majority of nurses were not - or at least not sufficiently - provided with conflict of interest training, neither as part of their vocational training nor their continuing education. Conflict of interest seems to be an important topic for nurses. Increasing relevance in the future underpins the need for making nurses more sensitive towards this issue, especially through professional training programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Intracompartmental pressure testing: results of an international survey of current clinical practice, highlighting the need for standardised protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Matthew; Tierney, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Despite more recent non-invasive modalities generating some credence in the literature, intracompartmental pressure testing is still considered the 'gold standard' for investigating chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). Intracompartmental pressure testing, when used correctly, has been shown to be accurate and reliable. However, it is a user-dependent investigation, and the manner in which the investigation is conducted plays a large role in the outcome of the test. Despite this, a standard, reproducible protocol for intracompartmental pressure testing has not been described. This results in confusion regarding interpretation of results and reduces the tests' reliability. A summary of the current understanding of CECS is presented, along with the results of a survey of specialists in Australia and New Zealand who perform intracompartmental pressure testing, which confirms that a uniform approach is currently not used in clinical practice. This highlights the need for a consensus and standardised approach to intracompartmental pressure testing.

  18. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R., E-mail: rwklindsay@hotmail.co [Imaging Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Paterson, A. [Radiology Department, The Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Edgar, D. [Immunology Department, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  19. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work.

  20. What tools are available to identify patients with palliative care needs in primary care: a systematic literature review and survey of European practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Elke Arnoldina Theodora; Murray, Scott A; Engels, Yvonne; Campbell, Christine

    2013-12-01

    It can be difficult to identify when a palliative care approach should be started both in malignant, and particularly, in non-malignant disease, ideally to run alongside disease-modifying care. A structured method or tool may be useful to help general practitioners (GPs) identify patients for early palliative care and trigger assessment and care planning. To document what tools for identification of patients with palliative care needs are available in the published literature and to ascertain how GPs in Europe currently identify patients for palliative care. A systematic literature search using PubMed and Embase, and a questionnaire survey among key informants in 14 European countries requesting data on methods used to identify patients with palliative care needs. The literature search identified four tools. The questionnaire survey identified a further three in current use and found that in current practice identification is largely based on a GP's own clinical judgement and information received from the hospital: tools are rarely used. Although several identification tools have been developed, none of these have been validated or widely implemented in Europe. Further collaborative international development, implementation and evaluation of such tools are recommended.

  1. Types and Severity of Medication Errors in Iran; a Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Mansouri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%. Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3% reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations

  2. Types and severity of medication errors in Iran; a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ava; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Kargar, Mona; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2013-06-20

    Medication error (ME) is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID) up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English) were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%). Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3%) reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations. For gaining

  3. Sexuality Education and Implications for Quality of Care for Individuals with Adult Onset Disability: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseder, Kate; Webb, Sheridan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the need for sexuality education for individuals with adult onset physical disabilities as it relates to quality of life and to identify current trends in the provision of sexuality education by health care providers relating to quality of care. Data Sources: Literature review from January 1986 to December 2016. Study…

  4. Simulation platform for direct load control of household appliances. Literature survey and G2 implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, J.; Vlaheli, A.

    1996-10-01

    There is an incentive for the power utilities to look for other ways than building new power stations to satisfy increasing customer power needs. One way to fulfill this demand is by redistributing the available electric power between the different power consumers. This method can successfully be used during high peak hours. The utility is also able to make financial profits selling the redistributed electric power at a higher price to customers with temporary high power demands. Direct Load Control - DLC, a Demand Side Management - DSM tool, is one way to achieve a redistribution of electric power. This masters thesis project consisted in developing a user-friendly simulation platform for domestic appliances combined with an electric power control system to be employed for Direct Load Control. The platform contains the necessary facilities for designing an electrical distribution network model and is implemented in G2, an object-oriented real-time environment. The final application provides an on-line instrument for the utility to control the power consumption over the entire system in terms of dispensing power in an electrical network. The report consists of two main parts. The first part describes a literature survey we systematically compiled to gather literature sources. The second part outlines our design and implementation of the G2 simulation platform for a water-heater model with a Direct Load Control system. The entire simulation platform is designed to allow a flexible change and improvement of the different models. Consequently, our software is a powerful tool for studying a wide range of problems related to a Load Management program involving electrical household loads. 9 refs, 32 figs

  5. Traditional and non-traditional uses of Mitragynine (Kratom): A survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Vicknasingam, Balasingam

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the paper was to highlight the differences in the traditional and non-traditional users of kratom in the South East Asian and Western contexts. A literature survey of published kratom studies among humans was conducted. Forty published studies relevant to the objective were reviewed. Apart from the differences in the sources of supply, patterns of use and social acceptability of kratom within these two regions, the most interesting finding is its evolution to a recreational drug in both settings and the severity of the adverse effects of kratom use reported in the West. While several cases of toxicity and death have emerged in the West, such reports have been non-existent in South East Asia where kratom has had a longer history of use. We highlight the possible reasons for this as discussed in the literature. More importantly, it should be borne in mind that the individual clinical case-reports emerging from the West that link kratom use to adverse reactions or fatalities frequently pertained to kratom used together with other substances. Therefore, there is a danger of these reports being used to strengthen the case for legal sanction against kratom. This would be unfortunate since the experiences from South East Asia suggest considerable potential for therapeutic use among people who use drugs. Despite its addictive properties, reported side-effects and its tendency to be used a recreational drug, more scientific clinical human studies are necessary to determine its potential therapeutic value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pet ownership in immunocompromised children--a review of the literature and survey of existing guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, S; Pizer, B

    2006-04-01

    Pet ownership has been associated with both emotional and physical health benefits. However, owning pets may also pose health risks to immunocompromised patients through zoonotic transmission of disease. Our initial impression was that there is a lack of any evidence base in information given by health care professionals regarding these risks. We therefore aimed to produce evidence-based guidelines addressing this issue. A Pubmed search was undertaken and a variety of literature on zoonoses reviewed. Existing guidelines were evaluated and a survey of all Paediatric Oncology Centres in the UK performed. There is a paucity of level 1 and 2 data addressing this issue and clearly more studies, particularly Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs), are required. Nevertheless, general themes emerged and certain specific guidance was produced based on that produced by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in the US. Animal-associated pathogens of concern include Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia lamblia, Rhodococcus equi, Bartonella spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica, Chlamydia psittaci and dermatophytes. Despite this, the literature would suggest that with the exception of Bartonella henselae and dermatophytes only a relatively small number of infections in people are likely to be associated with pet contact. The majority of pet species do not appear to pose a major risk to immunocompromised children. Some animals, particularly reptiles, should be avoided because of the high risk of salmonellosis. Guidelines include general advice on good hygiene practices, veterinary care, pet foods, purchasing of new pets and age restrictions. Health care professionals should actively enquire about household pets and provide accurate information and practical advice on how to minimise the risk of infection. However, the overall benefits of the human-animal bond must be considered and with proper handling and husbandry

  7. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  8. Survey of current technologies for network security; Network security gijutsu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, S.

    2000-05-01

    The Internet and technologies derived from it are indispensable for business today. As the Internet have became a commodity, and number of cracking activities have grown rapidly, network security has become serious matter. This paper presents a survey of current technologies for network security. First a summary of current research trend in cryptography, IPSec, intrusion detection system, next generation firewall, and performance management. Then detailed description on intrusion detection system and next generation firewall will be given. (author)

  9. Current cystoscopy practice of recent graduates of obstetrics and gynecology residency: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosti, Patrick A; Isaacson, Michael A; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2011-01-01

    To provide data regarding the training, credentialing and use of cystoscopy among recent obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents. A total of 98 surveys were sent to recent graduates of Ob/Gyn residency programs in the District of Columbia (DC). Questions concerning cystoscopy in residency training, current cystoscopy privileges and utilization of this technique were asked. Of the 98 surveys sent, 34 (35%) were completed. Of the survey respondents 88% reported rotating through a urogynecology or female urology service during residency, and the majority of residents spent at least 2 months on service. A total of 68% of survey respondents reported currently having cystoscopy privileges. Only 12% of those surveyed reported performing routine cystoscopy after hysterectomy. When asked why, most participants reported performing cystoscopy only if urinary tract injury is suspected. The majority of recent graduates of Ob/Gyn residency training programs surveyed in DC are exposed to and receive privileges for cystoscopy. However, few choose to use it after routine hysterectomy. Given the fact that 75% of urinary tract injuries occur during gynecologic surgery and that these injuries are more likely to occur at the hands of newly minted surgeons, a change in this practice may be warranted.

  10. Smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: a review and discussion of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes literature about smoke exposure and the resulting adverse health effects among wildland firefighters Many studies have been done on this problem between 1973 and 1995 Overall the data indicate that smoke exposure at wildfires and prescribed fires is usually no more than an inconvenience, but on occasion it approaches or exceeds legal...

  11. Hypertrophic scars and keloids: a review of the current literature on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They present a major therapeutic challenge to the plastic surgeon. This article reviews various treatment modalities for these abnormal scars and the updated findings of molecular scar biology. Method: A computerized literature search using MEDLINE was conducted for review articles in the English language on ...

  12. Modal shift and high-speed rail : a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report provides a review of scholarly literature with direct relevance to the topic of modal shift and high-speed rail (HSR). : HSR systems are usually planned on the expectation that they will attract riders who would have chosen other modes (s...

  13. Current Trends in Planning and Their Effect on Planning Literature. Exchange Bibliography No. 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jerome L.

    It doesn't matter much whether a planning trend produces a large or small volume of literature; what matters is the probable half-life of the trend, that is, how long the ideas will last. To the planner, the longer the half-life of the trend, the more significant is the trend. (Author/WM)

  14. 76 FR 75869 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility... Fertility Supplement to be conducted in conjunction with the June 2012 CPS. The Census Bureau sponsors the... 1971. This year, the 2012 Fertility Supplement will include revised questions on marital status and...

  15. Remarried Couple Households: Data from the June 1980 Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew; McCarthy, James

    1985-01-01

    Presents tabulations for remarried couple households in the June 1980 Current Population Survey. Found that in 20 percent of households maintained by married couples at least one spouse had been divorced; one-sixth of U.S. children under age 18 lived in such households. (NRB)

  16. College Cheerleading: A National Survey of Current Safety Standards and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed chief student affairs officers (N=564) to determine effects of current safety standards and practices in college cheerleading. Found injury rate lower than six major team sports; no correlation between injuries and coach training; greater number of injuries when under supervision; and institutions with no cheerleading guidelines tended to…

  17. Students and recorded lectures: survey on current use and demands for higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Pierre; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jochems, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, P., Van Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2012). Students and recorded lectures: survey on current use and demands for higher education. Research In Learning Technology, 20(3). doi:10.3402/rlt.v20i0.17299

  18. Current State of Applying Smart Materials in Consumer Durables : A Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Kassim, A.; Horvath, I.; Gerritsen, B.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Smart materials have drawn substantial attention and interest in a broad range of applications, due to their unique and superior characteristics. However there is a blurry image over the potential applications of smart materials in consumer durables. This has stalled further research and decision

  19. A Survey of Statistical Methods Appearing in the Current Russian Literature on Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-06

    modeled by a horizontally infinite layer whose bioelements have a Poisson spatial distribution. The layer consists of m sublayers L thick each. There...is no mutual shadowing of bioelements within the-se sublayers. The azimuthal distribution of bioelements is assumed to be uniform, hence their...radiation attenuated by the jth layer. The authors state that the assumption of a random spatial distribution of the bioelements restricts the application of

  20. Translation of a Tobacco Survey into Spanish and Asian Languages: The Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Gordon; Lawrence, Deirdre; Hartman, Anne; Kudela, Martha Stapleton; Levin, Kerry; Forsyth, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Because of the vital need to attain cross-cultural comparability of estimates of tobacco use across subgroups of the U.S. population that differ in primary language use, the NCI Tobacco Use Special Cessation Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUSCS-CPS) was translated into Spanish, Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese), Korean, Vietnamese, and Khmer (Cambodian). The questionnaire translations were extensively tested using an eight-step process that focused on both translation procedures and empirical pretesting. The resulting translations are available on the Internet (at http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/studies/tus-cps/translation/questionnaires.html) for tobacco researchers to use in their own surveys, either in full, or as material to be selected as appropriate. This manuscript provides information to guide researchers in accessing and using the translations, and describes the empirical procedures used to develop and pretest them (cognitive interviewing and behavior coding). We also provide recommendations concerning the further development of questionnaire translations. PMID:18584471

  1. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Literature Survey and Recommendation of Potential Sorbent Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, T F

    2010-04-29

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a special type of porous material with a number of unique properties, including exceptionally high surface areas, large internal pore volumes (void space) and tunable pore sizes. These materials are prepared through the assembly of molecular building blocks into ordered three-dimensional structures. The bulk properties of the MOF are determined by the nature of the building blocks and, as such, these materials can be designed with special characteristics that cannot be realized in other sorbent materials, like activated carbons. For example, MOFs can be constructed with binding sites or pockets that can exhibit selectivity for specific analytes. Alternatively, the framework can be engineered to undergo reversible dimensional changes (or 'breathing') upon interaction with an analyte, effectively trapping the molecule of interest in the lattice structure. In this report, we have surveyed the 4000 different MOF structures reported in the open literature and provided recommendations for specific MOF materials that should be investigated as sorbents for this project.

  2. Effective multilevel teaching techniques on attending rounds: a pilot survey and systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain, Laura K; Guarino, A J; Greenwald, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    While numerous authors acknowledge the challenge of teaching simultaneously to medical students, interns, and residents, few offer specific advice on how to meet that challenge, and none have studied which techniques are most effective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether multilevel teaching is challenging for attendings, whether trainees feel that teaching on rounds is appropriate to their level, and to define multilevel teaching techniques. We surveyed attendings and trainees on the internal medicine services at two academic medical centers. Attendings were divided about whether teaching to multiple levels posed a challenge. Trainees reported that the teaching they received was usually appropriate to their level of training. The most effective techniques for multilevel teaching were Broadening (asking "what if" questions), Targeting (directing questions at specific team members), and Novelty (teaching newly published information), while the least effective were techniques that taught advanced material unfamiliar to most or all of the team. A systematic literature review yielded no studies that focused on multilevel teaching techniques. This article is the first to define and evaluate specific techniques for multilevel instruction in a medical setting and identifies certain techniques as more effective at engaging multiple levels of learners simultaneously.

  3. A literature survey for the ultrasound use in the radioactive waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: aptessaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a literature survey of reports on the use of ultrasound methods in the characterization of radioactive wastes. This research is motivated by the necessity to characterize radioactive wastes constituted of ion exchange resins and activated charcoal beds generated at the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 and that are stored in twenty one 200 L-drum sat the Waste Management Department. These two waste types come from the water polishing system of the nuclear reactor where they are used to remove impurities as fission and activation products from the water. After same time in the water treatment system, these two adsorbents are unable to keep the water quality and are then replaced becoming radioactive waste. Previous work determined the concentration of radio isotopes in dried samples of the adsorbents. As the water content varies largely among different drums, it is necessary to determine the water content of each individual drum for the total activity to be calculated. Ultrasound imaging was thought as an appropriate tool as a characterization method. The different acoustic impedances of liquids and solid salter the propagation of the sound wave sand can disclose the content of the waste packages. (author)

  4. Decision analytic modeling in spinal surgery: a methodologic overview with review of current published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnany, Steven J; Anwar, Muhammad A F; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of decision analysis studies in the spine literature. Although there are several published reviews on the different types of decision analysis (cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, cost-utility), there is limited information in the spine literature regarding the mathematical models used in these studies (decision tree, Markov modeling, Monte Carlo simulation). The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the types of decision analytic models used in spine surgery. A secondary aim was to provide a systematic overview of the most cited studies in the spine literature. This is a systematic review of the available information from all sources regarding decision analytics and economic modeling in spine surgery. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane review was performed to identify the most relevant peer-reviewed literature of decision analysis/cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models including decisions trees, Markov models, and Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, CEA models based on investigational drug exemption studies were reviewed in particular detail, as these studies are prime candidates for economic modeling. The initial review of the literature resulted in 712 abstracts. After two reviewer-assessment of abstract relevance and methodologic quality, 19 studies were selected: 12 with decision tree constructs and 7 with Markov models. Each study was assessed for methodologic quality and a review of the overall results of the model. A generalized overview of the mathematical construction and methodology of each type of model was also performed. Limitations, strengths, and potential applications to spine research were further explored. Decision analytic modeling represents a powerful tool both in the assessment of competing treatment options and potentially in the formulation of policy and reimbursement. Our review provides a generalized overview and a conceptual framework to help

  5. Current state of ethics literature synthesis: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Marcel; Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel

    2016-10-03

    Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed. A systematic review was performed of all existing systematic or semi-systematic reviews for normative ethics literature on medical topics. The study further assessed how these reviews report on their methods for search, selection, analysis, and synthesis of ethics literature. We identified 84 reviews published between 1997 and 2015 in 65 different journals and demonstrated an increasing publication rate for this type of review. While most reviews reported on different aspects of search and selection methods, reporting was much less explicit for aspects of analysis and synthesis methods: 31 % did not fulfill any criteria related to the reporting of analysis methods; for example, only 25 % of the reviews reported the ethical approach needed to analyze and synthesize normative information. While reviews of ethics literature are increasingly published, their reporting quality for analysis and synthesis of normative information should be improved. Guiding questions are: What was the applied ethical approach and technical procedure for identifying and extracting the relevant normative information units? What method and procedure was employed for synthesizing normative information? Experts and stakeholders from bioethics, HTA, guideline development, health care professionals, and patient organizations should work together to further develop this area of evidence-based health care.

  6. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  7. Current practices in the management of malignant pleural effusions: a survey among members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarci, Marco; Caruana, Edward; Bertolaccini, Luca; Bedetti, Benedetta; Brunelli, Alessandro; Varela, Gonzalo; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Kuzdzal, Jaroslaw; Massard, Gilbert; Ruffini, Enrico; Falcoz, Pierre Emmanuel; Opitz, Isabelle; Batirel, Hasan; Toker, Alper; Rocco, Gaetano

    2017-03-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) commonly complicates advanced malignancy and their exact management is still undefined. We undertook a survey to determine the current practice among members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS). A cross-sectional survey focused on the current practice of management of MPE was developed by the authors. The questions were outlined after a review of the literature and circulated in an Internet-based survey format. Computed tomography (125, 92%) and chest X-ray (106, 78%) are the most common imaging modalities performed in the initial evaluation. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for washout and pleurodesis (93, 68%) was reported as the preferred approach to patients with uncomplicated MPE. Sixty-one (45%) of the responding colleagues routinely use large bore chest tubes for draining malignant effusions. Forty-nine (35%) surgeons would not apply suction to the drainage system, whilst 50 (37%) would use -2 kPa or less. Talc (124, 91%) is the most commonly used sclerosing agent for pleurodesis in the context of malignant pleural effusion. The practice of 76 (56%) of the respondents is not informed by any clinical guidelines, whilst 60 (44%) reported adhering to the 2010 British Thoracic Society Pleural Disease Guideline. Seventy-one (52%) declared that the guidance was in need of updating or revision. This survey demonstrates the lacking adoption of the existing clinical guidance in this field, as well as the need for more contemporary guidelines for a better-informed practice. The ESTS Working Group on the management of MPE has been established for this purpose.

  8. Do Mathematicians Integrate Computer Algebra Systems in University Teaching? Comparing a Literature Review to an International Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Neil; Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparative study of a literature review of 326 selected contributions (Buteau, Marshall, Jarvis & Lavicza, 2010) to an international (US, UK, Hungary) survey of mathematicians (Lavicza, 2008) regarding the use of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in post-secondary mathematics education. The comparison results are organized with respect…

  9. Managing multiple projects: a literature review of setting priorities and a pilot survey of healthcare researchers in an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert Borden; Campbell, Kaitryn; O'Reilly, Daria; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Bowen, Jim; Blackhouse, Gord; Goerre, Ron

    2007-05-16

    To summarize and then assess with a pilot study the use of published best practice recommendations for priority setting during management of multiple healthcare research projects, in a resource-constrained environment. Medical, economic, business, and operations literature was reviewed to summarize and develop a survey to assess best practices for managing multiple projects. Fifteen senior healthcare research project managers, directors, and faculty at an urban academic institution were surveyed to determine most commonly used priority rules, ranking of rules, characteristics of their projects, and availability of resources. Survey results were compared to literature recommendations to determine use of best practices. Seven priority-setting rules were identified for managing multiple projects. Recommendations on assigning priorities by project characteristics are presented. In the pilot study, a large majority of survey respondents follow best practice recommendations identified in the research literature. However, priority rules such as Most Total Successors (MTS) and Resource Scheduling Method (RSM) were used "very often" by half of the respondents when better performing priority rules were available. Through experience, project managers learn to manage multiple projects under resource constraints. Best practice literature can assist project managers in priority setting by recommending the most appropriate priority given resource constraints and project characteristics. There is room for improvement in managing multiple projects.

  10. Utilizing the Potential of the Affected Population and Prevalent Mobile Technology during Disaster Response : Propositions for a Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, L.T.; Fitrianie, S.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness of the untapped potential of the affected population in a disaster situation, their inclusion in a disaster management is extremely limited. This study aims to survey the literature to see whether utilizing the affected people and prevalent mobile technology can be used

  11. Utilizing the potential of the affected population and prevalent mobile technology during disaster response : Propositions from a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, L.T.; Fitrianie, S.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness of the untapped potential of the affected population in a disaster situation, their inclusion in a disaster management is extremely limited. This study aims to survey the literature to see whether utilizing the affected people and prevalent mobile technology can be used

  12. Beaver Management in Norway - A Review of Recent Literature and Current Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Howard; Rosell, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Beginning with the total protection of the beaver (Castor fiber) in Norway in 1845, beaver management has undergone numerous changes as population development, resource exploitation goals and management objectives have evolved. Presently, new beaver management by-laws are being developed. This report briefly summarizes the historical development of beaver management in Norway, reviews the recent literature of particular relevance for the development new by-laws and makes recommendations for t...

  13. Force Modeling, Identification, and Feedback Control of Robot-Assisted Needle Insertion: A Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongjun; Xie, Yu; Liu, Shuang; Sun, Dong

    2018-02-12

    Robot-assisted surgery is of growing interest in the surgical and engineering communities. The use of robots allows surgery to be performed with precision using smaller instruments and incisions, resulting in shorter healing times. However, using current technology, an operator cannot directly feel the operation because the surgeon-instrument and instrument-tissue interaction force feedbacks are lost during needle insertion. Advancements in force feedback and control not only help reduce tissue deformation and needle deflection but also provide the surgeon with better control over the surgical instruments. The goal of this review is to summarize the key components surrounding the force feedback and control during robot-assisted needle insertion. The literature search was conducted during the middle months of 2017 using mainstream academic search engines with a combination of keywords relevant to the field. In total, 166 articles with valuable contents were analyzed and grouped into five related topics. This survey systemically summarizes the state-of-the-art force control technologies for robot-assisted needle insertion, such as force modeling, measurement, the factors that influence the interaction force, parameter identification, and force control algorithms. All studies show force control is still at its initial stage. The influence factors, needle deflection or planning remain open for investigation in future.

  14. Force Modeling, Identification, and Feedback Control of Robot-Assisted Needle Insertion: A Survey of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjun Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted surgery is of growing interest in the surgical and engineering communities. The use of robots allows surgery to be performed with precision using smaller instruments and incisions, resulting in shorter healing times. However, using current technology, an operator cannot directly feel the operation because the surgeon-instrument and instrument-tissue interaction force feedbacks are lost during needle insertion. Advancements in force feedback and control not only help reduce tissue deformation and needle deflection but also provide the surgeon with better control over the surgical instruments. The goal of this review is to summarize the key components surrounding the force feedback and control during robot-assisted needle insertion. The literature search was conducted during the middle months of 2017 using mainstream academic search engines with a combination of keywords relevant to the field. In total, 166 articles with valuable contents were analyzed and grouped into five related topics. This survey systemically summarizes the state-of-the-art force control technologies for robot-assisted needle insertion, such as force modeling, measurement, the factors that influence the interaction force, parameter identification, and force control algorithms. All studies show force control is still at its initial stage. The influence factors, needle deflection or planning remain open for investigation in future.

  15. Core competencies in teaching and training for doctors in Scotland: a review of the literature and stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael T; Macrae, Claire; Scott, Jayne; Renwick, Lynne; Moffat, Mandy; Needham, Gillian; Scott, Hazel; Shippey, Ben; Jackson, Catherine; Edgar, Simon; Aitken, Debbie; Evans, Phillip; Irvine, Stewart

    2014-06-01

    The UK General Medical Council requires all registered doctors to be competent in all areas of their work, including teaching and training. The current research sought consensus on core competencies for all consultants and GPs involved in teaching and training in Scotland. A draft list of 80 competencies was developed from the literature and made available as a survey to all consultants and GPs with teaching roles and all final year speciality trainees working in Scotland. Respondents rated the importance of each competency and provided free text comments. There were 1026 responses. Eighteen competencies were rated as "high priority", and are recommended as a baseline for all doctors involved in teaching and training; 55 were rated as "medium priority", and are recommended in relation to specific teaching and training roles; and 7 were rated as "low priority". Free text responses suggested the topic was controversial and emotive, and emphasised the importance of further work to engage trainers. The findings appeared to have face validity, and it was felt these could be used as the basis for developing a "Scottish Trainer Framework" for doctors and others involved in teaching and training in Scotland.

  16. Declaring Conflict of Interest - Current State of Affairs in the Ophthalmic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jamie Lea; Aubert Bonn, Noemie; Craenen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The importance of transparency with financial ties in biomedical research is widely recognized, and most peer-reviewed journals require declarations of Conflicts of Interest (COI). Nonetheless, variability in the consistency of declarations of COI has been sparsely assessed. To assess consistency and rates of COI declarations in the ophthalmic literature and the effectiveness of journal COI policies. We analyzed consistency and completeness of declaration of COI in the ophthalmic literature and compared the levels of completeness to specific journal requirements. Six-hundred forty-two peer reviewed articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. In 64%, COIs were unreported, in 25% declaration of COI was incomplete, and 11% of the articles reviewed had complete declaration of COI. Of the 33 journals in which the most frequently published authors' articles appeared, 10 required the authors to complete the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) form or an equivalent form, but this did not affect the rates of COI declaration. In a random sampling of the most frequently published authors in the field of ophthalmology, declaration of COI was low and highly inconsistent. Requiring a standardized COI form has no significant effect on the rate of accurate COI reporting. Our findings lend support to the growing body of literature that shows that journals and editors may need to take a more active role in ensuring accurate and consistent COI reporting.

  17. Definition of "persistent vomiting" in current medical literature: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Elshafay, Abdelrahman; Kansakar, Aswin Ratna; Mehyar, Ghaleb Muhammad; Dang, Nguyen Phan Hoang; Mattar, Omar Mohamed; Iqtadar, Somia; Mostafa, Mostafa Reda; Hai, Vu Ngoc; Vu, Tran Le-Huy; Ghazy, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb; Kaboub, Fatima; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Persistent vomiting is mentioned as a symptom of a large variety of systemic disorders. It is commonly used interchangeably with chronic, recurrent, or intractable vomiting and widely used as a warning sign of severe illness in dengue infection. However, it has been poorly defined in the medical literature. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review a definition of persistent vomiting in the medical literature. A systematic search was done through; PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, VHL, WHO-GHL, Grey Literature Report, POPLINE, and SIGLE for the last 10 years. Consensus on the definition was considered to be reached if at least 50% of studies described the same definition using the Delphi consensus technique. Of 2362 abstracts reviewed, 15 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Three studies used the same definition. Another 2 studies defined it as vomiting of all foods and fluid in 24 hours. Three studies defined persistent vomiting in the units of days or weeks. Four studies used the number of episodes: ≥2 episodes 15 minutes apart, >3 episodes in 12 hours, and >3 episodes within 24 hours. No consensus for the definition was found among authors. This is a point of concern that needs to be addressed by further studies.

  18. Survey of current enteral nutrition practices in treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, May; Hubbard, Jane; Rudnicki, Stacy A; Johansen, Carolyn S; Dalton, Kate; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Forshew, Dalles A; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is commonly prescribed for dysphagia and weight loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but there are currently no ALS-specific EN guidelines. We aimed to survey current practices prescribing EN to ALS patients. An online survey was distributed using list servers administered by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA), and ALS Association (ALSA). A total of 148 dietitians, nurses, and physicians participated in the survey, of whom 50% were dietitians and 68% were associated with an ALS clinic. Only 47% of respondents reported their patients to be fully compliant with EN recommendations. Side effects (fullness, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) were the most important reason for patient noncompliance, followed by dependence on caregivers. By contrast, only 3% of providers rated depression/hopelessness as the most important reason for noncompliance. Half of those surveyed reported that more than 25% of patients continued to lose weight after starting EN. Our survey results show a high frequency of gastrointestinal side effects and weight loss in ALS patients receiving EN. These findings may be limited by sampling error and non-response bias. Prospective studies are needed to help establish EN guidelines for ALS.

  19. Geriatric oncology in Spain: survey results and analysis of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés, R; Morilla, I; Guillen-Ponce, C; Torregrosa, M D; Paredero, I; Bustamante, E; Del Barco, S; Soler, G; Losada, B; Visa, L; Llabrés, E; Fox, B; Firvida, J L; Blanco, R; Antonio, M; Aparisi, F; Pi-Figueras, M; Gonzalez-Flores, E; Molina-Garrido, M J; Saldaña, J

    2017-12-11

    Geriatric oncology (GO) is a discipline that focuses on the management of elderly patients with cancer. The Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) created a Working group dedicated to geriatric oncology in February 2016. The main goal of this study was to describe the current situation in Spain regarding the management of elderly cancer patients through an online survey of medical oncologists. A descriptive survey was sent to several hospitals by means of the SEOM website. A personal e-mail was also sent to SEOM members. Between March 2016 and April 2017, 154 answers were collected. Only 74 centers (48%) had a geriatrics department and a mere 21 (14%) medical oncology departments had a person dedicated to GO. The vast majority (n = 135; 88%) had the perception that the number of elderly patients with cancer seen in clinical practice had increased. Eighteen (12%) oncologists had specific protocols and geriatric scales were used at 55 (31%) centers. Almost all (92%) claimed to apply special management practices using specific tools. There was agreement that GO afforded certain potential advantages. Finally, 99% of the oncologists surveyed believed it and that training in GO had to be improved. From the nationwide survey promoted by the Spanish Geriatric Oncology Working Group on behalf of SEOM, we conclude that there is currently no defined care structure for elderly cancer patients. There is an increasing perception of the need for training in GO. This survey reflects a reality in which specific needs are perceived.

