WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveyor landing site

  1. Lybia Montes: A Safe, Ancient Cratered Terrain, Mars Surveyor Landing Site at the Isidis Basin Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Anderson, R. C.; Harbert, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Isidis basin rim may be key to understanding Mars' past with future lander missions: this area enables the mission objective to explore Mars' climatic and geologic history, including the search for liquid water and evidence of prior or extant life in ancient terrains. While two safe candidate landIng sites for Mars Pathfinder were identified in Isidis Planitia, and one is being pursued for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, the region around Isidis Planitia. in contrast to Tharsis for example, has only been lightly studied. The advent of new high resolution data sets provides an opportunity to re-assess the geologic context of this Impact basin and its rim within the Martian geologic sequence as a candidate site for studying Mars' ancient cratered terrain and ancient hydrosphere. This reexamination is warranted by the various hypotheses that Isidis was once filled with ice or water.

  2. Site Selection for Mars Surveyor Landing Sites: Some Key Factors for 2001 and Relation to Long-Term Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.

    1999-01-01

    The Site Selection Process: Site selection as a process can be subdivided into several main elements and these can be represented as the corners of a tetrahedron. Successful site selection outcome requires the interactions between these elements or corners, and should also take into account several other external factors or considerations. In principle, elements should be defined in approximately the following order: (1) major scientific and programmatic goals and objectives: What are the major questions that are being asked, goals that should be achieved, and objectives that must be accomplished. Do programmatic goals (e.g., sample return) differ from mission goals (e.g., precursor to sample return)? It is most helpful if these questions can be placed in the context of site characterization and hypothesis testing (e.g., Was Mars warm and wet in the Noachian? Land at a Noachian-aged site that shows evidence of surface water and characterize it specifically to address this question). Goals and objectives, then, help define important engineering factors such as type of payload, landing regions of interest (highlands, lowlands, smooth, rough, etc.), mobility, mission duration, etc. Goals and objectives then lead to: (2) spacecraft design and engineering landing site constraints: the spacecraft is designed to optimize the areas that will meet the goals and objectives, but this in turn introduces constraints that must be met in the selection of a landing site. Scientific and programmatic goals and objectives also help to define (3), the specific lander scientific payload requirements and capabilities. For example, what observations and experiments are required to address the major questions? How do we characterize the site in reference to the specific questions? Is mobility required and if so, how much? Which experiments are on the spacecraft, which on the rover? The results of these deliberations should lead to a surface exploration strategy, in which the goals and

  3. Phoenix Landing Site Indicated on Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission landed at 68.2 degrees north latitude, 234.2 degrees east longitude. The far-northern location of the site is indicated on this global view from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  5. Runway Arrested Landing Site (RALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Runway Arrested Landing Site includes an underground complex located on a Mod 2, Mod 3, and Mod 3+ arresting gear and are located under the runway and accurately...

  6. GPS for land surveyors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Sickle, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The GPS SignalGlobal Positioning System (GPS) Signal StructureTwo ObservablesPseudorangingCarrier Phase RangingBiases and SolutionsThe Error BudgetDifferencingThe FrameworkTechnological ForerunnersVery Long Baseline InterferometryTransitNavstar GPSGPS Segment OrganizationGPS ConstellationThe Control SegmentReceivers and MethodsCommon Features of GPS ReceiversChoosing a GPS ReceiverSome GPS Surveying MethodsCoordinatesA Few Pertinent Ideas About Geodetic Datums for GPSState Plane CoordinatesHeightsGPS Surveying TechniquesStatic GPS SurveyingReal-Time Kinematic (RTK) and Differential GPS (DGPS)T

  7. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors and detector canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species from Asia causing major economic losses in agricultural production in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Unlike other crop pests, H. halys is also well-known for nuisance problems in urban, suburban, and rural areas, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments. Research efforts have focused on populations in human-made structures while overwintering ecology of H. halys in natural landscapes is virtually unknown. We explored forested landscapes in the mid-Atlantic region to locate and characterize natural overwintering structures used by H. halys. We also evaluated the use of detector canines to locate overwintering H. halys to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of surveys. From these studies, we indentified shared characteristics of overwintering sites used by H. halys in natural landscapes. Overwintering H. halys were recovered from dry crevices in dead, standing trees with thick bark, particularly oak (Quercus spp. and locust (Robinia spp.; these characteristics were shared by 11.8% of all dead trees in surveyed landscapes. For trees with favorable characteristics, we sampled ∼20% of the total above-ground tree area and recovered 5.9 adults per tree from the trees with H. halys present. Two detector canines were successfully trained to recognize and detect the odor of adult H. halys yielding >84% accuracy in laboratory and semi-field trials. Detector canines also found overwintering H. halys under field conditions. In particular, overwintering H. halys were recovered only from dead trees that yielded positive indications from the canines and shared key tree characteristics established by human surveyors. The identified characteristics of natural overwintering sites of H. halys will serve as baseline information to establish crop economic risk levels posed by overwintering populations, and accordingly develop sustainable

  8. Beagle-2 landing site atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G.; Chicarro, A.; Rodionova, J.; Shevchenko, V.; Ilukhina, J.; Kozlova, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Beagle-2 lander of the Mars Express mission will come to rest on the surface of Isidis Planitia in late December 2003 to carry out a range of geochemistry and exobiology experi-ments. We are compiling an atlas of the presently available data products pertinent to the landing site at 11.6N 90.75E, which is intended for distribution both as a printed and an electronic resource. The atlas will include Viking and MOC-WA image mosaics, and a catalogue of high-resolution im-ages from MOC and THEMIS with location maps. There will be various MOLA topography-based products: colour-scaled, contoured, and shaded maps, slope, and detrended relief. Simulated camera panoramas from various potential landing locations may assist in determining the spacecraft’s position. Other maps, both raw, and in composites with image mosa-ics, will cover TES thermal inertia and spectroscopy, and Odyssey gamma and neutron spectroscopy. Maps at the scale of the Isidis context will additionally cover geology, tem-perature cycles, and atmospheric circulation. Sample are shown below.

  9. Mutation detection using Surveyor nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peter; Shandilya, Harini; D'Alessio, James M; O'Connor, Kevin; Durocher, Jeffrey; Gerard, Gary F

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a simple and flexible mutation detection technology for the discovery and mapping of both known and unknown mutations. This technology is based on a new mismatch-specific DNA endonuclease from celery, Surveyor nuclease, which is a member of the CEL nuclease family of plant DNA endonucleases. Surveyor nuclease cleaves with high specificity at the 3' side of any mismatch site in both DNA strands, including all base substitutions and insertion/deletions up to at least 12 nucleotides. Surveyor nuclease technology involves four steps: (i) PCR to amplify target DNA from both mutant and wild-type reference DNA; (ii) hybridization to form heteroduplexes between mutant and wild-type reference DNA; (iii) treatment of annealed DNA with Surveyor nuclease to cleave heteroduplexes; and (iv) analysis of digested DNA products using the detection/separation platform of choice. The technology is highly sensitive, detecting rare mutants present at as low as 1 in 32 copies. Unlabeled Surveyor nuclease digestion products can be analyzed using conventional gel electrophoresis or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while end labeled digestion products are suitable for analysis by automated gel or capillary electrophoresis. The entire protocol can be performed in less than a day and is suitable for automated and high-throughput procedures.

  10. LANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency (ESA is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs, hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  11. Photometric characterization of the Chang'e-3 landing site using LROC NAC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Boyd, A.; Robinson, M. S.; Wagner, R.; Stopar, J. D.; Plescia, J. B.; Speyerer, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    China's robotic Chang'e-3 spacecraft, carrying the Yutu rover, touched down in Mare Imbrium on the lunar surface on 14 December 2013. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) imaged the site both before and after landing. Multi-temporal NAC images taken before and after the landing, phase-ratio images made from NAC images taken after the landing, and Hapke photometric techniques were used to evaluate surface changes caused by the disturbance of regolith at the landing site (blast zone) by the descent engines of the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. The reflectance of the landing site increased by 10 ± 1% (from I/F = 0.040 to 0.044 at 30° phase angle) as a result of the landing, a value similar to reflectance increases estimated for the Apollo, Luna, and Surveyor landing sites. The spatial extent of the disturbed area at the Chang'e-3 landing site, 2530 m2, also falls close to what is predicted on the basis of correlations between lander mass, thrust, and blast zone areas for the historic landed missions. A multi-temporal ratio image of the Chang'e-3 landing site reveals a main blast zone (slightly elongate in the N-S direction; ∼75 m across N-S and ∼43 m across in the E-W direction) and an extended diffuse, irregular halo that is less reflective than the main blast zone (extending ∼40-50 m in the N-S direction and ∼10-15 m in the E-W direction beyond the main blast zone). The N-S elongation of the blast zone likely resulted from maneuvering during hazard avoidance just prior to landing. The phase-ratio image reveals that the blast zone is less backscattering than surrounding undisturbed areas. The similarities in magnitude of increased reflectance between the Chang'e-3 landing site and the Surveyor, Apollo, and Luna landing sites suggest that lunar soil reflectance changes caused by interaction with rocket exhaust are not significantly altered over a period of 40-50 years. The reflectance changes are independent of regolith composition

  12. The Evolution of the Surveyor Fan and Channel System, Gulf of Alaska based on Core-Log-Seismic Integration at IODP Site U1417

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, S.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Walton, M. A. L.; Swartz, J. M.; Worthington, L. L.; Reece, R.; Somchat, K.; Wagner, P. F.; Jaeger, J. M.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The transition to quasi-periodic ~100-kyr glacial cycles during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT, ~1.2 Ma) saw an acceleration of sediment delivery from the St. Elias orogen. Eroded sediment from the St. Elias Mountains is transferred to the deep sea via glacially carved shelf troughs and eventually to the Aleutian Trench via the Surveyor Channel and Fan system. By analyzing the submarine sediments in this Fan, we can evaluate the source-to-sink relationship between the erosion of an orogen and deep-sea deposition and inform our understanding of the impact of climate on local tectonics. Our work seeks to update depositional models of the unique sedimentary sequences, architecture, and origins of the glacially-fed Surveyor Fan using well-log-seismic correlation and new data from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341. Exp. 341 results question proposed ages of major fan stratigraphic packages, necessitating this update. We created an integrated velocity model using discrete core-based p-wave velocities acquired at site U1417 from 100-152m, down-hole sonic log velocities from 152m-476m, and then projected the trend of the sonic log velocity from 476m to the base of the borehole. Previous work has interpreted the Sequence I/II boundary (~300 mbsf at U1417) to correspond with the start of the Surveyor Fan and the onset of tidewater glaciation in the late Miocene and the Sequence II/III boundary (~160 mbsf at U1417) to coincide with the intensification of glaciation and subsequent increase in sediment flux at the MPT. Our updated velocity model places these major sequence boundaries at the correct depths in borehole site U1417. We can use the revised velocity model to correlate lithologic, biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and logging data from the borehole/cores to seismic data, allowing for construction of a temporal model for the evolution of the Surveyor fan. We can then examine the relationship between glacial-interglacial cycle duration and

  13. How to find the Apollo landing sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2014-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to be able to connect the history of lunar exploration to the Moon visible above. It addresses what Apollo equipment and experiments were left behind and what the Apollo landings sites look like now. Each Apollo mission is examined in detail, with photos that progressively zoom-in to guide the reader in locating the Apollo landing sites. Guided by official NASA photographs from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the original Apollo missions, the reader can view the Moon with a new appreciation of the accomplishment of landing astronauts on its surface.  Countless people have gazed at the Moon in the night sky knowing the successes of the Apollo Program in landing men on the Moon. After the information in this guide, casual and serious observers can actually point out where the Apollo landings occurred as well as knowing why those sites were chosen.

  14. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  15. Automatic detection of aircraft emergency landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Fei; Rahman, Zia-ur; Krusienski, Dean; Li, Jiang

    2011-06-01

    An automatic landing site detection algorithm is proposed for aircraft emergency landing. Emergency landing is an unplanned event in response to emergency situations. If, as is unfortunately usually the case, there is no airstrip or airfield that can be reached by the un-powered aircraft, a crash landing or ditching has to be carried out. Identifying a safe landing site is critical to the survival of passengers and crew. Conventionally, the pilot chooses the landing site visually by looking at the terrain through the cockpit. The success of this vital decision greatly depends on the external environmental factors that can impair human vision, and on the pilot's flight experience that can vary significantly among pilots. Therefore, we propose a robust, reliable and efficient algorithm that is expected to alleviate the negative impact of these factors. We present only the detection mechanism of the proposed algorithm and assume that the image enhancement for increased visibility, and image stitching for a larger field-of-view have already been performed on the images acquired by aircraftmounted cameras. Specifically, we describe an elastic bound detection method which is designed to position the horizon. The terrain image is divided into non-overlapping blocks which are then clustered according to a "roughness" measure. Adjacent smooth blocks are merged to form potential landing sites whose dimensions are measured with principal component analysis and geometric transformations. If the dimensions of the candidate region exceed the minimum requirement for safe landing, the potential landing site is considered a safe candidate and highlighted on the human machine interface. At the end, the pilot makes the final decision by confirming one of the candidates, also considering other factors such as wind speed and wind direction, etc. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Rock size-frequency distribution analysis at the Chang'E-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Kaichang; Xu, Bin; Peng, Man; Yue, Zongyu; Liu, Zhaoqin; Wan, Wenhui; Li, Lichun; Zhou, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the rock size-frequency distribution at the Chang'E-3 landing site. Using 84 Navcam stereo images acquired at 7 waypoints by the Yutu rover and an interactive stereo image processing system, a total of 582 rocks larger than 0.05 m in diameter were identified and measured. The statistical results of the size-frequency distribution show that the cumulative fractional area covered by rocks versus their diameter follows a simple exponential function and has a convex-up shape on log-log graphs with the slope increasing with diameter. The cumulative number of rocks versus diameter derived by numerically integrating the cumulative fractional area also shows a good fit with the data. A diameter-height relationship was also determined from height and diameter ratios. The observed rock statistics were also compared with those from other lunar missions, including the Surveyor, Apollo, and Lunokhod missions; results suggest that the rock distribution at the Chang'E-3 landing site is similar to that found by Surveyor III.

  17. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  18. Four Finalist Landing Site Candidates for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Out of more than 30 sites considered as possible landing targets for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission, by November 2008 four of the most intriguing places on Mars rose to the final round of the site-selection process. The four finalists are, alphabetically: Eberswalde, where an ancient river deposited a delta in a possible lake; Gale, with a mountain of stacked layers including clays and sulfates; Holden, a crater containing alluvial fans, flood deposits, possible lake beds and clay-rich deposits; and Mawrth, which shows exposed layers containing at least two types of clay. The locations of these four candidates are indicated here on a background map of color-coded topographical data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Red is higher elevation; blue is lower elevation. In latitude, the map extends from 70 degrees (north) to minus 70 degrees (south). The east-west axis is labeled at the top in degrees of east longitude, with the zero meridian at the center. The Mars Science Laboratory mission's capabilities for landing more precisely and at higher elevation than ever before, for driving farther, and for generating electricity without reliance on sunshine have enabled consideration of a wider range of possible landing sites than for any previous Mars mission. During the past two years, multiple observations of dozens of candidate sites by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have augmented data from earlier orbiters for evaluating sites' scientific attractions and engineering risks. More than 100 Mars scientists have participated in a series of open workshops presenting and assessing data that the orbiters have provided about the candidate sites. The four sites rated highest by researchers at a September 2008 workshop were the same ones chosen by mission leaders after a subsequent round of safety evaluations and analysis of terrain for rover driving. As a clay-bearing site where a river once flowed into a lake, Eberswalde Crater

  19. Atmospheric Constraints on Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David M.; Schofield, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is a significant part of the environment that the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will encounter. As such, it imposes important constraints on where the rovers can and cannot land. Unfortunately, as there are no meteorological instruments on the rovers, there is little atmospheric science that can be accomplished, and no scientific preference for landing sites. The atmosphere constrains landing site selection in two main areas, the entry descent and landing (EDL) process and the survivability of the rovers on the surface. EDL is influenced by the density profile and boundary layer winds (up to altitudes of 5 to 10 km). Surface survivability involves atmospheric dust, temperatures and winds. During EDL, the atmosphere is used to slow the lander down, both ballistically and on the parachute. This limits the maximum elevation of the landing site to -1.3 km below the MOLA reference aeroid. The landers need to encounter a sufficiently dense atmosphere to be able to stop, and the deeper the landing site, the more column integrated atmosphere the lander can pass through before reaching the surface. The current limit was determined both by a desire to be able to reach the hematite region and by a set of atmosphere models we developed for EDL simulations. These are based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric profile measurements, Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results, and the 1-D Ames GCM radiative/convective model by J. Murphy. The latter is used for the near surface diurnal cycle. The current version of our model encompasses representative latitude bands, but we intend to make specific models for the final candidate landing sites to insure that they fall within the general envelope. The second constraint imposed on potential landing sites through the EDL process is the near surface wind. The wind in the lower approximately 5 km determines the horizontal velocity that the landers have when they land. Due to the mechanics of

  20. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Wright, Shelley A; Tonry, John; Tully, R Brent; Szapudi, István; Takamiya, Marianne; Hunter, Lisa; Riddle, Reed; Chen, Shaojie; Chun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of ~4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with a...

  1. The rapid transient surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, C.; Lu, J. R.; Wright, S. A.; Tonry, J.; Tully, R. B.; Szapudi, I.; Takamiya, M.; Hunter, L.; Riddle, R.; Chen, S.; Chun, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of 4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z efficiency prism integral field unit spectrograph: R = 70-140 over a total bandpass of 840-1830nm with an 8.7" by 6.0" field of view (0.15" spaxels). The AO correction boosts the infrared point-source sensitivity of the spectrograph against the sky background by a factor of seven for faint targets, giving the UH 2.2-m the H-band sensitivity of a 5.7-m telescope without AO.

  2. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  3. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  4. Pathfinder landing sites at candidate SNC impact ejection sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1994-01-01

    If Mars Pathfinder were able to land at a site on Mars from which the SNC meteorites were ejected by impact, the Pathfinder mission would essentially represent a very inexpensive sample return mission. Geologic units that contain four potential impact craters from which SNC meteorites could have been ejected from Mars are accessible to the Mars Pathfinder lander. Determining that SNC meteorites came from a particular spot on Mars raises the intriguing possibility of using Pathfinder as a sample return mission and providing a radiometric age for the considerably uncertain martian crater-age timescale. Pathfinder instruments are capable of determining if the rock type at the landing site is similar to that of one or more of the SNC meteorites, which would strengthen the hypothesis that the SNC meteorites did, in fact, come from Mars. Unfortunately, instrument observations from Pathfinder are probably not capable of determining if the geologic unit sampled by the lander is definitively the unit from which a SNC meteorite came from as opposed to Mars in general or perhaps a particular region on Mars. This abstract evaluates the possibility of landing at potential SNC ejection sites and the ability of Pathfinder to identify the landing site as the place from which an SNC meteorite came.

  5. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  6. Rock size-frequency distributions analysis at lunar landing sites based on remote sensing and in-situ imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Rock populations can supply fundamental geological information about origin and evolution of a planet. In this paper, we used Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) narrow-angle camera (NAC) images to identify rocks at the lunar landing sites (including Chang'e 3 (CE-3), Apollo and Surveyor series). The diameter and area of each identified rock were measured to generate distributions of rock cumulative fractional area and size-frequency on a log-log plot. The two distributions both represented the same shallow slopes at smaller diameters followed by steeper slopes at larger diameters. A reasonable explanation for the lower slopes may be the resolution and space weathering effects. By excluding the smaller diameters, rock populations derived from NAC images showed approximately linear relationships and could be fitted well by power laws. In the last, the entire rock populations derived from both NAC and in-situ imagery could be described by one power function at the lunar landing sites except the CE-3 and Apollo 11 landing sites. This may be because that the process of a large rock breaking down to small rocks even fine particles can be modeled by fractal theories. Thus, rock populations on lunar surfaces can be extrapolated along the curves of rock populations derived from NAC images to smaller diameters. In the future, we can apply rock populations from remote sensing images to estimate the number of rocks with smaller diameters to select the appropriate landing sites for the CE-4 and CE-5 missions.

  7. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  8. Surface properties of Mars' polar layered deposits and polar landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Greeley, Ronald; Murray, Bruce C.; Bass, Deborah S.; McBride, Karen S.

    2000-03-01

    On December 3, 1999, the Mars Polar Lander and Mars Microprobes will land on the planet's south polar layered deposits near (76°S, 195°W) and conduct the first in situ studies of the planet's polar regions. The scientific goals of these missions address several poorly understood and globally significant issues, such as polar meteorology, the composition and volatile content of the layered deposits, the erosional state and mass balance of their surface, their possible relationship to climate cycles, and the nature of bright and dark aeolian material. Derived thermal inertias of the southern layered deposits are very low (50-100 Jm-2s-1/2K-1), suggesting that the surface down to a depth of a few centimeters is generally fine grained or porous and free of an appreciable amount of rock or ice. The landing site region is smoother than typical cratered terrain on ~1 kmpixel-1 Viking Orbiter images but contains low-relief texture on ~5 to 100 mpixel-1 Mariner 9 and Mars Global Surveyor images. The surface of the southern deposits is older than that of the northern deposits and appears to be modified by aeolian erosion or ablation of ground ice.

  9. Tool for Statistical Analysis and Display of Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey; Kennedy, Brian; Knocke, Philip; Michel, John

    2006-01-01

    MarsLS is a software tool for analyzing statistical dispersion of spacecraft-landing sites and displaying the results of its analyses. Originally intended for the Mars Explorer Rover (MER) mission, MarsLS is also applicable to landing sites on Earth and non-MER sites on Mars. MarsLS is a collection of interdependent MATLAB scripts that utilize the MATLAB graphical-user-interface software environment to display landing-site data (see figure) on calibrated image-maps of the Martian or other terrain. The landing-site data comprise latitude/longitude pairs generated by Monte Carlo runs of other computer programs that simulate entry, descent, and landing. Using these data, MarsLS can compute a landing-site ellipse a standard means of depicting the area within which the spacecraft can be expected to land with a given probability. MarsLS incorporates several features for the user s convenience, including capabilities for drawing lines and ellipses, overlaying kilometer or latitude/longitude grids, drawing and/or specifying lines and/or points, entering notes, defining and/or displaying polygons to indicate hazards or areas of interest, and evaluating hazardous and/or scientifically interesting areas. As part of such an evaluation, MarsLS can compute the probability of landing in a specified polygonal area.

  10. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and automated detection and characterization of astrophysical transients during a sustained observing campaign will yield the necessary statistics to precisely map dark matter in the local universe.

  11. Selection and Characterization of Landing Sites for Chandrayaan-2 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Amitabh, Amitabh; Srinivasan, T. P.; Karidhal, Ritu; Nagesh, G.; Manjusha, N.

    2016-07-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation has planned the second mission to moon known as Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover. This will be the first soft landing mission of India on lunar surface. The Orbiter, Lander and Rover individually will carry scientific payloads that enhance the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-2. The Lander soft lands on the lunar surface and subsequently Lander & Rover will carry on with the payload activities on the moon surface. Landing Site identification based on the scientific and engineering constrains of lander plays an important role in success of a mission. The Lander poses some constraints because of its engineering design for the selection of the landing site and on the other hand the landing site / region imparts some constrain on the Lander. The various constraints that have to be considered for the study of the landing site are Local slope, Sun illumination during mission life, Radio communication with the Earth, Global slope towards equator, Boulders size, Crater density and boulder distribution. This paper describes the characterization activities of the different landing locations which have been studied for Chandrayaan-2 Lander. The sites have been studied both in the South Polar and North Polar regions of the moon on the near side. The Engineering Constraints at the sites due to the Lander, Factors that affect mission life (i.e. illumination at the location), Factors influencing communication to earth (i.e. RF visibility) & Shadow movements have been studied at these locations and zones that are favourable for landing have been short listed. This paper gives methodology of these studies along with the results of the characteristics of all the sites and the recommendations for further action in finalizing the landing area.

  12. Resource Prospector Landing Site and Traverse Plan Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M.; McGovern, A.; Beyer, R.

    2016-11-01

    The Resource Prospector mission requires new tools for landing site selection and traverse planning. Initial results are presented that include mission operations and engineering constraints as well as realistic performance and activities.

  13. Assessment of Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.

    2005-05-01

    Comprehensive analyses of remote sensing data during the 3-year effort to select the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum correctly predicted the safe and trafficable surfaces explored by the two rovers. Gusev crater was predicted to be a relatively low relief surface that was comparably dusty, but less rocky than the Viking landing sites. Available data for Meridiani Planum indicated a very flat plain composed of basaltic sand to granules and hematite that would look completely unlike any of the existing landing sites with a dark, low albedo surface, little dust and very few rocks. Orbital thermal inertia measurements of 315 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1 at Gusev suggested surfaces dominated by duricrust to cemented soil-like materials or cohesionless sand or granules, which is consistent with observed soil characteristics and measured thermal inertias from the surface. THEMIS thermal inertias along the traverse at Gusev vary from 285 at the landing site to 330 around Bonneville rim and show systematic variations that can be related to the observed increase in rock abundance (5-30%). Meridiani has an orbital bulk inertia of ~200, similar to measured surface inertias that correspond to observed surfaces dominated by 0.2 mm sand size particles. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques suggested that Meridiani Planum would have very low rock abundance, consistent with the rock free plain traversed by Opportunity. Spirit landed in an 8% orbital rock abundance pixel, consistent with the measured 7% of the surface covered by rocks >0.04 m diameter at the landing site, which is representative of the plains away from craters. The orbital albedo of the Spirit traverse varies from 0.19 to 0.30, consistent with surface measurements in and out of dust devil tracks. Opportunity is the first landing in a low albedo portion of Mars as seen from orbit, which is consistent with the dark, dust-free surface and measured albedos. The

  14. Winds at the Phoenix landing site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Merrison, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Wind speeds and directions were measured on the Phoenix Lander by a mechanical anemometer, the so-called Telltale wind indicator. Analysis of images of the instrument taken with the onboard imager allowed for evaluation of wind speeds and directions. Daily characteristics of the wind data...... ± 3 mm, respectively. The Telltale wind data are used to suggest that Heimdal crater is a source of nighttime temperature fluctuations. Deviations between temperatures measured at various heights are explained as being due to winds passing over the Phoenix Lander. Events concerning sample delivery...... and frost formation are described and discussed. Two different mechanisms of dust lifting affecting the Phoenix site are proposed based on observations made with Mars Color Imager on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Telltale. The first is related to evaporation of the seasonal CO2 ice and is observed up...

  15. 77 FR 58867 - Public Land Order No. 7799; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Rock Springs Administrative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7799; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Rock Springs... the Rock Springs Administrative Site addition. DATES: Effective Date: September 24, 2012. FOR FURTHER... the Rock Springs Administrative Site addition. The land has been and will remain open to...

  16. Challenges to Building Surveyors From The Perspectives Of Non Surveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnin Zarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on the importance of Building Surveyors in Malaysia is still low as the role and skills of this profession are not fully understood. Although studies indicated that Building Surveyors are still in demand, even without the Building Surveyor Act, many graduates are experiencing inadequate employment opportunities in the current economic situation. Little is known on the views from other stakeholders about BS. This research aims to examine the awareness and opinions on BS in Malaysia amongst construction stakeholders. Questionnaire surveys were collected from 120 respondents from construction, maintenance and insurance companies and interviews were conducted to selected built environment respondents. It was found that awareness and knowledge on BS are still low as they lack information on the profession and professional recognitions. Some views indicated on a major identity crisis for having fragmented and disparate range of modules. The cause may have resulted in problems on public recognition, poor understanding of the surveyor’s skills, and fewer job opportunities. Several suggested the profession to have a clear, coherent and relevant identity, with strong professional structures in order for the profession to survive and gain recognition from the government. Graduates are also recommended to acquire other skills and training in order for them to be significant to the construction industry.

  17. ExoMars 2018 Landing Site Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, Jorge L.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rodionov, Daniel

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will include two science elements: a Rover and a Surface Platform. The ExoMars Rover will carry a comprehensive suite of instruments dedicated to geology and exobiology research named after Louis Pasteur. The Rover will be able to travel several kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life. It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from outcrops, and from the subsurface—down to 2-m depth. The very powerful combination of mobility with the ability to access locations where organic molecules can be well preserved is unique to this mission. After the Rover will have egressed, the ExoMars Surface Platform will begin its science mission to study the surface environment at the landing location. This talk will describe the landing site selection process and introduce the scientific, planetary protection, and engineering requirements that candidate landing sites must comply with in order to be considered for the mission.

  18. Bridging the Gap Between Surveyors and the Geo-Spatial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.

    2016-06-01

    For many years FIG, the International Association of Surveyors, has been trying to bridge the gap between surveyors and the geospatial society as a whole, with the geospatial industries in particular. Traditionally the surveying profession contributed to the good of society by creating and maintaining highly precise and accurate geospatial data bases, based on an in-depth knowledge of spatial reference frameworks. Furthermore in many countries surveyors may be entitled to make decisions about land divisions and boundaries. By managing information spatially surveyors today develop into the role of geo-data managers, the longer the more. Job assignments in this context include data entry management, data and process quality management, design of formal and informal systems, information management, consultancy, land management, all that in close cooperation with many different stakeholders. Future tasks will include the integration of geospatial information into e-government and e-commerce systems. The list of professional tasks underpins the capabilities of surveyors to contribute to a high quality geospatial data and information management. In that way modern surveyors support the needs of a geo-spatial society. The paper discusses several approaches to define the role of the surveyor within the modern geospatial society.

  19. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  20. Selection of the InSight Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Fergason, R.; Kirk, R. L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, S.; Putzig, N. E.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M.; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2016-12-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation ( {≤}{-}2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S-5°N and later 3°N-5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ˜600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  1. Rosetta lander Philae: Flight Dynamics analyses for landing site selection and post-landing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Eric; Martin, Thierry; Canalias, Elisabet; Blazquez, Alejandro; Garmier, Romain; Ceolin, Thierry; Gaudon, Philippe; Delmas, Cedric; Biele, Jens; Ulamec, Stephan; Remetean, Emile; Torres, Alex; Laurent-Varin, Julien; Dolives, Benoit; Herique, Alain; Rogez, Yves; Kofman, Wlodek; Jorda, Laurent; Zakharov, Vladimir; Crifo, Jean-François; Rodionov, Alexander; Heinish, P.; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-08-01

    On the 12th of November 2014, The Rosetta Lander Philae became the first spacecraft to softly land on a comet nucleus. Due to the double failure of the cold gas hold-down thruster and the anchoring harpoons that should have fixed Philae to the surface, it spent approximately two hours bouncing over the comet surface to finally come at rest one km away from its target site. Nevertheless it was operated during the 57 h of its First Science Sequence. The FSS, performed with the two batteries, should have been followed by the Long Term Science Sequence but Philae was in a place not well illuminated and fell into hibernation. Yet, thanks to reducing distance to the Sun and to seasonal effect, it woke up at end of April and on 13th of June it contacted Rosetta again. To achieve this successful landing, an intense preparation work had been carried out mainly between August and November 2014 to select the targeted landing site and define the final landing trajectory. After the landing, the data collected during on-comet operations have been used to assess the final position and orientation of Philae, and to prepare the wake-up. This paper addresses the Flight Dynamics studies done in the scope of this landing preparation from Lander side, in close cooperation with the team at ESA, responsible for Rosetta, as well as for the reconstruction of the bouncing trajectory and orientation of the Lander after touchdown.

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Sagarmatha National Park, a World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodney Garrard; Thomas Kohler; Martin F Price; Alton C Byers; Ang Rita Sherpa; Gyanu Raja Maharjan

    2016-01-01

      Land use and land cover (LULC) changes that occurred during 1992- 2011 in Sagarmatha National Park, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal, were...

  3. 46 CFR 153.1101 - Procedures for getting a Surveyor: Approval of Surveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for getting a Surveyor: Approval of Surveyors. 153.1101 Section 153.1101 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Approval of Surveyors...

  4. Selection of the InSight landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Fergason, Robin L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Putzig, N.E.; Campbell, B.A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M A; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.E.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation (≤−2.5 km">≤−2.5 km≤−2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S–5°N and later 3°N–5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ∼600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes <15° at 84 m and 2 m length scales for radar tracking and touchdown stability, low rock abundance (<10 %) to avoid impact and spacecraft tip over, instrument deployment constraints, which included identical slope and rock abundance constraints, a radar reflective and load bearing surface, and a fragmented regolith ∼5 m thick for full penetration of the heat flow probe. Unlike other Mars landers, science objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  5. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  6. Characteristics of operations at fish-landing sites managed by private owners in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimura, Mika; Okamoto, Junichiro; Yasuma, Hiroki; Kimura, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on the operation characteristics of landing sites managed by private owners in Thailand. The survey was conducted by interviewing private landing site owners, managers of fishery cooperatives, middlemen, and fishers. The results of interviews were summarized with respect to scale of business, fisheries, transaction, types of people associated with landing sites, location, and daily schedule. Landing sites were located along canals in coastal provinc...

  7. Geology of the Spirit landing site in Gusev crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Athena Science Team

    Spirit, the first Mars Exploration Rover, successfully landed in a low albedo portion of Gusev crater at 14.5692S, 175.4729E. The landing site is a generally low relief somewhat rocky plain dominated by shallow circular depressions and low ridges. Hills ˜ 2 km to the east are over 100 m high and the rim of a 200 m diameter crater form the horizon 240 m to the northeast. The shallow circular depressions generally have rocky rims and smooth soil filled centers and may be secondary impact craters. The red soils appear to be cemented fines and sand (coarse and fine) and granules have been sorted into aeolian bedforms (many appear to be ripples with coarser granules at their crests). The albedo of the landing site is ˜ 0.19 likely due to the removal of bright, fine grained dust via dust devils. Preliminary rock counts suggest ˜ 5% of the surface is covered by rocks (varies by a factor of two in the scene), which is substantially less than at any of the three previous landing sites, although the size-frequency distribution follows a similar exponential. Boulder and cobbles are rare; the largest rock within 10 m of the lander is only ˜ 0.3 m diameter and there are substantially more pebbles trafficable surface generally similar in reddish color to the three previous landing sites albeit with substantially fewer rocks) were correctly predicted from remote sensing data and models during landing site selection. Most rocks appear angular and many appear fractured and/or fragmented, consistent with impact ejecta, although more rounded rocks may also be present. Many small rocks appear embedded and cemented in the soil, suggestive of a crusted gravel armor or lag. The redder patination along the base of some rocks may be a former soil horizon and argues for net deflation at the site. A vast majority of the rocks appear dark, fine grained, and pitted. Many appear to be ventifacts, with flutes and grooves formed by impacting sand in saltation. Most rocks appear coated with

  8. Mars: Periglacial Morphology and Implications for Future Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Schurmeier, Lauren; McKay, Christopher; Davila, Alfonso; Stoker, Carol; Marinova, Margarita; Wilhelm, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    At the Mars Phoenix landing site and in much of the Martian northern plains, there is ice-cemented ground beneath a layer of dry permafrost. Unlike most permafrost on Earth, though, this ice is not liquid at any time of year. However, in past epochs at higher obliquity the surface conditions during summer may have resulted in warmer conditions and possible melting. This situation indicates that the ice-cemented ground in the north polar plains is likely to be a candidate for the most recently habitable place on Mars as near-surface ice likely provided adequate water activity approximately 5 Myr ago. The high elevation Dry Valleys of Antarctica provide the best analog on Earth of Martian ground ice. These locations are the only places on Earth where ice-cemented ground is found beneath dry permafrost. The Dry Valleys are a hyper-arid polar desert environment and in locations above 1500 m elevation, such as University Valley, air temperatures do not exceed 0 C. Thus, similarly to Mars, liquid water is largely absent here and instead the hydrologic cycle is dominated by frozen ice and vapor phase processes such as sublimation. These conditions make the high elevation Dry Valleys a key Mars analog location where periglacial processes and geomorphic features can be studied in situ. This talk will focus on studies of University Valley as a Mars analog for periglacial morphology and ice stability. We will review a landing site selection study encompassing this information gleaned from the Antarctic terrestrial analog studies plus Mars spacecraft data analysis to identify candidate landing sites for a future mission to search for life on Mars.

  9. Selecting landing sites for lunar lander missions using spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djachkova, Maia; Lazarev, Evgeniy

    Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) is planning to launch two spacecrafts to the Moon with lander missions in 2015 and 2017. [1] Here, we present an approach to create a method of landing sites selection. We researched the physical features of the Moon using spatial analysis techniques presented in ArcGIS Desktop Software in accordance with its suitability for automatic landing. Hence we analyzed Russian lunar program and received the technical characteristics of the spacecrafts and scientific goals that they should meet [1]. Thus we identified the criteria of surface suitability for landing. We divided them into two groups: scientific criteria (the hydrogen content of the regolith [2] and day and night sur-face temperature [3]) and safety criteria (surface slopes and roughness, sky view factor, the Earth altitude, presence of polar permanently shadowed regions). In conformity with some investigations it is believed that the south polar region of the Moon is the most promising territory where water ice can be found (finding water ice is the main goal for Russian lunar missions [1]). According to the selected criteria and selected area of research we used remote sensing data from LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) [4] as basic data, because it is the most actual and easily available. The data was processed and analyzed using spatial analysis techniques of ArcGIS Desktop Software, so we created a number of maps depicting the criteria and then combined and overlaid them. As a result of overlay process we received five territories where the landing will be safe and the scientific goals will have being met. It should be noted that our analysis is only the first order assessment and the results cannot be used as actual landing sites for the lunar missions in 2015 and 2017, since a number of factors, which can only be analyzed in a very large scale, was not taken into account. However, an area of researching is narrowed to five territories, what can make the future

  10. Geomorphological and Spectrophotometric Study of Philae Landing Site A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Giacomini, L.; Oklay, N.; Massironi, M.; Bertini, I.; Simioni, E.; Marzari, F.; Barbieri, C.; Naletto, G.; Groussin, O.; Lazzarin, M.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Fornasier, S.; Vincent, J. B.; Sierks, H.