  20. A survey of current practices in management of Hirschsprung′s disease in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A. Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are several modalities of treatment for Hirschsprung′s disease (HD, there are presently no clear guidelines on treatment of the condition by paediatric surgeons in Nigeria. This survey determines the current approach to treatment among Nigerian paediatric surgeons and should help in establishing a consensus and guidelines for care in this and similar setting. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was designed using survey Monkey ® to determine current clinical and operative management of patients with HD by consultant paediatric surgeons practicing in the Nigeria. The paediatric surgeons were notified by E-mail, which included a link to the survey on survey Monkey ® . The survey was also administered at the 12 th annual meeting of Association of Paediatric Surgeons of Nigeria in September, 2013, to capture those who did not complete the online survey. Thirty-one paediatric surgeons from 21 different tertiary paediatric surgery centres completed the survey. Results: Sixteen (52% respondents see up to 20% of their patients with HD in the neonatal period. Twenty-six (84% respondents do routine barium enema. Twenty six (84% respondents do full thickness rectal biopsy under general anaesthesia (GA. There was no consistency in operative techniques, with transabominal Swenson′s operation being practiced by 17 (57% respondents and 11 (37% transanal endorectal pull through. 14 (45% do pull through at any age. 12 (39% respondents do more than half of their patient as primary pull through. Conclusion: Full thickness rectal biopsy under GA is still the vogue with variations in the surgical technique for management of Hirshsprung′s disease in Nigeria. Primary pull through procedures is becoming increasingly popular. There′s a need for Paediatric Surgeons in Nigeria to come up with a guideline on management of HD, to guide trainees and other surgeons in the care of these patients.

  1. Health co-benefits and risks of public health adaptation strategies to climate change: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, June J; Berry, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Many public health adaptation strategies have been identified in response to climate change. This report reviews current literature on health co-benefits and risks of these strategies to gain a better understanding of how they may affect health. A literature review was conducted electronically using English language literature from January 2000 to March 2012. Of 812 articles identified, 22 peer-reviewed articles that directly addressed health co-benefits or risks of adaptation were included in the review. The co-benefits and risks identified in the literature most commonly relate to improvements in health associated with adaptation actions that affect social capital and urban design. Health co-benefits of improvements in social capital have positive influences on mental health, independently of other determinants. Risks included reinforcing existing misconceptions regarding health. Health co-benefits of urban design strategies included reduced obesity, cardiovascular disease and improved mental health through increased physical activity, cooling spaces (e.g., shaded areas), and social connectivity. Risks included pollen allergies with increased urban green space, and adverse health effects from heat events through the use of air conditioning. Due to the current limited understanding of the full impacts of the wide range of existing climate change adaptation strategies, further research should focus on both unintended positive and negative consequences of public health adaptation.

  2. Group Finding in the Stellar Halo Using Photometric Surveys: Current Sensitivity and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Majewski, Steven R.; Bullock, James; Muñoz, Ricardo R.

    2011-02-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provided the first deep and global photometric catalogs of stars in our halo and not only clearly mapped its structure but also demonstrated the ubiquity of substructure within it. Future surveys promise to push such catalogs to ever increasing depths and larger numbers of stars. This paper examines what can be learned from current and future photometric databases using group-finding techniques. We compare groups recovered from a sample of M-giants from 2MASS with those found in synthetic surveys of simulated ΛCDM stellar halos that were built entirely from satellite accretion events and demonstrate broad consistency between the properties of the two sets. We also find that these recovered groups are likely to represent the majority of high-luminosity (L > 5 × 106 L sun) satellites accreted within the last 10 Gyr and on orbits with apocenters within 100 kpc. However, the sensitivity of the M-giant survey to accretion events that were either ancient from low-luminosity objects or those on radial orbits is limited because of the low number of stars, bias toward high-metallicity stars, and the shallow depth (distance explored only out to 100 kpc from the Sun). We examine the extent to which these limitations are addressed by current and future surveys, in particular catalogs of main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars from SDSS and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and of RR Lyrae stars from LSST or PanSTARRS. The MSTO and RR Lyrae surveys are more sensitive to low-luminosity events (L ~ 105 L sun or less) than the 2MASS M-giant sample. Additionally, RR Lyrae surveys, with superior depth, are also good at detecting events on highly eccentric orbits whose debris tends to lie beyond 100 kpc. When combined we expect these photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive picture of the last 10 Gyr of Galactic accretion. Events older than this are too phase mixed to be discovered. Pushing

  3. Arterial hypertension and gout: the current state of the problem (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina A.P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the family doctor's work is the management of patients with comorbid pathology. Pathogenetic mechanisms of interrelation, as well as the bi-directionality of the association of arterial hypertension and gout are actively studied. By data analysis of literature, in many developed countries of the world there are shortcomings in the management of patients with gout at the primary stage. There is a need to improve the quality of management and prescription of combinations of basic therapy drugs for the treatment of patients with hypertension in combination with gout at the primary stage.

  4. The Current Testing Protocols for Biomechanical Evaluation of Lumbar Spinal Implants in Laboratory Setting: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A. Gonzalez-Blohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro biomechanical investigations have become a routinely employed technique to explore new lumbar instrumentation. One of the most important advantages of such investigations is the low risk present when compared to clinical trials. However, the best use of any experimental data can be made when standard testing protocols are adopted by investigators, thus allowing comparisons among studies. Experimental variables, such as the length of the specimen, operative level, type of loading (e.g., dynamic versus quasistatic, magnitude, and rate of load applied, are among the most common variables controlled during spinal biomechanical testing. Although important efforts have been made to standardize these protocols, high variability can be found in the current literature. The aim of this investigation was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify the current trends in the protocols reported for the evaluation of new lumbar spinal implants under laboratory setting.

  5. Can the Future EnMAP Mission Contribute to Urban Applications? A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With urban populations and their footprints growing globally, the need to assess the dynamics of the urban environment increases. Remote sensing is one approach that can analyze these developments quantitatively with respect to spatially and temporally large scale changes. With the 2015 launch of the spaceborne EnMAP mission, a new hyperspectral sensor with high signal-to-noise ratio at medium spatial resolution, and a 21 day global revisit capability will become available. This paper presents the results of a literature survey on existing applications and image analysis techniques in the context of urban remote sensing in order to identify and outline potential contributions of the future EnMAP mission. Regarding urban applications, four frequently addressed topics have been identified: urban development and planning, urban growth assessment, risk and vulnerability assessment and urban climate. The requirements of four application fields and associated image processing techniques used to retrieve desired parameters and create geo-information products have been reviewed. As a result, we identified promising research directions enabling the use of EnMAP for urban studies. First and foremost, research is required to analyze the spectral information content of an EnMAP pixel used to support material-based land cover mapping approaches. This information can subsequently be used to improve urban indicators, such as imperviousness. Second, we identified the global monitoring of urban areas as a promising field of investigation taking advantage of EnMAP’s spatial coverage and revisit capability. However, owing to the limitations of EnMAPs spatial resolution for urban applications, research should also focus on hyperspectral resolution enhancement to enable retrieving material information on sub-pixel level.

  6. What is a memory schema? A historical perspective on current neuroscience literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vanessa E; Gilboa, Asaf

    2014-01-01

    The term "schema" has been used to describe vastly different knowledge structures within the memory neuroscience literature. Ambiguous terminology hinders cross-study comparisons and confounds interpretation of the suggested role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in schema functions. Based on an extensive review of the psychological literature, we propose a framework for distinguishing memory schemas from other knowledge structures. The framework includes a definition of schema as possessing four necessary and sufficient features, and four additional features schemas are sensitive to, which are not required but do play a frequent and central role in schema functions. Necessary schema features are (1) an associative network structure, (2) basis on multiple episodes, (3) lack of unit detail, and (4) adaptability. Features schemas are sensitive to are (5) chronological relationships, (6) hierarchical organization, (7) cross-connectivity, and (8) embedded response options. Additionally, we suggest that vmPFC activity observed in studies of schemas corresponds with participants' coordination of existing schemas with ongoing task demands. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leiomyosarcoma Arising in the Pancreatic Duct: A Case Report and Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D. Riddle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Leiomyosarcomas are rare malignant smooth muscle tumors that may arise in any organ or tissue that contains smooth muscle, commonly within the gastrointestinal tract. They are most often found in the stomach, large and small intestines, and retroperitoneum. Primary pancreatic leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge only 30 cases have been reported in the world literature since 1951. Our case represents the first to have a clear origin from the main pancreatic duct. Case Report. This case was diagnosed in a large, tertiary care center in Tampa, Florida. Pertinent information was obtained from chart review and interdepartmental collaboration. A mass in the tail of the pancreas was identified with large pleomorphic and spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and desmin was positive. All remaining immunohistochemical markers performed were negative. The tumor clearly originated from the pancreatic duct wall, filled and expanded the duct lumen, and was covered with a layer of benign biliary epithelium. Conclusion. Leiomyosarcoma of the pancreas is an extremely rare malignancy with few reported cases in the literature. The prognosis is poor, and treatment consists of alleviating symptoms and pain management. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported case demonstrating clear origin of a leiomyosarcoma from the pancreatic duct.

  8. Weed control in short rotation coppice crops: a review of recently published literature and current guidance for farmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C.

    2000-07-01

    This review with 41 references is based on a literature review and consultation with experts, and examines the importance of effective weed control. Herbicides currently approved for use in short rotation coppice plantations are listed. Current practices and recommendations to farmers on pre-planting, post-planting, post cut-back, post-harvest, and directed herbicide applications in the growing crop are outlined, and the results of recent research on chemical and mechanical weed control, mulches, and ground cover plants are addressed. Research need relating to weed competition, herbicide evaluation, vegetation management without chemicals, and quantification of post-harvest herbicide applications are identified.

  9. Current status of health technology reassessment of non-drug technologies: survey and key informant interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggett Laura E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Technology Reassessment (HTR is a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, social, ethical and economic effects of a technology currently used in the health care system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. Little is known about current international HTR practices. The objective of this research was to summarize experience-based information gathered from international experts on the development, initiation and implementation of a HTR program. Methods A mixed methods approach, using a survey and in-depth interviews, was adopted. The survey covered 8 concepts: prioritization/identification of potentially obsolete technologies; program development; implementation; mitigation; program championing; stakeholder engagement; monitoring; and reinvestment. Members of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA formed the sampling frame. Participation was solicited via email and the survey was administered online using SurveyMonkey. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To gather more in-depth knowledge, semi-structured interviews were conducted among organizations with active HTR programs. Interview questions were developed using the same 8 concepts. The hour-long interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results Ninety-five individuals responded to the survey: 49 were not discussing HTR, 21 were beginning to discuss HTR, nine were imminently developing a program, and 16 participants had programs and were completing reassessments. The survey results revealed that methods vary widely and that although HTR is a powerful tool, it is currently not being used to its full potential. Of the 16 with active programs, nine agreed to participate in follow-up interviews. Interview participants identified early and extensive stakeholder

  10. Preoperative Axillary Lymph Node Evaluation in Breast Cancer: Current Issues and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Young; Park, Minho; Seo, Mirinae; Song, Eunjee; Shin, So Youn; Sohn, Yu-Mee

    2017-03-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for overall breast cancer survival. In current clinical practice, ALN status is evaluated before surgery via multimodal imaging and physical examination. Mammography is typically suboptimal for complete ALN evaluation. Currently, ultrasonography is widely used to evaluate ALN status; nonetheless, results may vary according to operator. Ultrasonography is the primary imaging modality for evaluating ALN status. Other imaging modalities including contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography can play additional roles in axillary nodal staging.The purpose of this article is (1) to review the strengths and weaknesses of current imaging modalities for nodal staging in breast cancer patients and (2) to discuss updated guidelines for ALN management with regard to preoperative ALN imaging.

  11. Features of mobile diabetes applications: review of the literature and analysis of current applications compared against evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomutare, Taridzo; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2011-09-22

    Interest in mobile health (mHealth) applications for self-management of diabetes is growing. In July 2009, we found 60 diabetes applications on iTunes for iPhone; by February 2011 the number had increased by more than 400% to 260. Other mobile platforms reflect a similar trend. Despite the growth, research on both the design and the use of diabetes mHealth applications is scarce. Furthermore, the potential influence of social media on diabetes mHealth applications is largely unexplored. Our objective was to study the salient features of mobile applications for diabetes care, in contrast to clinical guideline recommendations for diabetes self-management. These clinical guidelines are published by health authorities or associations such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom and the American Diabetes Association. We searched online vendor markets (online stores for Apple iPhone, Google Android, BlackBerry, and Nokia Symbian), journal databases, and gray literature related to diabetes mobile applications. We included applications that featured a component for self-monitoring of blood glucose and excluded applications without English-language user interfaces, as well as those intended exclusively for health care professionals. We surveyed the following features: (1) self-monitoring: (1.1) blood glucose, (1.2) weight, (1.3) physical activity, (1.4) diet, (1.5) insulin and medication, and (1.6) blood pressure, (2) education, (3) disease-related alerts and reminders, (4) integration of social media functions, (5) disease-related data export and communication, and (6) synchronization with personal health record (PHR) systems or patient portals. We then contrasted the prevalence of these features with guideline recommendations. The search resulted in 973 matches, of which 137 met the selection criteria. The four most prevalent features of the applications available on the online markets (n = 101) were (1) insulin and medication

  12. Quality metrics currently used in academic radiology departments: results of the QUALMET survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric A; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M; Fotos, Joseph S; Bruno, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the 2015 quality metrics (QUALMET) survey, which was designed to assess the commonalities and variability of selected quality and productivity metrics currently employed by a large sample of academic radiology departments representing all regions in the USA. The survey of key radiology metrics was distributed in March-April of 2015 via personal e-mail to 112 academic radiology departments. There was a 34.8% institutional response rate. We found that most academic departments of radiology commonly utilize metrics of hand hygiene, report turn around time (RTAT), relative value unit (RVU) productivity, patient satisfaction and participation in peer review. RTAT targets were found to vary widely. The implementation of radiology peer review and the variety of ways in which peer review results are used within academic radiology departments, the use of clinical decision support tools and requirements for radiologist participation in Maintenance of Certification also varied. Policies for hand hygiene and critical results communication were very similar across all institutions reporting, and most departments utilized some form of missed case/difficult case conference as part of their quality and safety programme, as well as some form of periodic radiologist performance reviews. Results of the QUALMET survey suggest many similarities in tracking and utilization of the selected quality and productivity metrics included in our survey. Use of quality indicators is not a fully standardized process among academic radiology departments. Advances in knowledge: This article examines the current quality and productivity metrics in academic radiology.

  13. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  14. The role of stereopsis (three-dimensional vision) in dentistry: review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrimi, M; Ali, N

    2015-05-22

    Clinical dental work is placing increasing demands on a clinician's vision as new techniques that require fine detail become more common. High hand-eye coordination requires good visual acuity as well as other psychological and neurological qualities such as stereopsis. Stereopsis (three-dimensional vision) is the highest form of depth perception obtained by visual disparity of images formed in the retinas of two eyes. It is believed to confer functional benefits on everyday tasks such as hand-eye coordination. Although its role in depth perception has long been established, little is known regarding the importance of stereopsis in dentistry. This article reviews the role of stereopsis in everyday life and the available literature on the importance of stereopsis in dentistry.

  15. Opportunistic Environmental Sensing with Smartphones: a Critical Review of Current Literature and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Ebrahim; Batteate, Christina; Jerrett, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This review sought to summarize recent literature and applications of passive, or opportunistic, mobile sensing in the fields of exposure science in built environment settings; highlight innovative opportunistic sensing systems; and analyze their functionality, significant features, and limitations. Fifty-two papers related to opportunistic environmental sensing from 2009 or later were related to this review, of which 27 were included. An array of applications have emerged in environmental monitoring, employing anywhere from one to six of the phone's on-board sensors. The viability of an application is determined by several key factors: the number and quality of sensors on-board the smartphone; power and processing demand; algorithm complexity; data security; mobile network coverage; reliance on external data sources; minimum number of users required; and degree of user burden when using the application. Some factors are universal, while others are more context-specific. Future research should assess sensing applications based on these factors.

  16. A Literature Review on Current and Proposed Technologies of Noninvasive Blood Pressure Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ramtanu; Ghosh, Sanchita; Gupta, Bharat; Chakravarty, Tapas

    2017-08-07

    Noninvasive continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement has become an evolving topic in the field of remote healthcare. The classical noninvasive BP measurement techniques provide spontaneous values of systolic and diastolic BP. On the other hand, intrusive type BP measurement techniques provide continuous values of systolic and diastolic BP. However, these techniques are very painful, cannot be used for long-term monitoring, and are obtainable only in an intensive care unit environment. With the advancement of the remote healthcare industry, there is a growing demand for noninvasive continuous BP monitoring. The objective of this research was to present a compact literature review on the various prospective approaches of noninvasive continuous BP measurement techniques. The most contemporary and advanced technologies on noninvasive continuous BP measurement are Tactile Sensing, Vascular Unloading Technique, Pulse Transit Time, Photoplethysmography, Ultrasound-based BP measurement, BP measurement from image processing, etc. The literature search based on these technologies was conducted in EMBASE, Web of Science, IEEE, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE databases. In this study, each selected approach was evaluated and characterized using the following criteria: (1) accuracy; (2) cost; (3) portability; (4) comfort and convenience of use; (5) clinical health and safety; and (6) ability to integrate with the remote healthcare system. A detailed technical analysis was done to determine the advantages and limitations of each technique in the context of the abovementioned parameters. It was observed that BP measurement, using photoplethysmography (using camera or sensor or both), perhaps was the most promising technique among all. The study emphasized the fact that the noninvasive, continuous BP measurement technique needs to evolve further to make it reliable, accurate, and user-friendly. Lastly, a possible direction toward a more reliable and comfortable noninvasive continuous

  17. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with

  18. Snake Bite: A review of Current Literature | Dreyer | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  19. Medical thoracoscopy: Survey of current practice-How successful are medical thoracoscopists at predicting malignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallifax, Robert J; Corcoran, John P; Psallidas, Ioannis; Rahman, Najib M

    2016-07-01

    Use of medical thoracoscopy by respiratory physicians is increasing. This survey of experienced thoracoscopists was conducted to establish current practice of medical thoracoscopy and physicians' opinion of theoretical cases using 20 video clips. Results suggest an increasing trend towards day-case thoracoscopy but that caution is required when making diagnosis on macroscopic appearance: malignant and benign disease could only be differentiated in 59% of cases, and trapped lung is difficult to predict at thoracoscopy. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Pediatric perioperative education current practices: a national survey of children's hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Maura; Beauchesne, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Identifying existing practices is a first step in the creation of developmentally and culturally effective teaching materials for children and families. This national survey queried two groups to explore current pediatric perioperative education practices: 81 nurses from a perioperative pediatric specialty association and 30 administrators representing leading children's hospitals within the United States. The aim was to improve perioperative care through the design of educational materials from the child's perspective.

  1. Current Practice in Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Childhood: A Survey from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Poyrazo?lu, ??kran; Ak?ay, Teoman; Arslano?lu, ?lknur; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Atay, Zeynep; Berbero?lu, Merih; Bereket, Abdullah; Bideci, Aysun; Bircan, ?ffet; B?ber, Ece; Can, ?ule; Cesur, Ya?ar; Darcan, ??kran; Demir, Korcan; D?ndar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Approaches to diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children vary among countries and even among centers in the same country. This survey, aiming to facilitate the process of preparing the new consensus on GHD by the Turkish Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Society, was designed to evaluate the current practices in diagnosis and treatment of GHD in different centers in Turkey. Methods: A questionnaire covering relevant items for diagnosis and treatment o...

  2. A Survey on SCADA / Distributed Control System Current Security Development and Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division’s Control System Security Program ( CSSP ). CCSP 2009 report presents results from 15 control systems... CSSP security assessment are grouped into nine general security problem. Table 2 lists common CSSP assessments finding. A Survey on SCADA...Distributed Control System Current Security Development and Studies RTO-MP-IST-091 P14 - 7 Table 2 Summary of common CSSP Control System assessment

  3. Physiotherapy management of low back pain: a survey of current practice in northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, Jacqueline H; McDonough, Suzanne M; Baxter, G David

    2002-02-15

    A questionnaire survey of physiotherapists treating low back pain. To investigate current clinical practice in the physiotherapeutic management of low back pain in Northern Ireland. Physiotherapists play an important role in the management of low back pain. However, there is relatively limited evidence about physiotherapy or about current physiotherapeutic management of low back pain. This survey aimed to establish current practice in this area. Two sets of questionnaires were completed by physiotherapists during the period 1996-1997: one in relation to their professional profile, and subsequently a questionnaire for each patient referred by physicians to physiotherapy departments in the (government-funded) National Health Service in Northern Ireland. Physiotherapists (n = 157) recorded data for 1062 patients treated for low back pain in 35 outpatient centers across Northern Ireland. Of the patients treated, 70% had a duration of current episode more than 6 weeks; 26% of patients had previously received physiotherapy for low back pain. Physiotherapy treatment most commonly involved advice (89% of patients), McKenzie treatment (70%), Maitland mobilizations (42%), and interferential therapy (30.3%). Physiotherapists typically treated subacute and chronic patients, principally using some types of manual techniques and advice, in keeping with current guidelines. However, high levels of the use of electrotherapy, and only limited use of manipulation, indicates the importance of further research to establish optimum management for this group of patients.

  4. Current use of prophylactic strategies for postoperative atrial fibrillation: a survey of Canadian cardiac surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joel; Tee, Rebecca; Lam, Buu-Khanh; Hendry, Paul; Green, Martin S; Rubens, Fraser D

    2009-07-01

    Evidence from multiple trials demonstrates the efficacy of prophylactic beta-blocker, amiodarone, and corticosteroid administration in reducing the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Despite this information, these interventions remain infrequently or inappropriately utilized. This study was designed to assess the frequency with which these prophylactic strategies are currently being used and to identify concerns and barriers to more widespread application. A link to an online survey was e-mailed to all practicing cardiac surgeons in Canada. Each surgeon was given a unique log-in identification number to complete the survey online through a secure web page. Surveys were sent to 166 surgeons; 119 completed surveys (72%) were returned. Only 58% of respondents routinely use beta-blockade for prophylaxis. For nonusers, 44% are unconvinced of the evidence for this practice. The routine use of amiodarone among surgeons was 19%. Of the remainder, 43% cited a perceived increased risk of complications as the reason for not using this therapy. An additional 29% considered the therapy was excessively complicated or time consuming. Corticosteroids were routinely used by only one surgeon. Major barriers to use of steroids were unconvincing evidence (76%), a perceived increased risk of wound infection (38%), and hyperglycemia (30%). Despite level 1 evidence, the use of beta-blockers, amiodarone, and corticosteroids for prophylaxis of atrial fibrillation among Canadian surgeons remains less than expected. The results of this survey support the need for further clinical trials with robust and clinically relevant outcomes that may further influence surgeons to adopt this practice.

  5. Managing neonatal severe sepsis in Germany: a preliminary survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L; Bosk, A; Sasse, M; Ruef, P; Poeschl, J

    2015-01-01

    In 2002 and 2007, the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) provided clinical guidelines for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal patients in septic shock. In 2008 and 2013, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) Guidelines Committee offered up-to-date clinical guidelines for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults and in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to assess the standard of care of neonates with severe sepsis and septic shock in German neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with regard to variability in management and guideline conformity. 199 pediatric clinics in Germany were asked to describe their management of septic neonates in a telephone survey. The questionnaire that was used for the preliminary survey was designed based on the ACCCM and SSC clinical guidelines. A total of 90 (45%) surveys were completed and analyzed. Among all hospitals, the guidelines most commonly included in current practice patterns were obtaining cultures before administering antibiotics (100%), determining capillary refill time (99%), and using crystalloids for initial fluid therapy (97%). The guidelines least commonly included in current practice were determination of ammoniac to rule out inborn errors of metabolism (51%) and the use of dopamine as the first choice of hemodynamic support (48%). The management of sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock in neonates is not always guideline consistent, but quite a number of ACCCM and SSC guidelines were included in the current practice pattern. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Current practice in the management of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations-National survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domos, Peter; Sim, Frank; Dunne, Mike; White, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to conduct this survey among consultant shoulder surgeons in the United Kingdom to document the current management of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) injuries. British Elbow and Shoulder Society Research Committee-approved online survey was used and 137 responses were collected within 3 months. One hundred percent of responders would treat type III injuries conservatively initially. Routine physiotherapy would be offered by 86% of surgeons. The patient's factors that influence the decision to consider surgery are pre-injury functional demand, current functional deficit, pain and patient request for surgery. Across all groups the mean time to surgical intervention from injury was 3.8 months. About 45% of all consultants would use the same technique for all cases and there were differences between the varieties of techniques used by surgeons, depending on their degree of experience. LockDown was the most widely used technique in all groups of patients. This was followed by Ligament Augmentation & Reconstruction System (LARS), hook plate and Arthroscopic TightRope/DogBone technique for acute injuries. LARS, modified Weaver-Dunn and ACJ resection were used most commonly after LockDown for delayed cases. Our survey revealed the current trends in clinical practice to treat symptomatic Rockwood type III ACJ injuries, but it also confirmed the controversial and complex management differences, which vary among shoulder surgeons in the United Kingdom.

  7. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Second quarterly progress report, October--December 1975. [Contains literature survey on vortex gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzer, R. C.; George, P. E.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    This project is concerned with the production of power and synthesis gases from pulverized coal via suspension gasification. A literature review concerning the vortex type gasifier has been completed and a survey concerning the confined jet gasifier is underway. Preliminary design of the vortex gasifier is nearing completion. Test cell and coal handling facilities are in the final stages of design and coal handling equipment has been received. A mass spectrometer has been ordered and a preliminary survey of high-temperature probes is complete.

  8. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cleft lip and palate: current status from the literature and our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Francesco; Pensiero, Stefano; Clarich, Gabriella; Guarneri, Gianni Franco; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2009-09-01

    Many years after surgical correction, a complete unilateral or bilateral cleft is inclined to show an inaesthetism often associated with functional defects. This sequela disturbs the facial growth during childhood. Across the world, each surgical school uses its own protocol, but which is the best surgical protocol for patients with cleft? The aim of this study was to present a review of international literature concerning surgical techniques for the repair of cleft lip and palate (CLP) in children and to report our personal surgical techniques in this field. We focus on the main role of the primary surgery and propose a personalized protocol therapy, depending on the severity of the cleft. On 36 patients, most of them showed unilateral CLP at birth; only 4 showed bilateral cleft. In this study, we used 36 patients without cleft but with class I occlusion for comparison purposes. Analysis of the 2 groups regarding the development of the maxillary arch and the evaluation of palatal morphology was carried out using lateral cephalograms and dental casts. The main result showed 28 patients with acceptable teeth occlusion and speech quality, a valid nasal function, and a proper aesthetic aspect. Controversy still exists regarding the optimum timing and surgical technique for CLP repair. We propose the creation of a scientific database on internationally recognized protocol as a starting point depending on the severity of the cleft, thus avoiding controversies in CLP therapeutic treatment.

  10. Rocket launcher: A novel reduction technique for posterior hip dislocations and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Michael; Phillips, Alfred; Simonian, Marcus; Flannagan, Scott

    2015-06-01

    We provide a review of literature on reduction techniques for posterior hip dislocations and present our experience with a novel technique for the reduction of acute posterior hip dislocations in the ED, 'the rocket launcher' technique. We present our results with six patients with prosthetic posterior hip dislocation treated in our rural ED. We recorded patient demographics. The technique involves placing the patient's knee over the shoulder, and holding the lower leg like a 'Rocket Launcher' allow the physician's shoulder to work as a fulcrum, in an ergonomically friendly manner for the reducer. We used Fisher's t-test for cohort analysis between reduction techniques. Of our patients, the mean age was 74 years (range 66 to 85 years). We had a 83% success rate. The one patient who the 'rocket launcher' failed in, was a hemi-arthroplasty patient who also failed all other closed techniques and needed open reduction. When compared with Allis (62% success rate), Whistler (60% success rate) and Captain Morgan (92% success rate) techniques, there was no statistically significant difference in the successfulness of the reduction techniques. There were no neurovascular or periprosthetic complications. We have described a reduction technique for posterior hip dislocations. Placing the patient's knee over the shoulder, and holding the lower leg like a 'Rocket Launcher' allow the physician's shoulder to work as a fulcrum, thus mechanically and ergonomically superior to standard techniques. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Current State of Development of Electricity-Generating Technologies: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Lenzen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is perhaps the most versatile energy carrier in modern economies, and it is therefore fundamentally linked to human and economic development. Electricity growth has outpaced that of any other fuel, leading to ever-increasing shares in the overall mix. This trend is expected to continue throughout the following decades, as large—especially rural—segments of the world population in developing countries start to climb the “energy ladder” and become connected to power grids. Electricity therefore deserves particular attention with regard to its contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, which is reflected in the ongoing development of low-carbon technologies for power generation. The focus of this updated review of electricity-generating technologies is twofold: (a to provide more technical information than is usually found in global assessments on critical technical aspects, such as variability of wind power, and (b to capture the most recent findings from the international literature. This report covers eight technologies. Seven of these are generating technologies: hydro-, nuclear, wind, photovoltaic, concentrating solar, geothermal and biomass power. The remaining technology is carbon capture and storage. This selection is fairly representative for technologies that are important in terms of their potential capacity to contribute to a low-carbon world economy.

  12. The current status of medical education literature in Chinese-language journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xie; Yanling, Chen; Jin, Chen; Bin, Chen; Xiaoli, Wan; Yuan, Lin; Huixian, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Many research articles on medical education have been published in Chinese-language journals, the majority within the past few years. However, there have been no objective studies to look at the quality of these, and their contribution to present day thinking. This study explored the areas of focus, and the quality, of published research on Chinese undergraduate medical education. We searched three major Chinese databases, including Chinese Biology Medicine in electronic form, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and Chinese Technological Periodicals Database, to trace the research themes and methodologies of Chinese-language research papers published from January 2000 to December 2008. The annual number of published articles on undergraduate medical education research has increased over time in China, with 70% of the articles in our 9-year study published in the past 4 years; the most popular theme was curriculum and teaching. Non-comparative studies accounted for the majority of the literature (84.6%); and comparative studies were rare. Although an increase in the number of articles on medical education research in China is encouraging, more methodologically rigorous designs are needed to improve research quality. Generic and focused training on research methodology is essential to convert quantity into quality.

  13. Disorders of orgasm in women: a literature review of etiology and current treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Bokarius, Anna; Jeffrey, Jessica K; Davis, Michael C; Bakhta, Yekaterina

    2010-10-01

    Disorders of orgasm in women, defined as the persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm, affect up to a quarter of the female population. To review existing research findings on the etiology and treatments of disorders of orgasm in women to provide a useful reference tool for clinicians who evaluate and treat patients with these conditions. PubMed and PsycINFO search for articles published between 1980 and 2009 using the keywords "orgasm*,"anorgasmia," and "female*,"woman," or "women," in addition to "female orgasmic disorder" and "disorders of orgasm in women." Findings on the etiological factors and effects of a variety of treatment interventions on improving disorders of orgasm in women. Results.  Literature on prevalence and causes of disorders of orgasm in women is abundant, yet more reports of successful treatments are needed. Nevertheless, many promising approaches have been suggested, and data support several potential treatments such as bupropion, sildenafil, estrogen, and testosterone among others. Although more research is needed to better understand and manage disorders of orgasm in women, significant progress is being made. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Critical review of the current literature on the safety of sucralose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene A; Roberts, Ashley; Nestmann, Earle R

    2017-08-01

    Sucralose is a non-caloric high intensity sweetener that is approved globally for use in foods and beverages. This review provides an updated summary of the literature addressing the safety of use of sucralose. Studies reviewed include chemical characterization and stability, toxicokinetics in animals and humans, assessment of genotoxicity, and animal and human feeding studies. Endpoints evaluated include effects on growth, development, reproduction, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity and overall health status. Human clinical studies investigated potential effects of repeated consumption in individuals with diabetes. Recent studies on the safety of sucralose focused on carcinogenic potential and the effect of sucralose on the gut microflora are reviewed. Following the discovery of sweet taste receptors in the gut and studies investigating the activation of these receptors by sucralose lead to numerous human clinical studies assessing the effect of sucralose on overall glycemic control. Estimated daily intakes of sucralose in different population subgroups, including recent studies on children with special dietary needs, consistently find that the intakes of sucralose in all members of the population remain well below the acceptable daily intake. Collectively, critical review of the extensive database of research demonstrates that sucralose is safe for its intended use as a non-caloric sugar alternative. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Balancing selection on immunity genes: review of the current literature and new analysis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Myriam; Živković, Daniel; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Balancing selection has been widely assumed to be an important evolutionary force, yet even today little is known about its abundance and its impact on the patterns of genetic diversity. Several studies have shown examples of balancing selection in humans, plants or parasites, and many genes under balancing selection are involved in immunity. It has been proposed that host-parasite coevolution is one of the main forces driving immune genes to evolve under balancing selection. In this paper, we review the literature on balancing selection on immunity genes in several organisms, including Drosophila. Furthermore, we performed a genome scan for balancing selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster using coalescent simulations of a demographic model with and without selection. We find very few genes under balancing selection and only one novel candidate gene related to immunity. Finally, we discuss the possible causes of the low number of genes under balancing selection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation induced oral mucositis: a review of current literature on prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Supriya; Benson, Rony; Rath, G K

    2016-09-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a major limiting acute side effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. The spectrum of problems associated with mucositis includes oral pain, odynophagia, reduced oral intake, and secondary infections. Incidence of mucositis is increased with addition of concurrent chemotherapy as well as altered fractionation schedules. This leads to treatment interruption and suboptimal disease control. Hence, prevention as well as timely management of OM is necessary for optimum tumor control. We reviewed the English literature with key words "Radiation induced mucositis, Mucositis, Oral Mucositis" to find relevant articles describing incidence, pathophysiology, prophylaxis, and treatment of oral mucositis. Prevention and treatment of OM is an active area of research. Maintenance of oral hygiene is an important part in prevention of OM. A battery of agents including normal saline and alkali (soda bicarbonate) mouth washes, low level laser therapy, and benzydamine (non-steroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory) have effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of radiation induced oral mucositis. Chlorhexidine mouth gargles are recommended for prevention of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis but is not recommended for radiotherapy associated mucositis. Treatment of co-existing infection is also important and both topical (povidone iodine) and systemic anti fungals should be used judiciously. Radiation induced oral mucositis is a common problem limiting the efficacy of radiation by increasing treatment breaks. Adequate prophylaxis and treatment may limit the severity of radiation mucositis and improve compliance to radiation which may translate in better disease control and survival.

  17. Current trends and emerging future of indocyanine green usage in surgery and oncology: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, Karol; Murawa, Dawid; Rho, Young-Soo; Nowaczyk, Piotr; Hünerbein, Michael; Murawa, Pawel

    2011-11-01

    Ever since Kitai first performed fluorescent navigation of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) using indocyanine green (ICG) dye with a charge-couple device and light emitting diodes, the intraoperative use of near infrared fluorescence has served a critical role in increasing our understanding in various fields of surgical oncology. Here the authors review the emerging role of the ICG fluorophore in the development of our comprehension of the lymphatic system and its use in SLN mapping and biopsy in various cancers. In addition, they introduce the novel role of ICG-guided video angiography as a new intraoperative method of assessing microvascular circulation. The authors attempt to discuss the promising potential in addition to assessing several challenges and limitations in the context of specific surgical procedures and ICG as a whole. PubMed and Medline literature databases were searched for ICG use in clinical surgical settings. Despite ICG's significant impact in various fields of surgical oncology, ICG is still in its nascent stages, and more in-depth studies need to be carried out to fully evaluate its potential and limitations. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  18. Effects of colchicine on pericardial diseases: a review of the literature and current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Raza Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine, extracted from the colchicum autumnale plant, used by the ancient Greeks more than 20 centuries ago, is one of the most ancient drugs still prescribed even today. The major mechanism of action is binding to microtubules thereby interfering with mitosis and subsequent modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. Colchicine has long been of interest in the treatment of cardiovascular disease; however, its efficacy and safety profile for specific conditions have been variably established in the literature. In the subset of pericardial diseases, colchicine has been shown to be effective in recurrent pericarditis and post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS. The future course of treatment and management will therefore highly depend on the results of the ongoing large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of colchicine for the primary prevention of several postoperative complications and in the perioperative period. Also, given the positive preliminary outcomes of colchicine usage in pericardial effusions, the future therapeutical use of colchicine looks promising. Further study is needed to clarify its role in these disease states, as well as explore other its role in other cardiovascular conditions.

  19. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, “evaporite” refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where “salt” can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  20. Vibration Feature Extraction and Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery-A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Riaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance of rotating machinery in all industrial applications are the main concerns. Rotating machines are widely used in various industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery faults are very important and often complex and labor-intensive. Feature extraction techniques play a vital role for a reliable, effective and efficient feature extraction for the diagnosis of rotating machinery. Therefore, developing effective bearing fault diagnostic method using different fault features at different steps becomes more attractive. Bearings are widely used in medical applications, food processing industries, semi-conductor industries, paper making industries and aircraft components. This paper review has demonstrated that the latest reviews applied to rotating machinery on the available a variety of vibration feature extraction. Generally literature is classified into two main groups: frequency domain, time frequency analysis. However, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machine vibration signal processing methods to present their own limitations. In practice, most healthy ingredients faulty vibration signal from background noise and mechanical vibration signals are buried. This paper also reviews that how the advanced signal processing methods, empirical mode decomposition and interference cancellation algorithm has been investigated and developed. The condition for rotating machines based rehabilitation, prevent failures increase the availability and reduce the cost of maintenance is becoming necessary too. Rotating machine fault detection and diagnostics in developing algorithms signal processing based on a key problem is the fault feature extraction or quantification. Currently, vibration signal, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machinery based techniques most widely used techniques. Furthermore, the researchers are widely interested to make automatic

  1. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Refractory Ceramics Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Stephen; Whitten, Mary C.; Trejo, David; Zidek, Jason; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ceramics can be defmed as a material consisting of hard brittle properties produced from inorganic and nonmetallic minerals made by firing at high temperatures. These materials are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements and are either totally ionic, or predominately ionic but having some covalent character. This definition allows for a large range of materials, not all applicable to refractory applications. As this report is focused on potential ceramic materials for high temperature, aggressive exposure applications, the ceramics reviewed as part of this report will focus on refractory ceramics specifically designed and used for these applications. Ceramic materials consist of a wide variety of products. Callister (2000) 1 characterized ceramic materials into six classifications: glasses, clay products, refractories, cements, abrasives, and advanced ceramics. Figure 1 shows this classification system. This review will focus mainly on refractory ceramics and cements as in general, the other classifications are neither applicable nor economical for use in large structures such as the flame trench. Although much work has been done in advanced ceramics over the past decade or so, these materials are likely cost prohibitive and would have to be fabricated off-site, transported to the NASA facilities, and installed, which make these even less feasible. Although the authors reviewed the literature on advanced ceramic refractories 2 center dot 3 center dot 4 center dot 5 center dot 6 center dot 7 center dot 8 center dot 9 center dot 10 center dot 11 center dot 12 after the review it was concluded that these materials should not be ' the focus of this report. A review is in progress on materials and systems for prefabricated refractory ceramic panels, but this review is focusing more on typical refractory materials for prefabricated systems, which could make the system more economically feasible. Refractory ceramics are used for a wide variety of applications

  2. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  3. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  4. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  5. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  6. Breast reconstruction with anatomical implants: A review of indications and techniques based on current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gardani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One important modality of breast cancer therapy is surgical treatment, which has become increasingly less mutilating over the last century. Breast reconstruction has become an integrated part of breast cancer treatment due to long-term psychosexual health factors and its importance for breast cancer survivors. Both autogenous tissue-based and implant-based reconstruction provides satisfactory reconstructive options due to better surgeon awareness of “the ideal breast size”, although each has its own advantages and disadvantages. An overview of the current options in breast reconstruction is presented in this article.

  7. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  8. Emerging poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in the aquatic environment: A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) comprise a group of synthetic organic surfactants with a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. A few PFASs such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are now known to be ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. They have become a global concern because of the toxicity and bioaccumulative properties. With the increasing availability of high-resolution mass spectrometers, many novel PFASs have been identified. Studies published between 2009 and 2017 have discovered 455 new PFASs (including nine fully and 446 partially fluorinated compounds), 45%, 29%, 17%, and 8% of which are anions, zwitterions, cations, and neutrals, respectively. They have been identified in natural waters, fish, sediments, wastewater, activated sludge, soils, aqueous film-forming foams, and commercial fluoropolymer surfactants. This article integrates and critically evaluates what is known about these newly identified PFASs. It discusses the different aspects of detection methodologies. It also surveys the removal of these compounds during conventional and advanced drinking-water and wastewater treatment, predicts the relevant physicochemical properties by means of four software programs, and identifies major knowledge gaps. Notably, a number of these newly identified PFASs are potential precursor compounds of PFOS and PFOA. Studies are critically needed to understand the removal and transformation of these compounds in natural and engineered environmental systems and their contribution, if any, to the secondary formation of PFOS and PFOA in these systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  10. Acute Effects of Dynamic Stretching on Muscle Flexibility and Performance: An Analysis of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opplert, Jules; Babault, Nicolas

    2017-10-23

    Stretching has long been used in many physical activities to increase range of motion (ROM) around a joint. Stretching also has other acute effects on the neuromuscular system. For instance, significant reductions in maximal voluntary strength, muscle power or evoked contractile properties have been recorded immediately after a single bout of static stretching, raising interest in other stretching modalities. Thus, the effects of dynamic stretching on subsequent muscular performance have been questioned. This review aimed to investigate performance and physiological alterations following dynamic stretching. There is a substantial amount of evidence pointing out the positive effects on ROM and subsequent performance (force, power, sprint and jump). The larger ROM would be mainly attributable to reduced stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit, while the improved muscular performance to temperature and potentiation-related mechanisms caused by the voluntary contraction associated with dynamic stretching. Therefore, if the goal of a warm-up is to increase joint ROM and to enhance muscle force and/or power, dynamic stretching seems to be a suitable alternative to static stretching. Nevertheless, numerous studies reporting no alteration or even performance impairment have highlighted possible mitigating factors (such as stretch duration, amplitude or velocity). Accordingly, ballistic stretching, a form of dynamic stretching with greater velocities, would be less beneficial than controlled dynamic stretching. Notwithstanding, the literature shows that inconsistent description of stretch procedures has been an important deterrent to reaching a clear consensus. In this review, we highlight the need for future studies reporting homogeneous, clearly described stretching protocols, and propose a clarified stretching terminology and methodology.

  11. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiberg, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3–168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5–33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22–34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  12. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project: a reappraisal of the current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez‐Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida‐Mohien, Ceereena; Fabbri, Elisa; Scalzo, Paul; Højlund, Kurt; Dufresne, Craig; Lyashkov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and analysed publically available protein databases. A systematic search of peer‐reviewed studies was performed using PubMed. Search terms included ‘human’, ‘skeletal muscle’, ‘proteome’, ‘proteomic(s)’, and ‘mass spectrometry’, ‘liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS)’. A catalogue of 5431 non‐redundant muscle proteins identified by mass spectrometry‐based proteomics from 38 peer‐reviewed scientific publications from 2002 to November 2015 was created. We also developed a nosology system for the classification of muscle proteins based on localization and function. Such inventory of proteins should serve as a useful background reference for future research on changes in muscle proteome assessed by quantitative mass spectrometry‐based proteomic approaches that occur with ageing and diseases. This classification and compilation of the human skeletal muscle proteome can be used for the identification and quantification of proteins in skeletal muscle to discover new mechanisms for sarcopenia and specific muscle diseases that can be targeted for the prevention and treatment. PMID:27897395

  13. The management of cellulitis and erysipelas at an academic emergency department: current practice versus the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W. Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulitis and erysipelas are common presentations to emergency departments and family physicians. Evidence-based guidelines for appropriate management of these infections exist in Canada, but inconsistent practices persist. Our objective was to determine the level of adherence to current evidence and guidelines by emergency physicians at the two hospitals in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. We identified all of the electronic medical records of patients who were seen at Kingston General Hospital or Hotel Dieu Hospital between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2015 and given a diagnosis of cellulitis or erysipelas. We randomly selected 182 charts and conducted a retrospective chart review, manually collecting data for patient demographics, medical history, and medical management. Oral cephalexin alone was given to 44% of our sample, and it was the most common form of therapy for uncomplicated cellulitis. 36% of patients given any antibiotics at all received at least one dose of parenteral antibiotics, despite only 6.7% of these patients showing systemic signs of illness. 88% of those receiving parenteral antibiotics received ceftriaxone, a broad-spectrum, third generation cephalosporin. We found wide variation in antibiotic selection and route of administration for patients presenting to the emergency department with cellulitis or erysipelas. Overuse of antibiotics is common, and we believe the use of parenteral antibiotics may have been unnecessary for some patients in our sample. Emergency physicians should align their management plans more closely with the current guidelines to improve practice and reduce unnecessary administration of broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics.

  14. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the past year, the number of publications on myofascial pain continues to increase in a steady rate. The current review includes 30 basic and clinical studies, case reports, reviews, and reports from fifteen different countries about trigger points (TrP), myofascial pain (MP), dry needling (DN) and other related interventions. We are pleased that during 2015 this article made the top 15 of most downloaded articles as many as three times! In general, the quality of published papers is improving as well. Nevertheless, several papers included in this overview, mention the application of "ischemic compression", which is a questionable concept in the context of TrP inactivation. As we have outlined previously, in the current thinking about myofascial pain, TrPs feature significant hypoxia and a lowered pH (Ballyns et al., 2011; Shah and Gilliams, 2008), and attempts to induce more ischemia would be counterproductive. Already in 1999, Simons, Travell and Simons changed the terminology from ischemic compression to TrP compression (Simons et al., 1999) and we recommend that contemporary researchers and clinicians adopt the new terminology and stop using the term "ischemic compression." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occlusion for implant-supported fixed dental prostheses in partially edentulous patients: a literature review and current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2013-04-01

    Implant treatment has become the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth in partially edentulous areas. Dental implants present different biological and biomechanical characteristics than natural teeth. Occlusion is considered to be one of the most important factors contributing to implant success. Most literature on implant occlusal concepts is based on expert opinion, anecdotal experiences, in vitro and animal studies, and only limited clinical research. Furthermore, scientific literature regarding implant occlusion, particularly in implant-supported fixed dental prostheses remains controversial. In this study, the current status of implant occlusion was reviewed and discussed. Further randomized clinical research to investigate the correlation between implant occlusion, the implant success rate, and its risk factors is warranted to determine best clinical practices.

  17. Sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Summary of literature survey and concept analysis, task 3 report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennethum, W. H.; Sherwood, L. T.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a literature survey and concept analysis related to sensing techniques for measuring of surface temperature, strain, and heat flux for (non-specific) ceramic materials exposed to elevated temperatures (to 2200 K) are summarized. Concepts capable of functioning in a gas turbine hot section environment are favored but others are reviewed also. Recommendation are made for sensor development in each of the three areas.

  18. Rip current evidence by hydrodynamic simulations, bathymetric surveys and UAV observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Budillon, Giorgio; De Stefano, Massimo; Di Luccio, Diana; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Montella, Raffaele; Mucerino, Luigi; Sica, Mario; Pennetta, Micla

    2017-09-01

    The prediction of the formation, spacing and location of rip currents is a scientific challenge that can be achieved by means of different complementary methods. In this paper the analysis of numerical and experimental data, including RPAS (remotely piloted aircraft systems) observations, allowed us to detect the presence of rip currents and rip channels at the mouth of Sele River, in the Gulf of Salerno, southern Italy. The dataset used to analyze these phenomena consisted of two different bathymetric surveys, a detailed sediment analysis and a set of high-resolution wave numerical simulations, completed with Google EarthTM images and RPAS observations. The grain size trend analysis and the numerical simulations allowed us to identify the rip current occurrence, forced by topographically constrained channels incised on the seabed, which were compared with observations.

  19. LITERATURE SURVEY ON EXISTING POWER SAVING ROUTING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING NETWORK LIFE TIME IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mariyappan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a special type of wireless network in which a collection of wireless mobile devices (called also nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the need of any pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Currently, Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs play a significant role in university campus, advertisement, emergency response, disaster recovery, military use in battle fields, disaster management scenarios, in sensor network, and so on. However, wireless network devices, especially in ad hoc networks, are typically battery-powered. Thus, energy efficiency is a critical issue for battery-powered mobile devices in ad hoc networks. This is due to the fact that failure of node or link allows re-routing and establishing a new path from source to destination which creates extra energy consumption of nodes and sparse network connectivity, leading to a more likelihood occurrences of network partition. Routing based on energy related parameters is one of the important solutions to extend the lifetime of the node and reduce energy consumption of the network. In this paper detail literature survey on existing energy efficient routing method are studied and compared for their performance under different condition. The result has shown that both the broadcast schemes and energy aware metrics have great potential in overcoming the broadcast storm problem associated with flooding. However, the performances of these approaches rely on either the appropriate selection of the broadcast decision parameter or an energy efficient path. In the earlier proposed broadcast methods, the forwarding probability is selected based on fixed probability or number of neighbors regardless of nodes battery capacity whereas in energy aware schemes energy inefficient node could be part of an established path. Therefore, in an attempt to remedy the paucity of research and to address the gaps identified in this area, a study

  20. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Angell, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  1. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in diabetic foot infection. A current literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Pantzaris, Nikolaos-Dimitrios; Platanaki, Christina; Antonopoulou, Nikolina; Gogos, Charalampos

    2017-10-11

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a very common cause of mortality and morbidity. The distinction between infected and non-infected DFU remains a very challenging task for clinicians in everyday practice. Even when infection is documented, the spectrum of diabetic foot infection is wide, ranging from cellulitis and soft tissue infection to osteomyelitis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a well-established sepsis biomarker, has been used in the diagnosis of several infections including osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review gathers and presents all the relevant data, up until now, regarding the use of PCT as an assessment tool in diabetic patients with foot infection. Current evidence suggests that PCT levels could aid clinicians in distinguishing infected from non-infected DFUs as well as in the distinction between soft tissue infection and bone involvement, but further and larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  2. A Map of Current Research Trends within Technology Management in the Light of Selected Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudanowska Alicja Ewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the analysis conducted and described in this article was to take a closer perspective of the contemporary research trends that refer to the discipline of technology management. The Author based the analysis on keywords defined by the authors of the publications that refer issues of technology management. Scopus was the database which provided data for the analysis. The Author focused on publications indexed in the selected database in 2011-2016. The resulting database keywords have been ordered and partially aggregated. Based on them, the VOSviewer tool was used to prepare a graphical presentation of frequency and co-occurrence with the rest of the analysed group. The analysis led to an indication of current research trends within the discipline of technology management.

  3. Access to the Historical and Current Astronomical Literature Through the NASA Astrophysics Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.

    The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is the search system of choice for Astronomers world-wide. The searchable database contains over 2.5 million records. In addition the ADS has over 2 million scanned article pages from about 270,000 articles, dating back as far as 1829. There are currently more than 10,000 regular users (more than 10 queries/month). ADS users issue almost 1 million queries per month and receive 30 million records and 1.2 million scanned article pages per month. The ADS is accessed from almost 100 countries with a wide range of the number of queries per country. Approximately 1/3 of the use is from the USA, 1/3 from Europe, and 1/3 from the rest of the world. In order to improve access from different parts of the world, we maintain 9 mirror sites of the ADS in Brazil, Chile, China, England, France, Germany, India, Japan, and Russia. Automatic procedures facilitate keeping these mirror sites up-to-date over the network. Both the search system and the scanned articles in the ADS can be accessed through email. Email can be used by users that are on slow or unreliable Internet connections. It allows access to the ADS for people who do not have a connection that is good enough to use a web browser. We are currently in the process of developing a stand-alone ADS system that can be updated through DVDs. This would provide access to the capabilities of the ADS from sites that do not have any Internet access at all. The capacity of hard disk drives is sufficiently large by now to store a complete ADS system on one large disk. The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NCC5-189

  4. Disease-specific cardiovascular positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging: a brief review of the current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is a new imaging tool that has garnered immense research interest for its potentials to assist clinical investigations. PET/MR combines the quantitative measurement of PET with dynamic functional and anatomic assessment of MR and can deliver a robust clinical examination. Currently, simultaneous cardiovascular PET/MR imaging remains in the pre-clinical research stage, and most institutions have not adopted a clinical PET/MR clinical imaging service. Nevertheless, PET/MR examination has unique promises in several areas of cardiovascular medicine, and in recent years more and more research publications have become available to lend us insight into its utility in cardiovascular imaging. Here we review the existing literature on simultaneous cardiovascular PET/MR imaging, with an emphasis on organizing the current literature into disease-specific discussions. These areas include coronary artery disease (CAD), carotid atherosclerosis, various infiltrative, inflammatory and hereditary heart diseases, myocarditis, vasculitis, and cardiac mass assessment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of cardiovascular PET/MR clinical imaging, in a disease-specific manner, from a clinician’s perspective. Potential limitations of simultaneous PET/MR, such as cost effectiveness, artifacts, contraindications, and radiation exposure, are briefly discussed. PMID:27429913

  5. Repeated surveys by acoustic Doppler current profiler for flow and sediment dynamics in a tidal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, R. L.; Burau, J. R.

    2005-11-01

    A strategy of repeated surveys by acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was applied in a tidal river to map velocity vectors and suspended-sediment indicators. The Sacramento River at the junction with the Delta Cross Channel at Walnut Grove, California, was surveyed over several tidal cycles in the Fall of 2000 and 2001 with a vessel-mounted ADCP. Velocity profiles were recorded along flow-defining survey paths, with surveys repeated every 27 min through a diurnal tidal cycle. Velocity vectors along each survey path were interpolated to a three-dimensional Cartesian grid that conformed to local bathymetry. A separate array of vectors was interpolated onto a grid from each survey. By displaying interpolated vector grids sequentially with computer animation, flow dynamics of the reach could be studied in three-dimensions as flow responded to the tidal cycle. Velocity streamtraces in the grid showed the upwelling of flow from the bottom of the Sacramento River channel into the Delta Cross Channel. The sequential display of vector grids showed that water in the canal briefly returned into the Sacramento River after peak flood tides, which had not been known previously. In addition to velocity vectors, ADCP data were processed to derive channel bathymetry and a spatial indicator for suspended-sediment concentration. Individual beam distances to bed, recorded by the ADCP, were transformed to yield bathymetry accurate enough to resolve small bedforms within the study reach. While recording velocity, ADCPs also record the intensity of acoustic backscatter from particles suspended in the flow. Sequential surveys of backscatter intensity were interpolated to grids and animated to indicate the spatial movement of suspended sediment through the study reach. Calculation of backscatter flux through cross-sectional grids provided a first step for computation of suspended-sediment discharge, the second step being a calibrated relation between backscatter intensity and sediment

  6. Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladney, E.S.

    1979-09-01

    A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured.

  7. A literature Survey on the Assessment of Microbiological Risk for Drinking Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; Havelaar AH; Medema GJ; LWL

    1994-01-01

    This literature study introduces the main ingredients of quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water: hazard analysis, exposure assessment of dose-response relations, and risk characterization. While QRA potentially rationalizes the processes of setting

  8. Disability Items From the Current Population Survey (2008-2015) and Permanent Versus Temporary Disability Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bryce; Myers, Andrew; Wong, Jennifer; Ravesloot, Craig

    2017-05-01

    To examine longitudinal responses to the disability indicator questions that have been adopted as the standard across national surveys sponsored by the US Department of Health and Human Services. Data from the Current Population Survey between 2008 and 2015 were linked to create a longitudinal sample of 721 178 individual respondents. Responses to the disability questions fluctuated significantly. Although 17% of all respondents reported a disability at some point, only 3% consistently reported the same set of disabilities. Demographic differences were found between people who always reported a consistent set of disabilities and those whose responses fluctuated. The disability questions capture 2 discrete groups: people who experience a permanent disability and those who experience a temporary disability. Demographic differences between these groups suggest that this is not simply due to measurement error.

  9. Essential literature for the chiropractic profession: Results and implementation challenges from a survey of international chiropractic faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansholt, Barbara A.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Corber, Lance G.; Stites, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scientific literature applicable to chiropractic practice proliferates in quantity, quality, and source. Chiropractic is a worldwide profession and varies in scope between states or provinces and from country to country. It is logical to consider that the focus and emphasis of chiropractic education varies between programs as well. This original research study endeavored to determine “essential literature” recommended by chiropractic faculty. The purpose of this article is (1) to share our results and (2) to promote discussion and explore means for future collaboration of chiropractic faculty through a worldwide platform. Methods: A 2-phase recruitment occurred initially at the institutional level and subsequently at the faculty level. A Web-based survey used qualitative data collection methods to gather bibliographic citations. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographics, and citation responses were ranked per number of recommendations, grouped into categories, and tabulated per journal source and publication date. Results: Forty-one chiropractic programs were contacted, resulting in 30 participating chiropractic programs (16 US and 14 international). Forty-five faculty members completed the entire survey, submitting 126 peer-reviewed publications and 25 additional citations. Readings emphasized clinical management of spine pain, the science of spinal manipulation, effectiveness of manual therapies, teaching of chiropractic techniques, outcomes assessments, and professional issues. Conclusion: A systematic approach to surveying educators in international chiropractic institutions was accomplished. The results of the survey provide a list of essential literature for the chiropractic profession. We recommend establishing a chiropractic faculty registry for improved communication and collaboration. PMID:28768114

  10. Review of the Literature on Survey Instruments Used to Collect Data on Hospital Patients' Perceptions of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G; Brown, Julie; Hepner, Kimberly A; Hays, Ron D

    2005-01-01

    Objective To review the existing literature (1980–2003) on survey instruments used to collect data on patients' perceptions of hospital care. Study Design Eight literature databases were searched (PubMED, MEDLINE Pro, MEDSCAPE, MEDLINEplus, MDX Health, CINAHL, ERIC, and JSTOR). We undertook 51 searches with each of the eight databases, for a total of 408 searches. The abstracts for each of the identified publications were examined to determine their applicability for review. Methods of Analysis For each instrument used to collect information on patient perceptions of hospital care we provide descriptive information, instrument content, implementation characteristics, and psychometric performance characteristics. Principal Findings The number of institutional settings and patients used in evaluating patient perceptions of hospital care varied greatly. The majority of survey instruments were administered by mail. Response rates varied widely from very low to relatively high. Most studies provided limited information on the psychometric properties of the instruments. Conclusions Our review reveals a diversity of survey instruments used in assessing patient perceptions of hospital care. We conclude that it would be beneficial to use a standardized survey instrument, along with standardization of the sampling, administration protocol, and mode of administration. PMID:16316435

  11. Factors Relevant to the Affective Content in Literature Survey: Implications for Designing an Adult Transformational Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Megan A.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Taylor, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Current directions in transformational learning theory incorporate the concept of emotional intelligence. The purpose of this study was to understand emotional intelligence as it relates to transformational learning by identifying factors related to individuals' emotional responses to literature. Specifically, the study investigated the…

  12. Neurology Didactic Curricula for Psychiatry Residents: A Review of the Literature and a Survey of Program Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Claudia L.; Walaszek, Art

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Minimal literature exists on neurology didactic instruction offered to psychiatry residents, and there is no model neurology didactic curriculum offered for psychiatry residency programs. The authors sought to describe the current state of neurology didactic training in psychiatry residencies. Methods: The authors electronically…

  13. Surveying the Literature and the People: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Civic Pride

    OpenAIRE

    Pete Groothuis; Kurt W. Rotthoff

    2014-01-01

    Public funds to build sports stadiums are commonly justified by the perceived economic impacts and civic pride they create for the community. Since the 1980s, there have been many studies looking at the economic impact and civic pride created by professional sports teams. Most of the literature supports the idea that economic impacts are not created, but there are mixed results on the magnitude of civic pride. Overall, most of the economic literature suggests that the benefits created by spor...

  14. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Review of the Literature and Update on Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos L; Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Budur, Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by abnormal behaviors emerging during REM sleep that may cause injury or sleep disruption. The diagnosis requires polysomnography (PSG) demonstrating a loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep. RBD results from dysfunction of the brain stem circuits responsible for maintaining normal REM sleep atonia and suppressing behaviors during REM sleep. The diagnosis of idiopathic RBD (IRBD), that is, RBD without an identifiable cause, is frequently followed years later by the development of a neurodegenerative disorder, most commonly one of the synucleinopathies. As such, RBD is often a step in the progression of a neurodegenerative disorder. In this circumstance, it is a manifestation of neurodegeneration occurring in the brain stem before spreading to adjacent and other CNS regions, resulting in the development of symptoms and signs that permit recognition of a specific neurodegenerative disorder. RBD has been linked with narcolepsy and has been associated with a variety of other disorders. The management of RBD focuses on preventive/safety measures, counseling, monitoring for the development of a neurodegenerative disorder, and pharmacotherapy, which is typically effective but not well understood. The purpose of this article is to review and update our current understanding of the clinical features, epidemiology, demographics, pathophysiology, evaluation, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, causes, associations, and the clinical management of RBD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Evidence-based exercise prescription for balance and falls prevention: a current review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Tiffany E

    2011-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and unintentional death for older adults. Balance and strength impairments are common falls risk factors for community-dwelling older adults. Though physical therapists commonly treat balance and strength, standardized falls screening has not been fully incorporated into physical therapy practice and there is much variation in the frequency, intensity, and duration of therapy prescribed to achieve optimal results. For community-dwelling older adults, a progressive exercise program that focuses on moderate to high-intensity balance exercises appears to be one of the most effective interventions to prevent falls. For more frail older adults in institutional settings, exercise programs in addition to multifactorial interventions appear to show promise as effective falls prevention interventions. The minimum dose of exercise to protect an older adult against falls is 50 hours. This article describes the current best practices for physical therapists to effectively improve balance and manage falls risk in patients. The unique challenges and opportunities for physical therapists to incorporate evidence-based fall-prevention strategies are discussed. Innovative practice models incorporating evidence-based fall-prevention programs and partnerships with public health and aging service providers to create a continuum of care and achieve the optimal dose of balance training are presented.