    2015-10-01

    On August 6, 2014, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft started orbiting the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P). Afterwards, the OSIRIS instrument (Optical, Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System [1]), got the highest-resolution-ever images of a cometary nucleus, reaching the unprecedented scale of 50 cm/px. A brief description of OSIRIS early analysis on the nucleus structure and activity of 67P is available in [2]. Despite its small dimensions, #4 km diameter, 67P shows a morphological diversity that is still puzzling the cometary community: boulders [3], highreflectivity particle clusters [4], local fracturing [5], pits [6], as well as dust covered terrains [7], are only few examples that can be found on 67P. Since the Rosetta arrival, an extremely detailed analysis of 67P surface has been performed to select five different landing sites candidates for the lander Philae. By using the OSIRIS images the comet shape model [8] has been produced to study the slope constraints, as well as the identification and measurements of boulders and production of hazard maps of the landing spots [3]. A final landing site, called Agilkia and located on the smaller lobe of the comet, was announced on October 15, 2014. Here, Philae, on November 12, 2014, made its historic comet touchdown [9]. Despite its unique scientific potential, one of the five finalists, called "site A", was avoided due to higher risks with respect to Agilkia, during both the landing phase and the surface operations. This area is located on the bigger lobe of the comet, on the Seth region [10] facing the Hathor cliff. Site A (Fig. 1) is close to the 'neck' region, i.e. the connecting bridge between the two lobes, where the main dust jet activity has been observed since the Rosetta arrival. This area is the biggest terrace of Seth region, delimited in the upper part by a steep wall showing multiple niches, strata heads and smaller terraces. Moreover, between the

  11. Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and Expected Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Boynton, W.; Carswell, A.; Catling, D.; Clark, B.; Duck, T.; DeJong, E.; Fisher, D.; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, P.; Hecht, M.; Hipkin, V.; Hoffman, J.; Hviid, S.; Keller, H.; Kounaves, S.; Lange, C. F.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M.; Malin, M.; Markiewicz, W.; Marshall, J.; McKay, C.; Mellon, M.; Michelangeli, D.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Renno, N.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Stoker, C.; Taylor, P.; Whiteway, J.; Young, S.; Zent, A.

    2008-10-01

    Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on the large NASA investments in the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta 2 launch vehicle. The heritage derived from the canceled 2001 lander with a science payload inherited from MPL and 2001 instruments gives significant advantages. To manage, build, and test the spacecraft and its instruments, a partnership has been forged between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Arizona (home institution of principal investigator P. H. Smith), and Lockheed Martin in Denver; instrument and scientific contributions from Canada and Europe have augmented the mission. The science mission focuses on providing the ground truth for the 2002 Odyssey discovery of massive ice deposits hidden under surface soils in the circumpolar regions. The science objectives, the instrument suite, and the measurements needed to meet the objectives are briefly described here with reference made to more complete instrument papers included in this special section. The choice of a landing site in the vicinity of 68°N and 233°E balances scientific value and landing safety. Phoenix will land on 25 May 2008 during a complex entry, descent, and landing sequence using pulsed thrusters as the final braking strategy. After a safe landing, twin fan-like solar panels are unfurled and provide the energy needed for the mission. Throughout the 90-sol primary mission, activities are planned on a tactical basis by the science team; their requests are passed to an uplink team of sequencing engineers for translation to spacecraft commands. Commands are transmitted each Martian morning through the Deep Space Network by way of a Mars orbiter to the spacecraft. Data are returned at the end of the Martian day by the same path. Satisfying the mission's goals requires digging and providing samples of interesting layers to three on-deck instruments. By

  12. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 15 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, G. A.; Bailey, N. G.; Batson, R. M.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Head, J. W.; Holt, H. E.; Howard, K. A.; Irwin, J. B.; Larson, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 15 lunar module (LM) landed on the mare surface of Palus Putredinis on the eastern edge of the Imbrium Basin. The site is between the Apennine Mountain front and Hadley Rille. The objectives of the mission, in order of decreasing priority, were description and sampling of three major geologic features-the Apennine Front, Hadley Rille, and the mare. The greater number of periods of extravehicular activity (EVA) and the mobility provided by the lunar roving vehicle (ROVER) allowed much more geologic information to be obtained from a much larger area than those explored by previous Apollo crews. A total of 5 hours was spent at traverse station stops, and the astronauts transmitted excellent descriptions of the lunar surface while in transit between stations.

  13. The Cold Land Process Experiment's (CLPX) Local Scale Observation Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J. P.; Cline, D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.; Pomeroy, J.; Koh, Y.; Armstrong, R.; Koike, T.; McDonald, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) is the smallest study site of the Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser Meso-cell Study Area (MSA), near the Fraser Experimental Forest Headquarters Facility, in Fraser, Colorado USA. The 100- x 100-m site consists of a small, open field, a managed dense canopy, and an open, mixed age canopy. Unlike the other components of the experiment, which focus on spatial distributions at relatively brief "snapshots" in time, measurements at the local-scale site focused on the temporal domain. Measurements made at the LSOS were designed to produce a comprehensive assessment of the snow, soil, and vegetation characteristics viewed by the ground-based remote sensing instruments. The objective of ground-based microwave remote sensing was to collect time series of active and passive microwave spectral signatures over snow, soil, and forest, coincident with intensive physical characterization of these features. Ground-based remote sensing instruments included Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars operating over multiple microwave bandwidths, the Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer (GBMR-7) (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) Simulator; channels 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0-GHz), and in 2003, an L/C/X/Ku-band scatterometer radar system. Snow and soil measurements included standard snow physical properties, snow surface roughness, snow depth transects, and soil moisture. The stem and canopy temperature, and xylem flux of several trees within the area, were monitored continuously. Two micrometeorological towers, one located in the open snow area and the other in the forested area, monitored ambient conditions and provided forcing data sets for 1-D snow/soil models. Arrays of radiometers (0.3-3 μm) and a scanning thermal radiometer (8-12 μm) characterized the variability of radiative receipt in the forests. These measurements, together with the ground-based remote sensing, provide the

  14. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Bussey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. An EZ is a collection of ROIs located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Several important findings resulted from this Workshop including: (a) a strong consensus that, at a scale of 100 km (radius), multiple places on Mars exist that have both sufficient scientific interest

  15. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Kathleen; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Dahal, Sumit; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fluxa, Pedro; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Hubmayr, Johannes; Iuliano, Jeffery; Karakla, John; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Nathan T; Moseley, Samuel H; Palma, Gonzalo; Parker, Lucas; Petroff, Matthew; Pradenas, Bastián; Rostem, Karwan; Sagliocca, Marco; Valle, Deniz; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70\\% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad f...

  16. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravita-tional-wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70\\% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low $\\ell$. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of $r=0.01$ and make a cosmi...

  17. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  18. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Denis, Kevin; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  19. Launch and landing site science processing for ISS utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mimi; van Twest, Jacqueline; van den Ende, Oliver; Gruendel, Douglas; Wells, Deborah; Moyer, Jerry; Heuser, Jan; Etheridge, Guy

    2000-01-01

    Since 1986, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has provided support to over 500 spaceflight experiments from NASA, international agencies, academic institutions, commercial entities, and the military sector. The experiments cover a variety of science disciplines including molecular, cellular, developmental biology, chemistry, physiology, and material sciences. KSC supports simulation, pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight processing of flight hardware, specimens, and data at the primary and secondary landing sites. Science processing activities for spaceflight experiments occurs at the Life Science Support Facility (Hangar L) on the Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) and select laboratories in the Industrial Area at KSC. Planning is underway to meet the challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). ISS support activities are expected to exceed the current launch site capability. KSC plans to replace the current facilities with Space Experiments Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL), a collaborative effort between NASA and the State of Florida. This facility will be the cornerstone of a larger Research Park at KSC and is expected to foster relations between commercial industry and academia in areas related to space research. .

  20. Identifying and Describing Tutor Archetypes: The Pragmatist, the Architect, and the Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…

  1. Further Analysis on the Mystery of the Surveyor III Dust Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul; Trigwell, Steven; Lane, John

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo 12 lunar module (LM) landing near the Surveyor 1lI spacecraft at the end of 1969 has remained the primary experimental verification of the predicted physics of plume ejecta effects from a rocket engine interacting with the surface of the moon. This was made possible by the return of the Surveyor 1lI camera housing by the Apollo 12 astronauts, allowing detailed analysis of the composition of dust deposited by the Apollo 12 LM plume. It was soon realized after the initial analysis of the camera housing that the LM plume tended to remove more dust than it had deposited. In the present study, coupons from the camera housing were reexamined by a KSC research team using SEM/EDS and XPS analysis. In addition, plume effects recorded in landing videos from each Apollo mission have been studied for possible clues. Several likely scenarios are proposed to explain the Surveyor III dust observations. These include electrostatic attraction of the dust to the surface of the Surveyor as a result of electrostatic charging of the jet gas exiting the engine nozzle during descent; dust blown by the Apollo 12 LM fly-by while on its descent trajectory; dust ejected from the lunar surface due to gas forced into the soil by the Surveyor 1lI rocket nozzle, based on Darcy's law; and mechanical movement of dust during the Surveyor landing. Even though an absolute answer is not possible based on available data and theory, various computational models are employed to estimate the feasibility of each of these proposed mechanisms. Scenarios are then discussed which combine multiple mechanisms to produce results consistent with observations.

  2. Slope Morphology of Twin Peaks, Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Steven; Paine, Colin; Clarke, Jon; Caprarelli, Graziella

    2010-05-01

    Development of slope form over time has long been a concern of geomorphologists, although recently this concern has been moved to slope processes rather than form. There are two basic approaches. The first is theoretical, involving modeling of different types and rates of processes, and calculation of results in terms of slope evolution over time. Comparisons with real-life slopes can follow this approach [1], [2]. The second, inductive, approach involves field measurements to test ideas about slope evolution starting from the assumption that observed slopes represent different stages of an essentially similar evolution [3]. Space is substituted for time, and a number of slopes, assumed to be of increasing age, are measured and placed in an evolutionary sequence (e.g. [4], [5], [6]). [5] showed that slope angles are modally distributed, with the modal angles controlled by the materials (regolith) of which the slopes are formed, and by the processes operating on them. Data can be obtained directly from field work or from digital elevation models (DEM) derived from remote sensing investigations [7]. DEMs are particularly useful to study inaccessible planets, such as Mars, where on site observations are restricted to only a few landing sites. Here we present a study of slopes on the Twin Peaks, two small hills located 780 m north and 910 m south of the Mars Pathfinder landing site at the mouth of the Ares and Tiu flood channels. The presence of streamlined hills, jumbled surfaces and conglomerates suggested the region was modified by massive flooding 1.8 - 3.5 billion years ago [8], [9]. The streamlined forms and terraces of the Twin Peaks were taken to indicate catastrophic flood conditions that were believed to be prevalent in the area [8]. It was also suggested that the northernmost peak was topped by floodwater, causing its flatter appearance. Other researchers postulated alternative geomorphological origins for the features observed at the Pathfinder landing site

  3. The Phoenix Mission and its Current Landing Site options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, LK; Smith, P.; Arvidson, RE; Phoenix Team

    2005-08-01

    Phoenix is the 2007 Mars Scout program mission that will send a lander and suite of instruments to study the north polar region on Mars. Central goals for the Phoenix mission are to study the recent history of water as written into the high latitude soils and to search for habitable zones. In order to do this, Phoenix carries a comprehensive suite of seven instruments. This suite includes 3 cameras, an optical microscope and an atomic-force microscope, allowing imaging at spatial scales ranging from kms, for large scale geomorphological studies, to microns, for examining single grain sizes and shapes. Phoenix also has a meteorology suite, which includes atmospheric temperature measurements at 3 levels, atmospheric pressure, and an upward-looking lidar, for dust and water-ice cloud detection. A robotic arm will dig a trench into the surface near the lander to collect and deliver samples to on-board chemistry and mineralogy experiments. These experiments will allow the detection of the mineral makeup of the soil as well as its water content, pH, salt content, and organic content. An important aspect of this exciting mission is the selection of the landing site, within the 65-72 deg N latitude band. Both science and safety concerns will play into this selection. Work is ongoing to determine the most favorable location, with consideration focusing on the best ice/soil ratio, the shallowest slopes and fewest large rocks. Current sites under consideration will be discussed. Selected in 2003, Phoenix was recently confirmed to proceed into Phase C/D of spacecraft development. This research was funded by a NASA Grant and carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  4. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2003-02-20

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  5. Ultrahigh resolution topographic mapping of Mars with MRO HiRISE stereo images: Meter-scale slopes of candidate Phoenix landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R.L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.R.; Anderson, J.A.; Archinal, B.A.; Becker, K.J.; Cook, D.A.; Galuszka, D.M.; Geissler, P.E.; Hare, T.M.; Holmberg, I.M.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Redding, B.L.; Delamere, W.A.; Gallagher, D.; Chapel, J.D.; Eliason, E.M.; King, R.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are twofold: first, to report our estimates of the meter-to-decameter-scale topography and slopes of candidate landing sites for the Phoenix mission, based on analysis of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images with a typical pixel scale of 3 m and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images at 0.3 m pixel-1 and, second, to document in detail the geometric calibration, software, and procedures on which the photogrammetric analysis of HiRISE data is based. A combination of optical design modeling, laboratory observations, star images, and Mars images form the basis for software in the U.S. Geological Survey Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) 3 system that corrects the images for a variety of distortions with single-pixel or subpixel accuracy. Corrected images are analyzed in the commercial photogrammetric software SOCET SET (??BAE Systems), yielding digital topographic models (DTMs) with a grid spacing of 1 m (3-4 pixels) that require minimal interactive editing. Photoclinometry yields DTMs with single-pixel grid spacing. Slopes from MOC and HiRISE are comparable throughout the latitude zone of interest and compare favorably with those where past missions have landed successfully; only the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) B site in Meridiani Planum is smoother. MOC results at multiple locations have root-mean-square (RMS) bidirectional slopes of 0.8-4.5?? at baselines of 3-10 m. HiRISE stereopairs (one per final candidate site and one in the former site) yield 1.8-2.8?? slopes at 1-m baseline. Slopes at 1 m from photoclinometry are also in the range 2-3?? after correction for image blur. Slopes exceeding the 16?? Phoenix safety limit are extremely rare. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. McGregor Administrative Site [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts lands owned and/or administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife And Fish Refuge-mcgregor District.

  7. Real-Time In Situ Landing Site Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D.; Hibbard, K.; McGee, T.

    2017-02-01

    Landing spacecraft on other objects in the solar system provides a unique opportunity to make direct in situ science measurements, but extraterrestrial environments create unique challenges for the design and testing of the system.

  8. Ecological sites: Organizational tool for outcome-based land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing for sustained ecosystem services from rangelands involves complex interactions among soils, plant communities, topography and the prevailing environmental conditions across different land forms from local patches to entire landscapes. This complexity has contributed to prior difficulties in...

  9. Seasonal and interannual variability of solar radiation at Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity landing sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Lemmon, M.T.; Martinez, G.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.; Martin, M.L.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we characterize the radiative environment at the landing sites of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions. We use opacity values obtained at the surface from direct imaging of the Sun and our radiative transfer model COMIMART to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of the daily irradiation at the MER and MSL landing sites. In addition, we analyze the behavior of the direct and diffuse components of the solar radiation at these landing sites. (Author)

  10. Land use planning and chemical sites. Summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Carsten D.

    2000-01-01

    heritage, societal and company aspects, with focus laid on the safety related items. An approach based on efficient frontier curves has been used forcomparison of alternatives having land-use pattern as variable. Central to the application of the proposed methodology is a GIS based software platform...... enabling the users to generate alternatives, select the preferred ones and peruse efficient solutionsboth in terms of the implied land use patterns and the corresponding consequences. Study material has been gathered from planning cases in Sweden, Denmark and Greece. The work described in this report has...

  11. Huygens landing site to be named after Hubert Curien

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The naming ceremony for the Huygens landing site, which will be known as the "Hubert Curien Memorial Station", will be held at ESA’s Headquarters on 14 March, in the presence of ESA Council delegates and of Professor Curien’s wife, Mrs Perrine Curien, and one of their sons. Media interested in attending are invited to submit the reply form below. Huygens' landing on Saturn’s largest moon in January 2005 represented one of the greatest successes achieved by humankind in the history of space exploration. The part played by ESA, in cooperation with NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI), was made possible thanks to the commitment of a man who, for several decades, worked to promote and strengthen the role of scientific research in his home country - France - and in Europe. Among his numerous responsibilities, Hubert Curien was French Minister of Research and Space under four Prime Ministers. As Chairman of the ESA Council from 1981 to 1984, Professor Curien played a crucial part in setting up ESA's former long-term science programme, "Horizon 2000", which included the Huygens mission among its projects. Professor Roger Bonnet, current President of COSPAR, and former ESA Director of Science (1983-2001), commented: "Curien’s diplomatic skills were hugely influential in bringing about the birth of European space science. In 1985, his support was pivotal when the European ministers had to decide how to build a solid space science programme and ensure that it would be financially sustainable in the long term." "ESA's present science programme, Cosmic Vision, draws on the heritage left by Hubert Curien", said Professor David Southwood, ESA's current Director of Science. "He encouraged cooperation between nations in the belief that space research is fundamental to the progress and welfare of a knowledge-based society like ours. He also promoted the concept of long-term planning", he continued. "It would seem almost inconceivable today to initiate any space venture

  12. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  13. Public Lands and Other Managed/Preserved Areas (ECO_RES.SIGECO_SITES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The SIGECO_SITES map layer consists of boundary polygons of public lands and other managed or preserved areas in EPA Region 7 states (i.e., federal, state and other...

  14. UAV Photogrammetry Implementation to Enhance Land Surveying, Comparisons and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Meouche, R.; Hijazi, I.; Poncet, P. A.; Abunemeh, M.; Rezoug, M.

    2016-10-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for surveying is now widespread and operational for several applications - quarry monitoring, archeological site surveys, forest management and 3D modeling for buildings, for instance. UAV is increasingly used by land surveyors especially for those kinds of projects. It is still ambiguous whether UAV can be applicable for smaller sites and property division. Therefore, the objective of this research is to extract a vectorized plan utilizing a UAV for a small site and investigate the possibility of an official land surveyor exploiting and certificating it. To do that, two plans were created, one using a UAV and another utilizing classical land surveyor instruments (Total Station). A comparison was conducted between the two plans to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV technique compared to the classical one. Moreover, other parameters were also considered such as execution time and the surface covered. The main problems associated with using a UAV are the level of precision and the visualization of the whole area. The results indicated that the precision is quite satisfactory with a maximum error of 1.0 cm on ground control points, and 4 cm for the rest of the model. On the other hand, the results showed that it is not possible to represent the whole area of interest utilizing a UAV, due to vegetation.

  15. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY IMPLEMENTATION TO ENHANCE LAND SURVEYING, COMPARISONS AND POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. El Meouche

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs for surveying is now widespread and operational for several applications – quarry monitoring, archeological site surveys, forest management and 3D modeling for buildings, for instance. UAV is increasingly used by land surveyors especially for those kinds of projects. It is still ambiguous whether UAV can be applicable for smaller sites and property division. Therefore, the objective of this research is to extract a vectorized plan utilizing a UAV for a small site and investigate the possibility of an official land surveyor exploiting and certificating it. To do that, two plans were created, one using a UAV and another utilizing classical land surveyor instruments (Total Station. A comparison was conducted between the two plans to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV technique compared to the classical one. Moreover, other parameters were also considered such as execution time and the surface covered. The main problems associated with using a UAV are the level of precision and the visualization of the whole area. The results indicated that the precision is quite satisfactory with a maximum error of 1.0 cm on ground control points, and 4 cm for the rest of the model. On the other hand, the results showed that it is not possible to represent the whole area of interest utilizing a UAV, due to vegetation.

  16. Ecological sites: A useful tool for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia N. Struckhoff; Douglas Wallace; Fred. Young

    2017-01-01

    Developing ecological sites in Missouri is a multiagency, multidiscipline effort led by the Missouri Department of Conservation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service. The methodology developed in Missouri has recently served as a model for ecological site development across the country and has aided in an initiative to...

  17. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Lewis, Michael George

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  18. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2002-02-15

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  19. Further Analysis on the Mystery of the Surveyor III Dust Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul; Trigwell, Steven; Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo 12 lunar module (LM) landing near the Surveyor III spacecraft at the end of 1969 has remained the primary experimental verification of the predicted physics of plume ejecta effects from a rocket engine interacting with the surface of the moon. This was made possible by the return of the Surveyor III camera housing by the Apollo 12 astronauts, allowing detailed analysis of the composition of dust deposited by the LM plume. It was soon realized after the initial analysis of the camera housing that the LM plume tended to remove more dust than it had deposited. In the present study, coupons from the camera housing have been reexamined. In addition, plume effects recorded in landing videos from each Apollo mission have been studied for possible clues.

  20. NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX 2002/03): Local scale observation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Hardy; Robert Davis; Yeohoon Koh; Don Cline; Kelly Elder; Richard Armstrong; Hans-Peter Marshall; Thomas Painter; Gilles Castres Saint-Martin; Roger DeRoo; Kamal Sarabandi; Tobias Graf; Toshio Koike; Kyle McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The local scale observation site (LSOS) is the smallest study site (0.8 ha) of the 2002/03 Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser mesocell study area. It was the most intensively measured site of the CLPX, and measurements here had the greatest temporal component of all CLPX sites. Measurements made at the LSOS were designed to produce a...

  1. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  2. Methodology for finding and evaluating safe landing sites on small bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Douglas J.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Murchie, Scott L.; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2016-12-01

    Here we develop and demonstrate a three-step strategy for finding a safe landing ellipse for a legged spacecraft on a small body such as an asteroid or planetary satellite. The first step, acquisition of a high-resolution terrain model of a candidate landing region, is simulated using existing statistics on block abundances measured at Phobos, Eros, and Itokawa. The synthetic terrain model is generated by randomly placing hemispheric shaped blocks with the empirically determined size-frequency distribution. The resulting terrain is much rockier than typical lunar or martian landing sites. The second step, locating a landing ellipse with minimal hazards, is demonstrated for an assumed approach to landing that uses Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology. The final step, determination of the probability distribution for orientation of the landed spacecraft, is demonstrated for cases of differing regional slope. The strategy described here is both a prototype for finding a landing site during a flight mission and provides tools for evaluating the design of small-body landers. We show that for bodies with Eros-like block distributions, there may be >99% probability of landing stably at a low tilt without blocks impinging on spacecraft structures so as to pose a survival hazard.

  3. Meter-Scale Slopes of Candidate InSight Landing Sites from Point Photoclinometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Ross A.

    2016-09-01

    Photoclinometry was used to analyze the small-scale roughness of areas within the proposed Mars InSight landing ellipse. The landing ellipse presented in this study is in Elysium Planitia. This study was able to constrain surface slopes on length scales comparable to the HiRISE image resolution (0.25 meters/pixel and coarser). The InSight mission has various engineering constraints that each candidate landing ellipse must satisfy. These constraints indicate that the statistical value of the slopes at one, two, and five meter baselines are an important criterion. This technique estimates surface slopes across large swaths of each image, and builds up slope statistics for the images in the landing ellipse. The slopes I derived for the InSight landing site ellipse in this study are within the small-scale roughness constraints put forth by the InSight project. These results have provided input into the landing hazard assessment process.

  4. Cellphones in Classrooms Land Teachers on Online Video Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    Videos of teachers that students taped in secrecy are all over online sites like YouTube and MySpace. Angry teachers, enthusiastic teachers, teachers clowning around, singing, and even dancing are captured, usually with camera phones, for the whole world to see. Some students go so far as to create elaborately edited videos, shot over several…

  5. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Batson, R.M.; Bean, A.L.; Conrad, C.; Dahlem, D.H.; Goddard, E.N.; Hait, M.H.; Larson, K.B.; Schaber, G.G.; Schleicher, D.L.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Waters, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

  6. A preliminary investigating the geomorphological characteristics of surrounding Chang'E-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Mu, L.; Zuo, W.; Li, H.; Feng, J.

    2015-12-01

    On 2013 December 14, at 13:11:13(UTC), China's first lunar probe to make a soft landing, Chang'E-3(CE-3), touched down on the east edge of Mare Imbrium beside a crater with a diameter of 430m in the east part of Sinus Iridum. To better understand the environment of this region, We utilizes the available lunar topography, image and geology data with high resolution(in meters), as well as image data captured by the landing camera and topography camera on CE-3(in centimeters) to analyze the topography, landforms, geology and lunar dust from perspectives ranging from large spatial areas(hundreds of kilometers like Sinus Iridum and North Mare Imbrium, 45×75 km) to a smaller scale of kilometers near the landing site(4×4 km) and finally to the immediate area around the landing site in meters. We can find that:1)The probe landed on a flat lunar mare with an elevation of -2615m. The landing site is high titanium basalt stratum, and its geological age is young Eratoshenian. 10km to the north of the landing site is the older Mare Imbrium stratum, and the location of the landing site is in the area that is the intersection of these two strata; 2)The landing site lies on the edge of a plateau in a flat plain with a declining trend from west to east, and the topographic slope and waviness of the area are low, which is typical for terrain in lunar mare; 3)The adjacent area of the landing point is flat terrain, with landforms such as craters, domes, strata and rocks with different albedos, which are good targets for scientific exploration; 4)By comparing images captured before and after landing, we find that during the landing process of CE-3, lots of lunar dust was blown away by the engine plume, and the scope of influence is about 60m from east to west and 135m from south to north. Thus, this leads to a redistribution of lunar dust and changes in space weathering on the lunar surface.

  7. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement.

  8. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Magliocca

    Full Text Available Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model

  9. MLAM Simulation of Martian Atmosphere around Curiosity Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlaskin, Evgeny; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauhanen, Janne; Määttänen, Anni; Paton, Mark; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero

    2013-04-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory 'Curiosity' landed successfully in the Martian Gale crater close to the equator on 6 Aug 2012. As part of the environment monitoring instrument package REMS [1] the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) provided the pressure and humidity sensors. A similar pressure sensor was successfully flown earlier on the Phoenix lander mission in 2008 and on the Cassini / Huygens probe to Titan in 2005. The behaviour of the Martian atmosphere inside the Gale crater is dominated by its location close to the equator, the steep outer rims and the slopes of the central mountain. These complex topographical features make it ideally suited for a mesoscale atmospheric model like the Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM), developed jointly by the University of Helsinki (UH) and FMI to study mesoscale phenomena in the Martian Atmosphere [2]. MLAM is based on the hydro-static dynamical core of the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), an operational weather prediction model-analysis system used by several European countries. Using the simulation tools already published observational data from the first three months of Curiosity's operations and detailed topographical feature information we will show the observations in the context of the atmospheric conditions in the wider Gale crater region. In preparation of the simulation also the UH 1-dimensional model [3] is being used to study the boundary layer behaviour in that area. The expected long operation time of the rover will additionally provide insight in the seasonal change of atmospheric conditions at the equator. Some aspects might already become visible by the time of the conference. Newest Curiosity/REMS data will be shown in session PS2.5 "Curiosity on Mars: First results". Reference: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Kauhanen, J., Siili T., Järvenoja, S. and Savijärvi, H. (2008) , The Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) and simulations of atmospheric circulations

  10. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Marriage, T.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes designed to search for the signature of inflation in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). By combining the strategy of targeting large scales (>2 deg) with novel front-end polarization modulation and novel detectors at multiple frequencies, CLASS will pioneer a new frontier in ground-based CMB polarization surveys. In this talk, I give an overview of the CLASS instrument, survey, and outlook on setting important new limits on the energy scale of inflation.

  11. Selection and Assessment of Predictions of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Moore, H. J.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Cook, R. A.; Parker, T. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    The successful landing of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft on Mars allows the review of the process of selecting the landing site and assessing predictions made for the site based on Viking and Earth-based data. Selection of the landing site for Mars Pathfinder was a two-phase process. The first phase took place from October 1993 to June 1994 and involved: initial identification of engineering constraints, definition of environmental conditions at the site for spacecraft design, and evaluation of the scientific potential of different landing sites. This phase culminated with the first "Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop", held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas on April 18-19, 1994, in which suggested approaches and landing sites were solicited from the entire scientific community. A preliminary site was selected by the project for design purposes in June 1994. The second phase took place from July 1994 to March 1996 and involved: developing criteria for evaluating site safety using images and remote sensing data, testing of the spacecraft and landing subsystems (with design improvements) to establish quantitative engineering constraints on landing site characteristics, evaluating all potential landing sites on Mars, and certification of the site by the project. This phase included a second open workshop, "Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington" held in Spokane and Moses Lake September 24-30, 1995 and formal acceptance of the site by NASA Headquarters. Engineering constraints on Pathfinder landing sites were developed from the initial design of the spacecraft and the entry, descent and landing scenario. The site must be within 5 degrees of the subsolar latitude at the time of landing (15N for maximum solar power and flexible communications with Earth. It also must be below 0 km elevation to enable enough time for the parachute to bring the lander

  12. Wind Power Siting: Public Acceptance and Land Use; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-06-17

    Suzanne Tegen presented this information as part of the June 17, 2015 WINDExchange webinar: Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges III: Public Acceptance and Land Use. This presentation provides an overview of current NREL research related to wind energy deployment considerations, the DOE Wind Vision as it relates to public acceptance and land use, why public acceptance of wind power matters, where the U.S. wind resource is best, and how those rich resource areas overlay with population centers.

  13. Light and dark soils at the Apollo 16 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Walton, J. R.; Jordan, J. L.; Lakatos, S.; Yaniv, A.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar soils are discussed within the framework of a three-group classification scheme. Group I comprises North Ray Crater soils, group II contains light soils, and group III is made up of dark soils. It is suggested that group I soils originated from the light friable unit, one of the three units inside North Ray Crater. Group II soils were probably derived from the light matrix breccia unit; group II soils are mixtures of materials from all three units. It is concluded that soils with group III properties have been at the surface continuously for long periods. Group II soils show a record of solar wind exposure in the distant past (i.e., they have large (Ar-40/Ar-36)T ratios). Thus the regolith at the Apollo 16 site, which was observed to have marked layers of dark against light soils, contains sizeable 'pockets' or horizons at depth which are the sources of the group II soils.

  14. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  15. Assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of Tso Moriri Lake, a Ramsar site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Shukla, Dericks Praise

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands accounts for 6% area of the Earth's land cover and nearly 17% of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. They are of utmost importance to climate dynamics and are critical links between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Despite the need of high attention towards conserving and managing wetland resources, mapping them is a least practiced activity. This study shows the temporal change in land use and land cover pattern of Tso Moriri Lake, the highest altitude lake in India and designated as Ramsar site in year 2002, using multi-sensor and multi-date imagery. Due to change in hydro-meteorological conditions of the region, this lake area has been reduced. Since the lake recharge is dependent on snowmelt, hence change in climatic conditions (less snowfall in winters), to a certain extent, is also responsible for the decrease in water level and water spread of the lake. The result shows that the lake area has reduced approximately 2 km(2) in the last 15 years, and also, agriculture, grasslands, and vegetation cover have increased to a significant extent. Agricultural land and grasslands have doubled while the vegetation cover has increased more than six times, showing the coupled effect of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Trend of temperature and precipitation corroborates the effects of climate change in this region.

  16. Noctis Landing: A Proposed Landing Site/Exploration Zone for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pascal; Acedillo, Shannen; Braham, Stephen; Brown, Adrian; Elphic, Richard; Fong, Terry; Glass, Brian; Hoftun, Christopher; Johansen, Brage W.; Lorber, Kira; Mittlefehldt, David; Takagi, Yuta; Thomas, Peter; West, Michael; West, Stephen; Zolensky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The proposed Noctis Landing Site/Exploration Zone (LS/EZ) is shown in Figure 1. Our preliminary study suggests that the proposed site meets all key Science and Resources (incl. Civil Engineering) requirements. The site is of significant interest, as the EZ not only offers a large number and wide range of regions of interest (ROIs) for short-term exploration, it is also located strategically at the crossroads between Tharsis and Valles Marineris, which are key for long-term exploration. The proposed site contains Regions of Interest (ROIs) that meet the following Science requirements: -­- Access to (1) deposits with a high preservation potential for evidence of past habitability and fossil biosignatures and (2) sites that are promising for present habitability. The site presents a wide variety of ROIs qith likely aqueous features and deposits, including sinous channels and valleys, slope gullies, lobate debris aprons, impact craters with lobate ejecta flows, and "bathtub ring" deposits. Neutron spectrometry also suggests hydrogen is present within the topmost 0.3 m or so of 4 to 10 wt% WEH (Water Equivalent Hydrogen). -­- Noachian and/or Hesperian rocks in a stratigraphic context that have a high likelihood of containing trapped atmospheric gases. Collapsed canyon rim material with preserved stratigraphy is abundantly present and accessible. -­- Exposures of at least two crustal units that have regional or global extents, that are suitable for radiometric dating, and that have relative ages that sample a significant range of martian geological time. Canyons floors in Ius Chasma, Tithonium Chasma, and plateau tops on Tharsis and in Sinai Planum offer access to distinct crustal units of regional extent. -­- Access to outcrops with linked morphological and/or geochemical signatures indicative of aqueous or groundwater/ mineral interactions. Iron and sulfur-bearing deposits on canyon floors in Noctis Labyrinthus, and in Ius Chasma (IC) and Tithonium Chasma (TC

  17. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  18. Final Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-10-01

    This Final ''Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement'' (HCP EIS) is being used by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its nine cooperating and consulting agencies to develop a comprehensive land-use plan (CLUP) for the Hanford Site. The DOE will use the Final HCP EIS as a basis for a Record of Decision (ROD) on a CLUP for the Hanford Site. While development of the CLUP will be complete with release of the HCP EIS ROD, full implementation of the CLUP is expected to take at least 50 years. Implementation of the CLUP would begin a more detailed planning process for land-use and facility-use decisions at the Hanford Site. The DOE would use the CLUP to screen proposals. Eventually, management of Hanford Site areas would move toward the CLUP land-use goals. This CLUP process could take more than 50 years to fully achieve the land-use goals.

  19. Land Reclamation Laboratory: Jim Bridger mine site description of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B. B.

    1977-02-01

    Four subprojects have been developed for the Jim Bridger Mine near Rock Springs, Wyoming. This research addresses the problems associated with vegetative response to stressed environments, water availability in reclaimed spoils, refaunation dynamics, and snowpack management for reclamation. A fifth project, soil microbiota recovery dynamics, will also be done at the mine site. Research on vegetative adaptations to stressed ecosystems concentrates on productivity, population dynamics and energy allocation strategies as indicators of plant response to stress. Water availability studies address erosion and spoil moisture characteristics of the native ecosystem and selected reclamation treatments. Design snowfence systems studies will develop methodologies to maximize the amount of the precipitation which is available to vegetation. Animal species composition and density on revegetated areas are also being examined. Wildlife studies are also investigating the impacts of small mammals on revegetation. The microbiological component of topsoil is being investigated in stored and native topsoil. These experiments are designed to provide insight into the reclamation of communities, not just revegetation of mine spoils.

  20. Investigating illegal fishing practices on Lake George: a case study of Kayinja landing site, Kamwenge District

    OpenAIRE

    Natugonza, V.

    2010-01-01

    The study was done at Kayinja landing site, one of the six gazzeted landing sites located on the eastern side of Lake George, Kamwenge district to investigate illegal fishing practices on the lake. The objectives of the study were to identify the fish species most affected by illegal fishing, factors that drive illegal fishing on the lake, impact of illegal fishing to the fishery and livelihoods of the communities around the lake and to find out the prospect of ending illegal fishing on th...

  1. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Sagarmatha National Park, a World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Garrard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC changes that occurred during 1992–2011 in Sagarmatha National Park, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal, were evaluated using multitemporal satellite imagery in combination with land use data and sociological information gathered from semistructured interviews and workshops. We asked study participants about LULC changes, the causes of each change, and the likely duration of its effects, and used this information to produce high-resolution maps of local perceptions of LULC change. Satellite image analysis revealed that above 6000 m there has been a decrease in the area covered by snow and ice and a consequent expansion of glacial lakes and areas covered by rock and soil. Between 3000 and 6000 m, forest and farmland are decreasing, and areas under grazing, settlement, and shrubland are increasing. Such LULC changes within the protected area clearly indicate the prevailing danger of land degradation. Results from the interviews and workshops suggest that people tended to detect LULC change that was acute and direct, but were less aware of slower changes that could be identified by satellite imagery analysis. Most study participants said that land use changes were a result of rapid economic development and the consequent pressure on natural resources, especially in the tourism industry and especially below 6000 m elevation, as well as limitations to protected area management and a period of civil war. Human influence coupled with climate change may explain the changes at higher elevations, whereas anthropogenic activities are solely responsible in lower areas. Although global factors cannot be mitigated locally, many of the local drivers of LULC change could be addressed with improved management practices that aid local conservation and development in this high mountain ecosystem. A broader interdisciplinary approach to LULC change

  3. WRF model evaluation for the urban heat island assessment under varying land use/land cover and reference site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Shweta; Mohan, Manju

    2016-10-01

    Urban heat island effect in Delhi has been assessed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF v3.5) coupled with urban canopy model (UCM) focusing on air temperature and surface skin temperature. The estimated heat island intensities for different land use/land cover (LULC) have been compared with those derived from in situ and satellite observations. The model performs reasonably well for urban heat island intensity (UHI) estimation and is able to reproduce trend of UHI for urban areas. There is a significant improvement in model performance with inclusion of UCM which results in reduction in root mean-squared errors (RMSE) for temperatures from 1.63 °C (2.89 °C) to 1.13 °C (2.75 °C) for urban (non-urban) areas. Modification of LULC also improves performance for non-urban areas. High UHI zones and top 3 hotspots are captured well by the model. The relevance of selecting a reference point at the periphery of the city away from populated and built-up areas for UHI estimation is examined in the context of rapidly growing cities where rural areas are transforming fast into built-up areas, and reference site may not be appropriate for future years. UHI estimated by WRF model (with and without UCM) with respect to reference rural site compares well with the UHI based on observed in situ data. An alternative methodology is explored using a green area with minimum temperature within the city as a reference site. This alternative methodology works well with observed UHIs and WRF-UCM-simulated UHIs but has poor performance for WRF-simulated UHIs. It is concluded that WRF model can be applied for UHI estimation with classical methodology based on rural reference site. In general, many times WRF model performs satisfactorily, though WRF-UCM always shows a better performance. Hence, inclusion of appropriate representation of urban canopies and land use-land cover is important for improving predictive capabilities of the mesoscale models.