  16. Transdermal delivery of combined hormonal contraception: a review of the current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galzote, Rosanna M; Rafie, Sally; Teal, Rachel; Mody, Sheila K

    2017-01-01

    The transdermal patch provides an effective and convenient option for hormonal contraception. The patch currently on the US market contains 150 µg norelgestromin and 35 µg ethinylestradiol (EE). The 20 cm2 patch is applied once weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a patch-free week, for a 21–7 cycle. Typical failure rates are similar to that of combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Transdermal delivery results in less peaks and troughs of estrogen, but a higher total estrogen exposure compared with COCs. Though studies show mixed results, the risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) is about twice as high with the patch as with COCs; however, the absolute risk of VTE remains low. The side effect profile is similar to that of COCs, with slightly higher rates of breast tenderness plus a unique adverse effect of application site reactions. Two new patches have been developed, one containing gestodene and EE in Europe and another containing levonorgestrel and EE. Overall, the patch provides an alternative to COCs for women who want autonomy and the benefit of not needing to take a pill daily, with similar efficacy and tolerability. PMID:28553144

  17. [A questionnaire survey on current status of anti-diabetic therapy for diabetic patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takaya; Yajima, Ken; Sumitomo, Hidetaka; Shigeta, Masayuki; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Shirabe, Shinichiro; Sakai, Masashi; Katayama, Takashi; Kanno, Kazuo; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Nakano, Tadasumi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Ueki, Akio

    2013-01-01

    It is important to establish treatment goals and optimal anti-diabetic therapy for diabetic patients with dementia. However, there are currently no established treatment guidelines. Recently, the West Tokyo Diabetes Association has established the Diabetes and Dementia Study Group to investigate the status of anti-diabetic therapy for diabetic patients with dementia. Here, we assessed the current status of such patients by a questionnaire survey. In November 2011, we conducted a mailed survey to the clinics and hospitals affiliated with Kita-Tama, Hachioji and Tachikawa Medical Associations in Tokyo, Japan. The survey evaluated the most suitable anti-diabetic therapy for elderly diabetic patients or diabetic patients with dementia, combined anti-diabetic therapy, insulin therapy for elderly diabetic patients and diabetic patients with dementia, combination therapy of insulin and oral anti-diabetic agents for diabetic patients with dementia, factors that make it difficult for diabetic patients with dementia to continue insulin therapy, and selection of treatment or care for diabetic patients with dementia. The responses indicated that the anti-diabetic agents appropriate for diabetic patients with dementia are dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Those inappropriate for the same patients are metformin and insulin. Family support was a major factor for insulin therapy continuation for diabetic patients with dementia. Moreover, anti-diabetic agents for these patients are selected according to their ease of use and compatibility with available familial and social resources. Our survey results can be utilized for the creation of new guidelines and educational resources for the anti-diabetic therapy of diabetic patients with dementia.

  18. Conservative management of mallet injuries: A national survey of current practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkien, Z; Potter, S; Burr, N; Gardiner, M D; Blazeby, J M; Jain, A; Henderson, J

    2017-07-01

    Mallet injuries are common and usually treated conservatively. Various systematic reviews have found a lack of evidence regarding the best management, and it is unclear whether this uncertainty is reflected in current UK practice. An online survey was developed to determine the current practice for the conservative treatment of mallet injury among specialist hand clinicians in the UK, including physiotherapists, occupational therapists and surgeons. Clinician's views of study outcome selection were also explored to improve future trials. In total, 336 professionals completed the survey. Inconsistency in overall practice was observed in splint type choice, time to discharge to GP, and assessment of adherence. Greater consistency was observed for recommended duration of continuous immobilisation. Bony injuries were most commonly splinted for 6 weeks (n = 228, 78%) and soft tissue injuries for either 8 weeks (n = 172, 56%) or 6 weeks (n = 119, 39%). Post-immobilisation splinting was frequently recommended, but duration varied between 2 and 10 weeks. The outcome rated as most important by all clinicians was patient satisfaction. There is overall variation in the current UK conservative management of mallet injuries, and the development of a standardised, evidence-based protocol is required. Clinicians' opinions may be used to develop a core set of outcome measures, which will improve standardisation and comparability of future trials. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A survey of current state of training of plastic surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Asra; Khan, Faraz A; Herman, Floyd; Narasimhan, Nathan; Khan, Shaher; Kubiak, Carrie; Gursel, Eti; Edelman, David A

    2017-06-27

    Plastic surgery training is undergoing major changes however there is paucity of data detailing the current state of training as perceived by plastic surgical trainees. Our aim was to determine the quality of training as perceived by the current trainee pool and their future plans. A 25-item anonymous survey with three discrete sections (demographics, quality of training, and post-graduate career plans) was developed and distributed to plastic surgery residents during the academic year 2013. With the confidence interval of 95% and margin of error of 10%, our target response rate was 87 responders. We received a total of 114 respondents with all levels of Post Graduate Year in training represented. Upon comparison of residents with debt of 250,000, those with higher debt were significantly less interested in fellowship training (p value 0.05) and were more likely to pursue private practice (p value plastic surgery least offered as a separate rotation were microsurgery (45%) followed by aesthetic surgery (33%). 53.7% of the residents felt that they were least trained in aesthetic surgery followed by burn surgery 45.4%. Of note 56.4% intended to seek additional training after residency. Moreover residents with an average of 6.4 months of experience in an individual subspecialty were more likely to feel comfortable with that specialty. This survey highlights the areas and subspecialties that deserve attention as perceived by the current trainee pool.

  20. Transdermal delivery of combined hormonal contraception: a review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galzote RM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosanna M Galzote,1 Sally Rafie,2 Rachel Teal,1 Sheila K Mody1 1Section of Family Planning, Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Pharmacy, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The transdermal patch provides an effective and convenient option for hormonal contraception. The patch currently on the US market contains 150 µg norelgestromin and 35 µg ethinylestradiol (EE. The 20 cm2 patch is applied once weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a patch-free week, for a 21–7 cycle. Typical failure rates are similar to that of combined oral contraceptives (COCs. Transdermal delivery results in less peaks and troughs of estrogen, but a higher total estrogen exposure compared with COCs. Though studies show mixed results, the risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE is about twice as high with the patch as with COCs; however, the absolute risk of VTE remains low. The side effect profile is similar to that of COCs, with slightly higher rates of breast tenderness plus a unique adverse effect of application site reactions. Two new patches have been developed, one containing gestodene and EE in Europe and another containing levonorgestrel and EE. Overall, the patch provides an alternative to COCs for women who want autonomy and the benefit of not needing to take a pill daily, with similar efficacy and tolerability. Keywords: contraceptive patch, Ortho-Evra, transdermal, levonorgestrel patch, gestodene patch, hormonal patch 

  1. Current status of implant prosthetics in Japan: a survey among certified dental lab technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki; Narita, Tatsuya; Shioda, Yohei; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Ikeda, Takayuki; Namaki, Shunsuke; Salinas, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    There are many implant cases in which dental technicians take initiative with regard to the design of implant prostheses, and to a certain extent, this area of care is one in which dentists do not necessarily play the leading role. Moreover, inadequate communication between dental technicians and dentists and insufficient instructions for technicians has been highlighted as issues in the past. The purpose of this questionnaire is to improve the quality of implant prostheses and thereby contribute to patient service by clarifying, among other aspects of treatment, problem areas and considerations in the fabrication of implant prostheses, conceptual-level knowledge, and awareness of prosthodontics on the part of the dentists in charge of treatment and methods for preventing prosthetic complications. A cross-sectional survey was given to 120 certified dental technicians. To facilitate coverage of a broad range of topics, we classified the survey content into the following four categories and included detailed questions for (1) the conditions under which implant technicians work, (2) implant fixed prostheses, (3) implant overdentures, and (4) prosthetic complications. Out of 120 surveys sent, 74 technicians responded resulting in a response rate of 61.6%. This survey served to clarify the current state of implant prosthodontics, issues, and considerations in the fabrication of implant prostheses, and the state of prosthetic complications and preventive initiatives, all from a laboratory perspective. The results of this survey suggested that, to fabricate prostheses with a high level of predictability, functional utility, and aesthetic satisfaction, it is necessary to reaffirm the importance for dentists to increase their prosthetic knowledge and work together with dental technicians to develop comprehensive treatment plans, implement an organized approach to prosthesis design, and accomplish occlusal reconstruction.

  2. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection of the liver mimicking malignancy: Presentation of a new case and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoulis, Nikolaos; Zerbinis, Helen; Simatos, Georgios; Nisiotis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis or "pinworm" infection of the liver is an extremely rare condition with only five cases previously reported in literature. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas in the liver with a necrotic core, containing adult helminthes or their ova. Because of the relatively mild symptomatology associated with this disease, prior to the arrival of modern imaging methods hepatic enterobiasis was an incidental intra-operative finding during abdominal surgery for other conditions. In recent years however, with high-resolution abdominal imaging readily available and the improved safety of hepatic resection, a lower threshold for treating suspicious hepatic nodules aggressively with surgery is being adopted. We present the second case in international literature, where E. vermicularis of the liver was mistaken for malignancy and led to hepatic resection and perform a literature review of the five previously documented cases of hepatic enterobiasis. Our report identifies certain trends in this condition's aetiology and clinical behaviour, but due to its rarity definitive answers cannot yet be established. We do not advocate a change in the current approach of suspicious hepatic nodules, but we do feel that better understanding of the mechanisms involved with hepatic enterobiasis could, in the future, prevent unnecessary surgery.

  3. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...... to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated...

  4. Research on road traffic noise and human health in India: Review of literature from 1991 to current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on research conducted during the last two decades on traffic noise impacts in India. Road traffic noise studies in India are fewer and restricted only to the metropolitan areas. The studies over the years have also focused on the monitoring, recording, analysis, modeling, and to some extent mapping related themes. Negligible studies are observed in areas of physiological and sleep research exposure-effect context. Most impact studies have been associated with annoyance and attitudinal surveys only. Little scientific literature exists related to effects of traffic noise on human physiology in the Indian context. The findings of this review search and analysis observe that very little studies are available relating to traffic noise and health impacts. All of them are subjective response studies and only a small portion of them quantify the exposure-effect chain and model the noise index with annoyance. The review of papers showed that road traffic noise is a cause for annoyance to a variety of degree among the respondents. A generalization of impacts and meta-analysis was not possible due to variability of the study designs and outputs preferred.

  5. Geriatric psychiatry in the psychiatry clerkship: a survey of current education practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Susan W; Blazek, Mary C; Popeo, Dennis M

    2015-06-01

    The aging of the US population and shortage of geriatric psychiatrists mean that all medical students must be prepared to evaluate psychiatric symptoms in older patients. The authors sought to describe current geriatric psychiatry teaching practices during the psychiatry clerkship. Psychiatry clerkship directors at 110 American medical schools were surveyed about didactic and clinical experiences of geriatric psychiatry. Sixty-two (56 %) of programs responded. One fifth of programs lacked specific instruction in geriatric psychiatry. Programs were more likely to include instruction on dementia than late-life depression. Increased geriatric psychiatry educational offerings were associated with the following: number of geriatric psychiatrists on faculty, presence of a geriatric psychiatrist on the medical education committee, and inclusion of geriatric psychiatry specific items in clerkship learning objectives. Current practices in some clerkships are inadequate to prepare medical students to care for older patients with psychiatric symptoms.

  6. Literature Survey on Interaction Design and Existing Software Applications for Dyslectic Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangeli, Panagiota; Stage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    their reading skills. For the purpose of this research, we initially collected 175 studies, from which we selected, reviewed and made an overview table of 71 studies organized by areas of attention. The literature research on interaction design of systems for dyslectic users resulted in a presentation...... and comparison of interaction design parameters. This process indicated common dimensions and elements among IxD parameters supporting users in improving their reading skills. Finally, reviewed studies on existing software applications resulted in a focus on improving dyslectics’ reading performance. Our results......The purpose of this study is a literature research on interaction design and existing software applications for dyslectic users. This literature research will contribute a future empirical study on how we could design a reading software application together with dyslectic users to enhance...

  7. Literature Survey on Interaction Design and Existing Software Applications for Dyslectic Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangeli, Panagiota; Stage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    their reading skills. For the purpose of this research, we initially collected 175 studies, from which we selected, reviewed and made an overview table of 71 studies organized by areas of attention. The literature research on interaction design of systems for dyslectic users resulted in a presentation......The purpose of this study is a literature research on interaction design and existing software applications for dyslectic users. This literature research will contribute a future empirical study on how we could design a reading software application together with dyslectic users to enhance...... and comparison of interaction design parameters. This process indicated common dimensions and elements among IxD parameters supporting users in improving their reading skills. Finally, reviewed studies on existing software applications resulted in a focus on improving dyslectics’ reading performance. Our results...

  8. A Survey of Bioinformatics Database and Software Usage through Mining the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraint Duck

    Full Text Available Computer-based resources are central to much, if not most, biological and medical research. However, while there is an ever expanding choice of bioinformatics resources to use, described within the biomedical literature, little work to date has provided an evaluation of the full range of availability or levels of usage of database and software resources. Here we use text mining to process the PubMed Central full-text corpus, identifying mentions of databases or software within the scientific literature. We provide an audit of the resources contained within the biomedical literature, and a comparison of their relative usage, both over time and between the sub-disciplines of bioinformatics, biology and medicine. We find that trends in resource usage differs between these domains. The bioinformatics literature emphasises novel resource development, while database and software usage within biology and medicine is more stable and conservative. Many resources are only mentioned in the bioinformatics literature, with a relatively small number making it out into general biology, and fewer still into the medical literature. In addition, many resources are seeing a steady decline in their usage (e.g., BLAST, SWISS-PROT, though some are instead seeing rapid growth (e.g., the GO, R. We find a striking imbalance in resource usage with the top 5% of resource names (133 names accounting for 47% of total usage, and over 70% of resources extracted being only mentioned once each. While these results highlight the dynamic and creative nature of bioinformatics research they raise questions about software reuse, choice and the sharing of bioinformatics practice. Is it acceptable that so many resources are apparently never reused? Finally, our work is a step towards automated extraction of scientific method from text. We make the dataset generated by our study available under the CC0 license here: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1281371.

  9. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-04-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices.

  10. Social Media Use Among Living Kidney Donors and Recipients: Survey on Current Practice and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazley, Abby Swanson; Hamidi, Bashir; Balliet, Wendy; Baliga, Prabhakar

    2016-12-20

    In the United States, there is a national shortage of organs donated for transplant. Among the solid organs, most often kidneys are donated by living donors, but the lack of information and complicated processes limit the number of individuals who serve as living kidney donors. Social media can be a tool for advocacy, educating the public about the need, process, and outcomes of live kidney donors, yet little is known about social media use by kidney transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the social media use of potential kidney transplant patients and their willingness to use social media and their networks to advocate and educate about living kidney donation. Using a validated survey, we modified the instrument to apply to the patient population of interest attending the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. The questions on the survey inquired about current social media use, sites visited, frequency and duration of social media use, and willingness to use social media to share the need for living kidney donors. We asked patients who had received a transplant and those awaiting a transplant to complete the survey during an office visit. Participation was voluntary. A total of 199 patients completed the survey. Approximately half of all kidney transplant patients surveyed used social media (104/199, 52.3%), and approximately one-third (66/199, 33.2%) had more than 100 friends in their social media network. Facebook was the most popular site, and 51% (102/199) reported that they would be willing to post information about living kidney donation on their social networks. More than a quarter of the sample (75/199, 37.7%) had posted about their health status in the past. Social media holds great promise for health-related education and awareness. Our study shows the current social media use of kidney transplant patients. In turn, such information can be used to design interventions to ensure appropriate decision making about

  11. The current provision of community-based teaching in UK medical schools: an online survey and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors' knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for 'Tomorrow's Doctors', a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed in a consistent and comprehensive way. However, a weakness is that data from the online survey was obtained from

  12. Survey of current trends in postgraduate musculoskeletal ultrasound education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Netanel S; Goldberg-Stein, Shlomit; Thornhill, Beverly A; Koenigsberg, Mordecai

    2016-04-01

    To determine current trends in postgraduate musculoskeletal ultrasound education across various medical specialties in the United States. A survey regarding musculoskeletal ultrasound education was sent to all program directors for diagnostic radiology and physical medicine rehabilitation residency programs, as well as adult rheumatology and sports medicine fellowship programs in the United States. The survey, sent in July 2015, queried the presence of formal musculoskeletal ultrasound training, the components of such training and case volume for trainees. Response rates were 23, 25, 28 and 33% for physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology, rheumatology and sports medicine programs, respectively. Among respondents, musculoskeletal ultrasound training was present in 65% of radiology programs, 88% of sports medicine programs, 90% of rheumatology programs, and 100% of physical medicine and rehabilitation programs. Most programs utilized didactic lectures, followed by hands-on scanning. The majority of programs without current training intend to implement such training within 5 years, although radiology programs reported the lowest likelihood of this happening. Most program directors believed that musculoskeletal ultrasound education is important for their trainees, and is of greater importance than it was 10 years ago. Case volume was lowest for radiology trainees and highest for sports medicine trainees. Among respondents, the majority of diagnostic radiology programs offer musculoskeletal ultrasound training. However, this experience is even more widespread in other medical specialties, and hands-on training and experience tend to be greater in other specialties than in radiology.

  13. Graft rinse prior to reperfusion in liver transplantation: literature review and online survey within the Eurotransplant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Philipp; Manzini, Giulia; Kremer, Michael; Arend, Joerg; Berlakovich, Gabriela A; Klar, Ernst; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Lerut, Jan; Otto, Gerd; Pirenne, Jacques; Rogiers, Xavier; Seehofer, Daniel; Stippel, Dirk L; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Graft rinse prior reperfusion in liver transplantation (LT) is believed to reduce the incidence of postreperfusion syndrome and improve clinical outcome. A MEDLINE search was performed to obtain a comprehensive review of the published literature dealing with graft rinse in LT. Moreover, all thirty-four LT centers in the Eurotransplant (ET) region were invited to participate in an online survey to whether or not graft rinse is performed and whether further research in the field is needed. Seventeen reports have been found to investigate graft rinse protocols in 1894 LT recipients. Eighteen of the thirty centers that participated in the online survey performed graft rinse prior reperfusion in LT. The most commonly used rinse solution was albumin. Nineteen centers stated interest in participating in a multicenter RCT in the field. The published literature does not provide concluding appraisal of the benefit of graft rinse in LT. Graft rinse protocols are not standardized and are based on personal experience. Appropriately designed clinical trials addressing the topic are demanded. The online survey appears to be a helpful tool for the evaluation of clinical practice and future research topics in the transplant community. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  14. Multispectral Resource Sampler: Proof of concept. Literature survey of bidirectional reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography compiled in order to give a comprehensive review of previous work in scene bidirectional reflectance, particularly those studies relevant to the Multispectral Resource Sampler (MRS) is presented. The bibliography contains 124 abstracts. In addition a synthesis of the literature results is given along with background information concerning MRS.

  15. Literature Survey on Interaction Design and Existing Software Applications for Dyslectic Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangeli, Panagiota; Stage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    their reading skills. For the purpose of this research, we initially collected 175 studies, from which we selected, reviewed and made an overview table of 71 studies organized by areas of attention. The literature research on interaction design of systems for dyslectic users resulted in a presentation...

  16. Expanded Transparency and Enhanced Reading in the First-Year Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Natalie Mera

    2016-01-01

    Required first-year English courses present instructors with a challenge common in the humanities: How do we motivate students to engage in active reading rather than passively scroll down online guides? Introductory literature courses aim to develop students' critical thinking through close reading, analysis, and argumentation--skills demanding…

  17. Post-conflict peacebuilding: A critical survey of the literature and avenues for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adedokun, Ayokunu

    2017-01-01

    How and why do some civil wars end in a peace that endures while other civil wars re-ignite? The existing literature comes to contradictory and puzzling conclusions. For example, while some scholars and development practitioners argue that differences in post-conflict peace-building outcomes were to

  18. Why Use Music in English Language Learning? A Survey of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Dwayne

    2013-01-01

    The use of music and song in the English language-learning classroom is not new. While many teachers intuitively feel that music is beneficial in teaching English language, there is sometimes a lack of the theoretical underpinnings that support such a choice. There are examples in the literature to argue the strong relationship between music and…

  19. A survey on the current status of burn rehabilitation services in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Yan, Hong; Liang, Guangping; Tan, Jianglin; Yang, Sisi; Wu, Jun

    2013-03-01

    In China, there is a very long history of burn wound treatment, but the specialised burn care units were set up only from 1958. With more than 50 years of practice, great achievements have been made in burn wound care and operations in the country. However, in terms of burn rehabilitation, the development appears to be slow. In order to determine the current status of burn rehabilitation services in China, a survey was conducted to various burn centres in China. A comprehensive survey was conducted as well as to collect data related to (1) the admissions and staffing of the burn centres; (2) availability of rehabilitation services, number and educational background of specialised personnel dedicated in burn rehabilitation therapy; and (3) the difficulties leading to the lag of the burn rehabilitation services. The survey was sent to the chiefs of 87 burn centres via e-mail and they were requested to fill out the survey questionnaire and to send it back. For those who did not respond within 1 month, a reminder was sent. There are totally 39 (44.8%) burn centres responding to our survey. These centres were geographically distributed in nearly 70% of the administrative provinces in China; hence, the results could well represent the current burn care system. Most centres have recognised the importance of rehabilitation therapy and remarkable improvements of outcome in burn patients have been achieved. There are a very huge number of burn patients that need rehabilitation therapy, but most centres face the problems of shortage of rehabilitation therapists, which apparently could lead to the difficulties in delivering a quality rehabilitation programme for patients. Although the time of rehabilitation therapy is instituted far earlier than before, it is still not widely accepted in the acute burn care stage. There are more specialists joining the burn centre and becoming members of the professional burn team. However, professional education and training in the burn

  20. The diffusion and use of institutional theory: A cross-disciplinary longitudinal literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Weerakkody, V; Dwivedi, YK; Irani, Z

    2009-01-01

    There is a plethora of theories to explore the disciplines of business, management and sociology, with institutional theory being widely used to explore a range of research challenges. In the area of Information Systems (IS), the use of institutional theory remains in its infancy, with much potential for adoption. Much of the rationale underpinning the proposed research is that a systematic review and synthesis of the normative literature may support the direction of further research and the ...

  1. Studies on Agri-environmental Measures: A Survey of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthes, Sandra; Matzdorf, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Agri-environmental measures (AEM) are incentive-based instruments in the European Union (EU) that provide payments to farmers for voluntary environmental commitments related to preserving and enhancing the environment and maintaining the cultural landscape. We review the AEM literature and provide an overview of important research topics, major research results and future challenges as discussed in the available literature concerning these measures. This review contributes to the existing literature by attempting to equally consider ecological and economic perspectives. The reviewed articles are analyzed regarding their regional focus, topics and methods. The analytical section of the article seeks to discuss commonly asked questions about AEM on the basis of results from reviewed studies. The vast amount of available literature provides valuable insights into specific cases and reveals a complex picture with few general conclusions. The existing research is usually either biased toward ecological or economic perspectives and fails to provide a holistic picture of the problems and challenges within agri-environmental programming (e.g., multiple measures, multiple target areas, legal aspects, financial constraints, transaction costs). Most empirical studies provide detailed insights into selected individual measures but are incapable of providing results at a level relevant to decision-making, as they neglect the role of farmers and the available AEM budget. Predominantly economic approaches often only consider rough assumptions of ecological and economic processes and are also not suitable for decision-making. Decision-support tools that build on these disciplinary results and simultaneously consider scheme factors and environmental conditions at high spatial resolution for application by the responsible authorities are rare and require further research.

  2. Ethical standards for mental health and psychosocial support research in emergencies: review of literature and current debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy; Snider, Leslie; Tol, Wietse A

    2017-02-08

    Research in emergencies is needed to understand the prevalence of mental health and psychosocial problems and strengthen the evidence base for interventions. All research - including operational needs assessments, programme monitoring and evaluation, and formal academic research - must be conducted ethically. While there is broad consensus on fundamental principles codified in research ethics guidelines, these do not address the ethical specificities of conducting mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) research with adults in emergencies. To address this gap, this paper presents a review of multidisciplinary literature to identify specific ethical principles applicable to MHPSS research in emergencies. Fifty-nine sources meeting the literature review inclusion criteria were analysed following a thematic synthesis approach. There was consensus on the relevance of universal ethical research principles to MHPSS research in emergencies, including norms of participant informed consent and protection; ensuring benefit arises from research participation; researcher neutrality, accountability, and safety; and the duty to ensure research is well designed and accounts for contextual factors in emergency settings. We go onto discuss unresolved issues by highlighting six current debates relating to the application of ethics in emergency settings: (1) what constitutes fair benefits?; (2) how should informed consent be operationalised?; (3) is there a role for decision making capacity assessments?; (4) how do risk management approaches impact upon the construction of ethical research?; (5) how can ethical reflection best be achieved?, and (6) are ethical review boards sufficiently representative and equipped to judge the ethical and scientific merit of emergency MHPSS research? Underlying these debates is a systemic tension between procedural ethics and ethics in practice. In summary, underpinning the literature is a desire to ensure the protection of participants

  3. Risk factors and current recommendations for prevention of infections associated with central venous catheters: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Mendonça Henrique

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Infections related to central venous catheter (CVC use constitute an important a problem. It is estimated that approximately 90% of bloodstream infections (BSI are caused by CVC use. This study aims at reviewing the risk factors and current recommendations for prevention of infections associated with central venous catheter use. Methods: A total of 12 articles published in the last 5 years and indexed in the databases of the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS, Nursing Database (BDENF, International Literature on Health Sciences (Medline/Pubmed were selected, as well as publications related to the recommendations for BSI prevention, such as: Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA. Results: Two categories were identified: prevention and control measures and risk factors for BSI associated with central venous catheter use. Conclusions: Some recommendations that were well-defined over the years have been questioned by some authors and continuing training and education of the multidisciplinary team are the most important factors for the prevention of bloodstream infections associated with CVC use.

  4. Does high level youth sports participation increase the risk of femoroacetabular impingement? A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Viran; Swain, Michael; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien

    2016-03-11

    Sports participation can be an integral part of adolescent development with numerous positive short and long-term effects. Despite these potential benefits very high levels of physical activity, during skeletal maturation, have been proposed as a possible cause of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The influence of physical activity on the developing physis has been previously described both in animal studies and epidemiological studies of adolescent athletes. It is therefore important to determine whether the development of FAI is secondary to excessive physical activity or a combination of a vulnerable physis and a set level of physical activity. A review of the current literature suggests that adolescent males participating in ice-hockey, basketball and soccer, training at least three times a week, are at greater risk than their non-athletic counterparts of developing the femoral head-neck deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement.

  5. Teaching Intercultural Communication in a Basic Technical Writing Course: A Survey of Our Current Practices and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    This research article reports the results of an online survey distributed among technical writing instructors in 2006. The survey aimed to examine how we teach intercultural communication in basic technical writing courses: our current practices and methods. The article discusses three major challenges that instructors may face when teaching about…

  6. A Study of Current Trends and Issues for Graphics Education: Results from a Five-Year Follow-Up Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales, Alice Y.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 academic year, a survey was conducted to look at current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education (Clark & Scales, 1999). The survey solicited information from the membership of the Engineering Design Graphics Division of the American Society for Engineering Education related to their view of future areas of…

  7. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  8. Physiotherapy for plantar fasciitis: a UK-wide survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Palmer, Shea

    2017-06-01

    To identify how United Kingdom (UK) physiotherapists currently diagnose, assess and manage plantar fasciitis in routine practice. Online questionnaire survey. Practising physiotherapists across the UK who treat patients with plantar fasciitis. Physiotherapists were approached via 'interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (CSP)' online networks and an email database of clinical educators in South West England. An online questionnaire was developed by reviewing similar existing physiotherapy surveys and consultation with experienced musculoskeletal researchers/clinicians. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. 285 physiotherapists responded, with 257 complete survey responses. Pain on palpation and early morning pain were the most common diagnostic criteria, with some physiotherapists using no formal test criteria. Advice (237/257, 92%), plantar fasciitis pathology education (207/257, 81%) and general stretching exercises (189/257, 74%) were most routinely used. Prefabricated orthotics, custom made orthotics and night splints were seldom always used. For the manual therapy approach, the most frequently used modalities were massage, myofascial release, specific soft tissue mobilisations and myofascial trigger point therapy. Commonly used outcome measures were pain assessment, functional tests and range of movement. Physiotherapists appeared to follow most of the established diagnostic criteria for PF, but have not followed established outcome measure guidelines. Advice as well as education with an emphasis on self-management including calf/hamstring stretching was the most commonly reported treatment approach. There was uncertainty whether this approach accurately reflected clinical practice used throughout the UK, owing to potential response bias/unknown response rate and the low number of patients with PF treated by the respondents. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Literature Survey to Identify Potentially Volatile Iodine-Bearing Species Present in Off-Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, S. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Strata-G, Knoxville, TN (United States); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Four radionuclides have been identified as being sufficiently volatile in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel that their gaseous release needs to be controlled to meet regulatory requirements (Jubin et al. 2011, 2012). These radionuclides are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Of these, 129I has the longest half-life and potentially high biological impact. Accordingly, control of the release of 129I is most critical with respect to the regulations for the release of radioactive material in stack emissions. It is estimated that current EPA regulations (EPA 2010) would require any reprocessing plant in the United States to limit 129I release to less than 0.05 Ci/MTIHM for a typical fuel burnup of 55 gigawatt days per metric tonne (GWd/t) (Jubin 2011). The study of inorganic iodide in off-gas systems has been almost exclusively limited to I2 and the focus of organic iodide studies has been CH3I. In this document, we provide the results of an examination of publically available literature that is relevant to the presence and sources of both inorganic and organic iodine-bearing species in reprocessing plants. We especially focus on those that have the potential to be poorly sequestered with traditional capture methodologies. Based on the results of the literature survey and some limited thermodynamic modeling, the inorganic iodine species hypoiodous acid (HOI) and iodine monochloride (ICl) were identified as potentially low-sorbing iodine species that could present in off-gas systems. Organic species of interest included both short chain alkyl iodides such as methyl iodide (CH3I) and longer alkyl iodides up to iodododecane (C10H21I). It was found that fuel dissolution may provide conditions conducive to HOI formation and has been shown to result in volatile long-chain alkyl iodides, though these may not volatilize until later in the reprocessing sequence. Solvent extraction processes were found to be significant sources of various organic iodine-bearing species; formation of these

  10. Current Cytology Practices in Korea: A Nationwide Survey by the Korean Society for Cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ji Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Limited data are available on the current status of cytology practices in Korea. This nationwide study presents Korean cytology statistics from 2015. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted in 2016 as a part of the mandatory quality-control program by the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire was sent to 208 medical institutions performing cytopathologic examinations in Korea. Individual institutions were asked to submit their annual cytology statistical reports and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation data for 2015. Results Responses were obtained from 206 medical institutions including 83 university hospitals, 87 general hospitals, and 36 commercial laboratories. A total of 8,284,952 cytologic examinations were performed in 2015, primarily in commercial laboratories (74.9%. The most common cytology specimens were gynecologic samples (81.3%. Conventional smears and liquid-based cytology were performed in 6,190,526 (74.7% and 2,094,426 (25.3% cases, respectively. The overall diagnostic concordance rate between cytologic and histologic diagnoses of uterine cervical samples was 70.5%. Discordant cases were classified into three categories: category A (minimal clinical impact, 17.4%, category B (moderate clinical impact, 10.2%, and category C (major clinical impact, 1.9%. The ratio of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to squamous intraepithelial lesion was 1.6 in university hospitals, 2.9 in general hospitals, and 4.9 in commercial laboratories. Conclusions This survey reveals the current status and trend of cytology practices in Korea. The results of this study can serve as basic data for the establishment of nationwide cytopathology policies and quality improvement guidelines in Korean medical institutions.