  4. Selection and Assessment of Predictions of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Moore, H. J.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Cook, R. A.; Parker, T. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    The successful landing of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft on Mars allows the review of the process of selecting the landing site and assessing predictions made for the site based on Viking and Earth-based data. Selection of the landing site for Mars Pathfinder was a two-phase process. The first phase took place from October 1993 to June 1994 and involved: initial identification of engineering constraints, definition of environmental conditions at the site for spacecraft design, and evaluation of the scientific potential of different landing sites. This phase culminated with the first "Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop", held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas on April 18-19, 1994, in which suggested approaches and landing sites were solicited from the entire scientific community. A preliminary site was selected by the project for design purposes in June 1994. The second phase took place from July 1994 to March 1996 and involved: developing criteria for evaluating site safety using images and remote sensing data, testing of the spacecraft and landing subsystems (with design improvements) to establish quantitative engineering constraints on landing site characteristics, evaluating all potential landing sites on Mars, and certification of the site by the project. This phase included a second open workshop, "Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington" held in Spokane and Moses Lake September 24-30, 1995 and formal acceptance of the site by NASA Headquarters. Engineering constraints on Pathfinder landing sites were developed from the initial design of the spacecraft and the entry, descent and landing scenario. The site must be within 5 degrees of the subsolar latitude at the time of landing (15N for maximum solar power and flexible communications with Earth. It also must be below 0 km elevation to enable enough time for the parachute to bring the lander

  5. Analysis of Local Slopes at the InSight Landing Site on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R. L.; Kirk, R. L.; Cushing, G.; Galuszka, D. M.; Golombek, M. P.; Hare, T. M.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Kipp, D. M.; Redding, B. L.

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the topography of the surface within the InSight candidate landing ellipses, we generated Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) at lander scales and those appropriate for entry, descent, and landing simulations, along with orthoimages of both images in each stereopair, and adirectional slope images. These products were used to assess the distribution of slopes for each candidate ellipse and terrain type in the landing site region, paying particular attention to how these slopes impact InSight landing and engineering safety, and results are reported here. Overall, this region has extremely low slopes at 1-meter baseline scales and meets the safety constraints of the InSight lander. The majority of the landing ellipse has a mean slope at 1-meter baselines of 3.2°. In addition, a mosaic of HRSC, CTX, and HiRISE DTMs within the final landing ellipse (ellipse 9) was generated to support entry, descent, and landing simulations and evaluations. Several methods were tested to generate this mosaic and the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline program dem_mosaic produced the best results. For the HRSC-CTX-HiRISE DTM mosaic, more than 99 % of the mosaic has slopes less than 15°, and the introduction of artificially high slopes along image seams was minimized.

  6. Analysis of local slopes at the InSight landing site on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, Robin L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Cushing, Glen; Galuszka, Donna M.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Hare, Trent M.; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha; Kipp, Devin M; Redding, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the topography of the surface within the InSight candidate landing ellipses, we generated Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) at lander scales and those appropriate for entry, descent, and landing simulations, along with orthoimages of both images in each stereopair, and adirectional slope images. These products were used to assess the distribution of slopes for each candidate ellipse and terrain type in the landing site region, paying particular attention to how these slopes impact InSight landing and engineering safety, and results are reported here. Overall, this region has extremely low slopes at 1-meter baseline scales and meets the safety constraints of the InSight lander. The majority of the landing ellipse has a mean slope at 1-meter baselines of 3.2°. In addition, a mosaic of HRSC, CTX, and HiRISE DTMs within the final landing ellipse (ellipse 9) was generated to support entry, descent, and landing simulations and evaluations. Several methods were tested to generate this mosaic and the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline program dem_mosaic produced the best results. For the HRSC-CTX-HiRISE DTM mosaic, more than 99 % of the mosaic has slopes less than 15°, and the introduction of artificially high slopes along image seams was minimized.

  7. McLaughlin Crater as a Candidate Landing Site for Humans on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, P. B.; Sutter, B.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    McLaughlin Crater is an ancient (Noachian) Martian impact crater located at 337.6 East, 21.9 North, just south of the dichotomy boundary. This site should be considered for future landed exploration because: a) it is located at the boundary of three types of scientifically important terrain that will yield key results about the geological evolution and habitability of Mars; b) it contains surfaces where radiometric dating can be related to age dates estimated from crater counting, c) it contains volatile-rich rocks that will not only yield interesting results regarding ancient atmospheric chemistry, but will also be high quality, accessible targets for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and d) the site within the crater provides a flat, low-risk and low-elevation landing zone, which will facilitate landing large payloads on Mars.

  8. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  9. Using linear integer programming for multi-site land-use allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Eisinger, E.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Stewart, Th.J.

    2003-01-01

    Research in the area of spatial decision support (SDS) and resource allocation has recently generated increased attention for integrating optimization techniques with GIS. In this paper we address the use of spatial optimization techniques for solving multi-site land-use allocation (MLUA) problems,

  10. Artist's concept of eastward view of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating an eastward view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site. The white overlay indicates the scheduled tranverses by the Apollo 16 astronauts in the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals are the extravehicular activities (EVA's); and the Arabic numbers are the station stops along the traverse.

  11. Vertical view Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed by Apollo 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An almost vertical view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed from the Apollo 14 spacecraft. Overlays are provided to point out extravehicular activity (EVA), Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) travers routes and the nicknames of features. The Roman numerals indicate the EVA numbers and the Arabic numbers point out stations or traverse stops.

  12. Human Detection and Classification of Landing Sites for Search and Rescue Drones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Martins, Felipe; de Groot, Marc; Stokkel, Xeryus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Search and rescue is often time and labour intensive. We present a system to be used in drones to make search and rescue operations more effective. The system uses a drone downward facing camera to detect people and to evaluate potential sites as being safe or not for the drone to land. Histogram of

  13. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  14. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Tobias; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most compelling inflation models predict a background of primordial gravitational waves (PGW) detectable by their imprint of a curl-like "B-mode" pattern in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a novel array of telescopes to measure the B-mode signature of the PGW. By targeting the largest angular scales (>2°) with a multifrequency array, novel polarization modulation and detectors optimized for both control of systematics and sensitivity, CLASS sets itself apart in the field of CMB polarization surveys and opens an exciting new discovery space for the PGW and inflation. This poster presents an overview of the CLASS project.

  15. Beyond Chandra - the X-ray Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 16 years, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided an unparalleled means for exploring the universe with its half-arcsecond angular resolution. Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, planets, and solar system objects addressing almost all areas of current interest in astronomy and astrophysics. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address even more demanding science questions, such as the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, together with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has initiated a concept study for such a mission named the X-ray Surveyor. This study starts with a baseline payloa...

  16. The surveyors' quest for perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry of a CMS endcap and part of the hadronic calorimeter.The structure was covered with targets photographed by digital cameras. Perfect alignment.... Although CERN's surveyors do not claim to achieve it, they are constantly striving for it and deploy all necessary means to come as close as they can. In their highly specialised field of large-scale metrology, the solution lies in geodesy and photogrammetry, both of which are based on increasingly sophisticated instruments and systems. In civil engineering, these techniques are used for non-destructive inspection of bridges, dams and other structures, while industrial applications include dimensional verification and deformation measurement in large mechanical assemblies. The same techniques also come into play for the metrology of research tools such as large telescopes and of course, particle accelerators. Particle physics laboratories are especially demanding customers, and CERN has often asked for the impossible. As a result, the alignment metro...

  17. CERN’s surveyors send sparks flying

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    A few weeks ago, we published an article on the three-dimensional laser scanner technique used at CERN to produce 3D images of the LHC tunnels and experiments (see the article here). Photogrammetry is another technique in the CERN surveyors’ arsenal.   The ATLAS wheel during a photogrammetry measurement campaign. The white spots (see red arrows) dotted across the wheel are the retro-reflective "dot" targets. Used in a number of fields including topography, architecture, geology and archaeology, photogrammetry is a stereoscopy technique whereby 2D images taken from different angles can be used to reconstruct a 3D image of an object. Surveyors at CERN have been using this technique for over 15 years as a way of gaining precise information on the shape, size, deformation and position of the LHC detectors and their composite elements. The photogrammetry used at CERN is relatively “light” in terms of the equipment required, w...

  18. SIMULATION EXPERIMENT ON LANDING SITE SELECTION USING A SIMPLE GEOMETRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe landing is an important part of the planetary exploration mission. Even fine scale terrain hazards (such as rocks, small craters, steep slopes, which would not be accurately detected from orbital reconnaissance could also pose a serious risk on planetary lander or rover and scientific instruments on-board it. In this paper, a simple geometric approach on planetary landing hazard detection and safe landing site selection is proposed. In order to achieve full implementation of this algorithm, two easy-to-compute metrics are presented for extracting the terrain slope and roughness information. Unlike conventional methods which must do the robust plane fitting and elevation interpolation for DEM generation, in this work, hazards is identified through the processing directly on LiDAR point cloud. For safe landing site selection, a Generalized Voronoi Diagram is constructed. Based on the idea of maximum empty circle, the safest landing site can be determined. In this algorithm, hazards are treated as general polygons, without special simplification (e.g. regarding hazards as discrete circles or ellipses. So using the aforementioned method to process hazards is more conforming to the real planetary exploration scenario. For validating the approach mentioned above, a simulated planetary terrain model was constructed using volcanic ash with rocks in indoor environment. A commercial laser scanner mounted on a rail was used to scan the terrain surface at different hanging positions. The results demonstrate that fairly hazard detection capability and reasonable site selection was obtained compared with conventional method, yet less computational time and less memory usage was consumed. Hence, it is a feasible candidate approach for future precision landing selection on planetary surface.

  19. Simulation Experiment on Landing Site Selection Using a Simple Geometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Tong, X.; Xie, H.; Jin, Y.; Liu, S.; Wu, D.; Liu, X.; Guo, L.; Zhou, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Safe landing is an important part of the planetary exploration mission. Even fine scale terrain hazards (such as rocks, small craters, steep slopes, which would not be accurately detected from orbital reconnaissance) could also pose a serious risk on planetary lander or rover and scientific instruments on-board it. In this paper, a simple geometric approach on planetary landing hazard detection and safe landing site selection is proposed. In order to achieve full implementation of this algorithm, two easy-to-compute metrics are presented for extracting the terrain slope and roughness information. Unlike conventional methods which must do the robust plane fitting and elevation interpolation for DEM generation, in this work, hazards is identified through the processing directly on LiDAR point cloud. For safe landing site selection, a Generalized Voronoi Diagram is constructed. Based on the idea of maximum empty circle, the safest landing site can be determined. In this algorithm, hazards are treated as general polygons, without special simplification (e.g. regarding hazards as discrete circles or ellipses). So using the aforementioned method to process hazards is more conforming to the real planetary exploration scenario. For validating the approach mentioned above, a simulated planetary terrain model was constructed using volcanic ash with rocks in indoor environment. A commercial laser scanner mounted on a rail was used to scan the terrain surface at different hanging positions. The results demonstrate that fairly hazard detection capability and reasonable site selection was obtained compared with conventional method, yet less computational time and less memory usage was consumed. Hence, it is a feasible candidate approach for future precision landing selection on planetary surface.

  20. Site Selection and Automatically Calculated Rover Traverse for a Lunar Teleoperated Landing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    With the recent interest for the Moon, and the plans from the ESA side to do a tele-operated mission from Earth or lunar orbit, it is important to target a well-defined location. One of the major topics to study on the Moon is the existence and availability of volatiles and ices. Because no lander ever visited one of the poles on the Moon the theories with respect to water ice are only based on data from orbiters. In a four month research project the data from the orbiters was used for assessing potential landing sites and a rover traverse planning. Mainly data from the Prospector and LRO were used to select regions of interest. The prior selection was based on slope, temperature and a geological map from the USGS. Three sites on both the North as South Pole were used to test a proposed method for rover traverse planning. Besides the scientific interest, the sites where assessed on its accessibility for landing and roving. This assessment was done based on some assumptions what would be possible for landing and roving. For landing sites it was proposed to pick a site larger than 1km in diameter, in a (partial) illuminated area with a slope lower than 5o, which was inside an area which would be accessible for a rover. The requirements to be selected as accessible area was a slope lower than 20o, the largest polygon which meets this requirement was chosen as accessible area. As destination a site in the PSR was selected which was inside the accessible area and had extremely low temperatures. The boundary for extremely low was defined as 54K which is the sublimation temperature of CO2 in lunar atmospheric pressure. As additional target for the rover a site was selected where the temperature difference would be more than 150K to study volatile migration processes. A combination of tools in ArcGIS were used to do the site selection and rover traverse planning. In the end Rozhdestvensky and Amundsen were selected as most accessible and interesting. After comparing both

  1. Identification and Analysis of Landing sites for the ESA ExoMars Rover (2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Matthew; Bridges, John; Fawdon, Peter; Grindrod, Peter; Gupta, Sanjeev; Michalski, Joe; Conway, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The exploration and search for life on Mars forms a cornerstone of international solar system exploration. In 2018, the European Space agency will launch the ExoMars Rover and Lander to further this exploration. The key science objectives of the ExoMars Rover are to: 1) search for signs of past and present life on Mars; 2) investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface; and 3) to characterise the surface environment. To meet these objectives ExoMars will drill into the sub-surface to look for indicators of past life using a range of complementary techniques, including assessment of morphology (potential fossil organisms), mineralogy (past environments) and a search for organic molecules and their chirality (biomarkers). The choice of landing site is vital if ExoMars' scientific objectives are to be met. The landing site must: (i) be ancient (≥3.6 Ga); (ii) show abundant morphological and mineral evidence for long-term, or frequently reoccurring, aqueous activity; (iii) include numerous sedimentary outcrops that (iv) are distributed over the landing region (the typical Rover traverse range is only a few km, but the uncertainty in the location of the landing site forms an elliptical of size ~ 100 by 15 km); and (v) have little dust coverage. In addition, in order to land and operate safely, various 'engineering constraints' apply, including: (i) latitude limited to 5º S to 25º N; (ii) maximum altitude of the landing site 2 km below Mars's datum, (iii) few steep slopes within the uncertainty ellipse. These constraints are onerous. In particular, the objective to drill into sediments, the requirement for distributed targets within the ellipse, and the ellipse size, make ExoMars site selection extremely challenging. To meet these challenges, we have begun an intensive study of the martian landscape to identify as many possible ExoMars landing sites as possible. We have converted the current engineering constraints into

  2. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  3. Korean Lunar Lander - Concept Study for Landing-Site Selection for Lunar Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Wöhler, Christian; Hyeok Ju, Gwang; Lee, Seung-Ryeol; Rodriguez, Alexis P.; Berezhnoy, Alexey A.; van Gasselt, Stephan; Grumpe, Arne; Aymaz, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea's institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP) are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander - currently in pre-phase A - is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today's accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon's surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi-) automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches - including methods and tools - for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of analyses. By considering given

  4. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  5. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  6. Protection reduces loss of natural land-cover at sites of conservation importance across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Alison E; Eshiamwata, George W; Donald, Paul F; Balmford, Andrew; Bertzky, Bastian; Brink, Andreas B; Fishpool, Lincoln D C; Mayaux, Philippe; Phalan, Ben; Simonetti, Dario; Buchanan, Graeme M

    2013-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that protected areas are key in reducing adverse land-cover change, but their efficacy remains difficult to quantify. Many previous assessments of protected area effectiveness have compared changes between sets of protected and unprotected sites that differ systematically in other potentially confounding respects (e.g. altitude, accessibility), have considered only forest loss or changes at single sites, or have analysed changes derived from land-cover data of low spatial resolution. We assessed the effectiveness of protection in reducing land-cover change in Important Bird Areas (IBAs) across Africa using a dedicated visual interpretation of higher resolution satellite imagery. We compared rates of change in natural land-cover over a c. 20-year period from around 1990 at a large number of points across 45 protected IBAs to those from 48 unprotected IBAs. A matching algorithm was used to select sample points to control for potentially confounding differences between protected and unprotected IBAs. The rate of loss of natural land-cover at sample points within protected IBAs was just 42% of that at matched points in unprotected IBAs. Conversion was especially marked in forests, but protection reduced rates of forest loss by a similar relative amount. Rates of conversion increased from the centre to the edges of both protected and unprotected IBAs, but rates of loss in 20-km buffer zones surrounding protected IBAs and unprotected IBAs were similar, with no evidence of displacement of conversion from within protected areas to their immediate surrounds (leakage).

  7. Geographical determination of an optimal network of landing sites for Hermes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goester, J. F.

    Once its mission is done, Hermès will perform a deorbit burn, then will pilot towards a specially equipped landing site. As the atmospheric re-entry corridor is limited (the maximum cross range is 1500 km) Hermès will have to be situated on or-bits going near the runway. For safety reasons, we need to get one return opportunity per revolution, so it may be necessary to consider several landing sites and to fit out them. This proposed method allows to find, with easiness and quickness, the geographic areas getting the optimal solutions in term of number of runways, solutions amongst which we will choose already existing sites, checking other meteorologic, politic and economic constraints.

  8. Siting Urban Agriculture as a Green Infrastructure Strategy for Land Use Planning in Austin, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Rogers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure refers to a type of land use design that mimics the natural water cycle by using the infiltration capacities of vegetation, soils, and other natural processes to mitigate stormwater runoff. As a multifunctional landscape, urban agriculture should be seen as a highly beneficial tool for urban planning not only because of its ability to function as a green stormwater management strategy, but also due to the multiple social and environmental benefits it provides. In 2012, the city of Austin adopted a major planning approach titled the “Imagine Austin Comprehensive Plan” (IACP outlining the city’s vision for future growth and land use up to 2039. The plan explicitly addresses the adoption of green infrastructure as a target for future land use with urban agriculture as a central component. Addressing this area of land use planning will require tools that can locate suitable areas within the city ideal for the development of green infrastructure. In this study, a process was developed to create a spatially explicit method of siting urban agriculture as a green infrastructure tool in hydrologically sensitive areas, or areas prone to runoff, in east Austin. The method uses geospatial software to spatially analyze open access datasets that include land use, a digital elevation model, and prime farmland soils. Through this method a spatial relationship can be made between areas of high surface runoff and where the priority placement of urban farms should be sited as a useful component of green infrastructure. Planners or geospatial analysts could use such information, along with other significant factors and community input, to aid decision makers in the placement of urban agriculture. This spatially explicit approach for siting potential urban farms, will support the integration of urban agriculture as part of the land use planning of Austin.

  9. Physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Field observations and biophysical models were combined to analyze sleeping-site selection by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus). Iguanas slept in different kinds of sleeping sites during different seasons. In the coolest season (garua), adult land iguanas were found in sleeping sites that were warmer than the coolest sites available. This may be because the garua season (cool, overcast, and foggy) is a time when environmental conditions mitigate against rapid warm-up in the mornings, so lizards may regulate nighttime body temperatures so that it is easier to warm up to preferred daytime body temperatures. In the warmest season, adult iguanas were found in the coolest sleeping sites available. This observation is consistent with hypotheses of voluntary hypothermia, which can be advantageous in energy conservation and in avoiding detrimental effects associated with maintenance of constant body temperatures throughout the day and night. Juvenile iguanas were found sleeping in rock crevices regardless of the ambient thermal environments. Such sites are likely to be important as refugia for this life stage, which, unlike the adult stage, is vulnerable to predation. It was concluded that selection of sleeping sites is a process that may help in avoidance of predation, optimization of body temperature at the end of the sleeping period, and reduction of metabolic costs during sleeping. The importance of some of these factors may change with the thermal milieu (e.g., season).

  10. Improvement of the Russian system of medical care at the site of space crew landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Bogomolov, Valery; Polyakov, Alexey

    The crew members are delivered to ISS and return back to the Earth on the space craft "Soyuz TMA" at present time. The technical means providing the safe landing of space crews are reliable enough. In spite of that the complex of negative factors (long lasting alternating and shock overloads, effects of landing apparatus rotation on vestibular system) affects the crew during landing and can reach the extreme values under the certain conditions. According to this fact there is a possibility of appearance of bodily damages of different weight besides the traditional functional disturbances. The group of search and rescue on the landing site includes the medical specialists appropriately equipped to stop the symptoms of medical contingency (strong vestibule-vegetative reactions, traumas of different weight, etc.) Medical evacuation complex which provides the acceptable conditions for the cosmonauts including the conditions for medical care is delivered to the landing site as well. The long term experience of search and rescue assurance at the landing site have shown that the specialists successfully cope with this task. In some cases it was required to give the medical help which allowed to improve the general condition and physical capacity of crewmembers and provide their evacuation to the places of postflight rehabilitation. At the same time the solution of some of the problems from our point of view could increase the efficacy of medical care for the landing crew. The organization of the training on emergency under the field conditions for medical specialists on the regular basis (not less that once a year) is extremely important. The equipment of medical specialists requires the regular improvement and modernization due to the fast changing medical technologies and standards. Wearable medical sets must provide the first aid performing in accordance to the modern medical requirements. It is also necessary to include in the list of equipment the textbook of

  11. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Associated Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Michael G. Lewis

    2003-02-01

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  12. The surveyors get the measure of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first to start work in the LHC tunnel, the surveyors are precisely marking out the positions of the future accelerator's magnets. A total of 7000 reference points will have to be marked out over two years.

  13. an examination of estate surveyors and valuers' perception of flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Key words: Estate Surveyors, Perception, Flood risk, Residential ... financial service sector (banking, insurance, etc.) ... 1Department of Estate Management, College of Science .... institutions (Ayida-Otobo, 2009), Lagos State.

  14. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  16. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  17. Status of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeele, W. V.; Nyhan, J. W.; Drennon, B. J.; Lopez, E. A.; Herrera, W. J.; Langhorst, G. J.

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Report of field testing of biointrusion barriers continues at a closed-out waste disposal site at Los Alamos. Final results of an experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system are reported, as well as the results of hydrologic modeling activities involving biobarrier systems.

  18. Possibility of microscopic liquid water formation at landing sites on Mars and their observational potential

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, B

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic liquid brines, especially calcium-perchlorate could emerge by deliquescence on Mars during night time hours. Using climate model computations and orbital humidity observations, the ideal periods and their annual plus daily characteristics at various past, current and future landing sites were compared. Such results provide context for future analysis and targeting the related observations by the next missions for Mars. Based on the analysis, at most (but not all) past missions' landing sites, microscopic brine could emerge during night time for different durations. Analysing the conditions at ExoMars rover's primary landing site at Oxia Planum, the best annual period was found to be between $L_s$ 115 - 225, and in $Local\\hspace{0.1cm} Time$ 2 - 5, after midnight. In an ideal case, 4 hours of continuous liquid phase can emerge there. Local conditions might cause values to differ from those estimated by the model. Thermal inertia could especially make such differences (low TI values favour fast cool...

  19. Analysis on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Fu, Xiaohui; Zeng, Xingguo; Yao, Meijuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Su, Yan; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Li, Chunlai; Zou, Yongliao

    2015-04-01

    Recent lunar orbital observations suggested that the surface reflectance calculated based on the Apollo 16 standard area and Apollo 16 sample laboratory measurement is significantly different from its true value [1-3], one reason is the composition and maturity differences between the 62231 sampling site and the Apollo 16 standard site existed, the other reason is the physical properties of the returned lunar sample, such as porosity, have been changed during the sampling operations. So more new standard targets on the Moon, besides the widely used Apollo 16 area, are needed for imaging spectrometers on lunar missions to improve their reflectance calibration accuracies. The Chang'E-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), which is just fixed at the front of the Yutu rover [4], equipped with a white spectralon panel as reflectance calibration standard, can perform in situ multispectral observations around the Chang'E-3 landing site without altering the physical and mineralogical natures of lunar soils. Therefore, it provides an opportunity to establish a new reliable standard target for in-flight reflectance calibration. The reflectance calibration target should be compositional homogeneous, the topography of which must be flat, and the reflectance should be identical with no nearby units of other different materials. As we have known, Chang'e-3 probe landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum, the landing site is relatively flat at a spatial coverage of ~660km2, and this region belongs to Eratosthenian low-Ti/high-Ti mare basalts [5-6]. According to much higher resolution topography data, elemental data and reflectance data of Chang'E-2 and Chang'E-3[7-8], we preliminary analyse the possibility on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target. Firstly, the overall terrain of the 4 km×4 km area around the landing site is flat, but there are still three bigger craters existed. Secondly, the composition on Chang'E-3

  20. Schmidt Crater: Using Data from the Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Fred

    2001-10-01

    In the Physics Department at Sinclair Community College in Dayton, the most popular general-education course is a three-quarter astronomy sequence. The course is designed to incorporate significant elements of conceptual physics, scientific methods, and quantitative reasoning, along with the content of astronomy. In cooperation with faculty from mathematics and sociology, the author developed new lab activities that engage students in making "practical" plans for the colonization of Mars. The activities are intended to be low-cost, to be suitable for either on-campus or distance-learning environments, and to be fun for both students and instructors. The Schmidt Crater region, an Ohio-sized area near the South Pole of Mars, was selected as a potential site for obtaining large quantities of water. Topographic data for the region was extracted from the 36 CD's of laser altimeter data obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor, and ArcView was used to produce detailed maps. Wide and narrow angle photos of the region from the Mars Orbiter Camera were integrated with the topographic maps. Both the maps and the photographs were therefore made accessible to students who can use free software packages, such as ArcExplorer and Scion Image With access to up-to-date data for this region, students complete a series of "authentic learning tasks" that include calculating water needs for a Martian city, identifying likely water sources, planning transportation methods, and selecting a "homestead" for their own personal use.

  1. Topographic modeling and analysis of the landing site of Chang'E-3 on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Li, Fei; Ye, Lei; Qiao, Si; Huang, Jun; Wu, Xueying; Zhang, He

    2014-11-01

    The Chinese lunar probe Chang'E-3, carrying the “Jade Rabbit” lunar rover, successfully landed in the Sinus Iridum area on the Moon on December 14, 2013. This paper presents the characterization activities that were done for the selection of the landing area, including topographic modeling and analysis based on multisource lunar remote sensing data. Seven meter-resolution Chang'E-2 imagery and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter data were integrated to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 20 m for the entire Sinus Iridum landing area. Long baseline slopes were assessed according to this DEM for all of this area. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter narrow-angle camera images and 1.5 m-resolution Chang'E-2 imagery were used to derive DEMs with higher resolution (4 m) at several local regions within the Sinus Iridum landing area. Slope analyses at lander footprint scale (˜8 m) were performed in these local regions. Craters were detected from the DEMs and the derived orthophotos, and size-frequency distributions were generated. Crater morphological statistics, including the depth/diameter ratios, rim height/diameter ratios and wall slopes, were analyzed. The results showed that the Sinus Iridum landing area is relatively flat. Most of the area has slopes of less than 15°. The steeper slopes are mainly alongside craters and ridges. The crater size-frequency distribution is close to the equilibrium distribution. The crater ages, as indicated by their morphological statistics, vary from mature to relatively fresh in different regions. These topographic modeling and analysis results were used for strategic planning to identify the landing site for the Chang'E-3 and made a useful contribution to the success of the Chang'E-3 mission.

  2. Net Biome Productivity of different land use at the sites of the Tharandt cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, T.; Prescher, A.-K.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2009-04-01

    Within the Tharandt cluster there are 5 flux monitoring sites including 3 CARBOEUROPE main sites. The CARBOEUROPE sites cover typical land use of the region (spruce [monitored since 1996], grassland [since 2003], cropland [since 2004]). For all sites estimates of the Net Biome Productivity (NBP) and its uncertainty have been derived using Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) based on the EC measurements and C exports and imports on an annual basis. The crop site is a small C sink (NEP of 30-110gCm-2a-1) only. The annual NEP values are dependent on the cultivated crop species (winter or summer crop). Including C export (harvest) and C import (manure spreading) lead to a considerable C source of 270-540gCm-2a-1. Organic fertilisation (C import) has a strong impact on NBP values expressed in a reduced annual net carbon source. Also, the largest interannual differences of NBP values are found at this site - mainly induced by the existence and the amount of a carbon import due to organic fertilisation. Management practices affect the NBP in a sensitive way at this crop site. Each crop shows a higher C export due to harvest than the annual NEP. To validate the calculated C equivalent using harvested grain biomass modelled NPP values are available. Uncertainty ranges of C export, C import and NBP as well as the grassland and spruce NBP (for comparison) are also stated. In general, land use and management strongly affect the annual NBP of non-forested ecosystems especially. So, this is the second main driver of the C budget besides the interannual variability in meteorological conditions and water availability with its influence on NEP, GPP and TER.

  3. Ganges Chasma Landing Site: Access to Sand Sheets, Wall Rock and Layered Mesa Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James W., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    The floor of Ganges Chasma offers an ideal landing site for the MSP 2001 lander. This site is exquisite both in terms of engineering constraints and science objectives. The floor of Ganges Chasma is mantled with an extensive sand sheet. Sand sheets develop in conditions which are unfavorable for dune formation. These may include a high water table, periodic flooding, surface cementation, and coarse grained sands. The most extensive sand sheets on Earth are located in the eastern Sahara. These sheets have a relief of less than 1 m over wide areas and total thickness ranges from a few cm to 10 m. The surfaces of sand sheets are composed of granule to pebbly lag deposits. Sand sheets provide an extremely safe landing site and have very low relief. The safety concerns regarding slopes, rocks, and dust would be alleviated by the sand sheet. Furthermore, this vast sand sheet would allow the Marie Curie Rover to cover great distances. Rover navigability would be very easily compared to the tedious rock avoidance maneuvers that Sojourner had to accomplish. This exercise would be an important precursor test for the more capable Athena Rover which will execute longer traverses. Moreover, the Rover has already been "field tested" on sand at the JPL Mars sandbox. Dust should not be a problem: Thermal inertia is 7.7 to 8.9 cgs units. This site satisfies all engineering constraints.

  4. A High-resolution Seismic Reflection Survey at the Hanford Nuclear Site Using a Land Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, E. R.; Speece, M. A.; Link, C. A.; Repasky, T.; Thompson, M.; Miller, S.; Cummins, G.

    2009-12-01

    From the 1940s through the mid 1990s, radioactively and chemically contaminated effluent waste was released into the ground at the Hanford Nuclear Site. Currently, Hanford is the site of a large-scale and ongoing environmental cleanup effort which includes the remediation of contaminated ground water. Identifying preferential pathways of groundwater contaminant flow is critical for the groundwater cleanup effort. During the summer of 2009, Montana Tech, in collaboration with the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, collected a high resolution shallow seismic survey on the Hanford Central Plateau near the Gable Gap area of the Hanford Nuclear site. The goal of the survey was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a land streamer/gimbaled geophone acquisition approach to image the basalt bedrock topography. The survey objective is to improve the understanding of the subsurface water flow by identifying the topography of the basement basalt and possible erosional channels created during the Missoula flood events. Data was collected for a total of eight 2D lines with a combined length of about 11 km with a coverage area of approximately 6 sq.km. The profiles were aligned in north-south and east-west intersecting lines with a total of 5 profile intersections. The survey used a 227 kg accelerated weight drop and a 96-channel land streamer. The land streamer used gimbaled geophones with 2 m spacing. Source spacing was also 2 m for a nominal fold of 48. The rapid deployment land streamer, compared to conventional spiked geophones, significantly increased production in this off-road application. Typically, between 45 and 55 stations could be shot per hour in a pull and shoot approach. Deployment of the land streamer required about 45 minutes and about 30 minutes was required to shut down the survey. The survey successfully imaged the top of the basalt and demonstrated that a land streamer can produce quality seismic data in this area. The basalt bedrock

  5. Data fusion strategies for hazard detection and safe site selection for planetary and small body landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, F.; Oliveira, J.; Hormigo, T.; Araújo, J.; Ribeiro, R.; Falcão, A.; Gomes, M.; Dubois-Matra, O.; Vijendran, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and evaluation of data fusion strategies to perform tiered fusion of several heterogeneous sensors and a priori data. The aim is to increase robustness and performance of hazard detection and avoidance systems, while enabling safe planetary and small body landings anytime, anywhere. The focus is on Mars and asteroid landing mission scenarios and three distinct data fusion algorithms are introduced and compared. The first algorithm consists of a hybrid camera-LIDAR hazard detection and avoidance system, the H2DAS, in which data fusion is performed at both sensor-level data (reconstruction of the point cloud obtained with a scanning LIDAR using the navigation motion states and correcting the image for motion compensation using IMU data), feature-level data (concatenation of multiple digital elevation maps, obtained from consecutive LIDAR images, to achieve higher accuracy and resolution maps while enabling relative positioning) as well as decision-level data (fusing hazard maps from multiple sensors onto a single image space, with a single grid orientation and spacing). The second method presented is a hybrid reasoning fusion, the HRF, in which innovative algorithms replace the decision-level functions of the previous method, by combining three different reasoning engines—a fuzzy reasoning engine, a probabilistic reasoning engine and an evidential reasoning engine—to produce safety maps. Finally, the third method presented is called Intelligent Planetary Site Selection, the IPSIS, an innovative multi-criteria, dynamic decision-level data fusion algorithm that takes into account historical information for the selection of landing sites and a piloting function with a non-exhaustive landing site search capability, i.e., capable of finding local optima by searching a reduced set of global maps. All the discussed data fusion strategies and algorithms have been integrated, verified and validated in a closed-loop simulation environment

  6. Challenges in forest reclamation of marginal lands: a balance between site conditions and seedling quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring worldwide, but at the same time efforts in forest restoration are ever increasing. While approaches to restoration often follow specific stakeholder objectives, regional climates and the degree of site degradation also play an important role in the prioritization of restoration efforts. Often the restoration of degraded lands can satisfy only few measurable objectives; however, to design and restore resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to changing conditions, there is a need for new and adaptive management approaches. Mining and other resource extraction industries are affecting more and more forested areas worldwide. A priority in the reclamation and certification of forest lands disturbed by industrial activity is their expeditious redevelopment to functioning forests. To rehabilitate these heavily disturbed areas back to forest ecosystems, planting of trees remains one of the most effective strategies for the redevelopment of a continuous tree canopy on a site. It is well understood that access to good quality seedling stock is essential to achieve establishment success and early growth of seedlings. However, most reclamation areas have challenging initial site conditions and these conditions are often not a single factor but a combination of factors that can be additive or synergistic. Therefore successful forest restoration on degraded lands needs to consider multiple objectives and approaches to minimize trade-offs in achieving these objectives. To meet these demands, new methods for the production and evaluation of seedling stock types are needed to ensure that that seedlings are fit to grow on a wide range of site conditions or are particularly designed to grow in very specific conditions. Generally, defining seedling quality is difficult as it is species specific and results have been mixed; likely influenced by site conditions, further reiterating the need to carefully evaluate sites allowing

  7. Covariance of biophysical data with digital topographic and land use maps over the FIFE site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, F. W.; Schimel, D. S.; Friedl, M. A.; Michaelsen, J. C.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Dubayah, R.; Dozier, J.

    1992-11-01

    Sampling design is critical in locating ground sampling stations for large-scale climatological field experiments. In the stratified sampling design adopted for the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), the study region was stratified into 14 different terrain units based on land use/land cover and topographic variables that were hypothesized to have a strong influence on surface biophysical properties. Digital terrain maps were produced to facilitate ground data integration and extrapolation. This paper describes the biophysical stratification of the FIFE site, implementation of the stratification using geographic information system (GIS) techniques, and validation of the stratification with respect to field measurements of biomass, soil moisture, Bowen ratio (β), and the greenness vegetation index (GVI) derived from thematic mapper satellite data. Maps of burning and topographic position were significantly associated with variation in biomass, GVI, and β. The effects of burning and topography were stronger for the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research (KPLTER) site than for the rest of the FIFE site, where cattle grazing was a major confounding effect. The stratified design did not appreciably change the estimated site-wide means for surface climate parameters but accounted for between 25 and 45% of the sample variance depending on the variable. The design was weakened by undersampling of several strata, by high within-station variance in soil and vegetation data, and by failure to account for diverse land management practices on private lands surrounding KPLTER. We recommend that future large-scale climatological studies include the development of a digital terrain data base well in advance of field campaigns and that multitemporal imagery be used to obtain preliminary estimates of spatial and temporal variance in surface biophysical properties. We also recommend that sampling for the most

  8. Transfer and Transition: Interagency Coordination for Managing Public Lands at UMTRCA Title II Sites in Wyoming – 16614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, David S. [U.S. Dpartment of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Vanek, Tim [U.S.Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Ribeiro, Tracy [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Bahrke, Cheri [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-06

    By the end of fiscal year 2025, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is anticipating adding 17 sites remediated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) to the current inventory of 90 sites that it manages. Among the new sites are ones where federal public lands occur within the proposed long-term care boundary, the boundary determined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and LM as necessary to maintain site protectiveness for the entombed uranium mill tailings and residual groundwater contamination. For these sites, public land withdrawals for land and minerals will need to be established. LM’s primary mission at UMTRCA sites is to protect the public and the environment from exposure to contamination at the sites. For the sites with public lands or federally controlled minerals that will be transferring to LM, the Office will apply to the Department of the Interior (DOI) Bureau of Land Management (BLM) for new, public land and mineral withdrawals. At most current LM UMTRCA sites that involved public lands and minerals, DOI granted DOE “full administrative jurisdiction” and permanent withdrawals. Hence, these withdrawals are, permanently, no longer subject to public land, mining, and mineral-leasing laws and regulations. LM is coordinating with DOI/BLM in Wyoming to permanently withdraw full and partial jurisdiction at future UMTRCA Title II sites in that state. This approach would allow LM to fully administer surface lands and minerals, where necessary, and DOI and LM to administer surface lands and leasable minerals where it would not jeopardize sites’ radiological safety and long-term public and environmental protection. This “shared-jurisdiction approach” will meet LM’s strategic goal of protecting human health and the environment but also allow BLM to fulfill their mission to “manage and conserve the lands under the mandate of multiple-use and sustained yield.” In addition, LM

  9. Surface properties of the Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites: characterization from orbit and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the interpretation of THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data at the Eberswalde, Gale, Holden, and Mawrth Vallis Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) candidate landing sites and determines how thermophysical variations correspond to morphology and, when apparent, mineralogical diversity. At Eberswalde, the proportion of likely unconsolidated material relative to exposed bedrock or highly indurated surfaces controls the thermal inertia of a given region. At Gale, the majority of the landing site region has a moderate thermal inertia (250 to 410 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), which is likely an indurated surface mixed with unconsolidated materials. The primary difference between higher and moderate thermal inertia surfaces may be due to the amount of mantling material present. Within the mound of stratified material in Gale, layers are distinguished in the thermal inertia data; the MSL rover could be traversing through materials that are both thermophysically and compositionally diverse. The majority of the Holden ellipse has a thermal inertia of 340 to 475 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and consists of bed forms with some consolidated material intermixed. Mawrth Vallis has a mean thermal inertia of 310 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a wide variety of materials is present contributing to the moderate thermal inertia surfaces, including a mixture of bedrock, indurated surfaces, bed forms, and unconsolidated fines. Phyllosilicates have been identified at all four candidate landing sites, and these clay-bearing units typically have a similar thermal inertia value (400 to 500 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting physical properties that are also similar.