  11. Current Cytology Practices in Korea: A Nationwide Survey by the Korean Society for Cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun Ji; Jung, Chan Kwon; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Han Kyeom; Kim, Wan Seop; Jin, So-Young; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2017-11-01

    Limited data are available on the current status of cytology practices in Korea. This nationwide study presents Korean cytology statistics from 2015. A nationwide survey was conducted in 2016 as a part of the mandatory quality-control program by the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire was sent to 208 medical institutions performing cytopathologic examinations in Korea. Individual institutions were asked to submit their annual cytology statistical reports and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation data for 2015. Responses were obtained from 206 medical institutions including 83 university hospitals, 87 general hospitals, and 36 commercial laboratories. A total of 8,284,952 cytologic examinations were performed in 2015, primarily in commercial laboratories (74.9%). The most common cytology specimens were gynecologic samples (81.3%). Conventional smears and liquid-based cytology were performed in 6,190,526 (74.7%) and 2,094,426 (25.3%) cases, respectively. The overall diagnostic concordance rate between cytologic and histologic diagnoses of uterine cervical samples was 70.5%. Discordant cases were classified into three categories: category A (minimal clinical impact, 17.4%), category B (moderate clinical impact, 10.2%), and category C (major clinical impact, 1.9%). The ratio of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to squamous intraepithelial lesion was 1.6 in university hospitals, 2.9 in general hospitals, and 4.9 in commercial laboratories. This survey reveals the current status and trend of cytology practices in Korea. The results of this study can serve as basic data for the establishment of nationwide cytopathology policies and quality improvement guidelines in Korean medical institutions.

  12. Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora

    2015-09-14

    Understanding the role of the family in shaping adolescent health risk behaviours has recently been given increased attention. This study investigated association between current smoking and a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Study subjects (N = 3696) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania who were surveyed in Spring 2014 according to the methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A standard HBSC international questionnaire was translated into Lithuanian and used anonymously to obtain information about current smoking patterns and family life (family structure, quality of communication in family, parental monitoring, bonding, parenting style, family time, etc.). Logistic regression was used to assess association between smoking and familial variables. The prevalence of current smoking was 16.5 % (20.8 % in boys and 11.9 % in girls; P adolescents from non-intact families were significantly more likely to be current smokers (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI: 1.74-2.54) compared with intact families. Five independent familial factors were significantly related to increased risk for adolescent smoking: low maternal monitoring (OR = 2.79; 95 % CI: 1.98-3.92), low satisfaction with family relationships (OR = 1.89; 95 % CI: 1.27-2.83), low school-related parental support (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.95), easy communication with the father (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.80) and often use of electronic media for communication with parents (OR = 0.66; 95 % CI: 0.50-0.88). The last two determinants showed an inverse effect than it was hypothesized. Higher prevalence of smoking among adolescents of Lithuania is associated with a non- intact family structure as well as weaker parental support and bonding. Family life practices are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in Lithuania.

  13. Whole lung lavage therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a global survey of current practices and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Ilaria; Luisetti, Maurizio; Griese, Matthias; Trapnell, Bruce C; Bonella, Francesco; Grutters, Jan; Nakata, Koh; Van Moorsel, Coline H M; Costabel, Ulrich; Cottin, Vincent; Ichiwata, Toshio; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Braschi, Antonio; Bonizzoni, Giacomo; Iotti, Giorgio A; Tinelli, Carmine; Rodi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-31

    Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the current standard of care treatment for patients affected by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). However, WLL is not standardized and international consensus documents are lacking. Our aim was to obtain a factual portrayal of WLL as currently practiced with respect to the procedure, indications for its use, evaluation of therapeutic benefit and complication rate. A clinical practice survey was conducted globally by means of a questionnaire and included 27 centers performing WLL in pediatric and/or adult PAP patients. We collected completed questionnaires from 20 centres in 14 countries, practicing WLL in adults and 10 centers in 6 countries, practicing WLL in pediatric patients. WLL is almost universally performed under general anesthesia, with a double-lumen endobronchial tube in two consecutive sessions, with an interval of 1-2 weeks between sessions in approximately 50 % of centres. The use of saline warmed to 37 °C, drainage of lung lavage fluid by gravity and indications for WLL therapy in PAP were homogenous across centres. There was great variation in the choice of the first lung to be lavaged: 50 % of centres based the choice on imaging, whereas 50 % always started with the left lung. The choice of position was also widely discordant; the supine position was chosen by 50 % of centres. Other aspects varied significantly among centres including contraindications, methods and timing of follow up, use of chest percussion, timing of extubation following WLL and lung isolation and lavage methods for small children. The amount of fluid used to perform the WLL is a critical aspect. Whilst a general consensus exists on the single aliquot of fluid for lavage (around 800 ml of warm saline, in adults) great variability exists in the total volume instilled per lung, ranging from 5 to 40 liters, with an average of 15.4 liters/lung. This international survey found that WLL is safe and effective as therapy for PAP. However these

  14. Donation after circulatory death: a national survey of current practice in England in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sameer; Martin, Jonathan R; Marino, Philip S

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, England has seen renewed interest in donation after circulatory death. Many national and local initiatives have been implemented to encourage and support donation after circulatory death. To assess whether practice is in line with published guidance, we conducted a national survey with regard to current donation after circulatory death practices, local guidelines, and views on the need to further develop a national standardized protocol for donation after circulatory death. Online survey. Lead physicians for intensive care or organ donation for every acute National Health Service trust in England delivering adult care between April and June 2012. Physicians were e-mailed a link to a structured online questionnaire regarding their experience and practice of donation after circulatory death, including local protocols, use of organ optimization, and the need for a national protocol. We received replies from 119 of 156 eligible trusts (76.3%) in England. Of these, 112 trusts (94%) have performed donation after circulatory death. Ninety-three trusts (78.1%) have a local donation after circulatory death protocol, and 89 trusts (74.7%) felt there should be a national donation after circulatory death protocol. All responding transplant centers had performed donation after circulatory death, 14 of 17 (82.3%) had a donation after circulatory death protocol with 14 of 17 respondents (82.3%) supporting a national protocol. Regarding organ optimization, 92 institutions (77.3%) used vasoactive drugs to achieve a target mean arterial blood pressure with 82 centers (68.9%) employing positive end-expiratory pressure and FIO2 to optimize oxygenation. Eight centers (6.7%) used heparin premortem compared with two of 17 transplant centers (11.8%). Two centers have used phentolamine to facilitate organ retrieval, with another five centers (4.2%) cannulating vessels premortem. Our survey revealed varying approaches and views toward donation after circulatory death across

  15. Risk adjusting community rated health plan premiums: a survey of risk assessment literature and policy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, M; Luft, H S; Robinson, J C

    1995-01-01

    This paper surveys recent health care reform debates and empirical evidence regarding the potential role for risk adjusters in addressing the problem of competitive risk segmentation under capitated financing. We discuss features of health plan markets affecting risk selection, methodological considerations in measuring it, and alternative approaches to financial correction for risk differentials. The appropriate approach to assessing risk differences between health plans depends upon the nature of market risk selection allowed under a given reform scenario. Because per capita costs depend on a health plan's population risk, efficiency, and quality of service, risk adjustment will most strongly promote efficiency in environments with commensurately strong incentives for quality care.

  16. Wastewater Treatment Anaerobic Digester Foaming Prevention and Control Methods - Literature Review and Survey - Full-Scale Studies (WERF Report INFR1SG10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project addresses the issue of anaerobic digester (AD) foaming in different water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs). This two-volume report is a compilation of an AD foaming literature review, a plant survey, and findings from full-scale studies. The literature review hel...

  17. A Survey on Current Practice of Management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A C; Hossain, M I; Afroze, S; Dey, S K; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2016-04-01

    It was a survey type of cross sectional study where the participants were from different teaching/referral hospital across the country and was done to gather information regarding current practice of management of neonatal sepsis among paediatricians and neonatologists and was conducted on the spot during a national conference of Bangladesh Perinatal Society in December 2013. Specialists in neonatology, paediatrics, and some other disciplines working in different institutes across the country were requested to respond. Out of 150 physicians, 92 (61.33%) were neonatologists. Physicians suspected early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) when there is history suggestive of prolonged rupture of membrane (74.77%), prolonged labour (9.33%), chorioamnionitis (7.33%) and maternal fever (2%). Clinical sepsis is found commonly (53.33%) which is later proved by laboratory evidences such as Hb%, TC, DC PBF (peripheral blood film), C-reactive protein, chest X-ray etc. Injection Ampicillin and Gentamycin are still the first choice of antibiotics (61.3%). Preferred route was intravenous (95.3%). Antibiotics were given for 7-10 days by most of the physicians (48.77%). However there is lack of uniformity among the participants in regard to taking decision about antibiotics, the choice of first line and the subsequent options of antibiotics. So, neonatal sepsis is the most important cause of neonatal mortality in the community. Therefore a standard protocolized approach for diagnosis and management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis may prove critical which is currently not in practice uniformly.

  18. Multicentre survey on the current surgical management of oesophageal atresia in Belgium and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusens, Helena; Matthyssens, Lucas; Vercauteren, Charlotte; van Renterghem, Katrien

    2017-02-01

    The surgical management of oesophageal atresia (OA) differs between pediatric surgical teams without consensus. We aimed to describe the current practice of OA treatment in Belgium and Luxembourg and compare this to the literature. A questionnaire was created and sent to all 18 hospitals (14 pediatric surgical units) performing OA surgery in Belgium and Luxembourg. The results were compared to the literature. Most units treat an average of 2-5 OA+TOF (71%) and ≤1 pure OA (pOA) per year (86%). The preferred surgical approach for OA+TOF is thoracotomy (86%), mostly extra-pleural (75%). Thoracoscopic OA repair is performed in 21%. All centers perform an end-to-end anastomosis (interrupted sutures), and all leave a transanastomotic tube. A chest drain is routinely used in 8units (57%). In pOA the preferred surgical approach is gastrostomy formation with delayed primary anastomosis (77%). The timing for delayed anastomosis is 2 to 24months. Intra-operative lengthening is mostly attempted with Foker technique (46%). If oesophageal replacement is needed, gastric interposition is mostly used (75%). A postoperative contrast study is routinely performed in 86% for OA+TOF and in 100% for pOA. Anti-reflux medication is routinely prescribed by all units but one. There are still many differences and controversies in the perioperative management of OA. Part of this is based on habits and is difficult to change without scientific evidence. There is a need for prospective (inter)national registries to further identify the existing differences, leading to a more widely accepted consensus. Level III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeenth Century English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought. Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either implicitly or explicitly in several works like Oroonoko by Aphra Behn, pastoral poems by Andrew Marvel and Milton, and in some parts of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

  20. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeen Century English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought. Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either implicitly or explicitly in several works like Oroonoko by Aphra Behn, pastoral poems by Andrew Marvel and Milton, and in some parts of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

  1. Ash behavior in the combustion of phosphorus rich biofuels - literature survey and experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Castro, Maria; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    Utilization of biofuels such as grain, bran and rapeseed meal in energy production is considered to have ecological and economical benefits. These seed-originated biofuels usually contain significantly higher phosphorus contents than other biofuels, which may induce some ash related operation...... problems. In this report, the behaviors of inorganic species during the combustion of phosphorus rich biofuels are studied through literature review and experiments. It is found that the majority of P, Mg and K in these biofuels would be present as phytic acid/phytate or other inositol phosphate. During......-based additives shows some retention effects on the K or P release. By performing thermodynamic calculations, the interactions among the released K, P, and S in the flue gas are investigated, showing that the ash chemistry would be significantly affected by the molar ratio of the released K/P. The results from...

  2. Lateral flow (immuno) assay : its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    Lateral flow (immuno) assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food

  3. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food

  4. Erosion Control of Scour during Construction; Report 2. Literature Survey of Theoretical, Experimental, and Prototype Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    dum No. 477, Laboratorio Nacional De Engenharia Civil, Lisbon, Portugal. Dalrymple, R. A. 1974. "Water Waves on a Bilinear Shear Current...Engineering Research Center, CE. 1975. "Shore Protection Manual ," Vol I, Washington, D. C. U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE. 1953. "Filter

  5. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the Minimal Risk Level (MRL defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium. Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  6. Are metals emitted from electronic cigarettes a reason for health concern? A risk-assessment analysis of currently available literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Voudris, Vassilis; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2015-05-15

    Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC) aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC) users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE) from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel), the Minimal Risk Level (MRL) defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese) and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium). The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium) at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  7. Current and future perspectives on lumbar degenerative disc disease: a UK survey exploring specialist multidisciplinary clinical opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Janet A; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-09-15

    Despite lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD) being significantly associated with non-specific low back pain and effective treatment remaining elusive, specialist multidisciplinary clinical stakeholder opinion remains unexplored. The present study examines the views of such experts. A reliable and valid electronic survey was designed to establish trends using theoretical constructs relating to current assessment and management practices. Clinicians from the Society of Back Pain Research (SBPR) UK were invited to take part. Quantitative data were collated and coded using Bristol Online Surveys (BOS) software, and content analysis was used to systematically code and categorise qualitative data. Specialist multidisciplinary spinal interest group in the UK. 38/141 clinically active, multidisciplinary SBPR members with specialist spinal interest participated. Among them, 84% had >9 years postgraduate clinical experience. None. Frequency distributions were used to establish general trends in quantitative data. Qualitative responses were coded and categorised in relation to each theme and percentage responses were calculated. LDDD symptom recurrence, in the absence of psychosocial influence, was associated with physical signs of joint stiffness (26%), weakness (17%) and joint hypermobility (6%), while physical factors (21%) and the ability to adapt (11%) were postulated as reasons why some experience pain and others do not. No one management strategy was supported exclusively or with consensus. Regarding effective modalities, there was no significant difference between allied health professional and medic responses (p=0.1-0.8). The future of LDDD care was expressed in terms of improvements in patient communication (35%), patient education (38%) and treatment stratification (24%). Results suggest that multidisciplinary expert spinal clinicians appear to follow UK-based assessment guidelines with regard to recurrent LDDD; there are, however, inconsistencies in the

  8. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; hide

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  9. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  10. Life cycle assessment framework for railway bridges : literature survey and critical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the whole world is confronted with great challenges related to environmental issues. As a fundamental infrastructure in transport networks, railway bridges are responsible for numerous material and energy consumption through their life cycle, which in turn leads to significant environmental burdens. However, present management of railway bridge infrastructures is mainly focused on the technical and financial aspects, whereas the environmental assessment is rarely integrated. Life c...

  11. Generation of Electrostatic Charge in Fuel Handling Systems: A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-24

    attention previously, namely Zhukov 1151, who studied streaming currents in petroleum ether, and Obukh et a]. [16], who employed Koszman and Gavis ...of TS-l Fuel as it is Pumped into the Tanker," Tekhnika Vysokikh Napryazhenly, 143 (1972) The author’s have modified Koszman and Gavis ’ equation for...parameters as flow velocity, pipe diameter and pipe length, are used to test the validity of the Koszman and Gavis and Gibbings and Hignett equations relating

  12. A Survey of the Literature on Unintended Consequences Associated with Health Information Technology: 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, K; Abraham, J; Novak, L L; Reynolds, T L; Gettinger, A

    2016-11-10

    To summarize recent research on unintended consequences associated with implementation and use of health information technology (health IT). Included in the review are original empirical investigations published in English between 2014 and 2015 that reported unintended effects introduced by adoption of digital interventions. Our analysis focuses on the trends of this steam of research, areas in which unintended consequences have continued to be reported, and common themes that emerge from the findings of these studies. Most of the papers reviewed were retrieved by searching three literature databases: MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Two rounds of searches were performed: the first round used more restrictive search terms specific to unintended consequences; the second round lifted the restrictions to include more generic health IT evaluation studies. Each paper was independently screened by at least two authors; differences were resolved through consensus development. The literature search identified 1,538 papers that were potentially relevant; 34 were deemed meeting our inclusion criteria after screening. Studies described in these 34 papers took place in a wide variety of care areas from emergency departments to ophthalmology clinics. Some papers reflected several previously unreported unintended consequences, such as staff attrition and patients' withholding of information due to privacy and security concerns. A majority of these studies (71%) were quantitative investigations based on analysis of objectively recorded data. Several of them employed longitudinal or time series designs to distinguish between unintended consequences that had only transient impact, versus those that had persisting impact. Most of these unintended consequences resulted in adverse outcomes, even though instances of beneficial impact were also noted. While care areas covered were heterogeneous, over half of the studies were conducted at academic medical centers or teaching hospitals

  13. Zipf's law and city size distribution: A survey of the literature and future research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Sidra; Hu, Shougeng; Ashraf, Badar Nadeem

    2018-02-01

    This study provides a systematic review of the existing literature on Zipf's law for city size distribution. Existing empirical evidence suggests that Zipf's law is not always observable even for the upper-tail cities of a territory. However, the controversy with empirical findings arises due to sample selection biases, methodological weaknesses and data limitations. The hypothesis of Zipf's law is more likely to be rejected for the entire city size distribution and, in such case, alternative distributions have been suggested. On the contrary, the hypothesis is more likely to be accepted if better empirical methods are employed and cities are properly defined. The debate is still far from to be conclusive. In addition, we identify four emerging areas in Zipf's law and city size distribution research including the size distribution of lower-tail cities, the size distribution of cities in sub-national regions, the alternative forms of Zipf's law, and the relationship between Zipf's law and the coherence property of the urban system.

  14. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-10-20

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly. A survey to a convenience sample of 57 international public and private organisations that give grants for biomedical research was conducted. Nine participating organisations then emailed a random sample of their external reviewers an invitation to participate in a second electronic survey. A total of 28 of 57 (49%) organisations in 19 countries responded. Organisations reported these problems as frequent or very frequent: declined review requests (16), late reports (10), administrative burden (7), difficulty finding new reviewers (4), and reviewers not following guidelines (4). The administrative burden of the process was reported to have increased over the past 5 years. In all, 17 organisations supported the idea of uniform requirements for conducting grant review and for formatting grant proposals. A total of 258/418 (62%) reviewers responded from 22 countries. Of those, 48% (123/258) said their institutions encouraged grant review, yet only 7% (17/258) were given protected time and 74% (192/258) received no academic recognition for this. Reviewers rated these factors as extremely or very important in deciding to review proposals: 51% (131/258) desire to support external fairness, 47% (120/258) professional duty, 46% (118/258) relevance of the proposal's topic, 43% (110/258) wanting to keep up to date, 40% (104/258) desire to avoid suppression of innovation. Only 16% (42/258) reported that guidance from funders was very clear. In all, 85% (220/258) had not been trained in grant review and 64% (166/258) wanted this. Funders reported a growing workload of

  15. HIV testing in US tuberculosis care settings: a survey of current practice and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureckas, Caitlin; Carter, E Jane; Gardner, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Extent of and challenges to implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2006 recommendation for routine HIV testing have not been reviewed specifically within tuberculosis (TB) care settings. To determine current adherence to the CDC's HIV testing recommendations in TB care settings and identify barriers. An online survey was designed and distributed via Survey Monkey. The 2011 National TB Conference attendees, National TB Nurse Controllers, and the CDC's TB-educate mailing list were invited to participate via e-mail. A total of 153 respondents from US states: 30 physicians, 91 nurses, 19 public health practitioners, and 13 other. Perceived importance of HIV testing, current HIV testing practices, perceived barriers to HIV testing, and understanding of state HIV testing laws. One hundred forty-one of 153 (92.2%) reported that patients with TB disease were "always" or "almost always" HIV tested; 65 of 153 (42.5%) reported the same for patients with latent TB infection (LTBI). Among those not routinely testing LTBI patients, "patient refusal of test" (53/88; 60.2%), "cost" (41/88; 46.6%), and "prevalence too low to justify" (33/88; 37.5%) were the most commonly identified barriers to opt-out testing. Forty-seven of 59 providers (79.7%) who reported that their state required written consent for HIV testing had incorrect knowledge regarding HIV testing legislation. Rates of HIV testing are high for patients with TB disease, but fewer than half of providers' care settings routinely test LTBI patients. Knowledge of HIV status is required to appropriately interpret TST results and make decisions regarding treatment in TB infection, since HIV coinfection increases risk of progression to active TB. Lack of HIV testing in LTBI patients represents a missed opportunity to prevent TB disease and its resultant morbidity and mortality. In addition, incorrect knowledge regarding testing legislation was a common problem among our TB providers. Further

  16. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Circulation and water mass properties in a meander of the North Pacific Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-09-01

    A Seaglider autonomous underwater vehicle augmented the Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W) surface mooring, measuring spatial structure on scales relevant to the monthly evolution of the moored time series. During each of three missions from June 2008 to January 2010, a Seaglider made biweekly 50 km × 50 km surveys in a bowtie-shaped survey track. Horizontal temperature and salinity gradients measured by these surveys were an order of magnitude stronger than climatological values and sometimes of opposite sign. Geostrophically inferred circulation was corroborated by moored acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements and AVISO satellite altimetry estimates of surface currents, confirming that glider surveys accurately resolved monthly scale mesoscale spatial structure. In contrast to climatological North Pacific Current circulation, upper-ocean flow was modestly northward during the first half of the 18 month survey period, and weakly westward during its latter half, with Rossby number O>(0.01>). This change in circulation coincided with a shift from cool and fresh to warm, saline, oxygen-rich water in the upper-ocean halocline, and an increase in vertical fine structure there and in the lower pycnocline. The anomalous flow and abrupt water mass transition were due to the slow growth of an anticyclonic meander within the North Pacific Current with radius comparable to the scale of the survey pattern, originating to the southeast of OSP.

  17. Perceptions and factors affecting pharmaceutical market access: results from a literature review and survey of stakeholders in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendyona, Semukaya; Odeyemi, Isaac; Maman, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    A change in the pharmaceutical environment has occurred from previously only needing to convince regulators of a product's safety and efficacy to obtain marketing authorisation to now needing to satisfy the value perceptions of other stakeholders, including payers, to attain market access for products. There is thus the need to understand the concept of market access that may be defined as 'the process that ensures the development and commercial availability of pharmaceutical products with appropriate value propositions, leading to their prescribing and to successful uptake decisions by payers and patients, with the ultimate goal of achieving profitability and best patient outcomes'. The aim of this research therefore was to explore the understanding of market access among various stakeholders and how their understanding of this concept could improve patient access to pharmaceutical products. A literature review was conducted on MEDLINE by using the term 'market access' to find articles with explicit definitions of market access for pharmaceutical products; non-peer-reviewed and other grey literature sources were also examined. A paper-based interview survey was also conducted in three different settings. The respondents were asked about what factors they think contribute to the successful development of pharmaceutical products, as well as their definition of market access for these medicines. The peer-reviewed literature review did not reveal appropriate comprehensive definitions for market access, although several definitions were proposed from the non-peer-reviewed literature. These definitions ranged from basic to detailed. The survey of 110 respondents revealed differing levels of understanding of market access. Factors considered to influence successful market access, as described by the respondents, included unmet need/burden of disease (68.2%), clinical efficacy (47.3%), comparator choice (36.4%), safety profile (36.4%), and price (35.5%). The concept of

  18. Drug information resources used by nurse practitioners and collaborating physicians at the point of care in Nova Scotia, Canada: a survey and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Misener Ruth

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Keeping current with drug therapy information is challenging for health care practitioners. Technologies are often implemented to facilitate access to current and credible drug information sources. In the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, legislation was passed in 2002 to allow nurse practitioners (NPs to practice collaboratively with physician partners. The purpose of this study was to determine the current utilization patterns of information technologies by these groups of practitioners. Methods Nurse practitioners and their collaborating physician partners in Nova Scotia were sent a survey in February 2005 to determine the frequency of use, usefulness, accessibility, credibility, and current/timeliness of personal digital assistant (PDA, computer, and print drug information resources. Two surveys were developed (one for PDA users and one for computer users and revised based on a literature search, stakeholder consultation, and pilot-testing results. A second distribution to nonresponders occurred two weeks following the first. Data were entered and analysed with SPSS. Results Twenty-seven (14 NPs and 13 physicians of 36 (75% recipients responded. 22% (6 returned personal digital assistant (PDA surveys. Respondents reported print, health professionals, and online/electronic resources as the most to least preferred means to access drug information, respectively. 37% and 35% of respondents reported using "both print and electronic but print more than electronic" and "print only", respectively, to search monograph-related drug information queries whereas 4% reported using "PDA only". Analysis of respondent ratings for all resources in the categories print, health professionals and other, and online/electronic resources, indicated that the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties and pharmacists ranked highly for frequency of use, usefulness, accessibility, credibility, and current/timeliness by both groups of

  19. The value of protein structure classification information—Surveying the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Naomi K.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) and Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology (CATH) databases have been valuable resources for protein structure classification for over 20 years. Development of SCOP (version 1) concluded in June 2009 with SCOP 1.75. The SCOPe (SCOP–extended) database offers continued development of the classic SCOP hierarchy, adding over 33,000 structures. We have attempted to assess the impact of these two decade old resources and guide future development. To this end, we surveyed recent articles to learn how structure classification data are used. Of 571 articles published in 2012–2013 that cite SCOP, 439 actually use data from the resource. We found that the type of use was fairly evenly distributed among four top categories: A) study protein structure or evolution (27% of articles), B) train and/or benchmark algorithms (28% of articles), C) augment non‐SCOP datasets with SCOP classification (21% of articles), and D) examine the classification of one protein/a small set of proteins (22% of articles). Most articles described computational research, although 11% described purely experimental research, and a further 9% included both. We examined how CATH and SCOP were used in 158 articles that cited both databases: while some studies used only one dataset, the majority used data from both resources. Protein structure classification remains highly relevant for a diverse range of problems and settings. Proteins 2015; 83:2025–2038. © 2015 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26313554

  20. The value of protein structure classification information-Surveying the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Naomi K; Brenner, Steven E; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2015-11-01

    The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) and Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology (CATH) databases have been valuable resources for protein structure classification for over 20 years. Development of SCOP (version 1) concluded in June 2009 with SCOP 1.75. The SCOPe (SCOP-extended) database offers continued development of the classic SCOP hierarchy, adding over 33,000 structures. We have attempted to assess the impact of these two decade old resources and guide future development. To this end, we surveyed recent articles to learn how structure classification data are used. Of 571 articles published in 2012-2013 that cite SCOP, 439 actually use data from the resource. We found that the type of use was fairly evenly distributed among four top categories: A) study protein structure or evolution (27% of articles), B) train and/or benchmark algorithms (28% of articles), C) augment non-SCOP datasets with SCOP classification (21% of articles), and D) examine the classification of one protein/a small set of proteins (22% of articles). Most articles described computational research, although 11% described purely experimental research, and a further 9% included both. We examined how CATH and SCOP were used in 158 articles that cited both databases: while some studies used only one dataset, the majority used data from both resources. Protein structure classification remains highly relevant for a diverse range of problems and settings. © 2015 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Survey on Visual Approaches for Analyzing Scientific Literature and Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Paolo; Heimerl, Florian; Koch, Steffen; Miksch, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The increasingly large number of available writings describing technical and scientific progress, calls for advanced analytic tools for their efficient analysis. This is true for many application scenarios in science and industry and for different types of writings, comprising patents and scientific articles. Despite important differences between patents and scientific articles, both have a variety of common characteristics that lead to similar search and analysis tasks. However, the analysis and visualization of these documents is not a trivial task due to the complexity of the documents as well as the large number of possible relations between their multivariate attributes. In this survey, we review interactive analysis and visualization approaches of patents and scientific articles, ranging from exploration tools to sophisticated mining methods. In a bottom-up approach, we categorize them according to two aspects: (a) data type (text, citations, authors, metadata, and combinations thereof), and (b) task (finding and comparing single entities, seeking elementary relations, finding complex patterns, and in particular temporal patterns, and investigating connections between multiple behaviours). Finally, we identify challenges and research directions in this area that ask for future investigations.

  2. Blended Learning in Higher Education: Current and Future Challenges in Surveying Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Kuhn, Michael; Snow, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The development of a blended learning approach to enhance surveying education is discussed. The need for this learning strategy is first investigated based on a major review of the surveying course, including analysis of its content, benchmarking with key national and international universities, and surveys of key stakeholders. Appropriate blended…

  3. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  4. China's research status in emergency medicine: a 15-year survey of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Jiang, Ting; Li, Chunyu; Chen, Jun; Cao, Kejiang; Qi, Lian-wen; Li, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Baoli; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the research status of emergency medicine in China through literature search of international emergency medicine journals and retrospectively compare the outputs of emergency medicine articles of the 3 major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK). Emergency medicine journals were selected category from Science Citation Index Expand. Articles from the ML, TW, and HK were retrieved from PubMed database. The total number of articles, publication types, research contents, impact factors (IF), and articles published in each journal were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons. A total of 1760 articles from 19 emergency medicine journals were searched, of which 395 were from ML, 1210 from TW, and 155 from HK. Accumulated IF of articles from TW (2451.109) was much higher than that of ML (851.832) and HK (328.579), whereas the average IF of articles from TW (2.02) was the lowest. The number of case reports was the highest, which was, 69 from ML, 637 from TW, and 25 from HK, respectively. Although emergency medicine was involved with multiple organs and multiple systems, the reports of trauma accounted for 25% of the research contents. The total number of articles from both China and the rest of the world increased significantly from 2000 to 2014, especially ML. The total number of articles from TW was still much more than that of ML and HK, whereas the quality of articles from TW was not as good as ML and HK. Case report had the highest share of publication types, whereas the proportions of meta-analysis and observational study were the lowest. As for research contents, the proportion of trauma was still the highest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Current practice in the management of wound odour: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethin, Georgina; Grocott, Patricia; Probst, Sebastian; Clarke, Eric

    2014-06-01

    To determine from a multi-disciplinary and international perspective current practice in the management of wound odour. Malodour is cited by patients and carers as one of the most distressing and socially isolating aspects of their wounds. The absence of a standardised approach to assessment and management underscores the need to collect baseline data to support guideline development. On-line survey. A study specific questionnaire in English, Spanish, Italian and German was emailed to wound care organisations worldwide, palliative and oncology nursing organisations, and known contacts with a special interest in wound management, for distribution to members between December 2011 and February 2012. 1444 people from 36 countries responded. 12% assess odour with descriptive words being the most frequent form of assessment. Charcoal and silver based dressings were the most frequently used odour management agents, yet, only 48.4% and 23% respectively reported these as being very effective. Antimicrobial agents were cited as most effective but were not the most frequently used. 8% use aromatherapy oils direct to the wound, and 74% combine a range of dressings to try and manage odour. Odour, pain and exudate management were the greatest wound management challenges facing patients and clinicians. 46.7% of respondents encounter patients with MFW on a monthly basis and 89% agreed there is a need to develop guidelines in this area. A 'trial and error' approach to odour management exists with low overall satisfaction with current practice. There is a need for research and education on means to assess odour and odour management options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current State of Laparoscopic Colonic Surgery in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugsberger, Bettina; Haas, Dietmar; Oppelt, Peter; Neuner, Ludwig; Shamiyeh, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic colonic resection has significant benefits in comparison with open approaches in patients with benign and malignant disease. The proportion of colonic and rectal resections conducted laparoscopically in Austria is not currently known; the aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic colonic surgery in Austria. A questionnaire was distributed to all general surgical departments in Austria. In collaboration with IMAS, an Austrian market research institute, an online survey was used to identify laparoscopic and open colorectal resections performed in 2013. The results were compared with data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD), in which administrative in-patient data were also collected from all general surgical departments in Austria in 2013. Fifty-three of 99 surgical departments in Austria responded (53.5%); 4335 colonic and rectal resections were carried out in the participating departments, representing 50.5% of all NHMD-recorded colorectal resections (n = 8576) in Austria in 2013. Of these 4335 colonic and rectal resections, 2597 (59.9%) were carried out using an open approach, 1674 (38.6%) were laparoscopic, and an exact classification was not available for 64 (1.5%). Among the NHMD-recorded colonic and rectal resections, 6342 (73.9%) were carried out with an open approach, and 2234 (26.1%) were laparoscopic. The proportion of colorectal resections that are carried out laparoscopically is low (26.1%). Technical challenges and a learning curve with a significant number of cases may be reasons for the slow adoption of laparoscopic colonic surgery.

  7. Genetic analysis of sudden cardiac death victims: a survey of current forensic autopsy practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Katarzyna; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice S

    2011-05-01

    Autopsy-negative sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) seen in forensic practice are most often thought to be the result of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome. Postmortem genetic analysis is recommended in such cases, but is currently performed in only a few academic centers. In order to determine actual current practice, an on-line questionnaire was sent by e-mail to members of various forensic medical associations. The questions addressed routine procedures employed in cases of sudden cardiac death (autopsy ordering, macroscopic and microscopic cardiac examination, conduction tissue examination, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, biochemical markers, sampling and storage of material for genetic analyses, toxicological analyses, and molecular autopsy). Some questions concerned the legal and ethical aspects of genetic analyses in postmortem examinations, as well as any existing multidisciplinary collaborations in SCD cases. There were 97 respondents, mostly from European countries. Genetic testing in cases of sudden cardiac death is rarely practiced in routine forensic investigation. Approximately 60% of respondents reported not having the means to perform genetic postmortem testing and 40% do not collect adequate material to perform these investigations at a later date, despite working at university hospitals. The survey demonstrated that many of the problems involved in the adequate investigation of SCD cases are often financial in origin, due to the fact that activities in forensic medicine are often paid by and dependent on the judicial authorities. Problems also exist concerning the contact with family members and/or the family doctor, as well as the often-nonexistent collaboration with others clinicians with special expertise beneficial in the investigation of SCD cases, such as cardiologists and geneticists. This study highlights the importance in establishing guidelines for molecular autopsies in forensic medicine.

  8. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  9. Permethrin spot-on intoxication of cats Literature review and survey of veterinary practitioners in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Richard; Ward, Michael P; Seavers, Aine; Fawcett, Anne; Bell, Erin; Govendir, Merran; Page, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    SURVEY AIMS: A questionnaire was sent to veterinarians in Australia to determine the approximate number of cats presenting for permethrin spot-on (PSO) intoxication over a 2-year period. Of the 269 questionnaires returned, 255 were eligible for analysis. A total of 207 respondents (81%) reported cases of PSO intoxication in cats over the previous 2 years. In total, 750 individual cases were reported, with 166 deaths. While all deaths were generally attributable to intoxication, 39 cats were euthanased because owners were unable to pay the anticipated treatment costs. Brands of PSO implicated included Exelpet Flea (and Tick) Liquidator (Mars Australia) (146 respondents), Bayer Advantix (48), Purina Totalcare Flea Eliminator Line-On (19), Troy Ease-On (six) and Duogard Line-On (Virbac) (four); 67 respondents were not able to identify a specific product. Permethrin spot-on formulations were most commonly obtained from supermarkets (146 respondents), followed by pet stores (43), veterinary practices (16), and a range of other sources including produce stores and friends. The majority of intoxication cases reported involved PSOs labelled for use in dogs with specific label instructions such as 'toxic to cats'. Owners applied these PSO products to their cats accidentally or intentionally. In some cases, exposure was through secondary contact, such as when a PSO product was applied to a dog with which a cat had direct or indirect contact. In the authors' view, because of the likelihood of inappropriate use and toxicity in the non-labelled species, over-the-counter products intended for use in either dogs or cats must have a high margin of safety in all species. Furthermore, PSOs should only be available at points of sale where veterinary advice can be provided and appropriate warnings given. As an interim measure, modified labelling with more explicit warnings may reduce morbidity and mortality. Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Syed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  11. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-05-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  12. Survey of current trends in the abuse of psychotropic substances and plants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Goda, Yukihiro

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, many analogs of narcotics have been widely distributed as easily available psychotropic substances and have become a serious problem in Japan. To counter the spread of these non-controlled substances, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan was amended in 2006 to establish a new category, "designated substances", to more strictly control these psychotropic substances. Fifty-one substances have been listed in this category as of December 2010. However, many new analogs have appeared, one after the other. Although the distribution of tryptamine-type designer drugs has decreased since the amendment of the law, the distribution of cathinone derivatives, as well as of phenetylamine-type and piperazine-type designer drugs, has increased. Moreover, non-controlled psychotropic plants have become popular in place of chemical psychotropic substances, which are now subject to stricter controls. Additionally, since 2008, new herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids (for example, a brand named "Spice") have appeared. Sixteen synthetic cannabinoids, classified into four groups, have been detected in products purchased up to December 2010 via Japanese-based websites. The distribution of products containing the psychoactive substances described above (so-called "legal highs" in European countries) is a worldwide problem. In this review, we survey current trends in the abuse of psychotropic substances and plants in Japan, focusing especially on synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives and psychotropic plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Peripheral nerve injuries: an international survey of current treatments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Thomas; Krichevsky, Alisa; Sumarto, Andrew; Jaffurs, Daniel; Wirth, Garrett A; Paydar, Keyianoosh; Evans, Gregory R D

    2009-07-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are a serious health concern and leave many patients with lifelong disabilities. There is little information about incidences, current practice, outcomes, and type of research that may help delineate new strategies. A questionnaire was designed to determine characteristics of peripheral nerve injuries and the need for alternative strategies and sent to 889 plastic, hand, trauma, and orthopedic surgeons in 49 countries; 324 completed surveys were collected and analyzed (total response rate of 36.45%). The majority of institutions treat more than 3000 patients annually. Trauma was the leading cause of injury with the majority located on the upper extremity. In most cases, a primary repair was achieved, but 2.52% were unrepairable. The overall outcome was linked to their Sunderland classification (SCL). A grade 1 nerve injury (SCL-1) reached a maximum outcome after 7.15 months. SCL-2, -3, -4, and -5 needed 10.69, 14.08, 17.66, and 19.03 months, respectively. Tissue engineering was considered the most important research field, resulting in a visual analogue scale of 8.6. Despite marked advances in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, clinical outcomes still appear unsatisfactory. The importance of research in the field of tissue engineering should be emphasized as a pathway toward improving these outcomes.

  14. Current practices in percutaneous nephrolithotomy in Mexico: results of a nation-wide electronic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christian I Villeda; Roca, Benjamin E Montaño; Molina, Ricardo A Castillejos; Mendez-Probst, Carlos E

    2015-11-01

    Practice patterns and choice of technological instruments in PCNL are not always standardized. There are no previous reports on the PCNL practice tendencies and patterns in Latin America. The aim of the study is to describe the current practice patterns of PCNL among the members of the Mexican Society of Urology ("Sociedad Mexicana de Urologia"). Observational and descriptive study. A 9-item closed questionnaire on PCNL practice patterns was answered by members of the Mexican Society of Urology in a secure website hosted survey after e-mail invitation. A descriptive numerical and graphical analysis was performed. A total of 90 contestants were registered out of 492 potential participants. PCNL is performed by 80% of the participants, with an average of 16 procedures per year. Percutaneous tracts are commonly obtained by urologists on the same day of the procedure. Sequential and telescopic dilators are equally preferred over balloons. The pneumatic litotriptor is the most common choice and CT scan and X-ray are equally used as follow-up. The practice patterns of PCNL from Mexican urologists are different from other international reports. Influence of socio-economic circumstances is inferred.

  15. Students and instant messaging: a survey of current use and demands for higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs de Bakker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Instant messaging (IM is the term used to describe the technology through which ‘users can set up a list of partners who will be able to receive notes that pop up on their screens the moment one of them writes and hits the send button'. While early use could be described as mainly for fun, IM today is a serious communication medium. Remarkably, it seems that educational institutions have been doing very little with it, while several studies indicate that it could indeed be a valuable tool in education. As a first step towards a better understanding of the educational use of IM, we want to gain insights in how students currently use IM and what opportunities they themselves see for the medium. To that end we conducted a survey among students of the Fontys University of Applied Sciences in The Netherlands. A large majority of the participating students indicated using IM for their studies. Also, when asked about their demands for a possible educational implementation, the majority were positive

  16. Effects of food processing on the thermodynamic and nutritive value of foods: literature and database survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, L J; Nguyen, X T; Donat, N; Piekutowski, W V

    2000-02-01

    One of the goals of our society is to provide adequate nourishment for the general population of humans. In the strictness sense, the foodstuffs which we ingest are bundles of thermodynamic energy. In our post-industrial society, food producers provide society with the bioenergetic content of foods, while stabilizing the food in a non-perishable form that enables the consumer to access foods that are convenient and nutritious. As our modern society developed, the processing of foodstuffs increased to allow consumers flexibility in their choice in which foods to eat (based on nutritional content and amount of post-harvest processing). The thermodynamic energy content of foodstuffs is well documented in the literature by the use of bomb calorimetry measurements. Here, we determine the effects of processing (in most cases by the application of heat) on the thermodynamic energy content of foods in order to investigate the role of processing in daily nutritional needs. We also examine which processing procedures affect the nutritive quality (vitamin and mineral content) and critically assess the rational, advantages and disadvantages of additives to food. Finally, we discuss the role of endogenous enzymes in foods not only on the nutritive quality of the food but also on the freshness and flavor of the food. Our results show that a significant decrease in thermodynamic energy content occurs in fruits, vegetables, and meat products upon processing that is independent of water content. No significant change in energy content was observed in cereals, sugars, grains, fats and oils, and nuts. The vitamin content of most foods was most dramatically decreased by canning while smaller effects were observed upon blanching and freezing. We found that most food additives had very little effect on thermodynamic energy content due to their presence in minute quantities and that most were added to preserve the foodstuff or supplement its vitamin content. The endogenous food enzymes

  17. Paediatric pancreatic trauma: a review of the literature and results of a multicentre survey on patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth-Taylor, C; Loveland, J

    2014-11-01

    It is generally accepted that paediatric solid organ injury should be treated conservatively, unless there is haemodynamic instability unresponsive to resuscitation. When it comes to pancreatic trauma, there is much debate about appropriate management. To review the literature and determine how pancreatic trauma is managed in South African (SA) tertiary institutions and compares with international standards. A survey was emailed to 45 paediatric surgical consultants working in various paediatric surgical units in SA, Italy, England and Australia. The questionnaire comprised two scenarios of isolated pancreatic trauma (grade III), the main difference between them being the time interval between initial injury and presentation. In the first scenario, the patient presented 6 hours post injury whereas in the second scenario, the patient presented 6 days post initial injury. The survey enquired about diagnosis and subsequent work-up (including preferred imaging techniques), supportive management (including nutrition), the various options of definitive intervention and follow-up procedure. There were 21 responders from four different countries. In the first scenario, 10 surgeons would operate, 8 would treat conservatively and 3 would perform an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) and stent. In. the second scenario, 4 surgeons would operate, 13 would treat conservatively and 4 would undertake ERCP with stent. There was no difference in management between the SA surgeons and their international counterparts. Management of blunt pancreatic trauma in SA is consistent with that reported in the literature. There is still controversy regarding the optimal management of pancreatic injury involving ducts. No absolute algorithm can be used to treat these patients. All patients should be treated individually and managed with an approach and techniques that are feasible.

  18. Identifying Measures Used for Assessing Quality of YouTube Videos with Patient Health Information: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel; Lau, Annie Ys

    2013-02-28

    Recent publications on YouTube have advocated its potential for patient education. However, a reliable description of what could be considered quality information for patient education on YouTube is missing. To identify topics associated with the concept of quality information for patient education on YouTube in the scientific literature. A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and PsychINFO. Abstract selection was first conducted by two independent reviewers; discrepancies were discussed in a second abstract review with two additional independent reviewers. Full text of selected papers were analyzed looking for concepts, definitions, and topics used by its authors that focused on the quality of information on YouTube for patient education. In total, 456 abstracts were extracted and 13 papers meeting eligibility criteria were analyzed. Concepts identified related to quality of information for patient education are categorized as expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures. These include (in descending order): (1) quality of content in 10/13 (77%), (2) view count in 9/13 (69%), (3) health professional opinion in 8/13 (62%), (4) adequate length or duration in 6/13 (46%), (5) public ratings in 5/13 (39%), (6) adequate title, tags, and description in 5/13 (39%), (7) good description or a comprehensive narrative in 4/13 (31%), (8) evidence-based practices included in video in 4/13 (31%), (9) suitability as a teaching tool in 4/13 (31%), (10) technical quality in 4/13 (31%), (11) credentials provided in video in 4/13 (31%), (12) enough amount of content to identify its objective in 3/13 (23%), and (13) viewership share in 2/13 (15%). Our review confirms that the current topics linked to quality of information for patient education on YouTube are unclear and not standardized. Although expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures are used as proxies to estimate the quality of video information

  19. Use of online machine translation for nursing literature: a questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Takahiro, Kiuchi

    2013-01-01

    The language barrier is a significant obstacle for nurses who are not native English speakers to obtain information from international journals. Freely accessible online machine translation (MT) offers a possible solution to this problem. To explore how Japanese nursing professionals use online MT and perceive its usability in reading English articles and to discuss what should be considered for better utilisation of online MT lessening the language barrier. In total, 250 randomly selected assistants and research associates at nursing colleges across Japan answered a questionnaire examining the current use of online MT and perceived usability among Japanese nurses, along with the number of articles read in English and the perceived language barrier. The items were rated on Likert scales, and t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test, and Spearman's correlation were used for analyses. Of the participants, 73.8% had used online MT. More than half of them felt it was usable. The language barrier was strongly felt, and academic degrees and English proficiency level were associated factors. The perceived language barrier was related to the frequency of online MT use. No associated factor was found for the perceived usability of online MT. Language proficiency is an important factor for optimum utilisation of MT. A need for education in the English language, reading scientific papers, and online MT training was indicated. Cooperation with developers and providers of MT for the improvement of their systems is required.

  20. Literature Survey Concerning the Feasibility of Remedial Leach for Select Phase I Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Karen A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Bryan Mound 5 ( BM5 ) and West Hackberry 9 ( WH9 ) have the potential to create a significant amount of new storage space should the caverns be deemed "leach - ready". This study discusses the original drilling history of the caverns, surrounding geology, current stability, and, based on this culmination of data, makes a preliminary assessment of the leach potential for the cavern. The risks associated with leaching BM5 present substantial problems for the SPR . The odd shape and large amount of insoluble material make it difficult to de termine whether a targeted leach would have the desired effect and create useable ullage or further distort the shape with preferential leaching . T he likelihood of salt falls and damaged or severed casing string is significant . In addition, a targeted le ach would require the relocation of approximately 27 MMB of oil . Due to the abundance of unknown factors associated with this cavern, a targeted leach of BM5 is not recommended. A targeted leaching of the neck of WH 9 could potentially eliminate or diminis h the mid - cavern ledge result ing in a more stable cavern with a more favorable shape. A better understanding of the composition of the surrounding salt and a less complicated leaching history yields more confidence in the ability to successfully leach this region. A targeted leach of WH9 can be recommended upon the completion of a full leach plan with consideration of the impacts upon nearby caverns .

  1. Librarians' roles in evidence-based dentistry education: a review of literature and a survey in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Mei

    2010-10-01

    This study describes the current roles of dental librarians in Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) education including their perceptions of EBD and barriers to their involvement. A Web-based survey was distributed to the dental librarians in North America, with a 71% response rate. The results showed that the majority of dental librarians are playing multiple and diverse roles in EBD education. The most frequently cited barrier to their involvement is the low level of interest from the dental faculty/student/school. Most dental librarians felt competent in supporting EBD, although continuing education needs in both EBD and teaching skills were pointed out.

  2. Challenges and potentials in using alternative landscape futures during climate change: A literature review and survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rastandeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the feasibility of applying alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning during climate change to provide a wider perspective and deeper understanding of this approach for better use and more effective application in the future. The study consists of a literature review and an analysis of recent applied projects carried out worldwide. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted from March to September 2014 to examine viewpoints on the use and application of this approach with reference to climate-change impacts. The survey participants were a group of highly experienced researchers from eighteen countries involved in at least one applied project since 2000 relating to this topic. After analysis of more than forty applied projects, the survey results were incorporated into the analysis to create a comprehensive picture regarding the potentials and limitations of alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning with particular attention to climate change. The findings show that this method is one of the most effective decision-making approaches for adopting landscape policies where landscapes change rapidly under the pressure of urbanisation and climate change. Nevertheless, there is a gap between the advances offered by the approach in various dimensions and the complexity of patterns, uncertainties and upheavals in landscapes due to climate-change impacts in the urbanising world. The research indicates that the approach opens up a great opportunity for decision-makers to expand their perspective and adopt appropriate landscape policies before reaching a point of no return from the sustainability point of view. Meanwhile, there are challenges and barriers in the application of alternative futures and scenario analysis for envisioning the landscapes influenced by climate change and urbanisation that should be pushed back. Although informative, this research raises new questions about this

  3. Genetic and epigenetic changes in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trietsch, Marjolijn D; Nooij, Linda S; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare gynecologic malignancy with an annual incidence in developed countries of approximately 2 per 100,000 women. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has two etiological pathways: a high risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent route, which has usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) as a precursor lesion, and an HPV-independent route, which is associated with differentiated VIN (dVIN), lichen sclerosus, and genetic alterations, such as TP53 mutations. Research on the molecular etiology of vulvar cancer has increased in the past years, not only regarding genetic alterations, but also epigenetic changes. In genetic alterations, a mutation irreversibly changes the nucleotide sequence of the DNA, or the number of copies of chromosomes per cell is altered. In epigenetics, the nucleotide sequence remains the same but genes can be 'switched' on or off by, for example, DNA methylation or histone modification. We searched the current literature on genetic and epigenetic alterations in VSCC and its precursor lesions. Many studies have reported a higher incidence of somatic mutations in HPV-negative tumors compared to HPV-positive tumors, with TP53 mutations being the most frequent. Allelic imbalances or loss of heterozygosity are more frequently found in higher stages of dysplasia and in invasive carcinomas, but it is not exclusive to HPV-negative tumors. A limited number of studies are available on epigenetic changes in vulvar lesions, with hypermethylation of CDKN2A being the most frequently investigated change. For most genes, hypermethylation occurs more frequently in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas than in precursor lesions. As most studies have focused on HPV infection and TP53 mutations, we suggest that more research should be performed using whole genome or next generation sequencing to determine the true landscape of genetic and epigenetic alterations in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Mohan Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research.

  5. Exercise recommendations after total joint replacement: a review of the current literature and proposal of scientifically based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Markus S

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a literature review of the current recommendations regarding sports after total joint replacement and also suggests scientifically based guidelines. Patients should be encouraged to remain physically active for general health and also for the quality of their bone. There is evidence that increased bone quality will improve prosthesis fixation and decrease the incidence of early loosening. To recommend a certain activity after total knee or hip replacement, factors such as wear, joint load, intensity and the type of prosthesis must be taken into account for each patient and sport. It has been shown that the reduction of wear is one of the main factors in improving long-term results after total joint replacement. Wear is dependent on the load, the number of steps and the material properties of total joint replacements. The most important question is, whether a specific activity is performed for exercise to obtain and maintain physical fitness or whether an activity is recreational only. To maintain physical fitness an endurance activity will be performed several times per week with high intensity. Since load will influence the amount of wear exponentially, only activities with low joint loads such as swimming, cycling or possibly power walking should be recommended. If an activity is carried out on a low intensity and therefore recreational base, activities with higher joint loads such as skiing or hiking can also be performed. It is unwise to start technically demanding activities after total joint replacement, as the joint loads and the risk for injuries are generally higher for these activities in unskilled individuals. Finally, it is important to distinguish between suitable activities following total knee and total hip replacement. To recommend suitable physical activities after total knee replacement, it is important to consider both the load and the knee flexion angle of the peak load, while for total hip replacement, which involves a

  6. Features of a Mobile Support App for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Literature Review and Current Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobnath, Drishty D; Philip, Nada; Kayyali, Reem; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Pierscionek, Barbara; Vaes, Anouk W; Spruit, Martijn A; Kaimakamis, Evangelos

    2017-02-20

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious long-term lung disease in which the airflow from the lungs is progressively reduced. By 2030, COPD will become the third cause of mortality and seventh cause of morbidity worldwide. With advances in technology and mobile communications, significant progress in the mobile health (mHealth) sector has been recently observed. Mobile phones with app capabilities (smartphones) are now considered as potential media for the self-management of certain types of diseases such as asthma, cancer, COPD, or cardiovascular diseases. While many mobile apps for patients with COPD are currently found on the market, there is little published material on the effectiveness of most of them, their features, and their adoption in health care settings. The aim of this study was to search the literature for current systems related to COPD and identify any missing links and studies that were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of COPD mobile apps. In addition, we reviewed existing mHealth apps from different stores in order to identify features that can be considered in the initial design of a COPD support tool to improve health care services and patient outcomes. In total, 206 articles related to COPD management systems were identified from different databases. Irrelevant materials and duplicates were excluded. Of those, 38 articles were reviewed to extract important features. We identified 214 apps from online stores. Following exclusion of irrelevant apps, 48 were selected and 20 of them were downloaded to review some of their common features. Our review found that out of the 20 apps downloaded, 13 (65%, 13/20) had an education section, 5 (25%, 5/20) consisted of medication and guidelines, 6 (30%, 6/20) included a calendar or diary and other features such as reminders or symptom tracking. There was little published material on the effectiveness of the identified COPD apps. Features such as (1) a social networking tool; (2

  7. A survey on IVIVC/IVIVR development in the pharmaceutical industry - Past experience and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M A; Flanagan, T; Brewster, M; Kesisoglou, F; Beato, S; Biewenga, J; Crison, J; Holm, R; Li, R; Mannaert, E; McAllister, M; Mueller-Zsigmondy, M; Muenster, U; Ojala, K; Page, S; Parr, A; Rossenu, S; Timmins, P; Van Peer, A; Vermeulen, A; Langguth, P

    2017-05-01

    of non-compendial dissolution methods for establishing a successful IVIVC/IVIVR. The lack of appropriate in vivo data and regulatory uncertainty were considered the major difficulties in IVIVC/IVIVR development. The results of this survey provide unique insights into current IVIVC/IVIVR practices in the pharmaceutical industry. Pursuing an IVIVC/IVIVR should be generally encouraged, considering its high value from both industry and regulators' perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency in childhood: a survey from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazoğlu, Şükran; Akçay, Teoman; Arslanoğlu, İlknur; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Atay, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih; Bereket, Abdullah; Bideci, Aysun; Bircan, İffet; Böber, Ece; Can, Şule; Cesur, Yaşar; Darcan, Şükran; Demir, Korcan; Dündar, Bumin; Ersoy, Betül; Esen, İhsan; Güven, Ayla; Kara, Cengiz; Keskin, Mehmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Memioğlu, Nihal; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Özgen, Tolga; Sarı, Erkan; Şıklar, Zeynep; Şimşek, Enver; Turan, Serap; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Yüksel, Bilgin; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2015-03-01

    Approaches to diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children vary among countries and even among centers in the same country. This survey, aiming to facilitate the process of preparing the new consensus on GHD by the Turkish Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Society, was designed to evaluate the current practices in diagnosis and treatment of GHD in different centers in Turkey. A questionnaire covering relevant items for diagnosis and treatment of GHD was sent out to all pediatric endocrinology centers. Twenty-four centers returned the questionnaire. The most frequently used GH stimulation test was L-dopa, followed by clonidine. Eighteen centers used a GH cut-off value of 10 ng/mL for the diagnosis of GHD; this value was 7 ng/mL in 4 centers and 5 ng/mL in 2 centers. The most frequently used assay was immunochemiluminescence for determination of GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 concentrations. Sex steroid priming in both sexes was used by 19 centers. The most frequently used starting dose of recombinant human GH (rhGH) in prepubertal children was 0.025-0.030 mg/kg/day and 0.030-0.035 mg/kg/day in pubertal children. Growth velocity was used in the evaluation for growth response to rhGH therapy in all centers. Anthropometric measurements of patients every 3-6 months, fasting blood glucose, bone age and thyroid panel evaluation were used by all centers at follow-up. Main indications for cessation of therapy were decreased height velocity and advanced bone age. Fourteen centers used combined treatment (rhGH and gonadotropin-releasing analogues) to increase final height. Although conformity was found among centers in Turkey in current practice, it is very important to update guideline statements and to modify, if needed, the approach to GHD over time in accordance with new evidence-based clinical studies.

  9. Advance care planning in chronic kidney disease: A survey of current practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Spencer, Lucy; Morton, Rachael L; Pollock, Carol A; Lam, Lawrence; Silvester, William; Sellars, Marcus; Detering, Karen M; Butow, Phyllis N; Tong, Allison; Clayton, Josephine M

    2017-02-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) in nephrology is widely advocated but not always implemented. The aims of this study were to describe current ACP practice and identify barriers/facilitators and perceived need for health professional education and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-specific approaches. An anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered online. Nephrology health professionals in Australia and New Zealand were recruited via professional societies, email lists and nephrology conferences. Multiple regression explored the influence of respondents' attributes on extent of involvement in ACP and willingness to engage in future. A total of 375 respondents included nephrologists (23%), nurses (65%), social workers (4%) and others (8%) with 54% indicated that ACP at their workplace was performed ad hoc and 61% poorly. Perceived barriers included patient/family discomfort (84%), difficulty engaging families (83%), lack of clinician expertise (83%) and time (82%), health professional discomfort (72%), cultural/language barriers (65%), lack of private space (61%) and lack of formal policy/procedures (60%). Respondents overwhelmingly endorsed the need for more dialysis-specific ACP programs (96%) and education (95%). Whilst 85% thought ACP would be optimally performed by specially trained staff, comments emphasized that all clinicians should have a working proficiency. Respondents who were more willing to engage in future ACP tended to be non-physicians (odds ratio (OR) 4.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.74-14.07) and reported a greater need for CKD-specific ACP materials (OR 10.88, 95% CI 2.38-49.79). Advance care planning in nephrology needs support through education and CKD-specific resources. Endorsement by nephrologists is important. A multidisciplinary approach with a gradient of ACP expertise is also recommended. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Robotic surgery training with commercially available simulation systems in 2011: a current review and practice pattern survey from the society of urologic robotic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallas, Costas D; Davis, John W

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation has the potential to standardize surgical training for robotic surgery. We sought to evaluate all commercially available VR robotic simulators. A MEDLINE(®) literature search was performed of all applicable keywords. Available VR simulators were evaluated with regard to face, content, and construct validation. Additionally, a survey was e-mailed to all members of the Endourological Society, querying the pervasiveness of VR simulators in robotic surgical training. Finally, each company was e-mailed to ask for a price quote for their respective system. There are four VR robotic surgical simulators currently available: RoSS™, dV-Trainer™, SEP Robot™, and da Vinci(®) Skills Simulator™. Each system is represented in the literature and all possess varying degrees of face, content, and construct validity. Although all systems have basic skill sets with performance analysis and metrics software, most do not contain procedural components. When evaluating the results of our survey, most respondents did not possess a VR simulator although almost all believed there to be great potential for these devices in robotic surgical training. With the exception of the SEP Robot, all VR simulators are similar in price. VR simulators have a definite role in the future of robotic surgical training. Although the simulators target technical components of training, their largest impact will be appreciated when incorporated into a comprehensive educational curriculum.