  10. Mosaic of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site taken from TV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A 360 degree field of view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site area composed of individual scenes taken from a color transmission made by the color RCA TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. This panorama was made while the LRV was parked at the rim of Flag Crater (Station 1) during the first Apollo 16 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1) by Astronauts John W. Young and Charles M. Duke Jr. The overlay identifies the directions and the key lunar terrain features. The camera panned across the rear portion of the LRV in its 360 degree sweep.

  11. Identifying opportune landing sites in degraded visual environments with terrain and cultural databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Marc; Fisher, Robert; Little, J. Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has developed a degraded visual environment navigational aid that is flying on the Boeing AH-6 light attack helicopter. The navigational aid is a two dimensional software digital map underlay generated by the Boeing™ Geospatial Embedded Mapping Software (GEMS) and fully integrated with the operational flight program. The page format on the aircraft's multi function displays (MFD) is termed the Approach page. The existing work utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and OpenGL ES 2.0 graphics capabilities to compute the pertinent graphics underlay entirely on the graphics processor unit (GPU) within the AH-6 mission computer. The next release will incorporate cultural databases containing Digital Vertical Obstructions (DVO) to warn the crew of towers, buildings, and power lines when choosing an opportune landing site. Future IRAD will include Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) point cloud generating sensors to provide 2D and 3D synthetic vision on the final approach to the landing zone. Collision detection with respect to terrain, cultural, and point cloud datasets may be used to further augment the crew warning system. The techniques for creating the digital map underlay leverage the GPU almost entirely, making this solution viable on most embedded mission computing systems with an OpenGL ES 2.0 capable GPU. This paper focuses on the AH-6 crew interface process for determining a landing zone and flying the aircraft to it.

  12. Landing site characterization activities for the European Space Agency's Lunar Lander mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, D.; Bussey, B.; Cahill, J. T.; Lutz, T.; Crawford, I.; Hackwill, T.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.; Witte, L.; McGovern, A.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2012-09-01

    The landing sites currently envisaged for the Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency have been identified in the South Pole Region (-85° to - 90° latitude) based on favourable illumination conditions, which make it possible to have a longduration mission with conventional power and thermal control subsystems instead of Radioisotope Heating Units. The illumination conditions are simulated based on topographic data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), using three independent tools. Risk assessment of the identified sites is also being performed through independent studies, based on LOLA and analysis of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images. The preliminary results show that areas with illumination periods of several months (interrupted only by darkness periods of few tens of hours) exist, and that the distributions of hazards in these areas are compatible with the capabilities of the on-board Hazard Detection and Avoidance system.

  13. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J. W.; Abeele, W. V.; Drennon, B. J.; Herrera, W. J.; Lopez, E. A.; Langhorst, G. J.; Stallings, E. A.; Walker, R. D.; Martinez, J. L.

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented.

  14. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Drennon, B.J.; Herrera, W.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Langhorst, G.J.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.; Martinez, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented.

  15. Multi-site evaluation of the JULES land surface model using global and local data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Slevin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the ability of the JULES land surface model (LSM to simulate photosynthesis using local and global data sets at 12 FLUXNET sites. Model parameters include site-specific (local values for each flux tower site and the default parameters used in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM climate model. Firstly, gross primary productivity (GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from local site measurements were compared to observations from the FLUXNET network. When using local data, the model is biased with total annual GPP underestimated by 16% across all sites compared to observations. Secondly, GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from global parameter and atmospheric reanalysis (on scales of 100 km or so were compared to FLUXNET observations. It was found that model performance decreases further, with total annual GPP underestimated by 30% across all sites compared to observations. When JULES was driven using local parameters and global meteorological data, it was shown that global data could be used in place of FLUXNET data with a 7% reduction in total annual simulated GPP. Thirdly, the global meteorological data sets, WFDEI and PRINCETON, were compared to local data to find that the WFDEI data set more closely matches the local meteorological measurements (FLUXNET. Finally, the JULES phenology model was tested by comparing results from simulations using the default phenology model to those forced with the remote sensing product MODIS leaf area index (LAI. Forcing the model with daily satellite LAI results in only small improvements in predicted GPP at a small number of sites, compared to using the default phenology model.

  16. Rock and Soil Physical Properties at the MER Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J.; Cabrol, N.; Gorevan, S.; Greeley, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Ming, D.; Sullivan, R.; Mer Athena Science Team

    Following the successful landings of both Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, respectively, their Athena suite of instruments is being used to study the geologic history of these two very different landing sites on Mars that had been selected on the basis of showing different types of evidence for aqueous processes in the planet's past. Utilizing the on-board instruments as well as the rovers' mobility system, a wide range of physical properties investigations is carried out as well -- the subject of this abstract - that provide additional information on the geology and processes at the sites. Results of the mission in general as well as of the physical properties studies thus far greatly exceed expectations in that observations and measurements by both vehicles show a rich variety in materials and processes: the Gusev site in the vicinity of the lander is remarkably flat and generally devoid of large rocks along traverses up to the time of this writing (˜ Sol 50) and suggestive of a deflated surface with generally only thin veneers of bright dust while exhibiting evidence of a widespread occurrence of a crust from cemented fines that has been observed to fail in the form of blocky clods when disturbed by vehicle rolling action; numerous small and shallow depressions -- presumably created by impacts - are observed at the site which are infilled with bright, fine-grained material that likewise appears indurated and which was studied by a trenching experiment; small ripple bedforms are scattered across the site and were characterized in terms of particle size distributions. At the Meridiani site, studies so far -- up to ˜ Sol 33 -- have focussed on soils and the rock outcrop encountered within the ˜ 20 m diameter crater that the spacecraft came to rest in: from a physical properties point of view, a mantle of dark, well-sorted, apparently basaltic sand with small to moderate cohesion has been of interest -- and has been

  17. High Precision Topographic Mapping at Chang'E-3 Landing Site with Multi-Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, B.; Xu, B.; Liu, Z.; Di, K.; Zhou, J.

    2014-04-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) is the first lander and rover of China following the success of Chang'e-1 and Chang'e-2 (CE-2) orbiters. High precision topographic mapping can provide detailed terrain information to ensure the safety of the rover as well as to support scientific investigations. In this research, multi-source data are co-registered into a uniform geographic framework for high precision topographic mapping at the CE-3 landing site. CE-2 CCD images with 7 m- and 1.5 m- resolutions are registered using selfcalibration bundle adjustment method with ground control points (GCPs) selected from LRO WAC mosaic map and LOLA DTM. The trajectory of CE-3 descent images are recovered using self-calibration free net bundle adjustment, and then the topographic data is rectified by absolute orientation with GCPs selected from the adjusted CE-2 DEM and DOM. Finally, these topographic data are integrated into the same geographic framework for unified, multi-scale, high precision mapping of the CE-3 landing site. Key technologies and the mapping products of this research have been used to support the surface operations of CE-3 mission.

  18. Southern Meridiani Planum - A candidate landing site for the first crewed mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Willson, D.; Smith, H.; Hobbs, S. W.; Jones, E.

    2017-04-01

    Astronauts working on the surface of Mars have the capability to explore efficiently, rapidly, and flexibly, allowing them to perform a wide range of field investigations. NASA has begun an open international process to identify and evaluate candidate locations where crews could land, live and work on the martian surface, beginning with the First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars in October 2015. Forty seven sites were proposed, including several at or near the Meridiani area, the subject of this paper. We consider the Meridiani area an excellent candidate for the first missions to Mars. It is accessible, safe, contains potential water resources in the form of poly-hydrated magnesium sulphates, has diverse science features with high likelihood of meeting all science goals, has other potential resources and potential for further longer-ranged exploration. The presence of hardware from previous missions will be of benefit to studies of materials to martian conditions, assessing the effectiveness of historic planetary protection strategies, and engaging public interest. Lastly, parts of the Meridiani region have been well studied from the surface by the Opportunity mission, providing ground truth for orbital data. As one of the best documented regions of Mars this will allow a ;Go where you know; approach for the first crewed missions, especially with regard to safety, trafficability, and water resource potential.

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  20. GIS-based Landing-Site Analysis and Passive Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Nass, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The increase of surface coverage and the availability and accessibility of planetary data allow researchers and engineers to remotely perform detailed studies on surface processes and properties, in particular on objects such as Mars and the Moon for which Terabytes of multi-temporal data at multiple spatial resolution levels have become available during the last 15 years. Orbiters, rovers and landers have been returning information and insights into the surface evolution of the terrestrial planets in unprecedented detail. While rover- and lander-based analyses are one major research aim to obtain ground truth, resource exploration or even potential establishment of bases using autonomous platforms are others and they require detailed investigation of settings in order to identify spots on the surface that are suitable for spacecraft to land and operate safely and over a long period of time. What has been done using hardcopy material in the past is today being carried by using either in-house developments or off-the-shelf spatial information system technology which allows to manage, integrate and analyse data as well as visualize and create user-defined reports for performing assessments. Usually, such analyses can be broken down (manually) by considering scientific wishes, engineering boundary conditions, potential hazards and various tertiary constraints. We here (1) review standard tasks of landing site analyses, (2) discuss issues inherently related to the analysis using integrated spatial analysis systems and (3) demonstrate a modular analysis framework for integration of data and for the evaluation of results from individual tasks in order to support decisions for landing-site selection.

  1. Land-Parcel Land-Use History as a Key to Site Selection for Documenting Soil Contamination Risk:a Case Study from Australian Suburbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jie; Ursula Pietrzak; Jim Peterson

    2005-01-01

    In that orcharding in early-to-mid twentieth century southeastern Australia involved use of certain heavy metal and As compounds in regular pest-control spray procedures, some interest attaches to the possibility that these landparcels are underlain by soils with above-background Cu, Pb and As levels. Interpretation of Land-cover changes allowed land parcels previously occupied by orchards to be identified in the 1950s through time-series air-photos. A comparison of soil analysis results referring to soil samples from control sites, and from land parcels formerly occupied by orchardists, shows that contamination (above-background)levels of cations in the pesticides can be found in the top 6 cm of former orchard soils. It is clear that digital spatial data handling and culturally-informed air photo interpretation has a place in soil contamination studies,land-use planning (with particular reference to re-development) and in administration of public health.

  2. MODIS tools for land validation, field site characterization, data intensive science and classroom education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhana Vannan, S.; Cook, R. B.; Wilson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor data are highly useful for field research. The spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of MODIS products have made them an important data source for analyzing key science questions relating to Earth System processes at regional, continental, and global scales. MODIS data are particularly useful to validate and inter-compare ground measurements at various field sites such as flux tower locations. MODIS data are also useful in land validation, understanding biogeochemical and ecological processes, and providing environmental data to support citizen science efforts. However, MODIS data volume and the complexity in data format makes MODIS data less usable in some cases. To solve this usability issue, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has developed a system that prepares and distributes subsets of selected MODIS land products in a scale and format useful for field researchers. Web and Web service tools provide MODIS subsets in ASCII format and in GIS compatible GeoTIFF format. Users can download and visualize MODIS subsets for a set of pre-defined locations, order MODIS subsets for any land location or automate the process of subset extraction using a SOAP based Web service. This paper provides a description of these tools and services with couple of application examples. The MODIS tools and services can be extended to support the large volume of data that would be produced by the various decadal survey missions. The MODIS subsets are provided for more than 1,000 sites across the globe. Most of the eddy covariance flux tower sites are included in the site list. The subsets are offered in tabular ASCII format and in GIS compatible GeoTIFF format. Time series plots and grid visualizations to help characterize field sites are also provided. In addition to offering subsets for fixed sites, the ORNL DAAC also offers the capability to create user

  3. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report.

  4. Subsurface ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Assessing emplacement mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Mellon, M. T.; Skemer, P. A.; Shaw, A.; Morris, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the emplacement of subsurface ices on Mars: vapor diffusion from the atmosphere, freezing of bodies of surface water (e.g., lakes or oceans), buried glaciers, or accumulation and burial of packed snow. These formation mechanisms predict different physical properties for the subsurface ices: vapor diffusion should produce pore ice, whereas other mechanisms should produce massive, relatively pure ice. NASA's Phoenix Lander uncovered two types of ice at its 2008 landing site on the northern plains of Mars: a light-toned ice (Dodo-Goldilocks) that broke into pieces during backhoe operations; and a hard, darker icy surface that had to be scraped to provide particulate materials for sampling (Snow White). Here, we use spectra from Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) and a non-linear mixing model with ice and soil components to determine the ice to soil ratio of the ices exposed at the Phoenix landing site. We find Dodo-Goldilocks consists of almost pure water ice. The darker icy material contains ~30 wt% ice (~55 vol%), indicating that it probably formed as pore ice between grains of soil. We conclude that these two types of ice represent two different emplacement mechanisms and periods of deposition. Snow White ice was probably deposited via vapor diffusion from the atmosphere. Dodo-Goldilocks ice was probably deposited through an ice-lens or needle ice mechanism. Buried snow or glacial ice is unlikely for Dodo-Goldilocks, given its restricted spatial extent and the fact that the site is covered by large rocks.

  5. "Where On Mars?": A Web Map Visualisation of the ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Boix, O.; Vago, J.; Hill, A.; Iriberri, C.; Carrión, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will deliver a European rover and a Russian surface platform to the surface of Mars. Armed with a drill that can bore 2 metres into rock, the ExoMars rover will travel across the Martian surface to search for signs of life, past or present. But where on Mars to land? - The search for a suitable ExoMars rover landing site began in December 2013, when the planetary science community was asked to propose candidates. Eight proposals were considered during a workshop held by the ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group (LSSWG). By the end of the workshop, there were four clear front-runners. Following additional review, the four sites have now been formally recommended for further detailed analysis [1]: Mawrth Vallis, Oxia Planum, Hypanis Vallis and Aram Dorsum. Scientists will continue working on the characterisation of these four sites until they provide their final recommendation in October 2017.

  6. Surveyor television camera, selected materials and electronic components, Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The locations of various parts of the Surveyor camera are presented. Tables were prepared with emphasis on: (1) exterior parts and surfaces that are directly exposed to space, (2) parts that shield others from space radiation, (3) representative or unique materials, and (4) electronic devices that may contain unique or well-characterized materials.

  7. Caspar Wessel (1745-1818). Surveyor and Mathematician

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil; Johansen, Nils Voje

    1999-01-01

    This is a biography. It focus on Caspar Wessel's work as surveyor under the auspices of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, in particular on some of his theoretical investigations of geodesy that lead him to use complex numbers to represent directions in a plane at least as early...

  8. Dust devil track survey at Elysium Planitia, Mars: Implications for the InSight landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Dennis; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2016-03-01

    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) robotic lander is scheduled to land in Elysium Planitia on Mars in September 2016. InSight will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation including seismic measurements. Knowledge about encounter rates of dust devils with the InSight lander are important for two main reasons: (1) dust devils will affect the scientific measurements, i.e., wind-induced seismic noise, and (2) the power-supply of the InSight lander and instruments is provided by solar arrays and previous landers and rovers on Mars were affected by a steady decline in electrical power output due to atmospheric dust deposition on the solar panels. Long term science operations were only made possible by dust clearing events of the solar arrays caused by wind gusts and dust devils. In this study we analyzed dust devil tracks (DDTs) at the final InSight landing site region in Elysium Planitia. Formation of DDTs is caused by the removal of a layer of dust by passing dust devils, hence in principle the same process as clearing of dust from solar panels. We mapped the number, size (width and length), and orientation of DDTs in repeat observations using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images covering the exact same surface area acquired within a relatively short time span (solar panel clearing recurrence interval estimate of ∼11 Mars years using the mean annual DDT formation rate, and the mean DDT width and length from all measured DDTs. Due to several uncertainties this solar panel clearing recurrence interval for the InSight landing should be seen as an upper limit estimate.

  9. Abundance retrieval of hydrous minerals around the Mars Science Laboratory landing site in Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Honglei; Zhang, Xia; Shuai, Tong; Zhang, Lifu; Sun, Yanli

    2016-02-01

    The detection of hydrous minerals on Mars is of great importance for revealing the early water environment as well as possible biotic activity. However, few studies focus on abundance retrieval of hydrous minerals for some difficulties. In this paper, we studied the area around the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site, to identify hydrous minerals and retrieve their abundance. Firstly, the distribution of hydrous minerals was extracted using their hydration features. Then, a sparse unmixing algorithm was applied along with the CRISM spectral library to retrieve the abundance of hydrous minerals in this area. As a result, seven hydrous minerals were retrieved, i.e. actinolite, montmorillonite, saponite, jarosite, halloysite, szomolnokite and magnesite and, the total concentration of all hydrous minerals was as high as 40 vol% near the lower reaches of Mount Sharp. Our results were consistent with results from related research and the in-situ analysis of the MSL rover Curiosity.

  10. HUBBLE WATCHES THE RED PLANET AS MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR BEGINS AEROBRAKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    his NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture of Mars was taken on Sept. 12, one day after the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and only five hours before the beginning of autumn in the Martian northern hemisphere. (Mars is tilted on its axis like Earth, so it has similar seasonal changes, including an autumnal equinox when the Sun crosses Mars' equator from the northern to the southern hemisphere). This Hubble picture was taken in support of the MGS mission. Hubble is monitoring the Martian weather conditions during the early phases of MGS aerobraking; in particular, the detection of large dust storms are important inputs into the atmospheric models used by the MGS mission to plan aerobraking operations. Though a dusty haze fills the giant Hellas impact basin south of the dark fin-shaped feature Syrtis Major, the dust appears to be localized within Hellas. Unless the region covered expands significantly, the dust will not be of concern for MGS aerobraking. Other early signs of seasonal transitions on Mars are apparent in the Hubble picture. The northern polar ice cap is blanketed under a polar hood of clouds that typically start forming in late northern summer. As fall progresses, sunlight will dwindle in the north polar region and the seasonal polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide will start condensing onto the surface under these clouds. Hubble observations will continue until October 13, as MGS carefully uses the drag of the Martian atmosphere to circularize its orbit about the Red Planet. After mid-October, Mars will be too close to the Sun, in angular separation, for Hubble to safely view. The image is a composite of three separately filtered colored images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Resolution is 35 miles (57 kilometers) per pixel (picture element). The Pathfinder landing site near Ares Valles is about 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) west of the center of this image, so was not visible during this observation. Mars was 158

  11. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  12. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDeployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  13. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  14. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  15. Eridania Basin: An ancient paleolake floor as the next landing site for the Mars 2020 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Rossato, Sandro; Carter, John; Baratti, Emanuele; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Erculiani, Marco Sergio; Coradini, Marcello; McBride, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The search for traces of past Martian life is directly connected to ancient paleolakes, where ponding water or low-energy water fluxes were present for long time intervals. The Eridania paleolakes system, located along the 180° meridian, is one of the largest lacustrine environments that were once present on Mars. Morphological features suggest that it was constituted by connected depressions filled by water to maximum depths of ∼2400 m and a volume of at least 562,000 km3. We focused our attention on the northern side of the Eridania Basin, where high-albedo, uneven patches of material characterized by the absence of dust are present. Based on OMEGA and CRISM orbital imaging spectroscopy data, a large clay-bearing unit has been identified there. In particular, a set of aqueous minerals in present in the stratigraphy, being visible through erosional windows in the first several tens of meters of the sedimentary sequence. Below this capping unit, a thin Al-rich clay stratum attributable to Al-smectite and/or kaolins is present. This overlies a Fe-rich clay stratum, attributable to the nontronite smectite. At the base of the mineralogic sequence a stratum that could be either a zeolite or more likely a hydrated sulfate is present. In addition, small deposits of alunite (a rare phase on Mars), and jarosite are here found at several locations. Such stratigraphy is interpreted as originating from a surface weathering process similar to terrestrial abiotic pedogenesis; nonetheless, possible exobiologic processes can be also invoked to explain it. NASA's Spirit rover landed on Gusev crater in 2004, near the mouth of the Ma'adim Vallis, which connects this crater with the considered paleolakes system. The Eridania site provides the unique opportunity to complete the measurements obtained in Gusev crater, while investigating the exposed mineralogical sequence in its depositionary setting. In addition, the extremely favorable landing parameters, such as elevation, slope

  16. Regional chemical setting of the Apollo 16 landing site and the importance of the Kant Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, C. G.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital X-ray data from the Apollo 16 region indicate that physiographic units identified before the lunar mission can be classified as chemical units as well. The Descartes Mountains, however, appear to be an extension of the Kant Plateau composition that is unusually anorthositic and resembles farside terra. The Cayley Plains have closer affinities to basaltic materials than terra materials, physically, spectrally and chemically. The Theophilus impact, 330 km east of the landing site, excavated magnesium-rich basalts from below less-magnesian flows in Mare Nectaris; but, mafic ejecta was substantially blocked from the Apollo 16 site by the Kant Plateau that rises 5 km above the level of the mare. Apollo 16 soil samples from stations selected to collect either Descartes Mountains material or Cayley Plains material were surprisingly similar. However, they do, indeed, show the chemical trends indicative of the two units as defined by the orbiting geochemistry detectors. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains material may be among the rare nearside examples of a plagioclase-rich cumulate of the primordial magma ocean.

  17. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERB DB

    2008-11-19

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from

  18. A Physical Taxonomy of Martian Sand and Dust Grainsat the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Stoker, Carol

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative taxonomy of martian sand and dust grains for soil samples at the Phoenix lander site has been developed from the mission’s optical microscope data with a resolution of 4 μm per pixel. Approx. 3-4000 grains were analyzed for color, hue, size, shape, surface texture, aspect ratio, and optical properties. At least 26 types of sand and dust grains have been identified. Grain colors include black, brown, orange, red, white, and clear. Most grains are opaque, but many are translucent or transparent. Grain shapes range from botryoidal, blackberry-like, bead-like and rounded, to subrounded, elongate, angular, and highly irregular forms. Surface textures range from knobbly, rough, and multifaceted to smooth and polished. Surface reflectivity varied from dull to shiny to specularly reflective. Materials may include augite, pyroxenes, olivine, volcanic glass, hematite, other iron oxides, and salts. Grain size of the sand has a modal value of ~90 μm, but there is no gradation into dust sizes, indicating a bimodal distribution of the samples. The dust was probably imported into the region from aeolian dust storms. This accords with a mineralogical dissimilarity between the sand and dust grain populations. The sand is dominated by black and brown grains; the dust is dominated by orange grains. The Phoenix site also has centimeter and larger stones in abundance that again have no apparent gradation into the sand size material. Thus, the Phoenix landing site soil appears multimodal. The soil appears to be magnetically susceptible, but it is unclear what the source of magnetism might be. Specific magnetic minerals were not identified in the samples with the possible exception of paramagnetic microbotryoidal hematite. The soil was nevertheless adhesive to the substrates and internally cohesive (forming spherical aggregates) owing to van der Waals forces and possibly salt/moisture bonding.

  19. Mapping of the Lunokhod-1 Landing Site: A Case Study for Future Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Konopikhin, A.; Shingareva, K.; Gusakova, E.; Kokhanov, A.; Baskakova, M.; Peters, O.; Scholten, F.; Wählisch, M.; Robinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Luna-17 landed on November 17, 1970 and deployed Lunokhod-1, the first remotely operated roving vehicle ever to explore a planetary surface. Within 332 days, the vehicle conquered a traverse of approx. 10 km. The rover was equipped with a navigation camera system as well as a scanner camera with which panoramic images were obtained. From separated stations, stereoscopic views were obtained. The history of the Lunokhods came back into focus recently, when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1] obtained images from orbit at highest resolutions of 0.5-0.25 m/pixel. The Luna-17 landing platform as well as the roving vehicles at their final resting positions can clearly be identified. In addition, the rover tracks are clearly visible in most areas. From LRO stereo images, digital elevation model (DEM) of the Lunokhod-1 landing site areas have been derived [2]. These are useful to study the topographic profile and slopes of the traverse. The data are also useful to study the 3-D morphology of craters in the surroundings. Methodology. Lunokhod-1 area mapping have been done using GIS techniques. With CraterTools [3] we digitized craters in the Lunokhod-1 traverse area and created a geodatabase, which consists at this moment of about 45,000 craters including their diameters and depths, obtained from the DEM [4]. The LRO DEM also was used to measure traverse. We used automatic GIS functions for calculating various surface parameters of the Lunokhod-1 area surface including slopes, roughness, crater cumulative and spatial densities, and prepared respective thematic maps. We also measured relative depth (ratio D/H) and inner slopes of craters and classified craters by their morphological type using automatic and visual methods. Vertical profiles through several craters using the high resolution DEM have been done, and the results show good agreement with the topographic models with contours in 10cm that have been obtained from the Lunokhod-1 stereo images [5]. The

  20. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site -- Biomass Power Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2015-01-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  1. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site ₋ Biomass Power Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  2. General Land Office_GLO_Vegetation from the Years 1832 to 1859 of the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Goverment Land Office (GLO) conducted the orginal public land survey of Iowa during the period 1832 to 1859. Deputy Surveyors and their assistants produced both...

  3. Browns Park state lands ecological site inventory and grazing plan alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is prepared for the Colorado State Land Board on field studies conducted on state lands in the Browns Park Resource Management Area. Inventories and...

  4. CRISM Hyperspectral Data Filtering with Application to MSL Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelos, F. P.; Parente, M.; Clark, T.; Morgan, F.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; McGovern, A.; Murchie, S. L.; Taylor, H.

    2009-12-01

    the next augmentation of the CRISM IR calibration (version 3). The filtering algorithm will be applied to the I/F data (IF) delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS), but the radiance on sensor data (RA) will remain unfiltered. The development of CRISM hyperspectral analysis products in support of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site selection process has motivated the advance of CRISM-specific data processing techniques. The quantitative results of the CRISM IR filtering procedure as applied to CRISM observations acquired in support of MSL landing site selection will be presented.

  5. Neutron Star Science with the X-ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Feryal

    2015-10-01

    Probing the interiors and magnetic fields of neutron stars and characterizing their populations in the Galaxy is an important science goal for the next generation X-ray telescopes. I will discuss how the capabilities of the X-ray Surveyor Mission are crucial for making significant advances in these fields and how we can address the open questions with a dataset that will become available with such a mission.

  6. 76 FR 30027 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste Treatment Issued to Chemical Waste Management in... Direct Final rule pertains to the treatment of a hazardous waste generated by the Owens-Brockway Glass... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 268 Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous...

  7. Igneous and Sedimentary Compositions from Four Landing Sites on Mars from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. W.; Squyres, S. W.; VanBommel, S.

    2016-08-01

    The APXS on all four NASA Mars rovers returned data of ~1000 rocks and soils along the combined traverses of over 60 km. APXS data allow comparisons among landing sites, provide ground truth for orbiters and connections back to SNC meteorites.

  8. Sustainable Agroforestry Models for Proposed Food Production in Post-Mined Land Sites of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Hermawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reclamation areas of the opencast coal mining in South Sumatera are predominantly compact and nutrient-poor, marginal sites, but have a high potential for cultivation of fast-growing trees and agricultural crops.  This paper aims to promote several models of agroforestry in the post-mined land in South Sumatera as a new strategy in reclaiming degraded soil properties for both enviroment and economic purposes.  About 5,000 ha of coal mining areas were observed to characterize the landscape and soil properties in the area, then overlaid with the landuse maps of post-mining plans issued by the company.  Results showed that about 1,730 ha of the reclamation areas was suitable for agroforestry while the rest was for utilities, camping ground, water pond and grassland.  Three models were proposed for the agroforestry areas, including (i agrisilviculture model (1,190 ha, (ii silvihorticulture model (203 ha, and (iii local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture (337 ha.  Prior to the agroforestry establishment, all reclamation sites were subjected to the revegetation with fast-growing trees and other rejuvenation treatments in order to restore favour soil and microclimate conditions.  The proposed components for each model were as follows: for agrisilviculture model were cultivation on the alley cropping system of trees and food crops, for silvihorticulture model were the plantation of fruit trees in the bench of water pond, and for local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture were the cultivation of local forest and food crop species.

  9. Monetising the impacts of waste incinerators sited on brownfield land using the hedonic pricing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Casado, Monica; Serafini, Jan; Glen, John; Angus, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    In England and Wales planning regulations require local governments to treat waste near its source. This policy principle alongside regional self-sufficiency and the logistical advantages of minimising distances for waste treatment mean that energy from waste incinerators have been built close to, or even within urban conurbations. There is a clear policy and research need to balance the benefits of energy production from waste incinerators against the negative externalities experienced by local residents. However, the monetary costs of nuisance emissions from incinerators are not immediately apparent. This study uses the Hedonic Pricing Method to estimate the monetary value of impacts associated with three incinerators in England. Once operational, the impact of the incinerators on local house prices ranged from approximately 0.4% to 1.3% of the mean house price for the respective areas. Each of the incinerators studied had been sited on previously industrialised land to minimise overall impact. To an extent this was achieved and results support the effectiveness of spatial planning strategies to reduce the impact on residents. However, negative impacts occurred in areas further afield from the incinerator, suggesting that more can be done to minimise the impacts of incinerators. The results also suggest that in some case the incinerator increased the value of houses within a specified distance of incinerators under specific circumstances, which requires further investigation.

  10. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  11. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  13. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Mission Success Pan Click on image to view the movie This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Sorghum - An alternative energy crop for marginal lands and reclamation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Stefan; Theiß, Markus; Jäkel, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    differences between maize and sorghum were the least pronounced due to the poorer performance of maize under these site conditions. Furthermore, the comparatively lower land-lease rates in these regions allowed for positive equity capital formation also in sorghum crops.

  15. Landing Site Dispersion Analysis and Statistical Assessment for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Adams, Douglas; Craig, Lynn; Spencer, David A.; Strauss, William; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Arvidson, Ray; Heet, Tabatha

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander launched on August 4, 2007 and successfully landed on Mars 10 months later on May 25, 2008. Landing ellipse predicts and hazard maps were key in selecting safe surface targets for Phoenix. Hazard maps were based on terrain slopes, geomorphology maps and automated rock counts of MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. The expected landing dispersion which led to the selection of Phoenix's surface target is discussed as well as the actual landing dispersion predicts determined during operations in the weeks, days, and hours before landing. A statistical assessment of these dispersions is performed, comparing the actual landing-safety probabilities to criteria levied by the project. Also discussed are applications for this statistical analysis which were used by the Phoenix project. These include using the statistical analysis used to verify the effectiveness of a pre-planned maneuver menu and calculating the probability of future maneuvers.

  16. Physical Properties of the Icy Soil at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Goetz, W.; Mellon, M. T.; El Maarry, M.; Madsen, M. B.; Smith, P.; Pike, W.; Zent, A.; Hecht, M. H.; Ming, D.; Staufer, U.

    2008-12-01

    The geomorphological setting of the subpolar terrain at the landing site is characterized by polygonal structures. These structures are generated by long term and periodic cycles of contraction and expansion of the subsurface icy soil. The physical properties of the covering soil layer effectively control the details of this process that has its counterpart on earth in (sub) polar regions including the Siberian tundra and in Antartica. One of the prime science goals of the Phoenix mission is to investigate the physical properties of the icy soil, how these processes are influenced by water vapour diffusion in the regolith and exchange of the water vapour with the atmosphere. It is important to understand these processes on diurnal, seasonal, and climatic time scales. Phoenix landed in the middle of one of the polygons. Its retro rockets cleared the ice table of the polygon underneath the jet assemblies from ca. 5 to 10 cm of loose cloddy regolith. Soil was piled up in the centre. The fact that the soil looked still cloddy similar to that in undisturbed areas suggests strong cohesiveness of the matrix material. The clumps were not destroyed by the blast. Excavated regolith material imaged in the scoop was made up of agglomerates of grains smaller than the best resolution of the Robotic Arm Camera (20 micron). Higher resolution images (4 micron) of the microscope corroborate that the soil is predominantly composed of agglomerates of very small particles with a mean size comparable to those observed in the Martian atmosphere. The Atomic Force Microscope reveals micron sized particles and smaller, partly of plate-like shape, indicating clay like particles. The matrix material of the soil is of reddish colour probably due to iron oxideadmixture. Only about 10% by volume of the soil are most often rounded grains between 40 to 100 micrometers of diameter. Some are glassy resembling micro tektites, and most of these are magnetic. The cohesiveness of the clumps and clods of

  17. Extreme 3D reconstruction of the final ROSETTA/PHILAE landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanna, Claire; Jorda, Laurent; Lamy, Philippe; Gesquiere, Gilles; Delmas, Cédric; Durand, Joelle; Garmier, Romain; Gaudon, Philippe; Jurado, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The Philae lander aboard the Rosetta spacecraft successfully landed at the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P/C-G) after two rebounds on November 12, 2014. The final landing site, now known as « Abydos », has been identified on images acquired by the OSIRIS imaging system onboard the Rosetta orbiter[1]. The available images of Abydos are very limited in number and reveal a very extreme topography containing cliffs and overhangs. Furthermore, the surface is only observed under very high incidence angles of 60° on average, which implies that the images also exhibit lots of cast shadows. This makes it very difficult to reconstruct the 3D topography with standard methods such as photogrammetry or standard clinometry. We apply a new method called ''Multiresolution PhotoClinometry by Deformation'' (MPCD, [2]) to retrieve the 3D topography of the area around Abydos. The method works in two main steps: (i) a DTM of this region is extracted from a low resolution MPCD global shape model of comet 67P/C-G, and (ii) the resulting triangular mesh is progressively deformed at increasing spatial sampling down to 0.25 m in order to match a set of 14 images of Abydos with projected pixel scales between 1 and 8 m. The method used to perform the image matching is a quasi-Newton non-linear optimization method called L-BFGS-b[3] especially suited to large-scale problems. Finally, we also checked the compatibility of the final MPCD digital terrain model with a set of five panoramic images obtained by the CIVA-P instrument aboard Philae[4]. [1] Lamy et al., 2016, submitted. [2] Capanna et al., Three dimensional reconstruction using multiresoluton photoclinometry by deformation, The visual Computer, v. 29(6-8) pp. 825-835, 2013. [3] Morales et al., Remark on "Algorithm 778: L-BFGS-B: Fortran subroutines for large-scale bound constrained optimization", v.38(1) pp.1-4, ACM Trans. Math. Softw., 2011 [4] Bibring et al., 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface properties as

  18. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Dahal, Sumit; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fluxa, Pedro; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Iuliano, Jeffrey; Karakla, John; Marriage, Tobias; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Palma, Gonzalo; Parker, Lucas; Petroff, Matthew; Pradenas, Bastián; Rostem, Karwan; Sagliocca, Marco; Valle, Deniz; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2017-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveryor (CLASS) is a ground based telescope array designed to measure the large-angular scale polarization signal of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The large-angular scale CMB polarization measurement is essential for a precise determination of the optical depth to reionization (from the E-mode polarization) and a characterization of inflation from the predicted polarization pattern imprinted on the CMB by gravitational waves in the early universe (from the B-mode polarization). CLASS will characterize the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, to 0.01 (95% CL).CLASS is uniquely designed to be sensitive to the primordial B-mode signal across the entire range of angular scales where it could possibly dominate over the lensing signal that converts E-modes to B-modes while also making multi-frequency observations both high and low of the frequency where the CMB-to-foreground signal ratio is at its maximum. The design enables CLASS to make a definitive cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to scattering from reionization.CLASS is an array of 4 telescopes operating at approximately 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz. CLASS is located high in the Andes mountains in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. The location of the CLASS site at high altitude near the equator minimizes atmospheric emission while allowing for daily mapping of ~70% of the sky.A rapid front end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM) and low noise Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detectors allow for a high sensitivity and low systematic error mapping of the CMB polarization at large angular scales. The VPM, detectors and their coupling structures were all uniquely designed and built for CLASS.We present here an overview of the CLASS scientific strategy, instrument design, and current progress. Particular attention is given to the development and status of the Q-band receiver currently surveying the sky from the Atacama Desert and the development of

  19. AATSR land surface temperature product algorithm verification over a WATERMED site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, E. J.; Sòria, G.; Sobrino, J. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.

    A new operational Land Surface Temperature (LST) product generated from data acquired by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) provides the opportunity to measure LST on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The target accuracy of the product, which utilises nadir data from the AATSR thermal channels at 11 and 12 μm, is 2.5 K for daytime retrievals and 1.0 K at night. We present the results of an experiment where the performance of the algorithm has been assessed for one daytime and one night time overpass occurring over the WATERMED field site near Marrakech, Morocco, on 05 March 2003. Top of atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperatures (BTs) are simulated for 12 pixels from each overpass using a radiative transfer model, with the LST product and independent emissivity values and atmospheric data as inputs. We have estimated the error in the LST product over this biome for this set of conditions by applying the operational AATSR LST retrieval algorithm to the modelled BTs and comparing the results with the original AATSR LSTs input into the model. An average bias of -1.00 K (standard deviation 0.07 K) for the daytime data, and -1.74 K (standard deviation 0.02 K) for the night time data is obtained, which indicates that the algorithm is yielding an LST that is too cold under these conditions. While these results are within specification for daytime retrievals, this suggests that the target accuracy of 1.0 K at night is not being met within this biome.

  20. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  1. Financing Renewable Energy Projects on Contaminated Lands, Landfills, and Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information concerning financing tools and structures, as well as federal financial incentives that may be available for redeveloping potentially contaminated sites, landfills, or mine sites for renewable energy for site owners.

  2. A needs analysis method for land-use planning of illegal dumping sites: a case study in Aomori-Iwate, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Nagao, Yukari

    2013-02-01

    Land use at contaminated sites, following remediation, is often needed for regional redevelopment. However, there exist few methods of developing economically and socially feasible land-use plans based on regional needs because of the wide variety of land-use requirements. This study proposes a new needs analysis method for the conceptual land-use planning of contaminated sites and illustrates this method with a case study of an illegal dumping site for hazardous waste. In this method, planning factors consisting of the land-use attributes and related facilities are extracted from the potential needs of the residents through a preliminary questionnaire. Using the extracted attributes of land use and the related facilities, land-use cases are designed for selection-based conjoint analysis. A second questionnaire for respondents to the first one who indicated an interest in participating in the second questionnaire is conducted for the conjoint analysis to determine the utility function and marginal cost of each attribute in order to prioritize the planning factors to develop a quantitative and economically and socially feasible land-use plan. Based on the results, site-specific land-use alternatives are developed and evaluated by the utility function obtained from the conjoint analysis. In this case study of an illegal dumping site for hazardous waste, the uses preferred as part of a conceptual land-use plan following remediation of the site were (1) agricultural land and a biogas plant designed to recover energy from biomass or (2) a park with a welfare facility and an athletic field. Our needs analysis method with conjoint analysis is applicable to the development of conceptual land-use planning for similar sites following remediation, particularly when added value is considered.

  3. Martian clouds observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huiqun; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    We have made daily global maps that cover both polar and equatorial regions of Mars for Ls 135°–360° and 0°–111° using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red and blue wide-angle swaths taken from May 1999 to January 2001. We study the seasonal distribution of condensate clouds and dust clouds during roughly 1 Martian year using these daily global maps. We present the development and decay of the tropical cloud belt and the polar hoods, the spatial and temporal distributi...

  4. Testing the principle of equivalence with Planck surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, L A; Mandolesi, N

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of the violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) by the massive neutrino component on the Cosmic Microwave Background angular power specrum. We show that in the presence of adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations the Planck surveyor can place limits on the maximal VEP by the massive neutrino component at the level of 10^ -5, valid in the general relativity, for the case in which the gravity is the single source of VEP. This work has been performed within the framework of the {\\sc Planck}/LFI activities.

  5. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Magnesium Perchlorate: Implications for Perchlorates in Soils at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R.V.; Lauer, H. V.; Sutter, B.; Golden, D.C.; Boynton, W.V.

    2009-01-01

    Perchlorate salts were discovered in the soils around the Phoenix landing site on the northern plains of Mars [1]. Perchlorate was detected by an ion selective electrode that is part of the MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL). The discovery of a mass 32 fragment (likely 02) by the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) provided additional confirmation of a strong oxidizer in the soils around the landing site. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of perchlorate salts using TEGA-like laboratory testbed instruments. TEGA ovens were fabricated from high purity Ni. Hence, an additional objective of this paper is to determine the effects that Ni might have on the evolved gas behavior of perchlorate salts.

  6. MapSite - an Internet map service of the National Land Survey of Finland gets dressed up with modern technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Rajalin

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available MapSite of the National Land Survey of Finland was the first national Internet map service in Europe. It was launched in September 1996. Since then the service has been a huge success. Until now it has almost 300,000 users in all, the number of paying customers is over 2,000. In the spring of 2001 National Land Survey (NLS started a project to produce a new Internet map service to replace the old MapSite. The developing project is divided in three phases. In the first phase services of paying customers are renewed. Free of charge map browsing service is being modernised in the second phase. Totally new services may be produced in the third phase.

  7. Integrating Gene Expression Programming and Geographic Information Systems for Solving a Multi Site Land Use Allocation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Eldrandaly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Land use planning may be defined as the process of allocating different activities or uses to specific units of area within a region. Multi sites Land Use Allocation Problems (MLUA refer to the problem of allocating more than one land use type in an area. MLUA problem is one of the truly NP Complete (combinatorial optimization problems. Approach: To cope with this type of problems, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithms and simulated annealing, have been used. In this study a new approach for solving MLUA problems was proposed by integrating Gene Expression Programming (GEP and GIS. The feasibility of the proposed approach in solving MLUA problems was checked using a fictive case study. Results: The results indicated clearly that the proposed approach gives good and satisfactory results. Conclusion/Recommendation: Integrating GIS and GEP is a promising and efficient approach for solving MLUA problems. This research focused on minimizing the development costs and maximizing the compactness of the allocated land use. The optimization model can be extended in the future to maximize also the spatial contiguity of the allocated land use.

  8. Pressure and Humidity Measurements at the MSL Landing Site Supported by Modeling of the Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Paton, M.; Kauhanen, J.; Atlaskin, E.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpaa, H.; Kemppinen, O.; Haukka, H.

    2012-12-01

    of 0 - 100%RH in temperature range of -70°C - +25°C. Its survival temperature is as low as -135°C. The pressure device has overall dimensions of 62 x 55 x 17 mm. It weighs 35 g, and consumes 15 mW of power. The sensor makes use of two transducers placed on a single multi-layer PCB and protected by box-like FR4 Faraday cages. The transducers of the pressure device can be used in turn, thus providing redundancy and improved reliability. The pressure device measurement range is 0 - 1025 hPa in temperature range of -45°C - +55°C, but its calibration is optimized for the Martian pressure range of 4 - 12 hPa. In support of the in situ measurements we have analyzed the atmospheric conditions at the MSL landing site at the Gale crater by utilizing mesoscale and limited area models. The compatibility of the results of these modeling tools with the actual environmental conditions will be discussed.

  9. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  10. Multimedia Sampling During the Application of Biosolids on a Land Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project integrated research from several disciplines to evaluate the effects of land application of biosolids on air and volatile emissions and soil microbial characteristics. Measurements included chemical, physical, and microbiological analytes.

  11. Cell-based land use screening procedure for regional siting analysis. [Utilizing spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalbert, J.S.; Dobson, J.E.

    1976-10-03

    An energy facility site-screening methodology which permits the land resource planner to identify candidate siting areas was developed. Through the use of spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics, a selection of candidate areas is obtained. Specific sites then may be selected from among candidate areas for environmental impact analysis. The computerized methodology utilizes a cell-based geographic information system for specifying the suitability of candidate areas for an energy facility. The criteria to be considered may be specified by the user and weighted in terms of importance. Three primary computer programs have been developed. These programs produce thematic maps, proximity calculations, and suitability calculations. Programs are written so as to be transferrable to regional planning or regulatory agencies to assist in rational and comprehensive power plant site identification and analysis.

  12. On the Applicability of Geographic Information Systems for Landing-Site Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, S.

    2013-09-01

    As of 2013, a total number of 45 autonomous lander, sample-return or rover missions have been launched to the Moon, Venus, Mars, and Titan since 1960. Slightly less than 50% of these attempts were successful (see [4] and compilation in figure 1). Reports of the National Research Council (NRC) or recent surveys and roadmaps of space agencies clearly state the importance of autonomous units operating on the surface of other planets as precursors to in-depth robotic analyses and human exploration [1, 2, 3]. The selection of landing sites for autonomously operating planetary probes is a complex task, mainly because of partial gaps in the determinability of surface properties based on remote-sensing data, but also because scientific as well as engineering aspects need to be co-evaluated to provide a basis for a successful and effective mission-operation with measurable scientific output. Science criteria are always related to a set of (planet-specific) surface investigations conducted at a distinct location. Engineering constraints pick up science criteria and form an additional set of requirements within a geospatial context. This context makes it attractive to make use of established tools to geospatially analyse, define and rate locations in terms of a feasibility and safety assessment for lander or rover operations. For terrestrial applications, integration, analysis and evaluation of data from a geospatial domain are today usually conducted using highly modifiable but generic geographic information system (GIS) technology (GIST). GIS allow us to define workflow models related to geospatially defined data and to extract information from such investigations. We here want to discuss how standard demands as put forward by recent mission-planning scenarios can be evaluated using standard GIST, i.e. we want to define adaptable workflows for solving characteristic problems. As a second aim, such a procedure should provide a basis for discussion on how such systems can

  13. CERN's surveyors are pushing back the frontiers of precision

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at a target on the other side of the Alps, 730 kilometres from CERN, or controlling the positions of thousands of devices to a precision of one tenth of a millimetre, these are just some of the painstaking tasks undertaken by the surveyors in the Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group. These masters of measurement are pushing precision to its very limit.Go down into the LEP tunnel, walk about half a mile and then try to imagine how you could possibly take precise aim at something hundreds of kilometres away without any reference to the surface. Absurd, you might think? Not entirely, for that, in a nutshell, is the geodetic challenge of the Gran Sasso project. Indeed it is just one of the challenges faced by the surveyors in CERN's Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group, whose task it will be to aim a neutrino beam at a detector located in an underground cavern 732 kilometres away at INFN's Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. The tools for solving such problems are provided by geodetics, the branch of...

  14. The Mars Surveyor '01 Rover and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Won S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander will carry with it both a Robotic Arm and Rover to support various science and technology experiments. The Marie Curie Rover, the twin sister to Sojourner Truth, is expected to explore the surface of Mars in early 2002. Scientific investigations to determine the elemental composition of surface rocks and soil using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be conducted along with several technology experiments including the Mars Experiment on Electrostatic Charging (MEEC) and the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The Rover will follow uplinked operational sequences each day, but will be capable of autonomous reactions to the unpredictable features of the Martian environment. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Robotic Arm will perform rover deployment, and support various positioning, digging, and sample acquiring functions for MECA (Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment) and Mossbauer Spectrometer experiments. The Robotic Arm will also collect its own sensor data for engineering data analysis. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) mounted on the forearm of the Robotic Arm will capture various images with a wide range of focal length adjustment during scientific experiments and rover deployment

  15. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission: A Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Bandler, Simon R.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Burrows, David N.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hopkins, Randall C.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kraft, Ralph P.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Petre, Robert; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Schnell, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to provide an unparalleled means for exploring the high-energy universe. With its half-arcsecond angular resolution, Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, neutron stars, black holes, and solar system objects. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address ever more demanding science questions-such as the formation and growth of black hole seeds at very high redshifts; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, we initiated a concept study for such a mission, dubbed X-ray Surveyor. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development-including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades and, in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  16. The Infrared Imaging Surveyor (Iris) Project: Astro-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibai, H.

    IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) is the first Japanese satellite dedicated solely to infrared astronomy. The telescope has 70-cm aperture, and is cooled down to 6 K with super-fluid helium assisted by two-stage Stirling cycle coolers. On the focal plane, the two instruments, the InfraRed Camera (IRC) and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), are mounted. IRC is a near- and mid-infrared camera for deep imaging-surveys in the wavelength region from 2 to 25 microns. FIS is a far-infrared instrument for a whole sky survey in the wavelength region from 50 to 200 microns. The diffraction-limited spatial resolution is achieved except in the shortest waveband. The point source sensitivity and the survey coverage are significantly improved compared to previous missions. The primary scientific objective is to investigate birth and evolution of galaxies in the early universe by surveys of young normal galaxies and starburst galaxies. IRIS is thrown by a Japanese M-V rocket into a sun-synchronous orbit, in which the cooled telescope can avoid huge emissions from the Sun and the Earth. The expected holding time of the super-fluid helium is more than one year. After consumption of the helium, the near-infrared observation can be continued by the mechanical coolers

  17. ASTRO-F : Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, T.

    The ASTRO-F (also known as Infrared Imaging Surveyor: IRIS) is the second infrared satellite mission of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan to be launched early 2004 with the M-V rocket and is planned as a second generation infrared sky survey mission. It has a 67-cm aperture telescope and is cooled by 170-liter liquid helium and Stirling-cycle coolers. Two scientific instruments share the focal plane. The infrared camera (IRC) covers 2 to 26 μm range with large two-dimensional arrays in the imaging and low-resolution spectroscopic modes and will perform deep sky surveys of selected areas of the sky with a wide field of view (10' × 10') at unprecedented sensitivity. The far-infrared Surveyor (FIS), consisting of an imaging scanner and a Fourier transform spectrometer, covers 50 to 200 μm range and makes a whole sky survey in four far-infrared bands, which is higher by more than 10 in sensitivity (20 110 mJy), better by several in the spatial resolution (30'' 50''), and longer in the spectral coverage (200 μm) than IRAS. A brief description and the current status of the ASTRO-F mission are presented.

  18. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites[Forestry land use and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Bergkvist, Bo [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils; Langvall, Ola [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Lammhult (Sweden). Asa Experimental Forest; Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Weslien, Per [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.

    2004-07-01

    The LUSTRA program is focused on the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, which are occurring in the atmosphere in increasing concentrations and causing a global warming effect. Carbon dioxide is being fixed in living biomass and released through respiration and decomposing processes. Nitrous oxide may be emitted, due to reduction processes, particularly from wet and nutrient-rich soils. Land use and soil management may significantly affect these processes, and a change in land use may induce reduced or increased emissions. The LUSTRA program vision is that strategic adaptation of land-use systems in managed forests in Sweden can greatly reduce net emissions of GHG. Forestry plays an important role through its potential to produce biomass for fossil fuel substitution and by sequestering carbon in standing biomass and soil organic matter including peat. Sweden has a land area of approximately 410,000 km{sup 2} of which 226,000 km{sup 2} (55 %) is forest land, defined as land suitable for forest production and with a potential mean stem production > 1m{sup 3}/ha/y. With a population of around 9 million inhabitants this gives the second largest forest land area per capita in Europe. Due to this large forest land area, Sweden has a significant strategic potential to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions by management of forested land. During its first phase, 1999-2002, the primary objective of the program was to evaluate various land-use and management options with respect to emissions of GHG with the ultimate goal to suggest guidelines with strategies for optimized reduction in emissions. Since the start of LUSTRA, the external environment and conditions for the program have changed. First, the significance of the greenhouse-gas problem has increased partly due to growing common awareness of the magnitude of the problem and partly due and fueled by current extreme weather conditions. Secondly, the progress of international negotiations has stressed the national demand to

  19. Phoenix Mars Lander: Vortices and Dust Devils at the Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellehoj, M. D.; Taylor, P. A.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Gheynani, B. T.; Drube, L.; von Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Whiteway, J.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M. B.; Fisher, D.; Volpe, R.; Smith, P.

    2008-12-01

    Near continuous measurements of temperatures and pressure on the Phoenix Mars Lander are used to identify the passage of vertically oriented vortex structures at the Phoenix landing site (126W, 68N) on Mars. Observations: During the Phoenix mission the pressure and temperature sensors frequently detected features passing over or close to the lander. Short duration (order 20 s) pressure drops of order 1-2 Pa, and often less, were observed relatively frequently, accompanied by increases in temperature. Similar features were observed from the Pathfinder mission, although in that case the reported pressure drops were often larger [1]. Statistics of the pressure drop features over the first 102 sols of the Phoenix mission shows that most of the events occur between noon and 15:00 LMST - the hottest part of the sol. Dust Raising: By assuming the concept of a vortex in cyclostrophic flow as well as various assumptions about the atmosphere, we obtain a pressure drop of 1.9 - 3.2 Pa if dust is to be raised. We only saw few pressure drops this large in Sols 0-102. However, the features do not need to pass directly over the lander and the pressures could be lower than the minima we measure. Furthermore, the response time of the pressure sensor is of order 3-5 s so it may not capture peak pressure perturbations. Thus, more dust devils may have occurred near the Phoenix site, but most of our detected vortices would be ghostly, dustless devils. Modelling: Using a Large Eddy Simulation model, we can simulate highly convective boundary layers on Mars [2]. The typical vortex has a diameter of 150 m, and extends up to 1 km. Further calculations give an incidence of 11 vortex events per day that could be compatible with the LES simulations. Deeper investigation of this is planned -but the numbers are roughly compatible. If the significant pressure signatures are limited to the center of the vortex then 5 per sol might be appropriate. The Phoenix mission has collected a unique set of

  20. Web and Web Services based tool that provides Subsets and Visualization of MODIS land products to facilitate land validation and field site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhana Vannan, S.; Cook, R. B.; Wilson, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor data are highly useful for field research. The spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of MODIS products have made them an important data source for analyzing key science questions relating to Earth System processes at regional, continental, and global scales. MODIS data are particularly useful to validate and inter-compare ground measurements at various field sites such as flux tower locations. MODIS data are also useful in land validation and in understanding biogeochemical and ecological processes. However, MODIS data volume and the complexity in data format makes MODIS data less usable in some cases. To solve this usability issue, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has developed a system that prepares and distributes subsets of selected MODIS Land Products in a scale and format useful for field researchers. The MODIS subsets are provided for more than 1,000 sites across the globe. Most of the eddy covariance flux tower sites are included in the site list. The subsets are offered in tabular ASCII format and in GIS compatible GeoTIFF format. Time series plots and grid visualizations to help characterize field sites are also provided. The MODIS fixed site subsets and the various visualizations can be accessed from http://daac.ornl.gov/modisfixedsite In addition to offering subsets for fixed sites, the ORNL DAAC also offers the capability to create user-defined subsets for any location worldwide. The MODIS Global subsetting tool provides subsets from a single pixel up to 201 x 201 km for user-defined time range. Statistics, time series plots, stacked time series plots for inter-annual comparison and GIS compatible files for the customized subsets are also distributed through this tool. Users place an order for a MODIS subset online and an email is generated when the subset is created. To create subsets for any location around the globe use http

  1. The Digital Cadastral Databse and the Role of the Private Licensed Surveyors in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the cadastral system and the role of the private licensed surveyors in Denmark as a basis for discussion of its relevance to Ireland......This article presents the cadastral system and the role of the private licensed surveyors in Denmark as a basis for discussion of its relevance to Ireland...

  2. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  3. The link between quality and accreditation of residency programs: the surveyors' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Renato Antunes; Snell, Linda; Tenorio Nunes, Maria do Patrocinio

    2017-01-01

    Accreditation of medical residency programs has become globally important. Currently it is moving from the goal of attaining minimal standards to a model of continuous improvement. In some countries, the accreditation system engages peers (physicians) to survey residency programs. The surveyors are sometimes volunteers, usually engaged in multiple clinical and education activities. Few studies have investigated the benefits of residency program evaluation and accreditation from the perspective of the surveyors. As peers they both conduct and receive accreditation surveys, which puts them in a privileged position in that it provides the surveyor with an opportunity to share experiences and knowledge and apply what is learned in their own context. The objective of this study is to obtain the perceptions of these surveyors about the impact of an accreditation system on residency programs. Surveyors participated in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis was performed on the interview data, and resulting topics were grouped into five themes: Burden (of documentation and of time needed); Efficiency and efficacy of the accreditation process; Training and experience of surveyors; Being a peer; Professional skills and recognition of surveyors. These categories were organized into two major themes: 'Structure and Process' and 'Human Resources'. The study participants proposed ways to improve efficiency including diminish the burden of documentation to the physicians involved in the process and to increase efforts on training programs and payment for surveyors and program directors. Based on the results we propose a conceptual framework to improve accreditation systems.

  4. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Jody K. [Stoller LMS Team, Contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several

  5. Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD = 0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0).

  6. Impact Assessment of Mikania Micrantha on Land Cover and Maxent Modeling to Predict its Potential Invasion Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidar, T.; Shrestha, A. B.; Ranjit, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ghimire, S.; Shrestha, N.

    2017-05-01

    Mikania micrantha is one of the major invasive alien plant species in tropical moist forest regions of Asia including Nepal. Recently, this weed is spreading at an alarming rate in Chitwan National Park (CNP) and threatening biodiversity. This paper aims to assess the impacts of Mikania micrantha on different land cover and to predict potential invasion sites in CNP using Maxent model. Primary data for this were presence point coordinates and perceived Mikania micrantha cover collected through systematic random sampling technique. Rapideye image, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data and bioclimatic variables were acquired as secondary data. Mikania micrantha distribution maps were prepared by overlaying the presence points on image classified by object based image analysis. The overall accuracy of classification was 90 % with Kappa coefficient 0.848. A table depicting the number of sample points in each land cover with respective Mikania micrantha coverage was extracted from the distribution maps to show the impact. The riverine forest was found to be the most affected land cover with 85.98 % presence points and sal forest was found to be very less affected with only 17.02 % presence points. Maxent modeling predicted the areas near the river valley as the potential invasion sites with statistically significant Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) value of 0.969. Maximum temperature of warmest month and annual precipitation were identified as the predictor variables that contribute the most to Mikania micrantha's potential distribution.

  7. Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Bo Duan

    Full Text Available To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER, a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD conditions (AOD = 0.18. However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0.

  8. Possible Segregated Ice at the Phoenix Landing Site: Was Liquid Water Involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C.; Blaney, D.; Hecht, M.; Catling, D.; Pike, W. T.; Mellon, M.; Kounaves, S.; Lemmon, M.

    2008-12-01

    Lander cameras on the Phoenix mission revealed polygonal terrain at the landing site. Areas identified by topography within the work area of the arm included a polygon and a surrounding trough. Two trenches were dug, the first (Goldilocks) on the shoulder of a trough area exposed a bright, hard material and the second (Snow white) in the center of the polygon exposed hard material, but with multispectral properties indistinguishable from soil. Visibile-NIR spectra of the Goldilocks bright material are consistent with slightly dusty ice. When first exposed, a 2 cm chunk of material broke off and was observed to completely disappear in 3 sols, an implied sublmation rate of 100 micrometers per hour. We hypothesize that the Goldilocks bright material is segregated ice. The material is hard, localized, has distinct edges, and was initially covered with only 3 cm of soil, thus was 2cm shallower than the hard layer in the Snow white trench in spite of a more south-facing exposure. A trench dug 40 cm further south of Goldilocks, with similar orientation, reached 18 cm depth without encountering hard material. Plausible mechanisms for emplacement of segregated ice include liquid water pooled into a thermally-produced crack analogous to terrestrial ice wedge polygon formation, snowparticles depositing preferentially in the troughs, and vapor deposition preferentially into cracks (D. Fisher, Icarus 179, 387, 2005). Mission observations were performed relevant to evaluating these formation mechanisms. Wet chemistry analyses of soils suggest they contain Mg(ClO4)2, a soluble hygroscopic salt with a eutectic freezing point of /- 68C. If liquid water moved though the soil and formed the bright deposit in Goldilocks trench, a higher concentration of perchlorate would be expected in the area of the ice. Mg(ClO4)2. 6 H2O would crystallize when the salty water froze, forming white rhombohedral crystals. After scraping away the surface soil, approximately 500 cm2of bright material was

  9. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  10. Multi-objective decisions in land-use planning involving chemical sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B.; Bertelsen, I.; Burchard, V.

    1999-01-01

    , societal and company aspects. Focus is laid on the safety related items, and objectives and attributes related to safety are discussed in detail. An approachbased on efficient frontier curves has been used for comparison of alternatives having land-use pattern as variable. In the development of the method...

  11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AT A LONG-TERM FOOD PROCESSING LAND TREATMENT SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to determine the performance of a full scale, operating overland flow land (GEL) treatment system treating nonhazardous waste. Performance was evaluated in terms of treatment of the applied waste and the environmental impact of the system, partic...

  12. A Map-Making for the Planck Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Natoli, P; Gheller, C; Vittorio, N

    2001-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a map-making algorithm for CMB anisotropy experiments which is both fast and efficient. We show for the first time a Maximum Likelihood, minimum variance map obtained by processing the entire data stream expected from the Planck Surveyor, under the assumption of a symmetric beam profile. Here we restrict ourselves to the case of the 30 GHz channel of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument. The extension to Planck higher frequency channels is straightforward. If the satellite pointing periodicity is good enough to average data that belong to the same sky circle, then the code runs very efficiently on workstations. The serial version of our code also runs on very competitive time-scales the map-making pipeline for current and forthcoming balloon borne experiments.

  13. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuss, D T; Amiri, M; Appel, J; Bennett, C L; Colazo, F; Denis, K L; Dünner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Eimer, J; Fluxa, P; Gothe, D; Halpern, M; Harrington, K; Hilton, G; Hinshaw, G; Hubmayr, J; Iuliano, J; Marriage, T A; Miller, N; Moseley, S H; Mumby, G; Petroff, M; Reintsema, C; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K; Watts, D; Wagner, E; Wollack, E J; Xu, Z; Zeng, L

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe $\\sim$70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) modulates the polarization at $\\sim$10 Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that span both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously d...

  14. Characterizing of a Mid-Latitude Ice-Rich Landing Site on Mars to Enable in Situ Habitability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J.; Schurmeier, L. R.; Wilhelm, M.; Stoker, C.; McKay, C.; Davila, A.; Marinova, M.; Karcz, J.; Smith, H.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest an ice-rich landing site at 188.5E 46.16N within Amazonis Planitia as a candidate location to support a Mars lander mission equipped to study past habitability and regions capable of preserving the physical and chemical signs of life and organic matter. Studies of the ice-rich subsurface on Mars are critical for several reasons. The subsurface environment provides protection from radiation to shield organic and biologic compounds from destruction. The ice-rich substrate is also ideal for preserving organic and biologic molecules and provides a source of H2O for biologic activity. Examination of martian ground ice can test several hypotheses such as: 1) whether ground ice supports habitable conditions, 2) that ground ice can preserve and accumulate organic compounds, and 3) that ice contains biomolecules evident of past or present biological activity on Mars. This Amazonis site, located near the successful Viking Lander 2, shows indirect evidence of subsurface ice (ubiquitous defined polygonal ground, gamma ray spectrometer hydrogen signature, and numerical modeling of ice stability) and direct evidence of exposed subsurface ice. This site also provides surface conditions favorable to a safe landing including no boulders, low rock density, minimal rough topography, and few craters.

  15. New Insights into the Geology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site from Spectral and Morphologic Analysis of the 12-Color Superpan Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, S.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Barnouin-Jha, K.; Bishop, J.; Johnson, J.; McSween, H.; Morris, R.

    2003-07-01

    The Pathfinder landing site contains a second lithology in addition to gray rock, consistent with highlands excavated from beneath a veneer of northern plains. Many rocks have cemented coatings that formed during an early, probably wetter climate.

  16. Effect of evaporation and freezing on the salt paragenesis and habitability of brines at the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenousy, Amira; Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.

    2015-07-01

    The WCL (Wet Chemistry Lab) instrument on board the Phoenix Lander identified the soluble ionic composition of the soil at the landing site. However, few studies have been conducted to understand the parent salts of these soluble ions. Here we studied the possible salt assemblages at the Phoenix landing site using two different thermodynamic models: FREZCHEM and Geochemist's Workbench (GWB). Two precipitation pathways were used: evaporation (T > 0 °C using both FREZCHEM and GWB) and freezing (T evaporation-showed some common minerals that precipitated regardless of the ionic initial concentration. These ubiquitous minerals are magnesium chlorate hexahydrate Mg(ClO3)2ṡ6H2O, potassium perchlorate (KClO4) and gypsum (CaSO4ṡ2H2O). Other minerals evidence specific precipitation pathway. Precipitation of highly hydrated salts such as meridianiite (MgSO4ṡ11H2O) and MgCl2ṡ12H2O indicate freezing pathway, while precipitation of the low hydrated salts (anhydrite, kieserite and epsomite) indicate evaporation. The present hydration states of the precipitated hydrated minerals probably reflect the ongoing thermal processing and recent seasonally varying humidity conditions at the landing site, but these hydration states might not reflect the original depositional conditions. The simulations also showed the absence of Ca-perchlorate in all models, mainly because of the formation of two main salts: KClO4 and gypsum which are major sinks for ClO-4 and Ca2+ respectively. Finally, in consideration to the Martian life, it might survive at the very low temperatures and low water activities of the liquids formed. However, besides the big and widely recognized challenges to life posed by those extreme environmental parameters (especially low water activity), another main challenge for any form of life in such an environment is to maintain contact with the small droplets of the stable liquids in the regolith and to interact with life in other isolated droplets.

  17. Amino acid sequences of neuropeptides in the sinus gland of the land crab Cardisoma carnifex: a novel neuropeptide proteolysis site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, R W

    1987-08-01

    The sinus gland is a major neurosecretory structure in Crustacea. Five peptides, labeled C, D, E, F, and I, isolated from the sinus gland of the land crab have been hypothesized to arise from the incomplete proteolysis at two internal sites on a single biosynthetic intermediate peptide "H", based on amino acid composition additivities and pulse-chase radiolabeling studies. The presence of only a single major precursor for the sinus gland peptides implies that peptide H may be synthesized on a common precursor with crustacean hyperglycemic hormone forms, "J" and "L," and a peptide, "K," similar to peptides with molt inhibiting activity. Here I report amino acid sequences of these peptides. The amino terminal sequence of the parent peptide, H, (and the homologous fragments) proved refractory to Edman degradation. Data from amino acid analysis and carboxypeptidase digestion of the naturally occurring fragments and of fragments produced by endopeptidase digestion were used together with Edman degradation to obtain the sequences. Amino acid analysis of fragments of the naturally occurring "overlap" peptides (those produced by internal cleavage at one site on H) was used to obtain the sequences across the cleavage sites. The amino acid sequence of the land crab peptide H is Arg-Ser-Ala-Asp-Gly-Phe-Gly-Arg-Met-Glu-Ser-Leu-Leu-Thr-Ser-Leu-Arg-Gly- Ser-Ala-Glu- Ser-Pro-Ala-Ala-Leu-Gly-Glu-Ala-Ser-Ala-Ala-His-Pro-Leu-Glu. In vivo cleavage at one site involves excision of arginine from the sequence Leu-Arg-Gly, whereas cleavage at the other site involves excision of serine from the sequence Glu-Ser-Leu. Proteolysis at the latter sequence has not been previously reported in intact secretory granules. The aspartate at position 4 is possibly covalently modified.

  18. Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. et spec. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae) from a backyard site in Öland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin

    2015-09-15

    A new genus containing a single new species of Porricondylinae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described and named Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. nov., spec. nov. The sole known specimen of L. hortensis, a male, was Malaise trapped in a backyard site on the Baltic island of Öland, southeast Sweden, in summer 2014. Morphological evidence supports our hypothesis that Linnaeomyia is most closely related to Neurepidosis Spungis, 1987. Several male genital characters, notably the spine-bearing gonostyli and the vestigial ejaculatory apodeme, substantiate the generic distinctiveness of L. hortensis. Although a backyard discovery, L. hortensis is unlikely to be a synanthropic species.

  19. Understanding Land-Atmosphere Coupling and its Predictability at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Song, H. J.; Roundy, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Ten years ago, the Global Energy and Water EXchanges Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) spotlighted the Southern Great Plains (SGP) for being one of three hotspots globally for land-derived precipitation predictability. Since then, the GLACE results have served as the underlying motivation for numerous subsequent land-atmosphere (L-A) coupling studies over the SGP domain. The range of these studies includes: local point scale studies leveraging surface meteorological and flux measurements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement SGP (ARM-SGP) Central Facility, regional pentad to monthly scale atmospheric moisture budget analyses based on atmospheric reanalysis, and regional limited duration (2-7 day) coupled model sensitivity experiments. This study has the following three objectives: (1) to provide the common historical context necessary for bridging past and future interdisciplinary characterizations of L-A coupling, (2) to isolate the mechanism(s) for the region's L-A coupling signal, and (3) to evaluate the short range (12-18hr) predictability of soil moisture-precipitation feedbacks. We produce a convective triggering potential—low-level humidity index (CTP-HI)—based climatology of L-A coupling at ARM-SGP for the period 1979-2014 using North American Regional Reanalysis and North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 data. We link the underlying coupling regime classification timeseries to corresponding synoptic-mesoscale weather patterns and bulk atmospheric moisture budget analyses. On the whole, the region's precipitation variability is largely dependent on large-scale moisture transport and the role of the land is nominal. However, we show that surface sensible heat flux can play an important role in modulating diurnal precipitation cycle phase and amplitude—either directly (enhancing CTP) in water-limited conditions or indirectly (increasing HI) in energy-limited conditions. In fact, both 0700

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Rail Yard Company Site in Perry, Iowa. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail Yard Company site in Perry, Iowa, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  3. Adapting land management to emergence of novel site conditions on the continental lowlands of SE Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel.; Gálos, Borbala; Gribovszki, Zoltan; Lakatos, Ferenc; Borovics, Attila; Csóka, György; Führer, Ernő; Illés, Gábor; Rasztovits, Ervin; Somogyi, Zoltán; Bartholy, Judit

    2017-04-01

    The rapid progress of site potential change, caused by the shift of climate zones is a serious problem of lowland management in Southeast Europe. In forestry, the resilience potential of main, climate-dependent tree species (e.g. spruce, beech, sessile oak) and ecosystems is limited at their lower (xeric) limits of distribution. A conventional mitigation measure for adaptive forest management is the return to nature-close management. Severe drought- and biotic impacts in forests indicate however the urgency of fundamental changes in forest policy. To provide assistance in selecting climate-tolerant provenances, species and adaptive technologies for future site conditions is therefore critical. A simplified Decision Support System has been developed for Hungary, keeping conventional elements of site potential assessment. Projections are specified for discrete site types. Processing forest inventory, landcover and geodata, the System provides GIS-supported site information and projections for individual forest compartments, options for tree species better tolerating future climate scenarios as well as their expected yield and risks. Data respectively projections are available for recent and current conditions, and for future reference periods until 2100. Also non-forest site conditions in the novel grassland (steppe) climate zone appear in projections. Experiences for proper management on these sites are however scarce.

  4. ISO 19512: The land administration domain model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Focus of this paper is on the Land Administration Domain Model which is under development as an International Standard at ISO. This development is an initiative of the International Federation of Surveyors – FIG. The International Standard is expected to be published in 2012. Why is this development

  5. A positive experience: land reclamation at the Alloza opencast site. Una experiencia positiva: restauracion de terrenos en Corta Alloza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Alloza is an opencast mining site located in the area known as Val de Arino in the district of Alloza (Teruel) where coal seams are worked which it would not be possible to extract by deep mining methods. General studies and plans for site reclamation were made before the start of coal extraction, this being considered an integral part of mining operations. Both the winning method, transfer mining, and the construction of spoil tips above and below ground were planned to facilitate the subsequent use of the area for agricultural purposes, once the coal was exhausted. Currently, four years after work has begun, 75 hectares of new land has been gained as well as experience from three years of agricultural work. 8 figs.

  6. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  7. Lunar prospector epithermal neutrons from impact craters and landing sites: Implications for surface maturity and hydrogen distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Maurice, S.; Swindle, T.D.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Initial studies of neutron spectrometer data returned by Lunar Prospector concentrated on the discovery of enhanced hydrogen abundances near both lunar poles. However, the nonpolar data exhibit intriguing patterns that appear spatially correlated with surface features such as young impact craters (e.g., Tycho). Such immature crater materials may have low hydrogen contents because of their relative lack of exposure to solar wind-implanted volatiles. We tested this hypothesis by comparing epithermal* neutron counts (i.e., epithermal -0.057 ?? thermal neutrons) for Copernican-age craters classified as relatively young, intermediate, and old (as determined by previous studies of Clementine optical maturity variations). The epithermal* counts of the crater and continuous ejecta regions suggest that the youngest impact materials are relatively devoid of hydrogen in the upper 1 m of regolith. We also show that the mean hydrogen contents measured in Apollo and Luna landing site samples are only moderately well correlated to the epithermal* neutron counts at the landing sites, likely owing to the effects of rare earth elements. These results suggest that further work is required to define better how hydrogen distribution can be revealed by epithermal neutrons in order to understand more fully the nature and sources (e.g., solar wind, meteorite impacts) of volatiles in the lunar regolith.

  8. Covariance of biophysical data with digital topograpic and land use maps over the FIFE site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.W.; Schimel, D.S.; Friedl, M.A.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Dubayah, R.; Dozier, J. (California Univ., Santa Barbara (United States) Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States) Cooperative Inst. for Research in the Atmosphere, Fort Collins, CO (United States) Maryland Univ., College Park (United States) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

    1992-11-01

    This paper discusses the biophysical stratification of the FIFE site, implementation of the stratification utilizing geographic information system methods, and validation of the stratification with respect to field measurements of biomass, Bowen ratio, soil moisture, and the greenness vegetation index (GVI) derived from TM satellite data. Maps of burning and topographic position were significantly associated with variation in GVI, biomass, and Bowen ratio. The stratified design did not significantly alter the estimated site-wide means for surface climate parameters but accounted for between 25 and 45 percent of the sample variance depending on the variable. 30 refs.

  9. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Historic land cover changes at Natura 2000 sites and their associated landscapes across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucher, C.A.; Hazeu, G.W.; Swetnam, R.; Pino, J.; Halada, L.; Gerard, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Habitat Directive is a an important policy instrument for nature conservation in order to avoid the further loss of important European habitats and to reduce the amount of pressures on these habitats. The set-up of a effective network of Natura 2000 sites is the most important goal of the the Ha

  11. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    threat exposure , shorten the mission- planning cycle, result in the need for fewer site visits by STTs, and reduce the pre-mission manpower required for...contiguous spectral bands and a 30-m pixel size had been proven to resolve spectral data to identify green vegetation, talc , dolomite, chlorite

  12. Multi-Site Model Benchmarking: Do Land Surface Models Leak Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocko, D. M.; Nearing, G. S.; Kumar, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely reported that land surface models (LSMs) are unable to use all of the information available from boundary conditions [1-4]. Evidence for this is that statistical models typically out-perform physics LSMs with the same forcing data. We demonstrate that this conclusion is not necessarily correct. The statistical models don't consider parameters, and the experiments cannot distinguish between information loss and bad information (disinformation). Recent work has outlined a rigorous interpretation of model benchmarking that allows us to measure the amount of information provided by model physics and the amount of information lost due to model error [5]. Recognizing that a complete understanding of model adequacy requires treatment across multiple locations [6] allows us to expand benchmarking theory to segregate bad and missing information. The result is a benchmarking method that that can distinguish error due to parameters, forcing data, and model structure - and, unlike other approaches, does not rely on parameter estimation, which can only provide estimates of parameter uncertainty conditional on model physics. Our new benchmarking methodology was compared with the standard methodology to measure information loss in several LSMs included in the current and developmental generations of the North American Land Data Assimilation System. The classical experiments implied that each of these models lose a significant amount of information from the forcing data; however, the new methodology shows clearly that this information did not actually exist in the boundary conditions in the first place. Almost all model bias can be attributed to incorrect parameters, and that most of the LSMs actually add information (via model physics) to what is available in the boundary conditions. 1 Abramowitz, G., Geophys Res Let 32, (2005). 2 Gupta, H. V., et al., Water Resour Res 48, (2012). 3 Luo, Y. Q. et al., Biogeosciences 9, (2012). 4 Han, E., et al., J Hydromet (2014). 5

  13. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  14. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the VAG Mine Site in Eden and Lowell, Vermont. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine site in Eden, Vermont, and Lowell, Vermont, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J. W.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Geologic Mapping and Characterization of Gale Crater and Implications for its Potential as a Mars Science Laboratory Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Bell, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    We have conducted a study of the geomorphology, stratigraphy, and composition of Gale crater and its central mound of layered deposits, a region that is being considered as a landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. We surveyed the crater for fluvial features and evaluated hypotheses for the origin of the central mound, including aeolian, lacustrine, spring mound, and volcanic processes. The rim of Gale crater is extensively dissected by fluvial channels, and the observed channels on the crater rim appear to flow into the crater with no obvious outlet. Many of the channels are dendritic, some showing third or fourth-order tributaries. Inverted fluvial features occur on the floor and mound, including several meandering channels and channel networks within the proposed MSL landing ellipse. Fractures on the mound are common and are often erosion-resistant, possibly suggesting alteration and/or cementation by fluid. The key geomorphic units of the landing site and mound include: a fan-shaped deposit in the landing site (divided into low and high thermal inertia portions), hummocky plains, a widespread mound-skirting unit, a basal unit that underlies the mound and floor units, a light toned ridge, a phyllosilicate-bearing trough that parallels the ridge, dark-toned layered yardangs, light-toned yardangs, an upper mound unit, a thin mantle unit, and several lobate features on the northern flanks of the mound. Erosional unconformities suggest that the dark-toned layered yardang unit was significantly eroded prior to the deposition of the light-toned yardang-forming unit and the upper mound unit. Fan-shaped deposits of material from the dark-toned layered yardang unit extend onto the mound-skirting unit in some locations, suggesting that the skirting unit was emplaced prior to or during a period of significant erosion of the mound. A fan-shaped unit on the mound near the landing site appears to be an isolated patch of the mound-skirting unit, rather than

  7. Do religion and religiosity have anything to do with alcohol consumption patterns? Evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kibira, Simon P S; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Tushemerirwe, Florence; Wagner, Glenn J

    2013-09-01

    Fish landing sites have high levels of harmful use of alcohol. This paper examines the role of religion and religiosity on alcohol consumption at two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda. Questionnaires were administered to randomly selected people at the sites. Dependent variables included alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days, whereas the key independent variables were religion and religiosity. Bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques were applied. People reporting low religiosity were five times more likely to have consumed alcohol (95% confidence interval: 2.45-10.04) compared with those reporting low/average religiosity. Religion and religiosity are potential channels for controlling alcohol use.