  11. Audiologia do envelhecimento: revisão da literatura e perspectivas atuais Audiology and aging: literature review and current horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Peixoto Veras

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura sobre a perda auditiva associada ao envelhecimento e suas implicações, numa perspectiva atual. REVISÃO DA LITERATURA: Nos estudos realizados no Brasil, a presbiacusia vem sendo apontada como causa mais freqüente da deficiência auditiva em pessoas idosas, implicando em uma dificuldade de compreensão durante a comunicação verbal. Estudos internacionais também mostram alta prevalência da perda auditiva em pessoas idosas. DISCUSSÃO: Segundo pesquisas recentes, à medida que o quantitativo da população idosa vem aumentando, também aumenta a prevalência da presbiacusia que interfere na qualidade de vida do idoso. Mesmo entre os profissionais de saúde, ainda é grande o desconhecimento em relação às vantagens e ganhos que a reeducação auditiva específica para idosos com perda auditiva pode oferecer. CONCLUSÃO: Os artigos aqui analisados mostraram que os serviços de saúde da rede pública, que envolvem médicos e fonoaudiólogos, devem estabelecer diretrizes para o desenvolvimento de programas de diagnóstico, aquisição de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual e, principalmente, de reeducação auditiva para os idosos portadores de presbiacusia, para que eles possam participar e desfrutar das relações sociais, mantendo uma boa qualidade de vida. Entretanto, no Brasil, os estudos e pesquisas nesta área estão apenas começando.AIM: to review the literature on aging-related hearing loss and its current impacts. LITERATURE REVIEW: In studies carried out in Brazil, presbycusis has been blamed for being the most frequent cause of hearing loss in the elderly, causing verbal communication impairment. International studies also show the high prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly. DISCUSSION: According to recent investigations, as the number of elderly people increase, the prevalence of presbycusis interfering in the life quality of this population also increases. Even among health care

  12. The physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on the different skin layers: a current status of the literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moortgat, Peter; Anthonissen, Mieke; Meirte, Jill; Van Daele, Ulrike; Maertens, Koen

    2016-01-01

    .... Therefore, the aim of this review is to present an overview of the available literature on the physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on epidermal and dermal skin structures in order...

  13. Comparison of magnification in primary digital nerve repair: literature review, survey of practice trends, and assessment of 90 cadaveric repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Derek T; Hamilton, Kristy L; Foy, Christian; Petersen, Nancy J; Netscher, David T

    2013-11-01

    To review published clinical outcomes and current practice trends and to assess the quality of cadaveric digital nerve repairs using either loupe or microscopic magnification. Published clinical outcomes of digital nerve repair accounting for magnification level were reviewed. Members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand were surveyed regarding their current surgical practices. Ninety cadaveric digital nerve repairs were performed by 9 hand surgeons using loupe or microscopic magnification and evaluated by a visual grading scale. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate repairs. We examined 6 publications involving 130 repairs with loupes (4-6×) and 255 repairs with microscopes. Univariate analysis revealed no statistically superior clinical outcomes using high-powered loupes (4-6×) versus microscopic magnification, with no data on lower-magnification loupes more commonly used in practice. Survey data indicated that 52% of hand surgeons use microscopes and 48% use loupes, with 78% using 2.5 to 3.5× magnification. Univariate analysis of the cadaveric repairs demonstrated excellent repairs in 60% of microscope repairs versus 29% of loupe repairs. Multivariate analysis determined that microscopic magnification was 3.9 times more likely than loupes to yield an excellent repair. The surgeon, level of training, repair time, and stitches per repair were not significantly related to an excellent repair. Our study indicated that microscope use produces superior quality digital nerve repair. Approximately half of hand surgeons use loupes in current practice, mostly at low magnification (2.5-3.5×). In this context, a higher level of magnification may be positively correlated with better clinical outcomes. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A systematic literature review of the current trends and challenges of internationalization of higher education in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Brand, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to consolidate a sample of existing academic literature on the modes, trends, risks and challenges of the internationalization of higher education in Latin America published over the last 15 years -- Following a systematic literature review methodology, it was seeking to analyze and synthesize a sample of 25 published academic articles on the specifically chosen topic -- As a consequence of this review, it was found that progress has been made on the subject and there is an aw...

  15. Technology-induced errors. The current use of frameworks and models from the biomedical and life sciences literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, E M; Kushniruk, A W; Bellwood, P; Brender, J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the extent, range and scope to which frameworks, models and theories dealing with technology-induced error have arisen in the biomedical and life sciences literature as indexed by Medline®. To better understand the state of work in the area of technology-induced error involving frameworks, models and theories, the authors conducted a search of Medline® using selected key words identified from seminal articles in this research area. Articles were reviewed and those pertaining to frameworks, models or theories dealing with technology-induced error were further reviewed by two researchers. All articles from Medline® from its inception to April of 2011 were searched using the above outlined strategy. 239 citations were returned. Each of the abstracts for the 239 citations were reviewed by two researchers. Eleven articles met the criteria based on abstract review. These 11 articles were downloaded for further in-depth review. The majority of the articles obtained describe frameworks and models with reference to theories developed in other literatures outside of healthcare. The papers were grouped into several areas. It was found that articles drew mainly from three literatures: 1) the human factors literature (including human-computer interaction and cognition), 2) the organizational behavior/sociotechnical literature, and 3) the software engineering literature. A variety of frameworks and models were found in the biomedical and life sciences literatures. These frameworks and models drew upon and extended frameworks, models and theoretical perspectives that have emerged in other literatures. These frameworks and models are informing an emerging line of research in health and biomedical informatics involving technology-induced errors in healthcare.

  16. Scientific publications in respiratory journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: a 10-year survey of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bo; Du, Ting-Ting; Xie, Ting; Ji, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Zhao-Hong; Liao, Zhuan; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Respiratory disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in China. However, little is known about the research status of respirology in three major regions of China—Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK) and Taiwan (TW). A 10-year survey of literature was conducted to compare the three regions’ outputs in the research of respirology. Design A bibliometric study. Setting China. Participants and outcome measures A literature search in PubMed database, updated as of September 2012, led to the identification of the related articles from 2000 to 2009. The number of total articles, randomised controlled trials, case reports, meta-analysis, impact factors (IF), citations and articles published in top general medicine journals was collected for quantity and quality comparisons. Results 2208 articles were collected, 814 from ML, 909 from TW and 485 from HK. The total number of articles from the three regions has increased significantly from 2000 to 2009. The number of articles published per year from ML has exceeded that from HK in 2005 and TW in 2008. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (3192.417) was much higher than that from ML (2409.956) and HK (1898.312). HK got the highest average IF of respirology articles and the majority of articles were published in top general medicine journals. Conclusions The total number of published articles from the three major regions of China has increased notably from 2000 to 2009. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK is better than that from ML. PMID:24583761

  17. Psychometric validation of the SF-36(®) Health Survey in ulcerative colitis: results from a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlas, Aaron; Bayliss, Martha; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Maher, Stephen; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Chen, Lea Ann; Manuchehri, Alireza; Healey, Paul

    2017-08-28

    To conduct a systematic literature review of the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the SF-36(®) Health Survey (SF-36) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a systematic search of electronic medical databases to identify published peer-reviewed studies which reported scores from the eight scales and/or two summary measures of the SF-36 collected from adult patients with UC. Study findings relevant to reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness were reviewed. Data were extracted and summarized from 43 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Convergent validity was supported by findings that 83% (197/236) of correlations between SF-36 scales and measures of disease symptoms, disease activity, and functioning exceeded the prespecified threshold (r ≥ |0.40|). Known-groups validity was supported by findings of clinically meaningful differences in SF-36 scores between subgroups of patients when classified by disease activity (i.e., active versus inactive), symptom status, and comorbidity status. Responsiveness was supported by findings of clinically meaningful changes in SF-36 scores following treatment in non-comparative trials, and by meaningfully larger improvements in SF-36 scores in treatment arms relative to controls in randomized controlled trials. The sole study of SF-36 reliability found evidence supporting internal consistency (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70) for all SF-36 scales and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.70) for six of eight scales. Evidence from this systematic literature review indicates that the SF-36 is reliable, valid, and responsive when used with UC patients, supporting the inclusion of the SF-36 as an endpoint in clinical trials for this patient population.

  18. Scientific publications in respiratory journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: a 10-year survey of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bo; Du, Ting-Ting; Xie, Ting; Ji, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Zhao-Hong; Liao, Zhuan; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2014-02-28

    Respiratory disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in China. However, little is known about the research status of respirology in three major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK) and Taiwan (TW). A 10-year survey of literature was conducted to compare the three regions' outputs in the research of respirology. A bibliometric study. China. A literature search in PubMed database, updated as of September 2012, led to the identification of the related articles from 2000 to 2009. The number of total articles, randomised controlled trials, case reports, meta-analysis, impact factors (IF), citations and articles published in top general medicine journals was collected for quantity and quality comparisons. 2208 articles were collected, 814 from ML, 909 from TW and 485 from HK. The total number of articles from the three regions has increased significantly from 2000 to 2009. The number of articles published per year from ML has exceeded that from HK in 2005 and TW in 2008. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (3192.417) was much higher than that from ML (2409.956) and HK (1898.312). HK got the highest average IF of respirology articles and the majority of articles were published in top general medicine journals. The total number of published articles from the three major regions of China has increased notably from 2000 to 2009. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK is better than that from ML.

  19. A European survey on current practices in epilepsy monitoring units and implications for patients' safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubboli, Guido; Beniczky, Sandor; Claus, Steven; Canevini, Maria Paola; Kahane, Philippe; Stefan, Hermann; van Emde Boas, Walter; Velis, Demetrios; Reus, Elise; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Trinka, Eugen; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to survey current practices in European epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) with emphasis on safety issues. A 37-item questionnaire investigating characteristics and organization of EMUs, including measures for prevention and management of seizure-related serious adverse events (SAEs), was distributed to all identified European EMUs plus one located in Israel (N=150). Forty-eight (32%) EMUs, located in 18 countries, completed the questionnaire. Epilepsy monitoring unit beds are 1-2 in 43%, 3-4 in 34%, and 5-6 in 19% of EMUs; staff physicians are 1-2 in 32%, 3-4 in 34%, and 5-6 in 19% of EMUs. Personnel operating in EMUs include epileptologists (in 69% of EMUs), clinical neurophysiologists trained in epilepsy (in 46% of EMUs), child neurologists (in 35% of EMUs), neurology and clinical neurophysiology residents (in 46% and in 8% of EMUs, respectively), and neurologists not trained in epilepsy (in 27% of EMUs). In 20% of EMUs, patients' observation is only intermittent or during the daytime and primarily carried out by neurophysiology technicians and/or nurses (in 71% of EMUs) or by patients' relatives (in 40% of EMUs). Automatic detection systems for seizures are used in 15%, for body movements in 8%, for oxygen desaturation in 33%, and for ECG abnormalities in 17% of EMUs. Protocols for management of acute seizures are lacking in 27%, of status epilepticus in 21%, and of postictal psychoses in 87% of EMUs. Injury prevention consists of bed protections in 96% of EMUs, whereas antisuffocation pillows are employed in 21%, and environmental protections in monitoring rooms and in bathrooms are implemented in 38% and in 25% of EMUs, respectively. The most common SAEs were status epilepticus reported by 79%, injuries by 73%, and postictal psychoses by 67% of EMUs. All EMUs have faced different types of SAEs. Wide variation in practice patterns and lack of protocols and of precautions to ensure patients' safety might promote the occurrence and severity of

  20. 78 FR 77646 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Basic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... status, gender, Armed Forces status, education, race, origin, and family income. We use these data in... basic monthly survey. The Census Bureau also prepares and conducts all the field work. At the OMB's...

  1. 75 FR 78676 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Basic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... status, gender, Armed Forces status, education, race, origin, and family income. We use these data in... basic monthly survey. The Census Bureau also prepares and conducts all the field work. At the OMB's...

  2. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-01-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health...

  3. Current status of in-hospital donation coordinators in Japan: nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, S; Shimizu, S; Iizawa, M; Ohkawara, H; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N

    2013-05-01

    When the Japanese Organ Transplantation Act was issued, the Japanese Organ Transplantation Network (JOT) was established in 1997. JOT lists recipients, assesses and manages organ donors, and educates publics and headquarters for organ donations. JOT procurement transplant coordinators (PTC) play roles in obtaining consent from relatives for organ donation, donor evaluation and management, organ recovery management, organ transport, and care of donor families during and after donation. Every prefecture has at least one PTC who is mainly working in public education and hospital development. They also help the JOT PTC at the time of organ procurement. Most prefectures commission hospital staff in the procurement hospital to be an in-hospital PTC (In-Hp PTC), who make their hospital staff aware of organ donation and support organ procurement. Although the Act was revised in 2010 with brain-dead organ donation increased from 13 to 44 cases yearly, the number was still extremely smaller than other developed countries. In these circumstances, In-Hp PTC may play greater roles to increase donation and smooth procurement procedures Our primary aim was to describe the current status of In-Hp PTC in Japan. Between December 15, 2011, and January 31, 2012, we invited 1889 In-Hp PTC to complete a letter survey using a self-designed questionnaire. In all, 56 In-Hp PTC (40%) completed and returned it. The occupation of the respondents was nurse (66%), physician (18%), or other (16%). Although 52% of respondents belonged to the hospital, which was designated for brain-death organ donation by the government, only 46% had any experience with a cadaveric donor. Only 2% were full-time In-Hp PTC. They mainly played a role in preparing their own manual for organ procurement (57%), providing in-hospital lectures (44%) or their own simulation exercise (29%), as well as coordinating donation cases. Although 77% had attended seminar about organ donation provided by JOT or the prefecture PTC

  4. Implementing a Grant Proposal Writing Exercise in Undergraduate Science Courses to Incorporate Real-World Applications and Critical Analysis of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kathryn E.; Inada, Maki; Smith, Andrew M.; Haaf, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is an essential part of a successful career in science. As such, many undergraduate science courses have begun to implement writing assignments that reflect "real-world" applications and focus on a critical analysis of current literature; these assignments are often in the form of a review or a research proposal. The…

  5. Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants in sleep centers and clinics: a survey of current roles and educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Loretta; Cartwright, Ann; Collop, Nancy; Freedman, Neil; McLeod, Don; Weaver, Terri E; Rogers, Ann E

    2014-05-15

    To survey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) and Physician Assistant (PA) utilization, roles and educational background within the field of sleep medicine. Electronic surveys distributed to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) member centers and APRNs and PAs working within sleep centers and clinics. Approximately 40% of responding AASM sleep centers reported utilizing APRNs or PAs in predominantly clinical roles. Of the APRNs and PAs surveyed, 95% reported responsibilities in sleep disordered breathing and more than 50% in insomnia and movement disorders. Most APRNs and PAs were prepared at the graduate level (89%), with sleep-specific education primarily through "on the job" training (86%). All APRNs surveyed were Nurse Practitioners (NPs), with approximately double the number of NPs compared to PAs. APRNs and PAs were reported in sleep centers at proportions similar to national estimates of NPs and PAs in physicians' offices. They report predominantly clinical roles, involving common sleep disorders. Given current predictions that the outpatient healthcare structure will change and the number of APRNs and PAs will increase, understanding the role and utilization of these professionals is necessary to plan for the future care of patients with sleep disorders. Surveyed APRNs and PAs reported a significant deficiency in formal and standardized sleep-specific education. Efforts to provide formal and standardized educational opportunities for APRNs and PAs that focus on their clinical roles within sleep centers could help fill a current educational gap.

  6. Psychiatric treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS: an HIV-psychiatry consensus survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenreich, Oliver; Goforth, Harold W; Cozza, Kelly L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A; Bachmann, Grace; Cohen, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Only sparse evidence from controlled clinical trials is available to guide the psychiatric treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS. The authors assessed and determined current treatment trends in AIDS psychiatry. Members of the Organization of AIDS Psychiatry (OAP) participated in a web-based survey. Of 159 members, 62 (39%) responded to the survey. Consensus emerged regarding first-line treatment for depression (escitalopram/citalopram), for psychosis and secondary mania (quetiapine), and for anxiety (clonazepam). Consensus statements can serve as a preliminary step toward providing some standardization of care for persons with HIV/AIDS.

  7. Overlooked and Understudied? A Survey of Current Trends in Research on Adult English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews-Aydinli, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis and review of 41 recent research studies focusing on the population of adult English language learners (ELLs) studying in nonacademic contexts. It notes the unique qualities and importance of understanding the English-language needs of this population, provides a critical overview of the existing literature, and…

  8. Conformity with current guidelines on oral contraceptive prescribing for breastfeeding women: a New Mexico survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony; Leeman, Larry; Reddy, Shilpa; Lee, Carisa; Qualls, Clifford

    2006-11-01

    National and international contraceptive guidelines reflect expert opinion that recommends against the use of estrogen-containing hormonal contraception in the early postpartum period. This study was undertaken to estimate providers' practices in prescribing hormonal contraception to breastfeeding women. A 19-item survey was mailed to 397 obstetrician gynecologists, midwives and family physicians in the state of New Mexico. The survey included items covering attitudes about the impact of hormonal contraception on breastfeeding and prescribing practices. One hundred ninety-nine (50%) providers completed the survey. The majority (70%) of providers prescribe progestin-only contraceptive methods to breastfeeding women within the first 6 weeks. Despite these recommendations, a sizable minority of providers prescribe combined pills in the early postpartum period: 27% of providers have prescribed combined pills and 13% of providers, mostly those in a university setting, routinely recommend them within the first 6 weeks postpartum. Most providers follow expert recommendations regarding the initiation of hormonal contraception for breastfeeding women.

  9. Embryo transfer techniques: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine survey of current Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Thomas L; Lee, Malinda S; Bendikson, Kristin A; Reindollar, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    To better understand practice patterns and opportunities for standardization of ET. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. Not applicable. An anonymous 82-question survey was emailed to the medical directors of 286 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member IVF practices. A follow-up survey composed of three questions specific to ET technique was emailed to the same medical directors. Descriptive statistics of the results were compiled. The survey assessed policies, protocols, restrictions, and specifics pertinent to the technique of ET. There were 117 (41%) responses; 32% practice in academic settings and 68% in private practice. Responders were experienced clinicians, half of whom had performed technique. Multiple steps in the ET process were identified as "highly conserved;" others demonstrated discordance. ET technique is divided among [1] trial transfer followed immediately with ET (40%); [2] afterload transfer (30%); and [3] direct transfer without prior trial or afterload (27%). Embryos are discharged in the upper (66%) and middle thirds (29%) of the endometrial cavity and not closer than 1-1.5 cm from fundus (87%). Details of each step were reported and allowed the development of a "common" practice ET procedure. ET training and practices vary widely. Improved training and standardization based on outcomes data and best practices are warranted. A common practice procedure is suggested for validation by a systematic literature review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of hospital payments in the adoption of new medical technologies: an international survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Drummond, Michael; Torbica, Aleksandra; Callea, Giuditta; Mateus, Ceu

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of prospective payment systems in the adoption of new medical technologies across different countries. A literature review was conducted to provide background for the study and guide development of a survey instrument. The survey was disseminated to hospital payment systems experts in 15 jurisdictions. Fifty-one surveys were disseminated, with 34 returned. The surveys returned covered 14 of the 15 jurisdictions invited to participate. The majority (71%) of countries update the patient classification system and/or payment tariffs on an annual basis to try to account for new technologies. Use of short-term separate or supplementary payments for new technologies occurs in 79% of countries to ensure adequate funding and facilitate adoption. A minority (43%) of countries use evidence of therapeutic benefit and/or costs to determine or update payment tariffs, although it is somewhat more common in establishing short-term payments. The main barrier to using evidence is uncertain or unavailable clinical evidence. Almost three-fourths of respondents believed diagnosis-related group systems incentivize or deter technology adoption, depending on the particular circumstances. Improvements are needed, such as enhanced strategies for evidence generation and linking evidence of value to payments, national and international collaboration and training to improve existing practice, and flexible timelines for short-term payments. Importantly, additional research is needed to understand how different payment policies impact technology uptake as well as quality of care and costs.

  11. Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Sugai, George

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature related to culture and student behavior reveals a number of interesting observations that are not surprising. First, culture is a difficult construct to define and has been defined variably over the years. Second, schools are becoming increasingly diverse, and evidence-based behavior management practices have been…

  12. Student Standardised Testing: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses the most relevant issues concerning student standardised testing in which there are no-stakes for students ("standardised testing") through a literature review and a review of the trends in standardised testing in OECD countries. Unlike standardised tests in which there are high-stakes for students, no-stakes implies that…

  13. Functioning and effectiveness of electronic control devices such as the TASER® M- and X-series: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Zinka, Bettina; Fieseler, Sybille; Graw, Matthias; Peschel, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) such as the TASER(®) M- and X-series deliver short high-voltage, low-current energy pulses to temporarily paralyze a person by causing electrical interruption of the body's normal energy pulses. Despite many scientific publications, which classify the health risks of an appropriate use of the TASER device as minor, there still is a continuous uncertainty about possible side effects with human application. Based on a literature search of the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database's PubMed system of current publications, the following article describes the mechanisms by which the device operates and discusses possible pathophysiological consequences. The majority of current human literature has not found evidence of clinical relevant pathophysiological effects during and after an exposure of professionally applied CEWs. However, to be able to exclude possible health risks, a medical checkup of people who have been exposed to CEWs is essential. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. 76 FR 39260 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... direct investment in the U.S. seafood industry, two schedules of expenditures for property, plant, and... of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad BE-133C, Schedule of Expenditures for Property, Plant, and Equipment... Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 806 RIN 0691-AA78 Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of...

  15. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on

  16. A Survey of New Zealand Academic Reference Librarians: Current and Future Skills and Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawner, Brenda; Oliver, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    A survey of New Zealand academic subject/reference librarians was conducted in mid-2011 to identify the most highly valued knowledge, skills and competencies of reference librarians working in libraries in the tertiary sector. The project was part of an international collaborative project involving 13 countries. The results from New Zealand show…

  17. Patterns in current perioperative practice: survey of colorectal surgeons in five northern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, K; Hannemann, P; Ljungqvist, O

    2005-01-01

    no bowel preparation, epidural anaesthesia/analgesia continued for one to two days postoperatively, no nasogastric decompression tube postoperatively, intravenous fluid/saline restriction, and free oral intake from postoperative day one. 1 - 5 This survey aimed to characterise perioperative practice...

  18. Compensation for Overloads and Summer Employment: A Survey of Current Practice in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James C.

    A survey was sent to 58 chief academic officers to gain information about compensation for instructional overloads and summer employment at public and private Texas colleges and universities. Responses were received from 42 institutions. Only two indicated that their institutions did not have a uniform policy guiding summer compensation amounts.…

  19. Emerging roles for biomedical librarians: a survey of current practice, challenges, and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Janet A; Cooper, I Diane

    2013-10-01

    This study is intended to (1) identify emerging roles for biomedical librarians and determine how common these roles are in a variety of library settings, (2) identify barriers to taking on new roles, and (3) determine how librarians are developing the capacity to take on new roles. A survey was conducted of librarians in biomedical settings. Most biomedical librarians are taking on new roles. The most common roles selected by survey respondents include analysis and enhancement of user experiences, support for social media, support for systematic reviews, clinical informationist, help for faculty or staff with authorship issues, and implementation of researcher profiling and collaboration tools. Respondents in academic settings are more likely to report new roles than hospital librarians are, but some new roles are common in both settings. Respondents use a variety of methods to free up time for new roles, but predominant methods vary between directors and librarians and between academic and hospital respondents. Lack of time is the biggest barrier that librarians face when trying to adopt new roles. New roles are associated with increased collaboration with individuals and/or groups outside the library. This survey documents the widespread incorporation of new roles in biomedical libraries in the United States, as well as the barriers to adopting these roles and the means by which librarians are making time for them. The results of the survey can be used to inform strategic planning, succession planning, library education, and career development for biomedical librarians.

  20. Tabulations of Responses from the 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel. Volume 1. Current Location, Military Assignments, and Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...

  1. Complementary Value of Databases for Discovery of Scholarly Literature: A User Survey of Online Searching for Publications in Art History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Discovery of academic literature through Web search engines challenges the traditional role of specialized research databases. Creation of literature outside academic presses and peer-reviewed publications expands the content for scholarly research within a particular field. The resulting body of literature raises the question of whether scholars…

  2. What is current practice in offering debriefing services to post partum women and what are the perceptions of women in accessing these services: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jackie D; McCourt, Christine; Jarrett, Patricia M

    2014-02-01

    the main research question is to describe current practice in offering debriefing services to post partum women and learn about the perceptions of women accessing these services. critical review of the literature using a meta ethnography approach. 20 papers were identified. These included four surveys, three qualitative studies, one mixed methods study and three literature reviews. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provided additional information from alongside surveys and description of interventions. Two types of debriefing were identified: structured and unstructured. The more formal psychoanalytic forms took place within the RCTs whilst the unstructured discussion sessions commonly with midwives were identified in other research papers. In addition there is confusion amongst service providers about the nature of debriefing and what is delivered. Various aspects of providing a postnatal debriefing service were identified including the optimal timing, specific groups offered debriefing and the number of sessions offered. Postnatal debriefing enabled women to have their birth experiences validated by talking and being listened to and being provided with information. Finally from the limited literature identified relating to midwives' perceptions of postnatal debriefing there was an overall feeling from midwives that they considered it to be beneficial to women. the findings of this literature review imply that women's responses to receiving postnatal debriefing are generally positive. This review has found that women appear to value talking and being listened to by a midwife following birth. They seem to have a strong need to have their story heard. This discussion also allows the women to have questions answered and information given where necessary. The whole process places a seal on a woman's birth experience which is validated. although there is no evidence to suggest that postnatal debriefing reduces morbidity, women find the service of value

  3. Occlusion for implant-supported fixed dental prostheses in partially edentulous patients: a literature review and current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2013-01-01

    Implant treatment has become the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth in partially edentulous areas. Dental implants present different biological and biomechanical characteristics than natural teeth. Occlusion is considered to be one of the most important factors contributing to implant success. Most literature on implant occlusal concepts is based on expert opinion, anecdotal experiences, in vitro and animal studies, and only limited clinical research. Furthermore, scientific literat...

  4. ICU delirium: a survey into nursing and medical staff knowledge of current practices and perceived barriers towards ICU delirium in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sara R

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity in the intensive care unit and is associated with a prolonged hospital and intensive care unit stay. National guidelines suggest that intensive care unit delirium is screened for daily using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit validated screening tool. Research suggests that there is a lack of knowledge on intensive care unit delirium, its screening tools and that it is inadequately screened for. The aim of the study is to assess nursing and medical staff knowledge, understanding and management of intensive care unit delirium and assess the perceived barriers associated with intensive care unit delirium screening using a validated screening tool. A survey design was used and a questionnaire designed to collect the data. The sample consisted of 149 nursing and medical staff working in three district intensive care units within the United Kingdom. The data yielded reveals that 44% (n = 33) of the respondents were not educated on ICU delirium. Furthermore the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit was only being used in one out of the three sites surveyed and this was found to be at best sporadic, this fails to adhere to current delirium guidelines (NICE, 2010). Those using a non structured way of detecting delirium observed for hallucinations and agitation. Common associated barriers quoted in the literature such as time restraints did not appear to be an issue in this study. This study has shown that despite national guidelines screening with a validated delirium screening tool is not being performed in two of the intensive care unit surveyed and one site employs the confusion assessment method for the intensive care however screening is sporadic. This study contributes to the evidence base suggesting that intensive care unit delirium is under recognised and screened for despite current guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current experience and attitudes to biomedical scientist cut-up: results of an online survey of UK consultant histopathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, E J V; Sanders, D S A; Carr, R A

    2011-04-01

    To assess the current utilisation of biomedical scientist (BMS) surgical specimen cut-up in the UK and attitudes of consultant histopathologists to the practice. Email invitations were sent to all UK consultant histopathologists to participate in an online survey (SurveyMonkey) assessing attitudes to and utilisation of BMS surgical specimen cut-up. 463 individual replies were received (35% response rate) from 1320 invitations to participate, covering 181 UK histopathology departments. A majority of the respondents were either fully in favour of BMS cut-up (52.7%), or in favour but with some reservation (46.2%). Only five respondents (1.1%) were completely opposed to BMS cut-up. 267 (57.7%) respondents reported that their BMS staff loaded biopsies only. 148 (32%) reported BMS cut-up of more complex benign specimens, and 83 (17.9%) reported BMS handling of orientated skin specimens. Only 39 (8.4%) reported that BMS staff in their departments currently cut-up larger cancer resections. This survey is representative of current BMS cut-up practice in the UK. The majority of UK consultant histopathologists replying to this survey support BMS cut-up to some degree, but utilisation of BMS cut-up is rather limited and patchy at present. Cost, staffing constraints, perceived quality issues and individual consultant preferences are cited as reasons for limited uptake currently. Recognised benefits of promoting BMS cut-up include better use of consultant time, enhanced team working, BMS job satisfaction and career progression, and better adherence to standard operating procedures.

  6. The impact of clinical trial monitoring approaches on data integrity and cost--a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Bihlet, Asger Reinstrup; Kalakou, Faidra; Andersen, Jeppe Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring is a costly requirement when conducting clinical trials. New regulatory guidance encourages the industry to consider alternative monitoring methods to the traditional 100 % source data verification (SDV) approach. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of publications on different monitoring methods and their impact on subject safety data, data integrity, and monitoring cost. The literature search was performed by keyword searches in MEDLINE and hand search of key journals. All publications were reviewed for details on how a monitoring approach impacted subject safety data, data integrity, or monitoring costs. Twenty-two publications were identified. Three publications showed that SDV has some value for detection of not initially reported adverse events and centralized statistical monitoring (CSM) captures atypical trends. Fourteen publications showed little objective evidence of improved data integrity with traditional monitoring such as 100 % SDV and sponsor queries as compared to reduced SDV, CSM, and remote monitoring. Eight publications proposed a potential for significant cost reductions of monitoring by reducing SDV without compromising the validity of the trial results. One hundred percent SDV is not a rational method of ensuring data integrity and subject safety based on the high cost, and this literature review indicates that reduced SDV is a viable monitoring method. Alternative methods of monitoring such as centralized monitoring utilizing statistical tests are promising alternatives but have limitations as stand-alone tools. Reduced SDV combined with a centralized, risk-based approach may be the ideal solution to reduce monitoring costs while improving essential data quality.

  7. A Survey of Privacy Awareness and Current Online Practices of Indian Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Today, users with their smart devices can communicate and access a wide range of services via the Internet to make their life easier. However, loss of privacy is becoming a major issue for architects or policy makers, accelerated by the rapid development of mobile and wireless technologies...... that eases the collection, storage, sharing, analysis, and manipulation of the individual’s information. The main objective of this paper is to study the privacy perception and awareness of Internet users in an Indian context. Results of comprehensive survey with 297 users are presented, focusing...... on their perception and awareness towards personal information privacy (PIP). The survey responses show that the user’s perception is noticeably low considering PIP and that the privacy awareness is not the same as their understanding. The results indicate the need for a solution for PIP protection where the users...