  8. CHISL: The Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently carrying out science and technical studies to identify its next astronomy flagship mission, slated to begin development in the 2020s. It has become clear that a Large Ultraviolet/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission (primary diameter 12 m, 1000 Ang - 2 micron spectroscopic bandpass) can carry out the largest number of NASA's exoplanet and astrophysics science goals over the coming decades. There are technical challenges for several aspects of the LUVOIR Surveyor concept, including component level technology readiness maturation and science instrument concepts for a broadly capable ultraviolet spectrograph. We present the scientific motivation for, and a preliminary design of, a multiplexed ultraviolet spectrograph to support both the exoplanet and astrophysics goals of the LUVOIR Surveyor mission concept, the Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor (CHISL). CHISL includes a high-resolution (R 120,000; 1000 - 1700 Ang) point-source spectroscopy channel and a ...

  9. Titan Ground Complex Permittivity at the HUYGENS Landing Site; the PWA-HASI and Other Instruments Data Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, M.; Lethuillier, A.; Le Gall, A. A.; Grard, R.; Ciarletti, V.; Béghin, C.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Jernej, I.; Brown, V.; Ferri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Ten years after the successful landing of the HUYGENS probe on the surface of Titan, we reassess the complex permittivity measurements of the surface materials performed by the PWA-HASI experiment (Permittivity, Waves and Altimetry - Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument). The complex permittivity is inferred from the mutual impedance of a classical quadrupolar probe, ie. the ratio of the voltage measured by a receiving dipole over the current emitted by another dipole. Using a simple model of the quadrupole configuration, the dielectric constant of the material at the landing site was first estimated to be of the order of 1.8. A more realistic numerical model that took into account the influence of the HUYGENS gondola yielded a dielectric constant in the range 2-3 and a conductivity in the range 0.4 - 0.8 nS/m. due to uncertainties about the system geometry ( Grard et al., 2006). However, a puzzling experimental fact remains to be explained, namely a sudden variation of the amplitude and phase of the received voltage 11 mn after landing that cannot be associated with any lander mechanical disturbance. Permittivity estimations were based on the first 11 mn sequence. The present analysis takes advantage of a recent analysis of the landing process that provided more realistic final position and attitude for the HUYGENS lander (Schroder et al., 2012). The new results lie within former estimated ranges and attention is paid to their sensitivity to geometry and to the reference measurements collected immediately before landing. This point is particularly critical for the estimation of the conductivity. The complete data set has been analysed, including the sequence collected after the first 11 mn. We consider various scenarios that may explain the observed phase and amplitude discontinuity. We tested two layers ground models in order to investigate the possibility that the upper layer may have experienced a fast physical change due to deliquescence or outgasing

  10. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission Study: Paper I, the Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  11. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  12. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission Study: Paper I, the Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, M; Carter, R; DiPirro, M; Flores, A; Leisawitz, D; Armus, L; Battersby, C; Bergin, E; Bradford, C M; Ennico, K; Melnick, G J; Milam, S; Narayanan, D; Pontoppidan, K; Pope, A; Roellig, T; Sandstrom, K; Su, K Y L; Vieira, J; Wright, E; Zmuidzinas, J; Alato, S; Carey, S; Gerin, M; Helmich, F; Menten, K; Scott, D; Sakon, I; Vavrek, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  13. Screening for Mutations in Kidney-Related Genes Using SURVEYOR Nuclease for Cleavage at Heteroduplex Mismatches

    OpenAIRE

    Voskarides, Konstantinos; DELTAS, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    SURVEYOR is a new mismatch-specific plant DNA endonuclease that is very efficient for mutation scanning in heteroduplex DNA. It is much faster, cheaper, more sensitive, and easier to perform than other “traditional” mutation detection methods such as single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, heteroduplex analysis, and phage resolvases. This is the first comprehensive report on the use of SURVEYOR for screening genes implicated in a sp...

  14. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998....... Muskoxen in this area had a very loose group structure, with mother-young pairs as the only apparent bond between individuals. Furthermore, the tagged muskoxen lacked strong fidelity to the site where they were tagged and roamed within an 11.000-km2 area. Hunters reported tagged muskoxen shot up to 120 km...

  15. Minimizing Visitor Impacts to Protected Lands: An Examination of Site Management and Visitor Education Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Melissa Lynn

    2004-01-01

    This thesis contains two studies that explore different methods of visitor management in recreation. The management strategies studied here are both relatively indirect approaches intended to minimize the environmental and social impacts that visitors cause in protected areas. The Annapolis Rocks study focuses on visitors' evaluations of a site management strategy that shifted camping from a flat, open area to constructed side-hill campsites. A visitor questionnaire was administered before...

  16. Geochemical evaluation of the land use and human activities at a Medieval harbor site, Masuda city, Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Banzragch; Ishiga, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale harbor and settlement sites from the latter half of the eleventh through sixteenth centuries have recently been discovered in the northern part of Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The sites were constructed at the river mouth delta of the Takatsu and Masuda rivers, facing the Sea of Japan. In former time, the mouths of the two rivers are thought to have formed a shallow lagoon connecting with the Sea of Japan. The harbor was thus well located for ships sailing along the sea coast, especially for conducting trade with the China mainland and the Korean peninsula. Archaeological investigations have identified over 800 construction pits, blacksmith hearths, harbor structures and numerous fragments of ceramic porcelain originating both from within Japan and from Asia (China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand). It seems that the maritime trade network operated from this Medieval harbor site by the Masuda Clan was on an East Asian scale. Consequently, the harbor site can be expected to have received a considerable amount of ancient anthropogenic matter. Concentrations of 22 elements in 66 soil samples from the Nakazu Higashihara site were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to identify the land use and human impacts on soil chemistry at the harbor site. The results show that significant differences in geochemical compositional exist between the northern and southern parts of the site due to differences in lithology and land use practice. The south area was a production area of this harbor site. Three different activity areas were recognized within this area (fire pit and charcoal area, building pillars, and a blacksmith furnace area), based on geochemical and archaeological information. Cluster analysis shows a strong relationship exists between As, Pb, Cu, Br, TS, MnO and P2O5 in the fire pit and charcoal area. These charcoal materials were likely derived from fuel used in firing and heating. Close relationships occur between Cr, Sr, Sc

  17. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) for AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Kawada, Mitsunobu; Barthel, Peter D; Clements, David; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujiwara, Mikio; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawai, Toshihide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kester, Do; Kii, Tsuneo; Kobayashi, Hisato; Kwon, Suk Minn; Lee, Hyung Mok; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Müller, Thomas G; Murakami, Noriko; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Oh, Sang Hoon; Okada, Yoko; Okuda, Haruyuki; Oliver, Sebastian; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Pak, Soojong; Park, Yong-Sun; Pearson, Chris P; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Saito, Toshinobu; Salama, Alberto; Sato, Shinji; Savage, Richard S; Serjeant, Stephen; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Mai; Sohn, Jungjoo; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; Thomson, Matthew; Usui, Fumihiko; Verdugo, Eva; Watabe, Toyoki; White, Glenn J; Wang, Lingyu; Yamamura, Issei; Yamamuchi, Chisato; Yasuda, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) is one of two focal plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. FIS has four photometric bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 um, and uses two kinds of array detectors. The FIS arrays and optics are designed to sweep the sky with high spatial resolution and redundancy. The actual scan width is more than eight arcmin, and the pixel pitch is matches the diffraction limit of the telescope. Derived point spread functions (PSFs) from observations of asteroids are similar to the optical model. Significant excesses, however, are clearly seen around tails of the PSFs, whose contributions are about 30% of the total power. All FIS functions are operating well in orbit, and its performance meets the laboratory characterizations, except for the two longer wavelength bands, which are not performing as well as characterized. Furthermore, the FIS has a spectroscopic capability using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Because the FTS takes advantage of the optics and detectors of the photometer, i...

  18. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  19. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Paul T.; Götz, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept under development by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting gamma-ray bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientific objectives of THESEUS include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 9-10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.6m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to unveil and study the population of soft and sub-energetic GRBs, and, more in general, to perform monitoring and survey of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity.

  20. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  1. Detector architecture of the cosmology large angular scale surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, K.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Costen, N.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K. L.; Eimer, J. R.; Lourie, N.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Marriage, T. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Towner, D. W.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E. J.; Zeng, L.

    2012-09-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) provides a powerful tool for testing modern cosmology. In particular, if inflation has occurred, the associated gravitational waves would have imprinted a specific polarized pattern on the CMB. Measurement of this faint polarized signature requires large arrays of polarization-sensitive, background- limited detectors, and an unprecedented control over systematic effects associated with instrument design. To this end, the ground-based Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) employs large-format, feedhorn- coupled, background-limited Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays operating at 40, 90, and 150 GHz bands. The detector architecture has several enabling technologies. An on-chip symmetric planar orthomode transducer (OMT) is employed that allows for highly symmetric beams and low cross-polarization over a wide bandwidth. Furthermore, the quarter-wave backshort of the OMT is integrated using an innovative indium bump bonding process at the chip level that ensures minimum loss, maximum repeatability and performance uniformity across an array. Care has been taken to reduce stray light and on-chip leakage. In this paper, we report on the architecture and performance of the first prototype detectors for the 40 GHz focal plane.

  2. Using multiple indices to evaluate scenarios for the remediation of contaminated land: the Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critto, Andrea; Agostini, Paola

    2009-09-01

    The management of contaminated sites requires the investigation of different involved aspects (from socioeconomic to risk and technological issues) and the presentation of useful and condensed information to decision makers. For this purpose, indices are more and more recognized as effective and valuable tools. This paper presents specific indices created within the DEcision Support sYstem for REhabilitation of contaminated sites (DESYRE). DESYRE is a software which aids decision making for the rehabilitation of a large contaminated site (i.e., megasite) by the creation and comparison of different rehabilitation alternatives. The software is composed of six modules, each dealing with a specific aspect of the remediation process, ending with the decision module. In this module, scenarios (i.e., suitable solutions for the rehabilitation of the contaminated site including selected land use, socioeconomic benefits, remediation costs, time span, environmental impacts, technology set/s, and residual risk) are created and evaluated by means of suitable indices. Nine indices cover the socioeconomic, risk, technological, cost, time, and environmental impact aspects. Mathematical algorithms are used to calculate these indices by taking into account data collected during the analytical steps of the DESYRE system and elaborated through the support of the spatial analysis, which is embedded in the system. The case study of Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy is presented in order to document the effectiveness of developed indices in evaluating management solutions and presenting options to decision makers. For the purpose of this study, three different scenarios for the remediation of a part of the site of Porto Marghera (approximately 530 ha) are developed and compared. The three scenarios consider the industrial land use and deal with the contamination in soil caused by inorganic and organic compounds. The scenarios mainly differ for the number of the included remediation

  3. Dust deposition and removal at the MER landing sites from observations of the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) calibration targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, K. M.; Bell, J. F.; Madsen, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Panoramic Cameras (Pancams) [1] on NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers have each returned in excess of 17000 images of their external calibration targets (caltargets), a set of optically well-characterized patches of materials with differing reflectance properties. During the mission dust deposition on the caltargets changed their optical reflectance properties [2]. The thickness of dust on the caltargets can be derived with high confidence from the contrast between brighter and darker colored patches. The dustier the caltarget the less contrast. We present a new history of dust deposition and removal at the two MER landing sites. Our data reveals two quite distinct dust environments. At the Spirit landing site half the Martian year is dominated by dust deposition, the other half by dust removal that usually happens during brief sharp wind events. At the Opportunity landing site the Martian year has a four-season cycle of deposition-removal-deposition-removal with dust removal happening gradually throughout the two removal seasons. Comparison to atmospheric optical depth measurements [3] shows that dust removals happen during dusty high-wind periods and that dust deposition rates are roughly proportional to the atmospheric dust load. We compare with dust deposition studies from other Mars landers and also present some early results from observation of dust on a similar camera calibration target on the Mars Science Laboratory mission. References: 1. Bell, J.F., III, et al., Mars Exploration Rover Athena Panoramic Camera (Pancam) investigation. J. Geophys. Res., 2003. 108(E12): p. 8063. 2. Kinch, K.M., et al., Dust Deposition on the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) Calibration Targets. J. Geophys. Res., 2007. 112(E06S03): p. doi:10.1029/2006JE002807. 3. Lemmon, M., et al., Atmospheric Imaging Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers: Spirit and Opportunity. Science, 2004. 306: p. 1753-1756. Deposited dust optical depth on the Pancam caltargets as a

  4. Screening for mutations in kidney-related genes using SURVEYOR nuclease for cleavage at heteroduplex mismatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskarides, Konstantinos; Deltas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    SURVEYOR is a new mismatch-specific plant DNA endonuclease that is very efficient for mutation scanning in heteroduplex DNA. It is much faster, cheaper, more sensitive, and easier to perform than other "traditional" mutation detection methods such as single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, heteroduplex analysis, and phage resolvases. This is the first comprehensive report on the use of SURVEYOR for screening genes implicated in a spectrum of inherited renal diseases. Of the 48.2 kb screened, 44 variations were identified, accounting for one variation per 1.1 kb. The re-sequencing of multiple samples did not reveal any variation that had not been identified by SURVEYOR, attesting to its high fidelity. Additionally, we tested this enzyme against 15 known variants, 14 of which it identified, thus showing a sensitivity of 93%. We showed that the genetic heterogeneity of renal diseases can be easily overcome using this enzyme with a high degree of confidence and no bias for any specific variations. We also showed for the first time that SURVEYOR does not demonstrate any preference regarding mismatch cleavage at specific positions. Disadvantages of using SURVEYOR include enhanced exonucleolytic activity for some polymerase chain reaction products and less than 100% sensitivity. We report that SURVEYOR can be used as a mutation detection method with a high degree of confidence, offering an excellent alternative for low-budget laboratories and for the rapid manipulation of multiple genes.

  5. Analysis of multi-temporal landsat satellite images for monitoring land surface temperature of municipal solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Mahendrarajah, Prathees; Shaker, Ahmed; Faisal, Kamil; Luong, Robin; Al-Ahmad, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This studypresents a remote sensing application of using time series Landsat satellite images for monitoring the Trail Road and Nepean municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Currently, the Trail Road landfill is in operation; however, during the 1960s and 1980s, the city relied heavily on the Nepean landfill. More than 400 Landsat satellite images were acquired from the US Geological Survey (USGS) data archive between 1984 and 2011. Atmospheric correction was conducted on the Landsat images in order to derive the landfill sites' land surface temperature (LST). The findings unveil that the average LST of the landfill was always higher than the immediate surrounding vegetation and air temperature by 4 to 10 °C and 5 to 11.5 °C, respectively. During the summer, higher differences of LST between the landfill and its immediate surrounding vegetation were apparent, while minima were mostly found in fall. Furthermore, there was no significant temperature difference between the Nepean landfill (closed) and the Trail Road landfill (active) from 1984 to 2007. Nevertheless, the LST of the Trail Road landfill was much higher than the Nepean by 15 to 20 °C after 2007. This is mainly due to the construction and dumping activities (which were found to be active within the past few years) associated with the expansion of the Trail Road landfill. The study demonstrates that the use of the Landsat data archive can provide additional and viable information for the aid of MSW disposal site monitoring.

  6. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998...... that such cooperation can provide important information for management related to muskox harvesting and monitoring....

  8. Science Targets in the Landing Ellipse and Lower Mound at the Gale Crater Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Bell, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity will land at the ~155 km diameter Gale Crater (4.6°S 137.2°E) in early August of 2012. The landing ellipse is centered in the northwestern floor of the crater on an alluvial fan composed of material from the crater rim. MSL will sample this material and test the hypothesis that the fan was deposited by flowing liquid water, and then drive south toward the base of the >5km tall central mound of layered rocks. Along this traverse, the smooth, low-thermal-inertia surface of the alluvial fan transitions to a fractured, layered, and spectrally neutral high thermal inertia unit. MSL will be able to assess the interpretation of this unit as cemented alluvial material and determine the cementing agent. Fresh craters in the high thermal inertia unit are important targets for MSL because their ejecta has had less exposure to the harsh radiation environment of the surface which can destroy biomarkers. Continuing south, MSL will descend across a short scarp where the units of the crater floor have eroded to expose the underlying basal unit of the mound. This erosion has formed ridged mesas interpreted to be lithified aeolian bedforms that are part of a widespread "mound-skirting" unit. MSL will test the hypothesis that this unit comprises debris shed from the mound during an early stage of erosion. The heavily fractured basal unit is partially obscured by relatively young mafic dunes, which will provide information about modern aeolian processes on Mars. After analyzing the basal unit and the dunes, MSL will begin climbing the layered rocks of the mound, beginning with a light-toned ridge which shows spectral evidence of hydrated sulfates. Beyond this ridge, the rover will encounter a phyllosilicate-bearing surface exposed in a trough paralleling the ridge. These lower mound layers are the primary targets of the MSL traverse. MSL will test the hypothesis that the lower mound sediments were deposited in a lacustrine setting

  9. Physical properties of the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites as inferred from Mini-TES-derived thermal inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Bell, J.F.; Golombek, M.P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on board the two Mars Exploration Rovers provides the first opportunity to observe thermal properties from the Martian surface, relate these properties to orbital data, and perform soil conductivity experiments under Martian conditions. The thermal inertias of soils, bedforms, and rock at each landing site were derived to quantify the physical properties of these features and understand geologic processes occurring at these localities. The thermal inertia for the. Gusev plains rock target Bonneville Beacon (???1200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) is consistent with a dense, basaltic rock, but the rocks at the Columbia Hills have a lower thermal inertia (???620 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting that they have a volcaniclasic origin. Bedforms on the floors of craters at both landing sites have thermal inertias of 200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, consistent with a particle diameter of ???160 ??m. This diameter is comparable to the most easily moved grain size in the current atmosphere on Mars, suggesting that these bedforms may have formed under current atmospheric conditions. Along the Meridiani plains, the thermal inertia is lower than that derived from TES and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) orbital data. This discrepancy is not well understood. Mini-TES-derived thermal inertias at Gusev along a ???2.5 km traverse follow trends in thermal inertia measured from orbit with TES and THEMIS. However, along the traverse, there are variability and mixing of particle sizes that are not resolved in the orbital thermal inertia data due to meter-scale processes that are not identifiable at larger scales. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Agricultural land contamination by heavy metals around the former mining site of Bechateur (northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, G.; Soussi, R.; Soussi, F.; Boularbah, A.

    2012-04-01

    The activity of the former Pb-Zn mine of Jebel Ghozlen (Béchateur. extreme northern Tunisia) generated during the last century large quantities of tailings (extraction, flotation, gravimetry) deposited as three heap between the mine site and the shoreline located 700 m away. Areas surrounding the mine site are agricultural and are crossed by two rivers, one of which crosses the main heap. The minerals that make up these wastes are calcite, dolomite, quartz, gypsum, pyrite, barite, smithsonite, cerussite and galena. The amounts of Zn, Cd and Pb in the wastes vary between 1.3 and 9.3%, 1.1% and 5.7 and 185 and 410 mg kg-1, respectively. Soils in the study area are carbonated and are characterized by a silt-sand texture. The clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite. The chemical analysis of thirty samples collected over an area of 3 km2 shows that the amounts of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur vary from 0.7 % to 2.5 % and 0.08 % to 0.96 %, respectively, while those of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 300 to 22 000 mg kg-1, 85 to 3000 mg kg-1 and 2 to 47 mg kg-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of metals were found in flood plains at 500 m downstream of the mine site. Extraction tests using deionized water and a 0.1 M CaCl2 solution were performed to assess the mobility of Zn, Pb and Cd in contaminated and reference soil samples collected within the study area. The results of extraction with deionized water showed that the leached amounts of Zn and Cd range between 0.2 and 4 mg kg-1 and 0.02 and 0.2 mg kg-1, respectively; while that of Pb is quite near the detection limit. During the extraction with CaCl2 the leached amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 0.3 to 86 mg kg-1, 2 to 6 mg kg-1 and 0.05 to 0.9 mg kg-1, respectively. Thus, the mobility of Cd, Zn and Pb in CaCl2 solution (0.8 %, 0.4 % and 0.3 %, respectively) is higher compared with the extraction with deionized water (0.2%, 0.1% and 0.02 %, respectively). Toxicity tests were conducted on these soils

  11. Environmental abundance of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats on land cover change sites in Karima Village, Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Benjamin G; Muturi, Ephantus; Halbig, Patrick; Mwangangi, Joseph; Wanjogu, R K; Mpanga, Enock; Funes, Jose; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Regens, James L; Novak, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out at Karima Village in the Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme in Kenya to assess the impact of rice husbandry and associated land cover change for mosquito larval abundance. A multi-temporal, land use land cover (LULC) classification dataset incorporating distributions of Anopheles arabiensis aquatic larval habitats was produced in ERDAS Imagine version 8.7 using combined images from IKONOS at 4m spatial resolution from 2005 and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)trade mark classification data at 30-meters spatial resolution from 1988 for Karima. Of 207 larval habitats sampled, most were either canals (53.4%) or paddies (45.9%), and only one habitat was classified as a seep (0.5%). The proportion of habitats that were poorly drained was 55.1% compared with 44.9% for the habitats that were well drained. An LULC base map was generated. A grid incorporating each rice paddy was overlaid over the LULC maps stratifying each cell based on levels of irrigation. Paddies/grid cells were classified as 1) well irrigated and 2) poorly irrigated. Early stages of rice growth showed peak larval production during the early part of the cropping cycle (rainy season). Total LULC change for Karima over 16 years was 59.8%. Of those areas in which change was detected, the LULC change for Karima was 4.30% for rice field to built environment, 8.74% for fallow to built environment, 7.19% for rice field to fallow, 19.03% built to fallow, 5.52% for fallow to rice field, and 8.35% for built environment to rice field. Of 207 aquatic habitats in Karima, 54.1 (n = 112) were located in LULC change sites and 45.9 (n = 95) were located in LULC non-change sites. Rice crop LULC maps derived from IKONOS and TM data in geographic information systems can be used to investigate the relationship between rice cultivation practices and higher anopheline larval habitat distribution.

  12. Modeling Spatial Correlation of Urban Land Price Monitoring Sites%城市地价监测点配置的空间关联模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建超; 吴群; 钱畅

    2011-01-01

    城市地价过快上涨倍受关注,地价监测点反映地价信息的准确与全面性直接影响对地价变化水平的把握.已有研究是采用空间群点简化或分层抽样模式配置监测点,但太过强调监测点数量的控制与简化,忽略了地价分布的空间相关性与整体性.本文提出了城市地价监测点配置的空间关联模式,在挖掘城市地价分布特征、空间自相关信息的基础上,结合"系统非对齐抽样"方法布设地价监测点,运用2008年南京市地价动态监测及基准地价更新研究中的住宅地价样点资料对本文设计的监测点模型进行检测,住宅地价监测点配置结果不仅能体现城市经济发展重点区域重点监测原则,而且可较为准确地掌控地价的水平与空间布局信息,提高地价监测数据质量的同时为地价下一步更新奠定了基础.%Many concerns have been raised with respect to overgrowing of urban land price during recent years. An exact and comprehensive representation of urban land price through land price monitoring sites would contribute directly to the knowledge of urban land price change. Previous studies mainly adopted the spatial-points-simplifying approach or stratified sampling strategy,which placed much more emphasis on the number of monitoring sites and the spatial correlation and integrity of land price layout. Under an ideal situation, when the land quality is completely homogeneous, the spatial distribution of land price brings on a concentric ring structure with the city centre as the central point. However, in reality, land price decreases gradually from the city center to the suburbs and the ridge of the 3 dimensional land price model is often development axes of the city. In addition, the spatial distribution of land price is directional. To monitor the dynamics of land use, systematic unaligned sampling can improve the performance of monitoring site design,when a significant trend or correlation is

  13. Spectral Modeling of Ground Ices Exposed by Trenching at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.; Morris, R. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Phoenix Lander, which landed on the northern plains of Mars on 25 May 2008, used its Robotic Arm (RA) to dig six trenches during its nominal 90-sol mission: Dodo-Goldilocks, Snow White, Cupboard, Neverland, Burn Alive, and Stone Soup. During excavation of the first five of these, the RA encountered hard material interpreted to be the ice table, and the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) imaged the exposed materials using 15 filters spanning a wavelength range from 445 to 1001 nm. Materials exposed in the Dodo- Goldilocks and Snow White trenches are spectroscopically dissimilar: Dodo-Goldilocks hard material is brighter relative to the surrounding soil, and has a distinct downturn around 800 nm resulting from a dusty ice with low soil-to-ice ratio. Snow White hard stuff varies in brightness and spectral shape depending on the phase angle, with low-phase angle images showing dark material and higher phase angles showing more soil-like material. The Snow White material does not have the strong 800-nm downturn seen in Dodo- Goldilocks, because the soil-to-ice ratio is high as inferred by the rapid development of a sublimation lag; however, the albedo variation with phase angle could be due to strong forward-scattering at low phase angles, consistent with icy material. A modified Hapke model is used to estimate the relative abundances of water ice and dust in the Dodo- Goldilocks and Snow White materials, with dehydrated palagonite as an analogue for dust . The ice exposed at Dodo-Goldilocks must be relatively dust-free, since only a small amount of dust is needed to obscure water ice absorptions. In our modeling, we find that as little as 5 wt% 20-um dust is enough to completely mask the 1001 nm absorption in 1-mm grain size water ice. Dodo-Goldilocks spectra can have up to a 20% drop in reflectance from 800 nm to 1001 nm, which is best-matched in our Hapke model by water ice with path lengths on the order of 2-3 mm. The Snow White dark materials typically have a small

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  15. Mars Global Surveyor measurements of solar storms and their effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Lillis, R. J.; Ulusen, D.; Mitchell, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Falkenberg, T. V.

    2010-12-01

    Space weather events in the form of solar photons and energetic charged particles provide brief but relatively intense periods of energy input to the Martian plasma environment and atmosphere, with implications for a number of science and exploration-related issues. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft orbited Mars for more than 9 years, and was capable of indirectly detecting space weather events and their effects. Shocks associated with passing coronal mass ejections are evident in MGS magnetometer data, and in proxies for upstream solar wind pressure at 1.5 AU derived from magnetometer measurements. Fluxes of solar energetic particles with energies greater than ˜30 MeV are sometimes evident in the background count rates of the MGS electron instrument. Measurements of the background count rates at altitudes of ˜400 km over a seven year period provide an unprecedented long-baseline data set of the energetic particle environment at Mars over a significant fraction of a solar cycle. We will present results of analyses pertaining to three main uses of MGS observations of solar storms. First, by combining MGS measurements of solar storms with terrestrial and solar measurements, we have analyzed the propagation of individual solar storm events from the Sun throughout the inner heliosphere. Next, we have used MGS particle and field measurements to study the effect of solar storms on the Martian plasma environment - including increased fluxes of 10-20 keV electrons close to the planet and influences on auroral activity. Finally, we have studied the influence of solar storms on the Martian upper atmosphere - including suprathermal electrons produced in the atmosphere via impact ionization and a correlation of solar storm periods with ionospheric electron density profiles.

  16. Regional monitoring of lead and cadmium contamination in a tropical grazing land site, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkpian, Preeda; Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha; Thunthaisong, Nasavan

    2003-06-01

    An investigation was carried out to monitor Pb and Cd contamination in grazing land located near a highway. Environmental media at different distances from highway (soil, grass, water, cow's forage, fertilizer, manure and milk samples) were collected from three sampling locations. Soil and grass were characterized by high metal mobility (soil with Pb: 5.25 +/- 0.71-14.59 +/- 1.17 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.038-0.33 +/- 0.04 mg kg(-1), dry mass and grass with Pb: 0.76 +/- 0.05-6.62 +/- 0.18 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.17+/- 0.01-0.73 +/- 0.09 mg kg(-1), dry mass). One-way analysis of variane (ANOVA) was applied to find out the correlation between metal (total and bioavailable) concentrations in the soil and the distance from roadside. In most cases, the finding showed that plants growing nearer to the highway are usually exposed to more heavy metal accumulations than those away from the highway. In addition, a correlation was established between plant available metal concentrations and plant metal uptake concentrations. Analysis of fertilizer and manure showed considerable amount of metals (fertilizer with Pb: 1.53 +/- 0.06 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.038 mg kg(-1) and manure with Pb: 2.55-3.34 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.14-0.31 mg kg(-1)). Long-.term simultaneous application of fertilizer and manure on the commercial farm showed higher metal accumulation in the soil and plants than those of co-operative farm. Considerable concentrations of metals (Pb: 1.60-2.94 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.025-0.19 mg kg(-1)) were observed in fodder. The finding clearly demonstrated that there are seasonal variation in total daily metal intake by individual cow (Pb: 109.37 mg day(-1) (dry), 273.47 mg day(-1) (rainy) and Cd: 2.02 mg day(-1) (dry), 19.62 mg day(-1) (rainy)). The provisional tolerable weekly intake of heavy metals in cows is 390 microg Pb and 28 microg Cd per kg body weight in the rainy season and 156 microg Pb and 2 microg Cd per kg body weight in the dry season. The levels of metals

  17. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing high levels of tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes. Only the SALDS proximal wells (699-48-77A, 699-48-77C, and 699-48-77D) have been affected by tritium from the facility thus far; the highest activity observed (2.1E+6 pCi/L) occurred in well 699-48-77D in February 1998. Analytical results of groundwater geochemistry since groundwater monitoring began at the SALDS indicate that all constituents with permit enforcement limits have been below those limits with the exception of one measurement of total dissolved solids (TDS) in 1996. The revised groundwater monitoring sampling and analysis plan eliminates chloroform, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, benzene, and ammonia as constituents. Replicate field measurements will replace laboratory measurements of pH for compliance purposes. A deep companion well to well 699-51-75 will be monitored for tritium deeper in the uppermost aquifer.

  18. The Elum Project: A Network of UK Sites to Understand Land-Use Transitions to Bioenergy and Their Implications for Greenhouse Gas Balance and Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Z. M.; Alberti, G.; Bottoms, E.; Rowe, R.; Parmar, K.; Marshall, R.; Elias, D.; Smith, P.; Dondini, M.; Pogson, M.; Richards, M.; Finch, J.; Ineson, P.; Keane, B.; Perks, M.; Wilkinson, M.; Yamulki, S.; Donnison, I.; Farrar, K.; Massey, A.; McCalmont, J.; Drewer, J.; Sohi, S.; McNamara, N.; Taylor, G.

    2014-12-01

    Rising anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions coupled with an increasing need to address energy security are resulting in the development of cleaner, more sustainable alternatives to traditional fossil fuel sources. Bioenergy crops have been proposed to be able to mitigate the effects of climate change as well as provide increased energy security. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of land conversion to second generation non-food bioenergy crops on GHG balance for several land use transitions, including from arable, grassland and forest. A network of 6 sites was established across the UK to assess the processes underpinning GHG balance and to provide input data to a model being used to assess the sustainability of different land use transitions. Monthly analysis of soil GHGs shows that carbon dioxide contributes most to the global warming potential of these bioenergy crops, irrespective of transition. Nitrous oxide emissions were low for all crops except arable cropping and methane emissions were very low for all sites. Nearly all sites have shown a significant decrease in CO2 flux from the control land use. Eddy flux approaches, coupled with soil assessments show that for the transition from grassland to SRC willow there is a significant reduction in GHG emissions from soil and a negative net ecosystem exchange due to increased GPP and ecosystem respiration. These results suggest for this land use transition to bioenergy in a UK specific context, there may be a net benefit for ecosystem GHG exchange of transition to bioenergy Finally we are developing a meta-modelling tool to allow land use managers to make location-specific, informed decisions about land use change to bioenergy. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI). This project is co-ordinated by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (www.elum.ac.uk).

  19. The Aqueous Chemistry of the Soils at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Quinn, R.; West, S. J.; Young, S. M.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Gospodinova, K.; Kapit, J.; Deflores, L. P.; Smith, P. H.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) analyses on the Phoenix Mars Lander have provided the first direct evidence of the soluble ionic components of the Martian soil. The analyses were performed on samples acquired from the surface (Rosy Red) and at the soil/ice interface approximately 4-5 cm under the surface (Sorceress). Even though the samples are from a rather unique site because of the high polar latitude and the polygon-patterned ground, they present a picture of a geochemical environment different from some previously hypothesized. Addition of 25mL of a water/calibrant solution to approximately 1cc of each of the soil samples resulted in the detection of a variety of ionic species, increased solution conductivity, and a slightly alkaline pH. The major constituent cations identified and quantified to date include Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, while the anions included Cl- and ClO4-. Sulfate analysis was performed using a Ba2+ titration method. Even though carbonate and bicarbonate were not directly measured, their presence and quantification is supported by the alkaline pH of the solution, its buffering capacity after the addition of an acid, common ion effects, conductivity, and the modeled equilibrium species distribution of the system. The species distribution resulting from the modeling and consideration of additional interactions; dissolution, precipitation, ion exchange, ads/desorption, charge balance, the behavior over the several hours of monitoring, provided constraints for carbonate speciation and concentration and was used to formulate and test soil simulants. Results from the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) also support the presence of a significant amount of calcite in the soil.

  20. Changes in soil carbon stocks in Brazil due to land use: paired site comparisons and a regional pasture soil survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Assad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we calculated soil carbon stocks in Brazil using 17 paired sites where soil stocks were determined in native vegetation, pastures and crop-livestock systems (CPS, and in other regional samplings encompassing more than 100 pasture soils, from 6.58° S to 31.53° S, involving three major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, and the Pampa. The average native vegetation soil carbon stocks at 10 and 30 cm soil depth were equal to approximately 33 and 65 Mg ha−1, respectively. In the paired sites, carbon losses of 7.5 Mg ha−1 and 11.9 Mg ha−1 in CPS systems were observed at 10 cm and 30 cm soil depth averages, respectively. In pasture soils, carbon losses were similar and equal to 8.3 Mg ha−1 and 12.2 Mg ha−1 at 10 cm and 30 cm soil depths, respectively. The average soil δ13C under native vegetation at 10 and 30 cm depth were equal to −25.4‰ and −24.0‰, increasing to −19.6 ‰ and −17.7‰ in CPS, and to −18.9‰, and −18.3‰ in pasture soils, respectively; indicating an increasing contribution of C4 carbon in these agrosystems. In the regional survey of pasture soils, the soil carbon stock at 30 cm was equal to approximately 51 Mg ha−1, with an average δ13C value of −19.6‰. Key controllers of soil carbon stock at pasture sites were sand content and mean annual temperature. Collectively, both could explain approximately half of the variance of soil carbon stocks. When pasture soil carbon stocks were compared with the average soil carbon stocks of native vegetation estimated for Brazilian biomes and soil types by Bernoux et al. (2002 there was a carbon gain of 6.7 Mg ha−1, which is equivalent to a carbon gain of 15% compared to the carbon soil stock of the native vegetation. The findings of this study are consistent with differences found between regional comparisons like our pasture sites and local paired study sites in estimating soil carbon stocks changes due to land use changes.

  1. Failure Engineering Study and Accelerated Stress Test Results for the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft's Power Shunt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbel, Mark; Larson, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    An Engineering-of-Failure approach to designing and executing an accelerated product qualification test was performed to support a risk assessment of a "work-around" necessitated by an on-orbit failure of another piece of hardware on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The proposed work-around involved exceeding the previous qualification experience both in terms of extreme cold exposure level and in terms of demonstrated low cycle fatigue life for the power shunt assemblies. An analysis was performed to identify potential failure sites, modes and associated failure mechanisms consistent with the new use conditions. A test was then designed and executed which accelerated the failure mechanisms identified by analysis. Verification of the resulting failure mechanism concluded the effort.

  2. Probability of solar panel clearing events at the Insight landing sites (Mars) from a dust devil track survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, D.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2015-10-01

    The InSight robotic lander is scheduled to land on Mars in September 2016. InSight was designed to perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars [1]. Passage of vortices may have a number of influences on the geophysical measurements to be made by InSight. Seismic data could be influenced by dust devils and vortices via several mechanisms such as loading of the elastic ground by a surface pressure field which causes a local tilt [e.g. 2]. In addition, the power supply of the InSight instruments is provided by solar arrays. Solar-powered missions on Mars like the Sojourner rover in 1997 were affected by a decline in electrical power output by 0.2-0.3 %per day caused by steadily dust deposition on its horizontal solar panel [3]. The solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity experienced similar dust deposition rates [4] which led to steady power decrease over time endangering longer rover operation times. The much longer operation times of the rovers were made possible by unanticipated 'dust clearing events' of the solar arrays by wind gust or dust devils [5]. Recent studies imply that dust devils are primarily responsible for those recurrent 'dust clearing events' [6]. In this study we investigate the potential frequency of intense dust devil occurrences at the InSight landing site regions, which are able to remove dust from its solar panels. We analyzed newly formed dust devil tracks within a given time span using multi-temporal HiRISE image data covering the same surface area. Based on these measurements we will give encounter rate predictions of intense (high tangential speed and high pressure drop) dust devils with the InSight lander.

  3. Mineralogic Context of the Circum-Chryse Planitia Candidate Landing Sites for the ExoMars Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Loizeau, Damien; Quantin, Cathy; Balme, Matt; Poulet, Francois; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vago, Jorge; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The ExoMars rover mission [1] will sample ancient, aqueously altered terrains to search for traces of extinct life and characterize the water history of Early Mars. These objectives translate into site-specific constraints in order to maximize the opportunity to access morphological and/or chemical markers for past aqueous environments and possibly life [2]. Currently, four candidate landing sites are being considered, all located on the margin of Chryse Planitia and all exhibiting hydrous clays within or near the ellipse. Assessing the composition and morphologic/stratigraphic context of these clays is necessary to narrow down possible formation scenarios and help rank the sites according to their relevance to the science goals. This work investigates the aqueous mineralogy of the circum-Chyrse region -where the LS are proposed-, in order to provide a framework for future in-depth investigations. Regional mapping of the clay mineralogy was performed using the OMEGA and CRISM NIR imaging spectrometers [3,4]. Global coverage of the circum-Chryse margin was achieved with OMEGA while detailed mapping was carried out locally with OMEGA and CRISM. Over 250 observations with pixel scales ranging 20 m - 4 km were investigated. Additionally, detailed analysis of the clay chemical composition was carried out using linear unmixing which provided the relative abundances of several Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicate endmembers in the region. The analysis revealed large exposures of dominantly Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicates over most of the preserved Noachian-aged margins of Chryse Planitia. These minerals have spectral features which are generally similar to what is found elsewhere on Mars [5], consistent with either vermiculites or smectite-bearing mixed-layered clays [6,7]. A regional outlier exists at and around the Mawrth Vallis LS: the most common clay there is likely Fe-rich nontronite associated with Al-rich phyllosilicates within layered deposits [8,9], indicating a different

  4. Perancangan Aplikasi Komputer Berbasis Android untuk Survei Kondisi Kapal oleh Owner Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stevan Haloho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Survei kondisi kapal adalah survei yang dilakukan oleh seorang Owner Surveyor untuk melaporkan kondisi aktual kapal beserta bagian-bagiannya. Proses survei yang dilakukan saat ini masih dilakukan secara manual dimana seorang Owner Surveyor melakukan survei berdasarkan daftar survei yang diterbitkan oleh perusahaan pemilik kapal. Hasil survei kondisi akan disajikan dalam bentuk laporan yang nantinya akan diserahkan kepada pemilik kapal sebagai bahan pertimbangan untuk dilakukannya “repair” dan “maintenance”. Proses survei yang dilakukan saat ini tentu saja kurang efektif untuk dilakukan, mengingat tidak semua Owner Surveyor memiliki pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang sama serta proses pembuatan laporan hasil survei yang sering memakan waktu lama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang sebuah aplikasi komputer berbasis android yang dapat membantu seorang Owner Surveyor dalam melakukan proses survei kondisi. Dalam aplikasi ini memuat fasilitas daftar survei, review survei, updating survei, dan menu untuk menambahkan Owner Surveyor. Aplikasi ini telah diujicobakan kepada beberapa responden yang memiliki pengalaman survei kapal dan pihak-pihak yang memiliki latar belakang pendidikan di bidang perkapalan. Pengujian ini dilakukan dalam bentuk kuisioner yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui penilaian para responden terhadap aplikasi ini. Dari hasil kuisioner dapat disimpulkan bahwa aplikasi ini sangat diperlukan dalam mendukung kegiatan survei kondisi kapal.

  5. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  6. Soil Fertility in relation to Landscape Position and Land Use/Cover Types: A Case Study of the Lake Kivu Pilot Learning Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majaliwa Mwanjalolo Jackson-Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the change and distribution of land-uses/covers along the landscape, and evaluated the nutrient status of the top soil layer in the Lake Kivu Pilot Learning Site (LKPLS benchmarked micro-catchments. Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using triplicate soil samples collected from each land-use/cover at two depths (0–15 and 15–30 cm in three LK PLS Learning Innovation Platform (IP sites (Bufundi in Uganda, Mupfuni-Shanga in D.R. Congo, Gataraga in Rwanda. Small scale agriculture has increased in all the benchmarked micro-catchments at the expense of other land-uses/covers. In the settlement areas land-use/cover distribution along the landscape varied across sites and countries; the major one being eucalyptus woodlots, wetland, and perennials and annuals crops in Bufundi; annuals and perennials crops in Mupfuni-Shanga; and annuals crops in Gataraga. Perennial crops tended to occur at the footslope and valley bottoms, while the annuals occurred at the upper backslopes and summits. Available P and K were relatively higher and C/N ratio (7.28 was the lowest in Mupfuni Shanga. Annual crops had the lowest available P and N across site (P<0.05. The key nutrients N, P and K were below the critical values for plant growth for Bufundi.

  7. Classification of earthquake site effects by shallow reflection seismics using a shear-wave land-streamer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, U.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, S.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    Touched in the SW by the Great Sumatra Fault, the densely populated delta of the Krueng Aceh River consists mainly of young alluvial sediments of clay, sand and gravel with partially high organic content. The depth of this sediment body and its internal structure are widely unknown. Whereas traditional timber constructed buildings are mostly unaffected by strong earthquakes, the change to concrete building techniques added a significant new and locally unknown seismic risk in this region. The classification of earthquake site effects in the city of Banda Aceh and the surrounding region of Aceh Besar was the aim of a high-resolution shear-wave reflection seismic survey in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. In cooperation with the Government of Indonesia and local counterparts, this was part of the Project "Management of Georisk" of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources. Using shear-wave reflection seismics in combination with a land streamer has proven to be an enormously useful method in the sedimentary regions of the Aceh province with an easy and fast recording operation. In addition, the specialized seismic system accounts for compacted soil surfaces which allows a wide range of applications within cities, industrial sites, paved roads and also on small dirt roads. Using a vibrator seismic source, this technique was applied successfully also in areas of high building density in the city of Banda Aceh or in the surrounding mostly agricultural environment. Combined with standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests, it was possible to evaluate the soil stiffness in populated urban areas down to 100 m depth in terms of the IBC2003. This is important for the exploration of new areas for save building foundation and groundwater aquifer detection in the tsunami-flooded region.

  8. Dielectric properties estimation of the lunar regolith at CE-3 landing site using lunar penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianqing; Su, Yan; Ding, Chunyu; Xing, Shuguo; Dai, Shun; Zou, Yongliao

    2017-03-01

    The second channel (CH2) of the Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried on the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) Yutu Rover was used to determine the thickness and structure of the lunar regolith. Accurately revealing the true structure beneath the surface requires knowledge of the dielectric permittivity of the regolith, which allows one to properly apply migration to the radar image. In contrast to simple assumptions in previous studies, this paper takes account of heterogeneity of the regolith and derives regolith's permittivity distribution laterally and vertically by a method widely used in data processing of terrestrial Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). We find that regolith permittivity at the landing site increases with depth more quickly than previously recognized. At a depth of ∼2.5-3 m, the dielectric constant reaches the value of solid basalt. The radar image was migrated on the basis of the permittivity profile. We do not find any continuous distinct layers or an apparent regolith/rock interface in the migrated radargram, which implies that this area is covered by relatively young, poorly layered deposits.

  9. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E; Martínez, G M; Rennó, N O

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability. Key Words: Mars-Ice-Perchlorates-Brine-Water-Raman spectroscopy. Astrobiology 16, 937-948.

  10. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E.; Martínez, G. M.; Rennó, N. O.

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability.

  11. Environmental Assessment for Leasing Land for the Siting, Construction and Operation of a Commercial AM Radio Antenna at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-16

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease approximately 3 acres of land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the southeast tip of Technical Area (TA) 54 for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been developed in order to assess the environmental effects of the Proposed Action and No Action alternative. The Proposed Action includes the lease of land for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna in TA-54, just north of Pajarito Road and State Highway 4. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under the No Action Alternative, DOE would not lease land on LANL property for the siting and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna; the DOE would not have a local station for emergency response use; and the land would continue to be covered in native vegetation and serve as a health and safety buffer zone for TA-54 waste management activities. Other potential sites on LANL property were evaluated but dismissed for reasons such as interference with sensitive laboratory experiments. Potential visual, health, and environmental effects are anticipated to be minimal for the Proposed Action. The radio broadcasting antenna would be visible against the skyline from some public areas, but would be consistent with other man-made objects in the vicinity that partially obstruct viewsheds (e.g. meteorological tower, power lines). Therefore, the net result would be a modest change of the existing view. Electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from the antenna would be orders or magnitude less than permissible limits. The proposed antenna construction would not affect known cultural sites, but is located in close proximity to two archaeological sites. Construction would be monitored to ensure that the associated road and utility corridor would avoid cultural sites.

  12. Lunar surface traces of engine jets of Soviet sample return probes: The enigma of the Luna-23 and Luna-24 landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadym; Sysolyatina, Xenija; Razim, Alexandra; Videen, Gorden

    2013-01-01

    We use a photometric method called phase-ratio imaging to study the landing sites of the Soviet Luna-16, Luna-20, Luna-23 and Luna-24 probes using the survey data of the lunar surface, which was carried out with the Narrow-Angle Cameras (NACs) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. The phase-ratio images clearly show diffuse features associated with structure perturbations of the lunar regolith. We suggest that these features are caused by the impact of the gas jets from the rocket engines. The photometric anomalies around the landing sites suggest that the impacts smooth out the surface, destroying the primordial "fairy castle" structure that effectively produces the shadow-hiding effect. The same characteristic features have been found previously for the Apollo spacecraft landings, but over larger spatial scales. The only exception is the landing site of the Luna-24 probe, for which the feature of the possible impact of the gas jets is shifted to the northwest by approximately 150 m. As the Luna-24 descent module worked in the regular mode and could not allow such a shift as the probe was descending vertically, a possible explanation is that the sites of Luna-23 (an unsuccessful sample return mission) and Luna-24 are misidentified. The distance between the sites is about 2 km, which is within the inaccuracy of their coordinate determination. We suggest that because of faulty processing of the radar system for distance/speed control, the incorrectly operated engine and/or thrusters of Luna-23 produced the 150 m lateral drift before final deactivation and hard descent. To better understand the geologic situation, we produce brightness and phase-ratio anaglyphs for the vicinity of the landings.

  13. Evaluation of land surface model representation of phenology: an analysis of model runs submitted to the NACP Interim Site Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.; Nacp Interim Site Synthesis Participants

    2010-12-01

    Phenology represents a critical intersection point between organisms and their growth environment. It is for this reason that phenology is a sensitive and robust integrator of the biological impacts of year-to-year climate variability and longer-term climate change on natural systems. However, it is perhaps equally important that phenology, by controlling the seasonal activity of vegetation on the land surface, plays a fundamental role in regulating ecosystem processes, competitive interactions, and feedbacks to the climate system. Unfortunately, the phenological sub-models implemented in most state-of-the-art ecosystem models and land surface schemes are overly simplified. We quantified model errors in the representation of the seasonal cycles of leaf area index (LAI), gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), and net ecosystem exchange of CO2. Our analysis was based on site-level model runs (14 different models) submitted to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Synthesis, and long-term measurements from 10 forested (5 evergreen conifer, 5 deciduous broadleaf) sites within the AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada networks. Model predictions of the seasonality of LAI and GEP were unacceptable, particularly in spring, and especially for deciduous forests. This is despite an historical emphasis on deciduous forest phenology, and the perception that controls on spring phenology are better understood than autumn phenology. Errors of up to 25 days in predicting “spring onset” transition dates were common, and errors of up to 50 days were observed. For deciduous sites, virtually every model was biased towards spring onset being too early, and autumn senescence being too late. Thus, models predicted growing seasons that were far too long for deciduous forests. For most models, errors in the seasonal representation of deciduous forest LAI were highly correlated with errors in the seasonality of both GPP and NEE, indicating the importance of getting the underlying

  14. Parameterizing atmosphere-land surface exchange for climate models with satellite data: A case study for the Southern Great Plains CART site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.

    High-resolution satellite data provide detailed, quantitative descriptions of land surface characteristics over large areas so that objective scale linkage becomes feasible. With the aid of satellite data, researchers examined the linearity of processes scaled up from 30 m to 15 km. If the phenomenon is scale invariant, then the aggregated value of a function or flux is equivalent to the function computed from aggregated values of controlling variables. The linear relation may be realistic for limited land areas having no large surface contrasts to cause significant horizontal exchange. However, for areas with sharp surface contrasts, horizontal exchange and different dynamics in the atmospheric boundary may induce nonlinear interactions, such as at interfaces of land-water, forest-farm land, and irrigated crops-desert steppe. The linear approach, however, represents the simplest scenario and is useful for developing an effective scheme for incorporating subgrid land surface processes into large-scale models. Our studies focus on coupling satellite data and ground measurements with a satellite-data-driven land surface model to parameterize surface fluxes for large-scale climate models. In this case study, we used surface spectral reflectance data from satellite remote sensing to characterize spatial and temporal changes in vegetation and associated surface parameters in an area of about 350 x 400 km covering the southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.

  15. Igneous and Sedimentary Compositions from Four Landing Sites on Mars from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. W.; Squyres, S. W.; VanBommel, S.; Yen, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The APXS - supported and promoted strongly by Heinrich Waenke - on all four Mars Rovers has returned compositional data from about 1000 rocks and soil targets along the combined traverses of over 60 kilometers. Providing precise and accurate bulk chemistry with typically 16 quantified elements, the APXS is a powerful and versatile tool that when combined with the ability to traverse to key rocks and soils has provided critical information needed to understand the geologic evolution of Mars. APXS data allow comparisons among landing sites, provide ground truth for orbiters and connections back to SNC meteorites. The soils and dust are basaltic in character and represent the average Mars composition similar to Adirondack basalts from Gusev crater but with unambiguous elevated and correlated S, Cl and Zn contents. At all four landing sites the APXS found several rocks with a felsic composition. The similarity is best assessed in a logarithmic ratio plot of rock normalized to the average soil composition (Fig.1). High alkaline, Al, and low Mg, Fe, low S, Cl and Ni, Zn as well as an Fe/Mn ratio of approximately 50 indicate a likely unaltered and igneous origin. Sediments, e.g. the Burns formation, with approximately 25 wt% SO3 at Meridiani Planum have been documented over 10s of kilometers (Fig. 2). This formation is compositionally homogeneous, but showing the removal of MgSO4 and a threefold increase in Cl downhill in 2 craters. The degraded rim of the Noachian crater Endeavour resembles average Mars crust, with local Ca, Mg and Fe sulfate alteration and elevated Mn, some felsic rocks, and high Al, Si and low Fe rocks, possibly indicating clays. Unusual soils at Gusev crater in the area surrounding Home Plate include some very rich in ferric sulfate salts (up to 35 wt% SO3) and some with 90% wt% SiO2, possibly indicating fumerolic activities. Rocks in the Columbia Hills show significant signs of alteration including elevated S, Cl and Br in the abraded interior. At

  16. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Titus, Joshua T.N.; Bandfield, L.; Putzig, N.E.; Sizemore, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Weitz, C.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Christensen, P.R.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of ???0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga). Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Time-Dependent SSI Multispectral Properties for Rock, Soil, Ice, and Sublimation Lags at the Phoenix Landing Site on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Lemmon, M. T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D. L.; Ellehoj, M. D.; Mellon, M. T.; Phoenix, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the Phoenix Lander is a 15 band multispectral imager covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 1.00 micrometers. More than 250 15-filter spectral image cubes have been obtained for surface targets at the Phoenix landing site in the north polar region of Mars. The spectra of surface soils and rocks are dominated by a ferric absorption edge from nanophase ferric oxide, and they are broadly similar to most multispectral data obtained during the Pathfinder and MER missions. Negative spectral slopes between about 0.70 and 1.00 micrometers, indicative of high concentrations of olivine in the El Dorado sand sheet at Gusev crater, were not detected. The albedo (cos(i) corrected) of Phoenix surface spectra is highly dependent on the time of sol (albedo at 0.80 micrometers varies by a factor of 2), consistent with opposition and phase function effects. Subsurface layers bearing water ice were exposed at a depth of about 4 cm by digging with the robotic arm scoop. The SSI spectra of icy materials are highly variable, ranging from typical ice (spectrally neutral and high albedo near 0.7) at the Dodo-Goldilocks trench to low albedo spectra (about 0.3 at 0.80 micrometers) with a ferric absorption edge at the Snow White trench. The differences are attributed, respectively, to low and high concentrations of fine-grained and ferric-rich material dispersed throughout the ice. The spectra of the icy surfaces are dependent on time as the ice sublimes. At Snow White, an optically thick (about 300 micrometers) sublimate lag develops within two sols. At Dodo- Goldilocks, the time scale for development of an optically thick sublimate lag is 5 to greater than 60 sols, depending on location within the trench. The spectra of sublimate lag are equivalent to those for fine-grained soil.

  19. Soil conditions and land use intensification effects on soil microbial communities across a range of European field sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, Bruce C.; Tisserant, Emilie; Plassart, Pierre; Uroz, Stéphane; Griffiths, Rob I.; Hannula, S. Emilia; Buée, Marc; Mougel, Christophe; Ranjard, Lionel; Van Veen, Johannes A.; Martin, Francis; Bailey, Mark J.; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive land use practices necessary for providing food and raw materials are known to have a deleterious effect on soil. However, the effects such practices have on soil microbes are less well understood. To investigate the effects of land use intensification on soil microbial communitie

  20. The role of quantity surveyors in public–private partnerships in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffie Cruywagen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantity surveyors play an important role in providing cost and contractual advice in the built environment. This article seeks to investigate the current extent of their involvement in public–private partnerships (PPPs in South Africa. Aim: The study intends to establish factors that influence quantity surveyors’ participation in PPPs. Methodology: A mixed-methods research approach was followed by firstly conducting a survey amongst South African quantity surveyors in order to determine their level of participation in PPPs. For triangulation purposes, a case study was also conducted. Results: The results of the research show that, although quantity surveyors have the corresponding skills and competencies required in a PPP project, their current involvement in PPPs in South Africa is limited and that there is a greater role they can play in future. Conclusion: Quantity surveyors are uniquely positioned to play a bigger role in the implementation of PPPs in South Africa.

  1. 120 Years of Education for Mine Surveyors in South Africa A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grobler, Hennie

    identified as the new centre of gravity of mining activities, where in 1903, it was ... 1The NQF level is stated as an approximate value as these qualifications have ..... in the survey department, …after obtaining his mine surveyors certificate, ...

  2. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some prelimin

  3. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some

  4. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, ski line sites, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  10. The influence of land use change on landslide susceptibility zonation: the Briga catchment test site (Messina, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, P; Busca, C; Mondini, A C; Rossi, M

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of landslides is influenced by different climatic conditions and environmental settings including topography, morphology, hydrology, lithology, and land use. In this work, we have attempted to evaluate the influence of land use change on landslide susceptibility (LS) for a small study area located in the southern part of the Briga catchment, along the Ionian coast of Sicily (Italy). On October 1, 2009, the area was hit by an intense rainfall event that triggered abundant slope failures and resulted in widespread erosion. After the storm, an inventory map showing the distribution of pre-event and event landslides was prepared for the area. Moreover, two different land use maps were developed: the first was obtained through a semi-automatic classification of digitized aerial photographs acquired in 1954, the second through the combination of supervised classifications of two recent QuickBird images. Exploiting the two land use maps and different land use scenarios, LS zonations were prepared through multivariate statistical analyses. Differences in the susceptibility models were analyzed and quantified to evaluate the effects of land use change on the susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps show an increase in the areal percentage and number of slope units classified as unstable related to the increase in bare soils to the detriment of forested areas.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  13. NASA's Human Mission to a Near-Earth Asteroid: Landing on a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Lincoln, William P.; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian approach for comparing the productivity and cost-risk tradeoffs of sending versus not sending one or more robotic surveyor missions prior to a human mission to land on an asteroid. The expected value of sample information based on productivity combined with parametric variations in the prior probability an asteroid might be found suitable for landing were used to assess the optimal number of spacecraft and asteroids to survey. The analysis supports the value of surveyor missions to asteroids and indicates one launch with two spacecraft going simultaneously to two independent asteroids appears optimal.

  14. NASA's Human Mission to a Near-Earth Asteroid: Landing on a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Lincoln, William P.; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian approach for comparing the productivity and cost-risk tradeoffs of sending versus not sending one or more robotic surveyor missions prior to a human mission to land on an asteroid. The expected value of sample information based on productivity combined with parametric variations in the prior probability an asteroid might be found suitable for landing were used to assess the optimal number of spacecraft and asteroids to survey. The analysis supports the value of surveyor missions to asteroids and indicates one launch with two spacecraft going simultaneously to two independent asteroids appears optimal.

  15. Aram Dorsum, Candidate ExoMars Rover Landing Site: a Noachian Inverted Fluvial Channel System in Arabia Terra Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Matthew; Grindrod, Peter; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Davis, Joel; Gupta, Sanjeev; Fawdon, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Much of Mars' Noachian-aged southern highlands is dissected by systems of fluvial channels and valleys > 3.7 Ga in age. Arabia Terra, lying between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands, is similarly ancient, yet apparently has few valley networks. This regional lack of valley networks only matches Noachian precipitation predictions from climate models if the Noachian climate was dry and cold [1]. In this scenario, highlands dissection was caused by transient flows of meltwater from large, regionally restricted ice-bodies. However, new results [2,3] show that Arabia Terra is not as poorly dissected as previously thought, and in fact there are extensive networks of inverted channel systems. Here, we describe an example of such a system - Aram Dorsum - which has been studied extensively as an ExoMars Rover candidate landing site. Aram Dorsum is an ~100 km long, 1-2 km wide, branching, flat-topped ridge system, in western Arabia Terra. We have mapped the system using CTX images, DEMs and other data. We interpret the ridge system to be fluvial in origin, preserved in positive relief due to infill and differential erosion; this working hypothesis is used as a conceptual framework for the study. Aram Dorsum is a branching, multi-level, contributory network, set in surrounding floodplains-like material. This demonstrates that it was a relatively long-lived, aggradational fluvial system, rather than an erosional outflow or bedrock-carved fluvial channel. Interestingly, the system shows little evidence for unconfined lateral channel migration, so there must have been significant bank stability. Aram Dorsum was therefore probably once a sizable river and, as just one example of many similar systems, is an exemplar for the middle part of a regional sediment transport system that could have extended from the southern highlands to the northern lowlands. Like Aram Dorsum, many of these other recently-recognized fluvial systems have an origin more consistent with

  16. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  17. CHISL: the combined high-resolution and imaging spectrograph for the LUVOIR surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; Hoadley, Keri

    2016-07-01

    NASA is currently carrying out science and technical studies to identify its next astronomy flagship mission, slated to begin development in the 2020s. It has become clear that a Large Ultraviolet/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission (dprimary ≍ 12 m, Δλ ≍ 1000 Å - 2 μm spectroscopic bandpass) can carry out the largest number of NASA's exoplanet and astrophysics science goals over the coming decades. The science grasp of a LUVOIR Surveyor is broad, ranging from the direct detection of potential biomarkers on rocky planets to the flow of matter into and out of galaxies and the history of star-formation across cosmic time. There are technical challenges for several aspects of the LUVOIR Surveyor concept, including component level technology readiness maturation and science instrument concepts for a broadly capable ultraviolet spectrograph. We present the scientific motivation for, and a preliminary design of, a multiplexed ultraviolet spectrograph to support both the exoplanet and astrophysics goals of the LUVOIR Surveyor mission concept, the Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor (CHISL). CHISL includes a highresolution (R ≍ 120,000; 1000 - 1700Å) point-source spectroscopy channel and a medium resolution (R >= 14,000 from 1000 - 2000 Å in a single observation and R 24,000 - 35,000 in multiple grating settings) imaging spectroscopy channel. CHISL addresses topics ranging from characterizing the composition and structure of planet-forming disks to the feedback of matter between galaxies and the intergalactic medium. We present the CHISL concept, a small sample of representative science cases, and the primary technological hurdles. Technical challenges include high-efficiency ultraviolet coatings and high-quantum efficiency, large-format, photon counting detectors. We are actively engaged in laboratory and flight characterization efforts for all of these enabling technologies as components on sounding rocket payloads under

  18. Aquifer-System Compaction and Land Subsidence: Measurements, Analyses, and Simulations-the Holly Site, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Galloway, Devin L.

    2000-01-01

    Land subsidence resulting from ground-water-level declines has long been recognized as a problem in Antelope Valley, California. At Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), ground-water extractions have caused more than 150 feet of water-level decline, resulting in nearly 4 feet of subsidence. Differential land subsidence has caused sinklike depressions and earth fissures and has accelerated erosion of the playa lakebed surface of Rogers Lake at EAFB, adversely affecting the runways on the lakebed which are used for landing aircraft such as the space shuttles. Since 1990, about 0.4 foot of aquifer-system compaction has been measured at a deep (840 feet) borehole extensometer (Holly site) at EAFB. More than 7 years of paired ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction measurements made at the Holly site were analyzed for this study. Annually, seasonal water-level fluctuations correspond to steplike variations in aquifer-system compaction; summer water-level drawdowns are associated with larger rates of compaction, and winter water-level recoveries are associated with smaller rates of compaction. The absence of aquifer-system expansion during recovery is consistent with the delayed drainage and resultant delayed, or residual, compaction of thick aquitards. A numerical one-dimensional MODFLOW model of aquitard drainage was used to refine estimates of aquifer-system hydraulic parameters that control compaction and to predict potential future compaction at the Holly site. The analyses and simulations of aquifer-system compaction are based on established theories of aquitard drainage. Historical ground-water-level and land-subsidence data collected near the Holly site were used to constrain simulations of aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence at the site for the period 1908?90, and ground-water-level and aquifer- system compaction measurements collected at the Holly site were used to constrain the model for the period 1990?97. Model results indicate that two thick

  19. Cartography of the Luna-21 landing site and Lunokhod-2 traverse area based on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images and surface archive TV-panoramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kozlova, N. A.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Zubarev, A. E.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Patratiy, V. D.; Konopikhin, A. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Oberst, J.; Haase, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Plescia, J. B.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-02-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) system consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). NAC images (∼0.5 to 1.7 m/pixel) reveal details of the Luna-21 landing site and Lunokhod-2 traverse area. We derived a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and an orthomosaic for the study region using photogrammetric stereo processing techniques with NAC images. The DEM and mosaic allowed us to analyze the topography and morphology of the landing site area and to map the Lunokhod-2 rover route. The total range of topographic elevation along the traverse was found to be less than 144 m; and the rover encountered slopes of up to 20°. With the orthomosaic tied to the lunar reference frame, we derived coordinates of the Lunokhod-2 landing module and overnight stop points. We identified the exact rover route by following its tracks and determined its total length as 39.16 km, more than was estimated during the mission (37 km), which until recently was a distance record for planetary robotic rovers held for more than 40 years.

  20. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Observations Relating to Science and Landing Site Selection in South Pole-Aitken Basin for a Robotic Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Petro, N. E.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) is a high priority target for Solar System exploration, and sample return from SPA is a specific objective in NASA's New Frontiers program. Samples returned from SPA will improve our understanding of early lunar and Solar System events, mainly by placing firm timing constraints on SPA formation and post-SPA late-heavy bombardment (LHB). Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images and topographic data, especially Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) scale (1-3 mpp) morphology and digital terrain model (DTM) data are critical for selecting landing sites and assessing landing hazards. Rock components in regolith at a given landing site should include (1) original SPA impact-melt rocks and breccia (to determine the age of the impact event and what materials were incorporated into the melt); (2) impact-melt rocks and breccia from large craters and basins (other than SPA) that represent the post-SPA LHB interval; (3) volcanic basalts derived from the sub-SPA mantle; and (4) older, "cryptomare" (ancient buried volcanics excavated by impact craters, to determine the volcanic history of SPA basin). All of these rock types are sought for sample return. The ancient SPA-derived impact-melt rocks and later-formed melt rocks are needed to determine chronology, and thus address questions of early Solar System dynamics, lunar history, and effects of giant impacts. Surface compositions from remote sensing are consistent with mixtures of SPA impactite and volcanic materials, and near infrared spectral data distinguish areas with variable volcanic contents vs. excavated SPA substrate. Estimating proportions of these rock types in the regolith requires knowledge of the surface deposits, evaluated via morphology, slopes, and terrain ruggedness. These data allow determination of mare-cryptomare-nonmare deposit interfaces in combination with compositional and mineralogical remote sensing to establish the types and relative proportions of materials

  1. Solar wind rare gas analysis: Trapped solar wind helium and neon in Surveyor 3 material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, F.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Schwarzmueller, J.

    1972-01-01

    The He-4 and Ne-20 contents in sections of the Surveyor 3 support strut samples were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and are compared to the results of the Apollo solar wind composition (SWC) experiments. The He-4/Ne-20 ratio in the samples from the sunlit side of the strut was approximately 300; the ratios determined in Apollo 12 lunar fines and SWC foil were below 100. The He-4/He-3 ratios were also determined, and the ratio obtained from Surveyor 3 material is higher than those found with Apollo 11 and 12 SWC experiments. The effects of spallation by cosmic rays or solar protons, stripping by cosmic ray or energetic solar alpha particles, recycling of solar wind He and radiogenic Ne, He from terrestrial atmosphere, mass discrimination near the moon, mass dependence of trapping probability, diffusion, and contamination by lunar dust are considered.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

  4. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, John W; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseleyb, Samuel H; Novakh, Giles; Reintsemad, Carl; Rostemab, Karwan; Stevensonb, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  5. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Kogut, Alan J..; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  6. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  7. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  8. Assessment of Cost Management Functions of Quantity Surveyors with Lean Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Opeyemi Anifowose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Construction industry in Nigeria is made up of a wide variety of activities which include the provision of professional and technical services to clients in the built environment. Despite the provision of these services to a large number of clients worldwide, the construction industry is still awash by the chronic problems of low productivity, insufficient quality, time over-runs, and poor safety, which hinder customer delivered value. The Just-In-Time phenomenon is a characteristic of lean production systems which operate with very little “fat” (e.g. excess inventory extra workers, wasted space.This study aimed at assessing the construction management function of the quantity surveyor in line with the principle of lean methodology (Just-In-Time. This was achieved by exploring the cost management function of the quantity surveyor, to investigate the current practice of cost management by quantity surveying firms. Data for the study were sourced primarily with the use of questionnaire and the subsequent data analysis, which employed the use of descriptive analysis of presenting the data as obtained on tables during the field survey and attempts a rudimentary establishment of patterns using percentages. The study concluded amongst others, that: all activities involved in the cost management function of the quantity surveyor are important, and value adding, corresponding to conversion activities in line with the Just-In-time/lean methodology

  9. Perancangan Aplikasi Komputer Berbasis Android untuk Panduan Pengawasan Pembangunan Kapal Baru oleh Owner Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Adrian Lasuardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru yang ada saat ini masih dilakukan secara manual dimana seorang owner surveyor melakukan pengawasan mengacu pada form pengawasan. Kegiatan pengawasan yang ada saat ini kurang efektif untuk dilakukan pada proses pembangunan kapal baru, hal ini dikarenakan tidak semua owner surveyor memiliki pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang sama. Tujuan dari tugas akhir ini adalah melakukan observasi sistem pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru yang ada saat ini, merancang aplikasi komputer berbasis android untuk panduan pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru, dan melakukan uji validitas aplikasi tersebut dalam meningkatkan efektivitas pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru. Perancangan aplikasi dilakukan dengan pembuatan mock up aplikasi, desain interface, perancangan database, dan pengkodingan aplikasi tersebut. Aplikasi ini memiliki fitur daftar proses pengawasan, review hasil pengawasan, progress pembangunan kapal, dan menu untuk menambahkan owner surveyor. Uji coba aplikasi ini dilakukan kepada beberapa responden yang memiliki pengalaman pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru dan pihak-pihak yang memiliki latar belakang pendidikan di bidang perkapalan. Dari hasil pengujian menggunakan kuisoner tersebut diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa aplikasi ini perlu diaplikasikan dalam mendukung proses pengawasan pembangunan kapal baru.

  10. Subsoil Carbon Stocks and Vulnerability to Land Use Change Across a Network of Seven Experimental Sites in the US Northern Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, S.; Rothstein, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report the depth distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) at experimental sites in the Northern Lake States (Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota) spanning a range of textural and geochemical environments. We also determined the vulnerability of SOC and SIC to the disturbance caused land-use change (conversion of old fields to short-rotation woody crop plantations). The experimental network consists of seven bioenergy plantations established in 2009-2010 in idled grass fields using herbicide and tillage. These study sites exhibit differences in soil texture (controlled largely by the type of glacial overlay) and geochemistry (controlled by the regional lithology including shale, basalt, limestone, sandstone and calcareous sandstone), providing the opportunity to gain insight into regional physical and chemical determinants of soil C storage. We conducted intensive soil sampling campaigns to a depth of 1 m prior to land conversion and at 4 years post-disturbance, to determine the depth profile and response of soil C storage as a function of land use and regional edaphic attributes. The proportion of subsoil SOC (stored at a depth greater than 25 cm) ranged from 33 to 50% of whole-profile SOC (to 1 m) prior to land conversion. Soils developed from calcareous parent materials also had significant SIC stocks despite the humid climate promoting carbonate weathering. The SIC stocks made up to half of the total soil C to a depth of 1 m. Measurable carbonates occurred throughout the profile, possibly due to upwards biological translocation mechanisms, but were most abundant at depths greater than 50 cm. Preliminary analyses indicate that SOC decreased in the topsoil following land-use change. These topsoil losses were offset by subsoil gains at sites with reactive mineralogy. The SIC stocks showed re-distribution following disturbance and were likely subject to accelerated weathering. Taken together, these results indicate

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_SITES_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  12. 78 FR 41783 - Notice of Proposed New Fee Sites; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... group picnic site which features the historic CCC-era picnic shelter, parking, drinking water, group... operation and maintenance, market assessment, and public comment. Funds from fees would be used for the continued operation and maintenance of these recreation sites. Two campgrounds on the Challis-Yankee Fork...

  13. Detecting temporal change in land-surface altitude using robotic land-surveying techniques and geographic information system applications at an earthen dam site in Southern Westchester County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Michael L.; Chu, Anthony

    2017-08-14

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study with New York City Department of Environmental Protection to characterize the local groundwater-flow system and identify potential sources of seeps on the southern embankment at the Hillview Reservoir in southern Westchester County, New York. Monthly site inspections at the reservoir indicated an approximately 90-square-foot depression in the land surface directly upslope from a seep that has episodically flowed since 2007. In July 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed the topography of land surface in this depression area by collecting high-accuracy (resolution less than 1 inch) measurements. A point of origin was established for the topographic survey by using differentially corrected positional data collected by a global navigation satellite system. Eleven points were surveyed along the edge of the depression area and at arbitrary locations within the depression area by using robotic land-surveying techniques. The points were surveyed again in March 2012 to evaluate temporal changes in land-surface altitude. Survey measurements of the depression area indicated that the land-surface altitude at 8 of the 11 points decreased beyond the accepted measurement uncertainty during the 44 months from July 2008 to March 2012. Two additional control points were established at stable locations along Hillview Avenue, which runs parallel to the embankment. These points were measured during the July 2008 survey and measured again during the March 2012 survey to evaluate the relative accuracy of the altitude measurements. The relative horizontal and vertical (altitude) accuracies of the 11 topographic measurements collected in March 2012 were ±0.098 and ±0.060 feet (ft), respectively. Changes in topography at 8 of the 11 points ranged from 0.09 to 0.63 ft and topography remained constant, or within the measurement uncertainty, for 3 of the 11 points.Two cross sections were constructed through the depression area

  14. Effect of land-use changes and site variables on surface soil organic carbon pool at Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-hashim, Mohamed; Elsayed, Mohamed; Belal, Abd-ElAziz

    2016-02-01

    Soil organic carbon pool (SOCP) is affected by several factors particularly soil type, climate, topography, crop management, and anthropogenic factors. The study was carried out to clarify relationships between SOCP under different soil types and land-use changes in the Mediterranean region. Data of 26 pedons were investigated in Tanta catchment, middle Nile Delta, Egypt (30°45 N, 30°55 E), that the collected soil samples covered different soil types and land-uses. There were significant differences of SOCP among soils: loam and clay loams were rather similar. Clay soils were the most extensive and have mean SOCP of 4.08 ± 1.41 kg C m-2. The highest SOCP of 7.07 kg C m-2 was in clay loam soil associated with bare soil, while the lowest of 2.57 kg C m-2 in sandy clay loam soil associated with bare soil. Losing cropland showed highest increase from 1990 to 2015 with increasing urban encroachment by 15.3%. The overall average results of SOCP in cropland area showed 53.85 Mg C ha-1 under different soils. Losing the arable lands to urbanization resulted in a decrease of 285.421 Gg C of SOCP. With the decrease in SOCP sequestrated within the soil surface, carbon dioxide would be emitted to the atmosphere. The emitted CO2 resulted from losing the cropland equal to 1047.5 Gg CO2. Land-use changes have marked impact on surface SOCP and C sequestration.

  15. CHANG'E-3 Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer: first detection near the landing site and preliminary analysis result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenxi; Cui, XingZhu; Wang, Huanyu; Guo, Dongya

    Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) onboard CHANG'E-3 Yutu rover was the first high energy resolution instrument of X-ray spectrometry sent to the lunar surface. The scientific objective of APXS is to investigate the elemental compositions along the route of the lunar rover on the Moon.Here, the first lunar soil detection near the landing site made by APXS is presented. The initial analysis indicate that the lunar regolith in this area is rich in both TiO2 and FeO, which is consistent with the remote sensing results.