  8. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  9. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, Holly L; Hutchinson, Jayne; Jewell, Jo; Breda, Joao J; Cade, Janet E

    2017-11-27

    The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS) but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third ( n = 19), mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC), had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40%) countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  10. Survey among nephrologists in Germany: current practice and management of pregnant women on dialysis
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffner, Johannes; Schulte-Kemna, Lena; Reister, Barbara; Ludwig, Ulla; Keller, Frieder; van Erp, Rene; Schröppel, Bernd

    2017-11-01

    To assess the experience and practice patterns of nephrologists in Germany with regard to the care of pregnant women on dialysis. The 26-item internet survey sent by email asked for demographic information, subjective proficiency, maternal and fetal complications, treatment approaches and goals. Of the 2,015 surveys sent out, 200 (10%) were available for evaluation. 38% of respondents never provided care, whereas 62% treated at least one pregnant patient on dialysis. In 306 total reported cases of pregnant women on dialysis, 58% became pregnant while on maintenance dialysis, and 42% developed dialysis-dependent renal failure in the course of pregnancy. For women on peritoneal dialysis (PD), only 22% of the nephrologists would continue PD until delivery, while 78% would convert to hemodialysis either immediately or shortly before delivery. 40% of the respondents reported complications in either mother or child. 45% of the respondents routinely provided prenatal counseling, and 2/3 of the nephrologists did not routinely perform fetal monitoring. While we found a significant difference in self-reported proficiency between nephrologists having and those not having treated pregnant women on dialysis, only 40% of all physicians felt confident in treating pregnant women on dialysis. Our survey demonstrates that the practice of nephrologists in treating pregnant women on dialysis differs significantly. These findings highlight the need for European guidelines to standardize the care of pregnant dialysis patients.
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  11. Asthma education material for children and their families; a global survey of current resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L; Wahn, Ulrich; Dorsano, Sofia; Hossny, Elham; Le Souef, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the keys to high quality paediatric asthma management is the provision of age appropriate information regarding the disease and its management. In order to determine whether the generation of a minimum dataset of information which can be translated into a wide range of languages might be used to assist children and their parents around the world, we undertook a survey of national Member Societies of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) to determine what educational material on asthma for children and their families already exists. A questionnaire was developed using Survey Monkey and distributed in 2014 to 263 representatives of the WAO member Societies from 95 countries. Thirty-three replies were received from thirty-one countries. The survey highlighted a considerable disparity in availability of material among the responding countries, with some countries reporting that information was freely available in hard copy and online and others reporting a lack of suitable material locally. The results highlight the need to develop a core set of simple, clear and consistent age appropriate information that can be easily translated and delivered in a cultural and educationally effective format.

  12. An in-depth survey of the oil spill literature since 1968: Long term trends and changes since Deepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David; Gemmell, Brad; Vaccari, Liana; Li, Cheng; Bacosa, Hernando; Evans, Meredith; Gemmell, Colbi; Harvey, Tracy; Jalali, Maryam; Niepa, Tagbo H R

    2016-12-15

    In order to characterize the state of oil spill research and describe how the field has changed since its inception in the 1960s and since the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010, we examined approximately 10% of oil spill literature (1255 of over 11,000 publications) published from 1968 to 2015. We find that, despite its episodic nature, oil spill research is a rapidly expanding field with a growth rate faster than that of science as a whole. There is a massive post-Deepwater Horizon shift of research attention to the Gulf of Mexico, from 2% of studies in 2004-2008 to 61% in 2014-2015, thus ranking Deepwater Horizon as the most studied oil spill. There is, however, a longstanding gap in research in that only 1% of studies deal with the effects of oil spills on human health. These results provide a better understanding of the current trends and gaps within the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. E-cigarette use and associated changes in population smoking cessation: evidence from US current population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Wong, Shiushing; Cummins, Sharon E; Tedeschi, Gary J

    2017-07-26

    Objective To examine whether the increase in use of electronic cigarettes in the USA, which became noticeable around 2010 and increased dramatically by 2014, was associated with a change in overall smoking cessation rate at the population level.Design Population surveys with nationally representative samples.Setting Five of the US Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement (CPS-TUS) in 2001-02, 2003, 2006-07, 2010-11, and 2014-15.Participants Data on e-cigarette use were obtained from the total sample of the 2014-15 CPS-TUS (n=161 054). Smoking cessation rates were obtained from those who reported smoking cigarettes 12 months before the survey (n=23 270). Rates from 2014-15 CPS-TUS were then compared with those from 2010-11 CPS-TUS (n=27 280) and those from three other previous surveys.Main outcome measures Rate of attempt to quit cigarette smoking and the rate of successfully quitting smoking, defined as having quit smoking for at least three months.Results Of 161 054 respondents to the 2014-15 survey, 22 548 were current smokers and 2136 recent quitters. Among them, 38.2% of current smokers and 49.3% of recent quitters had tried e-cigarettes, and 11.5% and 19.0% used them currently (every day or some days). E-cigarette users were more likely than non-users to attempt to quit smoking, 65.1% v 40.1% (change=25.0%, 95% confidence interval 23.2% to 26.9%), and more likely to succeed in quitting, 8.2% v 4.8% (3.5%, 2.5% to 4.5%). The overall population cessation rate for 2014-15 was significantly higher than that for 2010-11, 5.6% v 4.5% (1.1%, 0.6% to 1.5%), and higher than those for all other survey years (range 4.3-4.5%).Conclusion The substantial increase in e-cigarette use among US adult smokers was associated with a statistically significant increase in the smoking cessation rate at the population level. These findings need to be weighed carefully in regulatory policy making regarding e-cigarettes and in planning tobacco control

  14. Improve nursing in evidence-based practice: How Chinese nurses' read and comprehend scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Huang

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The survey of the current status of literature education among Chinese nurses suggests that providing protected time, training for critical thinking, and incentive mechanisms will help improve nurses' engagement in literature and create a culture of academic inquiry.

  15. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...

  16. Perioperative Use of Focused Transthoracic Cardiac Ultrasound: A Survey of Current Practice and Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Frederick; Connelly, Neil R; Eaton, Michael P; Broderick, Patrick J; Friderici, Jennifer; Adler, Adam C

    2017-05-19

    The advent of portable ultrasound machines in recent years has led to greater availability of focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) in the perioperative and critical care setting. To our knowledge, its use in the perioperative setting among anesthesiologists remains undefined. We sought to assess the use of FoCUS by members of the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) in clinical practice, to identify variations in its application, to outline limits to its use, and to understand the level of training of physicians using this technology. A 26-question anonymous and voluntary online survey assessing the participants' training level with FoCUS, frequency of use, and opinions regarding incorporating it into residency training and developing a pathway to basic certification. The survey was distributed to the members of the SCA via email. The survey was completed by 379 of 3660 members of the SCA (10%). Of the respondents, the majority (67%) had completed a cardiovascular anesthesiology fellowship with 58% identifying their practice as academic, while 37% stated they were in private practice, and 6% were military/Veterans Administration. Most (84%) of the respondents practiced in North America. Eighty-one percent reported familiarity with FoCUS, while 47% stated they use it in their clinical practice. Those practicing in North America were significantly less likely to utilize FoCUS in their practice as compared to other respondents. With regard to training and certification, 88% believe FoCUS education should be integrated into residency training programs and 74% believe there should be a pathway to basic certification for FoCUS. While most cardiovascular anesthesiologists are familiar with FoCUS, a minority have integrated it into their practice. Roadblocks such as lack of training, the fear of missing diagnoses, lack of resources, and the lack of a formal certification process must be addressed to allow for more widespread use of perioperative cardiac

  17. Rotating resident didactics in the emergency department: a cross-sectional survey on current curricular practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzetti, Jeremy B; Aldeen, Amer Z; Mark Courtney, D

    2010-10-01

    Rotating (non-emergency medicine [EM]) residents perform clinical rotations in many academic emergency departments (EDs). The primary objective of this work was to quantify characteristics of rotating residents and the didactic curricula offered to them during their EM rotations. Secondary objectives were to identify barriers to instituting such didactics and to establish ideal curricular contents. A Web-based survey was administered by e-mail to residency directors of all U.S. allopathic EM residency programs. Consent was obtained in the first part of the survey, and the study was deemed exempt from full review by the institutional review board. Questions solicited information regarding type and quantity of rotating residents in their main EDs, the "didactic educational format" available to rotating residents, and ideal and actual didactic curricular contents. Statistics were reported as proportions and means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and medians with interquartile ranges (IQRs). Surveys were sent to 143 programs, and the response rate was 71%. Ninety-nine percent of respondents had rotating residents in their EDs, and the median number per month was 4 (IQR = 3-6). Five percent of respondents had established didactic curricula specifically for rotating residents, and 64% sent them to either EM resident or medical student lectures. Thirty-one percent of programs reported no didactics, and 65% of these felt there was no need for such education. Resuscitation, trauma, and toxicology were cited as the most important subjects for actual and ideal curricula. Most academic EDs have rotating residents, but very few provide didactic education specific to their learning needs and almost a third provide no didactics. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Trial Steering Committees in randomised controlled trials: A survey of registered clinical trials units to establish current practice and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Elizabeth J; Harman, Nicola L; Lane, J Athene; Lewis, Steff C; Murray, Gordon; Norrie, John; Sydes, Matt R; Gamble, Carrol

    2015-12-01

    The Medical Research Council Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice outlines a three-committee trial oversight structure--the day-to-day Trial Management Group, the Data Monitoring Committee and the Trial Steering Committee. In this model, the Trial Steering Committee is the executive committee that oversees the trial and considers the recommendations from the Data Monitoring Committee. There is yet to be in-depth consideration establishing the Trial Steering Committee's role and functionality. A survey to establish Trial Steering Committee's current practices, role and the use and opinion on the Medical Research Council guidelines was undertaken within UK Clinical Research Collaborative registered Clinical Trials Units. Completed surveys were obtained from 38 of 47 fully and partially registered Units. Individual items in the survey were analysed and reported spanning current Trial Steering Committee practices including its role, requirement and experience required for membership; methods to identify members; and meeting frequency. Terms (a document describing the committee's remit, objectives and functionality) were obtained and analysed from 21 of 33 Units with documents in place at their Unit. A total of 20 responders suggested aspects of the current Medical Research Council Guidelines that need improvement. We present the first survey reporting on practices within UK Clinical Research Collaborative registered Clinical Trials Units on the experience and remits of Trial Steering Committees. We have identified a widespread adoption of Medical Research Council Guidelines for Trial Steering Committees in the United Kingdom, but limitations in this existing provision have been identified that need to be addressed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. PMID:28438914

  20. What is the current state of care for older people with dementia in general hospitals? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewing, Jan; Dijk, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises a literature review focusing on the literature directly pertaining to the acute care of older people with dementia in general hospitals from 2007 onwards. Following thematic analysis, one overarching theme emerged: the consequences of being in hospital with seven related subthemes. Significantly, this review highlights that overall there remains mostly negative consequences and outcomes for people with dementia when they go into general hospitals. Although not admitted to hospital directly due to dementia, there are usually negative effects on the dementia condition from hospitalisation. The review suggests this is primarily because there is a tension between prioritisation of acute care for existing co-morbidities and person-centred dementia care. This is complicated by insufficient understanding of what constitutes person-centred care in an acute care context and a lack of the requisite knowledge and skills set in health care practitioners. The review also reveals a worrying lack of evidence for the effectiveness of mental health liaison posts and dementia care specialist posts in nursing. Finally, although specialist posts such as liaison and clinical nurse specialists and specialist units/shared care wards can enhance quality of care and reduce adverse consequences of hospitalisation (they do not significantly) impact on reducing length of stay or the cost of care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. An Overview of Literature Topics Related to Current Concepts, Methods, Tools, and Applications for Cumulative Risk Assessment (2007–2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A.; Brewer, L. Elizabeth; Martin, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. The first context is the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search and discusses a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications. PMID:28387705

  2. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami; Valle, Denis

    2017-06-05

    Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. A survey of current practices for genomic sequencing test interpretation and reporting processes in US laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Daniel, Julianne M.; McLaughlin, Heather M.; Amendola, Laura M.; Bale, Sherri J.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Bick, David; Bowling, Kevin M.; Chao, Elizabeth C.; Chung, Wendy K.; Conlin, Laura K.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Das, Soma; Deignan, Joshua L.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Evans, James P.; Ghazani, Arezou A.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Gornick, Michele; Farwell Hagman, Kelly D.; Hambuch, Tina; Hegde, Madhuri; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Amy Knight; Mighion, Lindsey; Morra, Massimo; Plon, Sharon E.; Punj, Sumit; Richards, C. Sue; Santani, Avni; Shirts, Brian H.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Tang, Sha; Weck, Karen E.; Wolf, Susan M.; Yang, Yaping; Rehm, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE While the diagnostic success of genomic sequencing expands, the complexity of this testing should not be overlooked. Numerous laboratory processes are required to support the identification, interpretation and reporting of clinically significant variants. This study aimed to examine workflow and reporting procedures among US laboratories to highlight shared practices and identify areas in need of standardization. METHODS Surveys and follow-up interviews were conducted with laboratories offering exome and/or genome sequencing, to support a research program or for routine clinical services. The 73-item survey elicited multiple choice and free text responses, later clarified with phone interviews. RESULTS Twenty-one laboratories participated. Practices highly concordant across all groups included: consent documentation, multi-person case review, and enabling patient opt-out of incidental or secondary findings analysis. Noted divergence included use of phenotypic data to inform case analysis and interpretation, and reporting of case-specific quality metrics and methods. Few laboratory policies detailed procedures for data reanalysis, data sharing or patient access to data. CONCLUSION This study provides an overview of practices and policies of experienced exome and genome sequencing laboratories. The results enable broader consideration of which practices are becoming standard approaches, where divergence remains, and areas development of best practice guidelines may be helpful. PMID:27811861

  4. Current status of thyroid cancer screening in Korea: results from a nationwide interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Kim, Yeonju; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, thyroid cancer has been increasing most rapidly in Korea. Although the cause of the increase is not clear, thyroid cancer screening could be identified as one of its causes. The purpose of this study was to examine the screening rate of thyroid cancer and its related factors using nationwide data. The study population was derived from the 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses a nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. A total of 2,000 Korean adults participated. The screening method of thyroid cancer was restricted to thyroid ultrasonography. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with undergoing thyroid cancer screening. Of all participants, 13.2% (8.4% men and 16.4% women) underwent thyroid ultrasonography. On multiple analyses, age, residence, belief in cancer screening, regular health check-ups, smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise were associated with thyroid cancer screening. Subjects who underwent other cancer screening, such as gastric, colorectal, breast, or cervical, were more likely to have had a thyroid ultrasonogram that those who did not get screened. We presented the number and characteristics of examinees utilized ultrasonography as a thyroid screening tool in Korea. Although these results revealed that cancer screening might play a major role in the increase of thyroid cancer incidence, further research is needed to determine causes of the rapidly increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea.

  5. Current trends in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners: report of a United States national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Gina M; Sabbah, Wael; Sedgley, Christine M; Whitten, Brian

    2014-05-01

    In the United States almost 70% of root canal treatment (RCT) is performed by general dentists (GPs), yet little is known about their treatment protocols. A paper survey was mailed to 2000 United States GPs with questions about the types of endodontic cases treated, routine treatment protocols, use of newer technologies, and endodontic continuing education (CE). Completed surveys were returned by 479 respondents (24%). GPs who perform RCT (84%) reported providing anterior (99%), bicuspid (95%), and molar (62%) RCT and retreatment (18%). Rubber dam was used always (60%), usually (16%), sometimes (13%), and never (11%). Newer technologies used by GPs included digital radiography (72%), magnification (80%), electronic apex locator (70%), and nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (74%). Compared with GPs with >20 years of experience, those in practice for ≤10 years were more likely to use rubber dam (P magnification (P 20 years were more likely to perform retreatments (P 5 hours of CE were more likely to use rotary instrumentation (P 20 years. More experienced GPs were more likely to take on complicated cases than those with fewer years of practice. There was no association between hours of CE and compliance with rubber dam usage. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards Large-Scale, Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection Systems in Industrial Networks: A Survey of Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Iturbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Networks (INs are widespread environments where heterogeneous devices collaborate to control and monitor physical processes. Some of the controlled processes belong to Critical Infrastructures (CIs, and, as such, IN protection is an active research field. Among different types of security solutions, IN Anomaly Detection Systems (ADSs have received wide attention from the scientific community. While INs have grown in size and in complexity, requiring the development of novel, Big Data solutions for data processing, IN ADSs have not evolved at the same pace. In parallel, the development of Big Data frameworks such as Hadoop or Spark has led the way for applying Big Data Analytics to the field of cyber-security, mainly focusing on the Information Technology (IT domain. However, due to the particularities of INs, it is not feasible to directly apply IT security mechanisms in INs, as IN ADSs face unique characteristics. In this work we introduce three main contributions. First, we survey the area of Big Data ADSs that could be applicable to INs and compare the surveyed works. Second, we develop a novel taxonomy to classify existing IN-based ADSs. And, finally, we present a discussion of open problems in the field of Big Data ADSs for INs that can lead to further development.

  7. Enteral feeding in neonates with prostaglandin-dependent congenital cardiac disease: international survey on current trends and variations in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Lisa W; Kaufman, Jon; Wymore, Erica; Thureen, Patti; Magouirk, Jeff K; McNair, Bryan; da Cruz, Eduardo M

    2012-04-01

    The benefits of early enteral feeding in neonates are well known and yet the optimal pre-operative nutrition of prostaglandin-dependent infants with congenital cardiac disease remains ill-defined. This survey delineates international nutritional practices and trends with this population. Paediatric practitioners responded to an Internet-based survey that explored assessment of feeding practices, criteria for feeding readiness, medication dosing, concurrent feeding with umbilical catheters, and the observed incidence of feeding intolerance. Documented nutritional strategies were not correlated with patient outcomes. A total of 200 caregivers responded to the survey. Fewer United States caregivers (56%) reported routine pre-operative enteral feeding in prostaglandin-dependent infants when compared with caregivers outside the United States of America (93%). Of those respondents willing to feed, approximately two-thirds did not base their decision on the ductal flow direction. Numerous and heterogeneous parameters were reported to assess feeding readiness. Many caregivers report scepticism with regard to enteral feeding safety in neonates with an umbilical artery catheter, and to a lesser extent in the presence of an umbilical venous catheter. In summary, there is a prevailing lack of consensus regarding pre-operative enteral nutrition to prostaglandin-dependent neonates. This survey demonstrates noticeable variations in pre-operative nutritional practices between providers from around the world. Arguments that support or refute this practice have little support in the medical literature. Future studies should aim to demonstrate the safety of such practice and compare the outcomes of prostaglandin-dependent neonates who were pre-operatively enterally fed with those who were not.

  8. Clinical skills training in obstetrics - a descriptive survey of current practice in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathilde Maagaard; Johansen, Marianne; Lottrup, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health has recommended that labor wards establish regular obstetric emergency skills training programs. The aim of this study was to describe current practice in Denmark. A questionnaire was sent to all obstetric departments in Denmark in 2008. All responded. Simulation...

  9. Current Evaluation of Upper Oesophageal Sphincter Opening in Dysphagia Practice: An International SLT Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; McMahon, Barry P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The assessment of adequate upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) opening during swallowing is an integral component of dysphagia evaluation. Aims: To ascertain speech and language therapists' (SLTs) satisfaction with current methods for assessing UOS function in people with dysphagia and to identify challenges encountered by SLTs with UOS…

  10. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  11. A survey of the current utilization of asynchronous education among emergency medicine residents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Mike; Schlein, Sarah; Doctor, Shaneen; Stroud, Susan; Dawson, Matthew; Fix, Megan

    2014-04-01

    Medical education is transitioning from traditional learning methods. Resident interest in easily accessible education materials is forcing educators to reevaluate teaching methodology. To determine emergency medicine residents' current methods of and preferences for obtaining medical knowledge, the authors created a survey and sent it to residents, at all levels of training throughout the United States, whose e-mail addresses were available via their residency's official Web site (June-December 2012). The eight-question voluntary survey asked respondents about demographics, their use of extracurricular time, and the materials they perceived as most beneficial. The authors used descriptive statistics to analyze results. Of the 401 residents who received the e-mailed survey, 226 (56.3%) completed it. Of these, 97.7% reported spending at least one hour per week engaging in extracurricular education, and 34.5% reported spending two to four hours per week (P journals (36.5%), and Google (33.8%; P educators must engage with current learners to guide appropriate use of these.

  12. INCIDENTALOMAS OF THE TESTICLE AND TESTICULAR MICROLITHIASIS: CURRENT APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT (literature review, clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nosov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the testicle comprise about 1–2 % of all neoplasms in males and 5 % of tumors of the urinary system and male genitals. At early stages, malignant tumors of the testicle have no clinical manifestations. Gradually increasing in size, they change the shape and density of the testicle. Men seeking medical consultation on infertility are recommended to undergo ultrasound examination of the scrotum. As a result, in patients with normal tumor marker levels and lack of symptoms small (less than1 cmin diameter testicular tumors (incidentalomas of the testicle and testicular microlithiasis are diagnosed. Lately, a number of studies has shown a possible need to expand indications for organ-preserving treatment, in particular, for incidentalomas of the testicle. Here we present a literature review on this subject and our clinical observations. 

  13. Gynaecological cancer follow-up: national survey of current practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Simon; Stuart, Nick; Sylvestre, Yvonne; Hall, Liz; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2013-01-01

    To establish a baseline of national practice for follow-up after treatment for gynaecological cancer. Questionnaire survey. Gynaecological cancer centres and units. Members of the British Gynaecological Cancer Society and the National Forum of Gynaecological Oncology Nurses. A questionnaire survey. To determine schedules of follow-up, who provides it and what routine testing is used for patients who have had previous gynaecological cancer. A total of 117 responses were obtained; 115 (98%) reported hospital scheduled regular follow-up appointments. Two involved general practitioners. Follow-up was augmented or replaced by telephone follow-up in 29 responses (25%) and patient-initiated appointments in 38 responses (32%). A total of 80 (68%) cancer specialists also offered combined follow-up clinics with other specialties. Clinical examinations for hospital-based follow-up were mainly performed by doctors (67% for scheduled regular appointments and 63% for patient-initiated appointments) while telephone follow-up was provided in the majority by nurses (76%). Most respondents (76/117 (65%)) provided routine tests, of which 66/76 (87%) reported carrying out surveillance tests for ovarian cancer, 35/76 (46%) for cervical cancer, 8/76 (11%) for vulval cancer and 7/76 (9%) for endometrial cancer. Patients were usually discharged after 5 years (82/117 (70%)), whereas three (3%) were discharged after 4 years, nine (8%) after three years and one (1%) after 2 years. Practice varied but most used a standard hospital-based protocol of appointments for 5 years and routine tests were performed usually for women with ovarian cancer. A minority utilised nurse-led or telephone follow-up. General practitioners were rarely involved in routine care. A randomised study comparing various models of follow-up could be considered.

  14. A SURVEY ON CURRENT TRENDS IN PRIMARY TOOTH PULPOTOMY IN KARACHI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Maham Muneeb; Khan, Farhan Raza; Lone, Muneeb Ahmed; Rehman, Munawar

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to USA and United Kingdom where Paediatric Dentistry is considered a separate specialty; there very few formal teaching programs in Pakistan for Paediatric Dentistry. Many surveys have been carried out internationally, but no survey has been carried out locally to ascertain practice of dentists when treating paediatric patients. Therefore, it appears important to map features of Paediatric Dentistry practice in our country. The purpose of this study was to assess practice regarding pulpotomy of primary teeth among dentists of Karachi and to compare difference in pulpotomy practice of primary teeth between private practitioners and teaching dentists. Questionnaire was distributed by hand to dentists working in private clinics and teaching hospitals of Karachi, involved in treating primary teeth of children. Questions captured information on aspects related to pulpotomy procedure as carried out by dentists. Descriptive statistics and frequency distribution were computed. Chi-square test was applied to compare difference between dentists working in teaching hospitals versus private practitioners. Level of significance was kept at 0.05. Although majority of dentists use the preferred medicament for pulpotomy, i.e., formocresol, it was seen that only a small proportion reported frequent use of radiographs and rubber dam. There was a significant difference in selecting post pulpotomy restorations for anterior teeth by teaching dentists (Composites) compared to private practitioners (who favoured GIC). Only 20-27% of dentists reported use of stainless steel crown for definitive restoration after pulpotomy. Although majority of dentists use formocresol as a preferred medicament for pulpotomy, it was seen that only a small proportion of participants reported frequent use of radiographs, rubber dam and stainless steel crowns which is far below the standard of care.

  15. [Current status of non-invasive ventilation in German ICU's -- a postal survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumle, B; Haisch, G; Suttner, S W; Piper, S N; Maleck, W; Boldt, J

    2003-01-01

    The status of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in intensive care units (ICU) in Germany was analysed by a national survey. Questionnaires consisting of multiple-choice and short-answer questions were sent to ICUs of university hospitals, hospitals with >1000 beds, with 500 - 1000 beds, and hospitals with interdiscipline ICUs). Of the 716 questionnaires sent 223 (32 %) were returned and analysed. The use of NIV in all specialties increased during the last 3 years. 14 % of ICUs in some specialties treated more than 30 % of patients with NIV. CPAP (88 %), BIPAP (45 %) and ASB/PSV (48 %) were most frequently used as NIV-strategies. 10 % of all ICUs reported to have experience with proportional assist ventilation. NIV was most frequently used for disease states like COPD (82 %), pneumonia (64 %), pulmonary oedema (50 %), bronchial asthma (35 %) and ALI/ARDS (22 %). The use of NIV was considered when clinical signs of ventilation (93 %) and oxygenation [arterial blood gas analysis (92 %) and oxygen saturation (66 %)] were inadequate. Complications observed during NIV were panic reaction (83 %), ulceration of nose (38 %) and aspiration (14 %). The reasons to reject NIV were (total 13 %): lack of ventilators (64 %), expenditure of personnel (57 %) and risk of the procedure (11 %). 38 % of the ventilators used were older than 5 years. 56 % of the ICUs were content with the equipment for NIV. 76 % of the ICUs were interested to buy new equipment of NIV. 99 % of the survey have declined NIV as an alternative method of ventilation. In summary we found NIV as an accepted additional method of ventilatory support in respiratory failure in German ICUs. We found no significant increase in frequency of NIV in the last three years.

  16. Physiotherapy management of patients undergoing thoracotomy procedure: A survey of current practice in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Schwellnus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy is included in the management of patients undergoing thoracic surgery. The aim of this study was to describe physiotherapy practice in the management of patients who undergo an open thoracotomy.Methods: A cross-sectional study using convenience sampling was undertaken. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was distributed via SurveyMonkey to 1389 physiotherapists registered with the South African Society of Physiotherapy in Gauteng. The data collection period was August and September 2014 and data were analysed descriptively.Results: A total of 323 physiotherapists (23.3% responded to the survey and 141 (10.2% indicated that they treated patients with open thoracotomies. Preoperative treatment was done by 65 (41.6% and consisted of teaching supported coughing (92.3%; n = 60, sustained maximal inspiration (70.8%; n = 46 and the active cycle of breathing technique (69.2%; n = 45. One hundred and sixteen (82.3% respondents treated patients during their hospital stay. Deep breathing exercises (97.6%; n = 83, coughing (95.3%; n = 81, early mobilisation (95.3%; n = 81, upper limb mobility exercises (91.8%; n = 78, chest wall vibrations (88.2%; n = 75 and trunk mobility exercises (85.9%; n = 73 were done frequently. Pain management modalities were less common, for example transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (12.9%; n = 11. Post hospital physiotherapy management was uncommon (32.6%; n = 46.Conclusion: Physiotherapy related to early mobilisation in hospital is in line with evidence-based practice, but further education is needed regarding the need for physiotherapy post hospital discharge and pain management.

  17. Trends of Literature Use on Nursing Science ; A Survey of the Library of the Japanese Nursing Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Miyo

    The literature which was used for photocopying at the Library from 1979 to 1981 was analyzed in terms of type of the users, kind of the journals, year of the publication and factors which seemed to affect the literature use. The secondary materials on nursing which are less known by librarians in other subject fields are introduced.

  18. A survey of the literature on challenges to safety posed by outsourcing or subcontracting of critical tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje; Øien, Knut

    The purpose of this document is to report on a review of the literature on the relation between safety and outsourcing or subcontracting. The review seeks to identify the problems and solutions that have been identified and described in the literature concerning outsourcing and subcontracting...

  19. Tailoring DOD-STD-2167A - A Survey of Current Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    are difficult to incorporate into established documentation processes and difficult to customise for specific developer requirements. (d) The tools are...tailoring will solve the problems of requirements expression and validation. Education of the users in the methods used for stating requirements was...establishment of tailoring guidelines tor DOD-STD-2167A projects in Australia. Current guidelines, tools and training courses, wXhile useful in educating

  20. Current status of robot-assisted surgery in urology: a multi-national survey of 297 urologic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guru, Khurshid A; Hussain, Abid; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Piacente, Pamela; Hussain, Abid; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Piacente, Pamela; Bienko, Marlene; Glasgow, Mark; Underwood, Willie; Wilding, Gregory; Mohler, James L; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O

    2009-08-01

    The surgical robot is becoming an important tool for performance of minimally invasive surgical procedures around the world. We surveyed opinions about and utilization of robot-assisted surgery among urologic surgeons from 44 countries. A total of 297 surveys were completed from September to November 2008 by participating urologic surgeons polled at various national and international urologic meetings. The survey evaluated surgeon background, personal experience with minimally invasive surgery, institutional status regarding robotic surgery surgeons' attitudes towards robot-assisted surgery, in general, and prostate, bladder and kidney oncologic procedures, specifically. Two hundred ninety-seven participants completed the survey of which 35% were in training for and 54% in practice of urology. Although 57% of these participants were older than 40, 62% had never sat on a robotic surgical console but 61% believed they would perform robot-assisted surgery. Seventy-eight percent of respondents felt it was required or beneficial to have training in robot-assisted surgery. Only 21% of respondents were currently performing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Sixty-one percent of respondents felt robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was the current gold standard or as good as laparoscopic prostatectomy. Only 10% had performed robot-assisted radical cystectomy and 70% of these surgeons have transferred skills from robot-assisted radical prostectomy. Ten percent were performing robot-assisted radical nephrectomies and 30% had transferred skills for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy to robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Robot-assisted surgery has begun to integrate into the minimally invasive armamentarium for urologic surgery and is applied for more procedures as experience is gained.