  16. Biomass and habitability potential of clay minerals- and iron-rich environments: Testing novel analogs for Mars Science Laboratory landing sites candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; McKay, Christopher P.; Chen, Bin

    2010-06-01

    The landing site of the next mission to Mars (the US 2011 Mars Science Laboratory) will include phyllosilicate outcrops as targets for investigating the geological and biological history of the planet. In this context, we present a preliminary study assessing the living biomass and habitability potential in mineralogical Mars analogs by means of multi-component investigations (X-ray diffraction, microRaman spectroscopy and SEMEDX). Phyllosilicate and hematite-rich deposits from the Atacama Desert (Chile), Death Valley (CA), and the California Coast, encompassing a broad arid to hyper-arid climate range (annual rainfall cyanobacteria) were successfully captured.

  17. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Observations Relating to Science and Landing Site Selection in South Pole-Aitken Basin for a Robotic Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Petro, N. E.; Lawrence, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) is a high priority target for Solar System exploration, and sample return from SPA is a specific objective in NASA's New Frontiers program. Samples returned from SPA will improve our understanding of early lunar and Solar System events, mainly by placing firm timing constraints on SPA formation and the post-SPA late-heavy bombardment (LHB). Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images and topographic data, especially Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) scale (1-3 mpp) morphology and digital terrain model (DTM) data are critical for selecting landing sites and assessing landing hazards. Rock components in regolith at a given landing site should include (1) original SPA impact-melt rocks and breccia (to determine the age of the impact event and what materials were incorporated into the melt); (2) impact-melt rocks and breccia from large craters and basins (other than SPA) that represent the post-SPA LHB interval; (3) volcanic basalts derived from the sub-SPA mantle; and (4) older, "cryptomare" (ancient buried volcanics excavated by impact craters, to determine the volcanic history of SPA basin). All of these rock types are sought for sample return. The ancient SPA-derived impact-melt rocks and later-formed melt rocks are needed to determine chronology, and thus address questions of early Solar System dynamics, lunar history, and effects of giant impacts. Surface compositions from remote sensing are consistent with mixtures of SPA impactite and volcanic materials, and near infrared spectral data distinguish areas with variable volcanic contents vs. excavated SPA substrate. Estimating proportions of these rock types in the regolith requires knowledge of the surface deposits, evaluated via morphology, slopes, and terrain ruggedness. These data allow determination of mare-cryptomare-nonmare deposit interfaces in combination with compositional and mineralogical remote sensing to establish the types and relative proportions of materials

  18. Lunar Proton Albedo Anomalies: Soil, Surveyors, and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. K.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Golightly, M. J.; Jordan, A.; Looper, M. D.; Petro, N. E.; Robinson, M. S.; Stubbs, T. J.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Blake, J. B.; Kasper, J. C.; Mazur, J. E.; Smith, S. S.; Townsend, L. W.

    2014-12-01

    Since the launch of LRO in 2009, the CRaTER instrument has been mapping albedo protons (~100 MeV) from the Moon. These protons are produced by nuclear spallation, a consequence of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) bombardment of the lunar regolith. Just as spalled neutrons and gamma rays reveal elemental abundances in the lunar regolith, albedo protons may be a complimentary method for mapping compositional variations. We presently find that the lunar maria have an average proton yield 0.9% ±0.3% higher than the average yield in the highlands; this is consistent with neutron data that is sensitive to the regolith's average atomic weight. We also see cases where two or more adjacent pixels (15° × 15°) have significantly anomalous yields above or below the mean. These include two high-yielding regions in the maria, and three low-yielding regions in the far-side highlands. Some of the regions could be artifacts of Poisson noise, but for completeness we consider possible effects from compositional anomalies in the lunar regolith, including pyroclastic flows, antipodes of fresh craters, and so-called "red spots". We also consider man-made landers and crash sites that may have brought elements not normally found in the lunar regolith.

  19. On the applicability of surrogate-based Markov chain Monte Carlo-Bayesian inversion to the Community Land Model: Case studies at flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Maoyi; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Ren, Huiying; Liu, Ying; Swiler, Laura

    2016-07-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) has been widely used in climate and Earth system modeling. Accurate estimation of model parameters is needed for reliable model simulations and predictions under current and future conditions, respectively. In our previous work, a subset of hydrological parameters has been identified to have significant impact on surface energy fluxes at selected flux tower sites based on parameter screening and sensitivity analysis, which indicate that the parameters could potentially be estimated from surface flux observations at the towers. To date, such estimates do not exist. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of applying a Bayesian model calibration technique to estimate CLM parameters at selected flux tower sites under various site conditions. The parameters are estimated as a joint probability density function (PDF) that provides estimates of uncertainty of the parameters being inverted, conditional on climatologically average latent heat fluxes derived from observations. We find that the simulated mean latent heat fluxes from CLM using the calibrated parameters are generally improved at all sites when compared to those obtained with CLM simulations using default parameter sets. Further, our calibration method also results in credibility bounds around the simulated mean fluxes which bracket the measured data. The modes (or maximum a posteriori values) and 95% credibility intervals of the site-specific posterior PDFs are tabulated as suggested parameter values for each site. Analysis of relationships between the posterior PDFs and site conditions suggests that the parameter values are likely correlated with the plant functional type, which needs to be confirmed in future studies by extending the approach to more sites.

  20. 重庆市旅游景区土地利用规划管理研究%Study on the Management of Land Use Planning of Tourism Sites in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力; 邱继勤; 邱道持

    2011-01-01

    总结了重庆市旅游景区土地规划管理取得的成效,分析了旅游景区土地利用存在的问题,并提出坚持以科学发展观指导景区土地利用规划管理、健全景区土地利用规划实施监管制度、加快景区土地利用规划管理的支持体系建设等完善旅游景区土地利用规划管理的对策.%The achievements of land - use planning and management of tourism sites in Chongqing were summarized, and problems in land use of tourism sites were analyzed,then it put forward the countermeasures for perfecting land -use planning and management of tourism sites,namely, it should insist to be guidance with scientific progress view to carry out land - use planning and management of tourism sites, perfect regulatory system of land utilization planning of tourism sites,accelerate support system construction of land - use planning and management of tourism sites

  1. THE CHOICE OF LUNAR LANDING SITES AND A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL SITES%月球软着陆点的选择与几个预选点的初步对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊盛青; 闫柏琨; 甘甫平; 王振超

    2009-01-01

    月球软着陆探测是中国二期探月工程的主要目标,软着陆点的选择是工程实施与科学目标能否顺利完成的关键之一.克里普岩对于研究月球的起源和演化有重要意义,但由于该岩石被玄武岩所覆盖,难以利用轨道探测器开展全面深入的研究.撞击坑是研究月表以下物质成分的窗口,在克里普岩区选择条件合适的撞击坑开展软着陆探测有助于对克里普岩的深入研究.在克里普岩区选取Copernicus、Kepler及Aristarchus 3个撞击坑作为预选着陆点,并利用嫦娥一号CCD数据、LIDAR数据以及Clementine UV/VIS/NIR数据从月形月貌特征和物质组成两个方面对预选点进行了初步对比分析,以期为我国二期探月工程提供参考与依据.%The landing exploration of the moon is one of the main goals of China's lunar exploration, and the selection of landing sites is very important to achieve this goal. On the basis of summarizing scientific goals of lunar exploration and analyzing distribution characteristics of landing sites, the authors chose three craters of Copernicus, Kepler, and Aristarchus in KREEP rock distribution area as candidate landing sites. A preliminary comparison and analysis of these sites in the aspects of composition, characteristics and safety were also made by using CE-1 CCD data, LIDAR data and Clementine UV/VIS/NIR data.

  2. The electrical properties of Titan's surface at the Huygens landing site measured with the PWA-HASI Mutual Impedance Probe. New approach and new findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Michel; Lethuillier, Anthony; Le Gall, Alice; Grard, Réjean; Béghin, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Jernej, Irmgard; López-Moreno, José-Juan; Brown, Vic; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Ferri, Francesca; Ciarletti, Valérie

    2016-05-01

    Ten years after the successful landing of the Huygens Probe on the surface of Titan, we reassess the derivation of ground complex permittivity using the PWA-MIP/HASI measurements (Permittivity, Waves and Altimetry-Mutual Impedance Probe/Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument) at the frequencies 45, 90 and 360 Hz. For this purpose, we have developed a numerical method, namely "the capacity-influence matrix method", able to account for new insights on the Huygens Probe attitude at its final resting position. We find that the surface of Titan at the landing site has a dielectric constant of 2.5 ± 0.3 and a conductivity of 1.2 ± 0.6 nS/m, in agreement with previously published results but with much more reliable error estimates. These values speak in favour of a photochemical origin of the material in the first meter of the subsurface. We also propose, for the first time, a plausible explanation for the sudden change observed by PWA-MIP ∼11 min after landing: this change corresponds to a drop in the ground conductivity, probably due to the removal of a superficial conductive layer in association with the release of volatile materials warmed by the Huygens Probe.

  3. In situ optical measurements of Chang'E-3 landing site in Mare Imbrium: 1. Mineral abundances inferred from spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yazhou; Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weidong; Lucey, Paul G.; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Kaydash, Vadim G.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Di, Kaichang; Wan, Wenhui; Xu, Bin; Xiao, Long; Wang, Ziwei; Xue, Bin

    2015-09-01

    The visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer on board the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang'E-3 mission measured the lunar surface reflectance at a close distance (~1 m) and collected four spectra at four different sites. These in situ lunar spectra have revealed less mature features than that measured remotely by spaceborne sensors such as the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on board the Chandrayaan-1 mission and the Spectral Profiler on board the Kaguya over the same region. Mineral composition analysis using a spectral lookup table populated with a radiative transfer mixing model has shown that the regolith at the landing site contains high abundance of olivine. The mineral abundance results are consistent with that inferred from the compound measurement made by the on board alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer.

  4. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places - MO 2013 Dept of Natural Resources Land Boundaries (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set depicts the boundaries of parks and historic sites managed by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Parks. These data are...

  5. Study on a Dynamic Vegetation Model for Simulating Land Surface Flux Exchanges at Lien-Hua-Chih Flux Observation Site in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. Y.; Li, M. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ryder, J.; McGrath, M.; Otto, J.; Naudts, K.; Luyssaert, S.; MacBean, N.; Bastrikov, V.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms) is a state of art land surface component of the IPSL (Institute Pierre Simon Laplace) Earth System Model. It has been used world-wide to investigate variations of water, carbon, and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study we assessed the applicability of using ORCHIDEE-CAN, a new feature with 3-D CANopy structure (Naudts et al., 2015; Ryder et al., 2016), to simulate surface fluxes measured at tower-based eddy covariance fluxes at the Lien-Hua-Chih experimental watershed in Taiwan. The atmospheric forcing including radiation, air temperature, wind speed, and the dynamics of vertical canopy structure for driving the model were obtained from the observations site. Suitable combinations of default plant function types were examined to meet in-situ observations of soil moisture and leaf area index from 2009 to 2013. The simulated top layer soil moisture was ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 and total leaf area was ranging from 2.2 to 4.4, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the sensitive of model parameters and model skills of ORCHIDEE-CAN on capturing seasonal variations of surface fluxes. The most sensitive parameters were suggested and calibrated by an automatic data assimilation tool ORCHDAS (ORCHIDEE Data Assimilation Systems; http://orchidas.lsce.ipsl.fr/). Latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes simulated by the model were compared with long-term observations at the site. ORCHIDEE-CAN by making use of calibrated surface parameters was used to study variations of land-atmosphere interactions on a variety of temporal scale in associations with changes in both land and atmospheric conditions. Ref: Naudts, K., et al.,: A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes, Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 2035-2065, doi:10.5194/gmd-8

  6. Numerical Simulations of the Lunar Penetrating Radar and Investigations of the Geological Structures of the Lunar Regolith Layer at the Chang’E 3 Landing Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of lunar exploration, and specifically when studying lunar surface structure and thickness, the established lunar regolith model is usually a uniform and ideal structural model, which is not well-suited to describe the real structure of the lunar regolith layer. The present study aims to explain the geological structural information contained in the channel 2 LPR (lunar penetrating radar data. In this paper, the random medium theory and Apollo drilling core data are used to construct a modeling method based on discrete heterogeneous random media, and the simulation data are processed and collected by the electromagnetic numerical method FDTD (finite-difference time domain. When comparing the LPR data with the simulated data, the heterogeneous random medium model is more consistent with the actual distribution of the media in the lunar regolith layer. It is indicated that the interior structure of the lunar regolith layer at the landing site is not a pure lunar regolith medium but rather a regolith-rock mixture, with rocks of different sizes and shapes. Finally, several reasons are given to explain the formation of the geological structures of the lunar regolith layer at the Chang’E 3 landing site, as well as the possible geological stratification structure.

  7. Hydrogeologic barriers to the infiltration of treated wastewater at the Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst Land Application Site, Burlington County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Alex R.

    2016-09-02

    For the final phase of wastewater treatment operations at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst in Burlington County, New Jersey, treated effluent is pumped to 12 infiltration basins on a Land Application Site to recharge the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Two of the 12 infiltration basins are operationally ineffective because discharged effluent fails to percolate and remains ponded on the basin surfaces. A study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense, investigated the potential hydrogeologic conditions preventing infiltration in these basins by testing the geophysical, lithological, and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer material underlying the site. Saturated sand, sandy clay, and unsaturated sand were encountered in succession through the upper 4 feet of sediment below land surface at the two ineffective basins. Water levels in auger borings penetrating the clay and underlying dry sand were measured as deeper than water levels in nested auger borings in the saturated sand overlying the clay, which indicates a downward vertical gradient was established after removal of the clay in the deeper borings created a conduit for drainage from the surficial saturated sands. Ground-penetrating radar surveys and additional water levels measured in piezometer wells adjacent to the infiltration basins indicated a lack of connectivity between the ponded basin water and the regional water table, and demonstrated that perched conditions were not present in native formation materials outside the inoperable basins. Therefore, the near-surface low permeability clay is likely preventing infiltration from the basin surface and causes the ineffectiveness of the two basins for wastewater land application operations.

  8. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  9. Optical and SAR sensor synergies for forest and land cover mapping in a tropical site in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio Laurin, Gaia; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Chen, Qi; Guerriero, Leila; Del Frate, Fabio; Bartolini, Antonio; Coomes, David; Wilebore, Beccy; Lindsell, Jeremy; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The classification of tropical fragmented landscapes and moist forested areas is a challenge due to the presence of a continuum of vegetation successional stages, persistent cloud cover and the presence of small patches of different land cover types. To classify one such study area in West Africa we integrated the optical sensors Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) with the Phased Arrayed L-band SAR (PALSAR) sensor, the latter two on-board the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS), using traditional Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Neural Networks (NN) classifiers. The impact of texture variables and the use of SAR to cope with optical data unavailability were also investigated. SAR and optical integrated data produced the best classification overall accuracies using both MLC and NN, respectively equal to 91.1% and 92.7% for TM and 95.6% and 97.5% for AVNIR-2. Texture information derived from optical images was critical, improving results between 10.1% and 13.2%. In our study area, PALSAR alone was able to provide valuable information over the entire area: when the three forest classes were aggregated, it achieved 75.7% (with MCL) and 78.1% (with NN) overall classification accuracies. The selected classification and processing methods resulted in fine and accurate vegetation mapping in a previously untested region, exploiting all available sensors synergies and highlighting the advantages of each dataset.

  10. Chemical Species of Migrating Radionuclides at Commercial Shallow Land Burial Sites: Quarterly Progress Report - October-December, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, L. J.; RIckard, W. H.; Toste, A. P.

    1984-02-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of chemical processes that significantly influence the migration of radionuclides at commercial low-level waste (LLW} burial sites. Chemical measurements of waste trench leachate and identification of chanical changes in leachate during migration will provide a basis for geochemical waste transport models. This project will produce for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory C011mission (NRC) information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the developnent of criteria for low level waste disposal site selection, management, permanent closure and monitoring. This project will also produce information needed by the Canmonwealth of Kentucky as they finalize plans to stabilize. close and monitor the Maxey Flats site.

  11. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  12. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM2.5 with personal exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Aileen; Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise; Leseman, Daan L A C; Hellack, Bryan; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert; Janssen, Nicole A H

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial v

  13. 75 FR 2850 - Notice of Proposed New Fee Sites; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... and experiences. Fees are assessed based on the level of amenities and services provided, cost of... range between $60 and $80 per night. Rental cabins offer a unique experience and are a widely popular... Creek and Oregon Trail Interpretive Park. These sites provide campsites, fire rings, picnic tables...

  14. 75 FR 26714 - Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... ATV Trail is located near Beaumont, MS. Currently, the site contains 31 miles of trail, an information.... This annual pass could be used for access to three other motorized trails in the National Forests in... recreational experience at the facility. Comparable recreational use fees are being proposed at other...

  15. Analysis of Surveyor 3 television cable after residence on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, F. C.; Park, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 12 astronauts brought the Surveyor III television camera back from the moon in November 1969. Chemical analyses of a portion of television cable revealed changes in the glass fabric sleeve and in the wire insulation as a result of exposure to the lunar environment. Loss of volatile constituents from the glass fabric and a discoloration of the glass occurred. The Teflon layer on the wire showed a slight discoloration and possibly a slight change in its infrared spectrum. Both the polyimide layer and the Teflon layer of the wire insulation showed changes in tensile strength and elongation.

  16. Solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron density profiles in the Martian ionosphere observed by the radio occultation experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor have been analyzed to determine if the densities are influenced by the solar wind. Evidence is presented that the altitude of the maximum ionospheric electron density shows a positive correlation to the energetic proton flux in the solar wind. The solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere can be attributed to heating of the neutral atmosphere by the solar wind energetic proton precipitation. The modulation is observed to be most prominent at high solar zenith angles. It is argued that this is consistent with the proposed modulation mechanism.

  17. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations

  18. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  19. Surveyor Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Hessellund, Regner Bæk

    providing the qualification of ‘building maintenance technician’. Being addressed to people seeking jobs, but also to professionals already working in domains connected to the administration and maintenance of building stock, such as local administration, public and private companies owning buildings, SMEs...

  20. A Site-Related Suitability Analysis for the Production of Biomass as a Contribution to Sustainable Regional Land-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  1. Short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. : a land use option for carbon sequestration on reclaimed mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinkenstein, A.; Bohm, C.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A study in northeast Germany has shown that the establishment of short rotation coppices (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia L. may be a viable option for improving farmers income on marginal soils. The plantations produce woody biomass at a fast rate for energy use. Carbon is accumulated in the harvestable biomass, as well as in the stump and the roots. These plant compartments form a long-term carbon storage pool because they can survive a harvest, stay vital at the site and continue to grow as the plant ages. As organic litter decomposes, additional carbon is sequestered under SRC as soil organic carbon. The carbon sequestration in SRC of R. pseudoacacia on mining sites within the Lower Lusatian region in northeast Germany was studied and the results were complemented with findings of current field studies conducted on reclaimed mine sites. The average above ground dry matter productivity of R. pseudoacacia was found to be 3 to 10 Mg per hectare per year, depending on the plantation age and rotation period. It has been estimated that the carbon storage within the soil accounts to a carbon sequestration of up to 6 Mg per hectare per year for a soil depth of 60 cm.

  2. A site-related suitability analysis for the production of biomass as a contribution to sustainable regional land-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  3. 基于多目标粒子群的土地整理项目选址模型%Site selection model of land consolidation projects based on multi-objective optimization PSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 朱付保

    2015-01-01

    土地整理项目选址实质上是一个多目标空间优化问题,将传统选址方法用于解决多目标土地整理项目选址存在明显不足.该文提出了一种基于多目标粒子群的土地整理项目选址模型,归纳了土地整理项目选址的选址规则,提取 3个能够体现土地整理项目选址目的及意义的目标函数,即新增耕地潜力最高、空间分区集中连片、土地适宜性评价指数最高,同时考虑了土地整理项目最小新增耕地率、实施规模 2 类约束条件,并详细阐述了算法的核心思想、矢量编码策略、状态更新机制等内容,最后选取湖北省嘉鱼县为试验区,验证了模型的可行性和有效性,结果表明通过对目标的权重调控可以得到不同目标偏好的土地整理项目选址方案,该文所构建模型在土地整理实践中具有可操作性,提供的选址方案科学合理,为土地利用规划和土地利用调控管理提供支持.%Land consolidation, as a significant way to optimize the allocation of land resources in relatively small regions, is one of the important contents of land use plan. The only way in China to implement the work of land consolidation is project, so the site selection of land consolidation projects, demarcating the border in the two-dimensional space, is the first step of land consolidation projects. Its scientificity and rationality will decide the achievement of maximum benefit of land consolidation. But from the current actual situation of land consolidation, the theory and the practice of the site selection of land consolidation projects are both weak, so on the occasion of new round of land use planning, the research of scientific theories and methods is necessary and urgent. Site location of land consolidation project was discussed in this paper based on multi-objective optimization. The site location rules of land consolidation project were generalized, and 3 objective functions were comprised, which

  4. Oligocene-Miocene paleoceanographic changes offshore the Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica: dinoflagellate cyst and TEX86 analyses of DSDP Site 269

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter; Boterblom, Wilrieke H.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Hartman, Julian D.; Peterse, Francien

    2017-04-01

    Although a lot of research has been conducted to characterize the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, little is known about the subsequent evolution and fluctuations of the size of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The discrepancy between the conclusions of Foster and Rohling (2013) (insensitive global cryosphere between 400-650 ppmv CO2) and variations in benthic foraminiferal δ18O records (0.5-1 ‰) illustrate the uncertainty in particularly the East AIS variability during the Oligocene and Miocene. Increasing awareness of the importance of oceanographic conditions on ice sheet melt emphasize the need to directly infer ice sheet volume fluctuations from sedimentary archives close to the Antarctic margin. In this study, dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages, dinocyst-based biostratigraphy and TEX86 from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 269, offshore the Wilkes Land Margin (WLM), were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and paleoceanographic setting during the Oligocene and Miocene. Preliminary results are indicative of open ocean conditions, Southern Ocean fronts and high productivity waters. Furthermore, biomarker species were found, which are useful for stratigraphic dating. Research conducted at the continental rise of the WLM (Site U1356), by Bijl et al. (in prep.), has allowed for the calibration of dinocysts events of the Oligocene-Miocene Southern Ocean to the international time scale. Comparing the results of Site 269 to Site U1356 can thus provide an age constraint for this record. Correlating paleoceanographic changes between sites can provide insights into the variability of the EAIS during the Oligocene and Miocene, and will contribute to improving predictions of future changes in the Antarctic ice sheet.

  5. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    are affecting livelihoods in northern Laos. The research engages a range of approaches, theories and concepts, including political ecology, polycentric resource governance, land-change science, regime shifts in land systems, land sparing versus land sharing, and the sustainable livelihood framework. During...... software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  6. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  7. The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept study: forging the path to NASA astrophysics 2020 decadal survey prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Özel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  8. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  9. Large-Eddy Simulation of Shallow Cumulus over Land: A Composite Case Based on ARM Long-Term Observations at Its Southern Great Plains Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Chandra, Arunchandra S. [Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; Kollias, Pavlos [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    2017-10-01

    Based on long-term observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at its Southern Great Plains site, a new composite case of continental shallow cumulus (ShCu) convection is constructed for large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. The case represents a typical daytime non-precipitating ShCu whose formation and dissipation are driven by the local atmospheric conditions and land-surface forcing, and are not influenced by synoptic weather events. The case includes: early-morning initial profiles of temperature and moisture with a residual layer; diurnally-varying sensible and latent heat fluxes which represent a domain average over different land-surface types; simplified large-scale horizontal advective tendencies and subsidence; and horizontal winds with prevailing direction and average speed. Observed composite cloud statistics are provided for model evaluation. The observed diurnal cycle is well-reproduced by LES, however the cloud amount, liquid water path, and shortwave radiative effect are generally underestimated. LES are compared between simulations with an all-or-nothing bulk microphysics and a spectral bin microphysics. The latter shows improved agreement with observations in the total cloud cover and the amount of clouds with depths greater than 300 meters. When compared with radar retrievals of in-cloud air motion, LES produce comparable downdraft vertical velocities, but a larger updraft area, velocity and updraft mass flux. Both observation and LES show a significantly larger in-cloud downdraft fraction and downdraft mass flux than marine ShCu.

  10. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  11. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: Early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perrett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2014-01-01

    ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  12. Cartographic and geodetic methods to characterize the potential landing sites for the future Russian missions Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Konopikhin, A. A.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Zubarev, A. E.; Patratiy, V. D.; Kozlova, N. A.; Uchaev, D. V.; Uchaev, Dm. V.; Malinnikov, V. A.; Oberst, J.

    2015-04-01

    Characterization of the potential landing sites for the planned Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs Russian missions requires cartographic and geodetic support prepared with special methods and techniques that are briefly overviewed here. The data used in the analysis, including the digital terrain models (DTMs) and the orthoimages acquired in the survey carried out from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Kaguya spacecraft, are described and evaluated. By way of illustration, different regions of the lunar surface, including the subpolar regions of the Moon, are characterized with the suggested methods and the GIS-technologies. The development of the information support for the future lunar missions started in 2011, and it is now carried on in MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab), which is a department of the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK).

  13. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  14. Surveyor nuclease detection of mutations and polymorphisms of mtDNA in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Jacek; Asman, Marek; Jamroz, Ewa; Kajor, Maciej; Kotrys-Puchalska, Elżbieta; Goss, Małgorzata; Krzak, Maria; Witecka, Joanna; Gmiński, Jan; Sieroń, Aleksander L

    2010-11-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies are complex disorders with wide range of clinical manifestations. Particularly time-consuming is the identification of mutations in mitochondrial DNA. A group of 20 children with clinical manifestations of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies was selected for molecular studies. The aims were (a) to identify mutations in mtDNA isolated from muscle and (b) to verify detected mutations in DNA isolated from blood, in order to assess the utility of a Surveyor nuclease assay kit for patient screening. The most common changes found were polymorphisms, including a few missense mutations altering the amino acid sequence of mitochondrial proteins. In two boys with MELAS (i.e., mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes), a mutation A→G3243 was detected in the tRNALeu gene of mtDNA isolated from muscle and blood. In one boy, the carrier status of his mother was confirmed, based on molecular analysis of DNA isolated from blood. A method using Surveyor nuclease allows systematic screening for small mutations in mtDNA, using as its source blood of the patients and asymptomatic carriers. The method still requires confirmation studying a larger group. In some patients, the use of this method should precede and might limit indications for traumatic muscle and skin biopsy.

  15. Stable isotope ecology of land snails from a high-latitude site near Fairbanks, interior Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Yurena

    2015-05-01

    Land snails have been investigated isotopically in tropical islands and mid-latitude continental settings, while high-latitude locales, where snails grow only during the summer, have been overlooked. This study presents the first isotopic baseline of live snails from Fairbanks, Alaska (64°51‧N), a proxy calibration necessary prior to paleoenvironmental inferences using fossils. δ13C values of the shell (- 10.4 ± 0.4‰) and the body (- 25.5 ± 1.0‰) indicate that snails consumed fresh and decayed C3-plants and fungi. A flux-balance mixing model suggests that specimens differed in metabolic rates, which may complicate paleovegetation inferences. Shell δ18O values (- 10.8 ± 0.4‰) were 4‰ higher than local summer rain δ18O. If calcification occurred during summer, a flux-balance mixing model suggests that snails grew at temperatures of 13°C, rainwater δ18O values of - 15‰ and relative humidity of 93%. Results from Fairbanks were compared to shells from San Salvador (Bahamas), at 24°51‧N. Average (annual) δ18O values of shells and rainwater samples from The Bahamas were both 10‰ 18O-enriched with respect to seasonal (summer) Alaskan samples. At a coarse latitudinal scale, shell δ18O values overwhelmingly record the signature of the rainfall during snail active periods. While tropical snails record annual average environmental information, high-latitude specimens only trace summer season climatic data.

  16. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Nkumbaan, Samuel N; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds' association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved 'fame' possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites.

  17. Atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentrations at ten sites with contrasting land use in an arid region of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of reactive nitrogen species (Nr from 2009 to 2011 are reported for ten sites in Xinjiang, an arid region in Northwest China. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4+ and pNO3 showed large spatial and seasonal variation and averaged 7.71, 9.68, 1.81 and 1.13 μg N m−3, and PM10 concentrations averaged 249.2 μg m−3 across all sites. Lower NH3 concentrations and higher NO2, pNH4+ and pNO3 concentrations were found in winter, reflecting serious air pollution due to domestic heating in winter and other anthropogenic sources such as increased emissions from motor traffic and industry. The order of increasing total concentrations of Nr species was alpine grassland < desert, desert-oasis ecotone < desert in an oasis < farmland < suburban and urban ecosystems. Lower ratios of secondary particles (NH4+ and NO3 were found in the desert and desert-oasis ecotone, while urban and suburban areas had higher ratios, which implies that anthropogenic activities have greatly influenced local air quality and must be controlled.

  18. Surveyor Nuclease: a new strategy for a rapid identification of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutations in patients with respiratory chain defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, Sylvie; Procaccio, Vincent; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique

    2005-06-01

    Molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a critical step in diagnosis and genetic counseling of respiratory chain defects. No fast method is currently available for the identification of unknown mtDNA point mutations. We have developed a new strategy based on complete mtDNA PCR amplification followed by digestion with a mismatch-specific DNA endonuclease, Surveyor Nuclease. This enzyme, a member of the CEL nuclease family of plant DNA endonucleases, cleaves double-strand DNA at any mismatch site including base substitutions and small insertions/deletions. After digestion, cleavage products are separated and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The size of the digestion products indicates the location of the mutation, which is then confirmed and characterized by sequencing. Although this method allows the analysis of 2 kb mtDNA amplicons and the detection of multiple mutations within the same fragment, it does not lead to the identification of homoplasmic base substitutions. Homoplasmic pathogenic mutations have been described. Nevertheless, most homoplasmic base substitutions are neutral polymorphisms while deleterious mutations are typically heteroplasmic. Here, we report that this method can be used to detect mtDNA mutations such as m.3243A>G tRNA(Leu) and m.14709T>C tRNA(Glu) even when they are present at levels as low as 3% in DNA samples derived from patients with respiratory chain defects. Then, we tested five patients suffering from a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect and we identified a variant (m.16189T>C) in two of them, which was previously associated with susceptibility to diabetes and cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, this method can be effectively used to rapidly and completely screen the entire human mitochondrial genome for heteroplasmic mutations and in this context represents an important advance for the diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases.

  19. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM{sub 2.5} with personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aileen, E-mail: Yang@uu.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Leseman, Daan L.A.C. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hellack, Bryan [Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), e.V., Blierheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J. [Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), e.V., Blierheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Cassee, Flemming R. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Brunekreef, Bert [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Janssen, Nicole A.H. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial variation of personal OP. We collected 96-hour personal, home outdoor and indoor PM{sub 2.5} samples from 15 volunteers living either at traffic, urban or regional background locations in Utrecht, the Netherlands. OP was also measured at one central reference site to account for temporal variations. OP was assessed using electron spin resonance (OP{sup ESR}) and dithiothreitol (OP{sup DTT}). Spatial variation of average OP at the home address was modeled using land use regression (LUR) models. For both OP{sup ESR} and OP{sup DTT}, temporal correlations of central site measurements with home outdoor measurements were high (R>0.75), and moderate to high (R=0.49–0.70) with personal measurements. The LUR model predictions for OP correlated significantly with the home outdoor concentrations for OP{sup DTT} and OP{sup ESR} (R=0.65 and 0.62, respectively). LUR model predictions were moderately correlated with personal OP{sup DTT} measurements (R=0.50). Adjustment for indoor sources, such as vacuum cleaning and absence of fume-hood, improved the temporal and spatial agreement with measured personal exposure for OP{sup ESR}. OP{sup DTT} was not associated with any indoor sources. Our study results support the use of central site OP for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies focusing on short-term health effects. - Highlights: • Oxidative potential (OP) of PM was proposed as a health-relevant exposure metric. • We evaluated the relationship between measured and modeled outdoor and personal OP. • Temporal correlations of central site with personal OP are moderate to high. • Adjusting for indoor sources improved the agreement with personal OP. • Our results

  20. Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity Modeling and Inversion for Shallow Structure at the Proposed InSight Landing Site in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Golombek, Matthew P.; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    The SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) instrument onboard the InSight mission will be the first seismometer directly deployed on the surface of Mars. From studies on the Earth and the Moon, it is well known that site amplification in low-velocity sediments on top of more competent rocks has a strong influence on seismic signals, but can also be used to constrain the subsurface structure. Here we simulate ambient vibration wavefields in a model of the shallow sub-surface at the InSight landing site in Elysium Planitia and demonstrate how the high-frequency Rayleigh wave ellipticity can be extracted from these data and inverted for shallow structure. We find that, depending on model parameters, higher mode ellipticity information can be extracted from single-station data, which significantly reduces uncertainties in inversion. Though the data are most sensitive to properties of the upper-most layer and show a strong trade-off between layer depth and velocity, it is possible to estimate the velocity and thickness of the sub-regolith layer by using reasonable constraints on regolith properties. Model parameters are best constrained if either higher mode data can be used or additional constraints on regolith properties from seismic analysis of the hammer strokes of InSight's heat flow probe HP3 are available. In addition, the Rayleigh wave ellipticity can distinguish between models with a constant regolith velocity and models with a velocity increase in the regolith, information which is difficult to obtain otherwise.

  1. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, including two deep ice coring sites at Dome Fuji and EPICA DML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the spatio-temporal variability of the glaciological environment in Dronning Maud Land (DML, East Antarctica, investigations were carried out along the 2800-km-long Japanese-Swedish IPY 2007/2008 traverse. The route covers ice sheet ridges and two deep ice coring sites at Dome Fuji and EPICA DML. The surface mass balance (SMB distribution was derived based on analysis of isochrones within snow pits, firn cores and subsurface radar signals. The SMB averaged over various time scales in the Holocene was determined. This was then compared with various glaciological data. We find that the large-scale distribution of the SMB depends on the surface elevation, continentality and interactions between ice sheet ridges and the prevailing counterclockwise windfield in DML. A different SMB is found for the windward and leeward sides of the ridges. Local-scale variability in the SMB is essentially governed by bedrock topography which determines the local surface topography. In the eastern part of DML, the accumulation rate in the second half of the 20th century is found to be higher by 15 % compared to averages over longer periods of 722 a or 7.9 ka before AD 2008. A similar trend has been reported for many inland plateau sites in East Antarctica.

  3. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site 2017 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-25

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of relatively small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991, 2008, 2010, and 2016 and are being concurred with or updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk, and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  4. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, Brooke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-26

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of applicant site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991 and 2010. They are being updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  5. Contrasting and not-so-contrasting perspectives between local stakeholders and scientists and across dryland sites in participatory assessment of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Susana; Zucca, Claudio; Urghege, Anna M.; Ramón Vallejo, V.

    2015-04-01

    The participation of stakeholders and the integration of scientific and local knowledge in the assessment of environmental problems and potential solutions have been increasingly demanded by international institutions. Participatory assessment has the potential to engender social learning among all stakeholders, including scientists, which then has the potential to increase collaboration and the probability for adoption of good practices. Using PRACTICE participatory assessment tool, IAPro, a number of assessment criteria were identified, selected and weighted by local stakeholder platforms (SHPs) and scientists in 18 dryland sites distributed across 11 countries. These criteria were then applied to the assessment of a variety of local land management actions. In total, around 50 criteria were proposed by the SHPs, ranging from 6 to 14 per platform. The proposed criteria represented a wide variety of social, economic, cultural, and environmental aspects. Many of them were proposed by many of the SHPs, stressing their potential as universal assessment criteria across drylands. In most cases, these repeatedly proposed criteria were the same criteria proposed by the scientific panel. The relative importance given to the variety of criteria by each SHP was evenly distributed among the economic wealth criterion and each of the main categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, supporting & regulating, and cultural). In general, African and American sites where local people economies heavily rely on natural lands gave higher weights than European sites to "economic-wealth", "provision of goods", and "supporting and regulating services" criteria, and also to "socio-cultural services". All European SHPs selected and gave great importance to criteria that are related to security, such hydrogeological hazard, flood prevention, and fire risk. The participatory assessment process in IAPro facilitated social learning among the stakeholders, including scientists, and promoted

  6. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture......Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  7. Multiple Natural Hazards Assessment and Comparison to Planned Land Use in an Andean Touristic Site within the Riskscape Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Jaque Castillo, Edilia

    2017-04-01

    The Andes of central Chile are a natural environment characterized by multiple natural hazards (mass movements, volcanic hazards, seismic hazards, snow avalanches to name a few). The totality of these hazards, according to the notion of Müller-Mahn et al. an in relation to vulnerable entities, spans a riskscape. Spatial planning should take this riskscape into account in order to ensure a save an resilient regional development. However, as frequently observed in developing or newly developed countries, such precaution measures are only hardly realized. Spatial planing tends to be reactive to private inversion, opportunistic and frequently clientelistic. This results in spatial structures whose future development is vulnerable to natural disasters. The contribution analyses these circumstances within a riskscape in central Chile. Within the VIII. Region, close to the volcanic complex Nevados de Chillan, a touristic development around a Hotel for winter sports is established. However, the place is affected by a multitude of natural hazards. The contribution, on the basis of primary and secondary data, first provides hazard maps for several natural hazards. Secondly, the individual hazard maps are merged to an overall hazard map. This overall hazard map is related to the vulnerable entities to span a riskscape. The vulnerable entities are settlements, but also tourist infrastructures. Then, the contribution compares how a precautions spatial planning could have avoided putting vulnerable entities at risk, which spatial structure - especially regarding tourism - is actually found and which challenges for spatial development do exist. It reveals that the most important tourist infrastructures are found particularly at places, characterized by a high overall hazard. Furthermore, it will show that alternatives at economically equally attractive sites, but with a much smaller overall hazard, would have existed. It concludes by discussing possible reasons for this by

  8. Mesoscale modeling of the water vapor cycle at Mawrth Vallis: a Mars2020 and ExoMars exploration rovers high-priority landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) was used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 (NASA) Rover at several of their respective proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing at Ls5 [1] and by the ExoMars (ESA) Rover at one of the final landing sites. MRAMS is ideally suited for this type of investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simu-late Mars' atmospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface proper-ties [2, 3]. One of the sights studied for both rovers was Mawrth Vallis (MV), an ancient water outflow channel with light colored clay-rich rocks in the mid-latitude north hemisphere (Oxia Palus quadrangle). MV is the northernmost of the Mars2020 and ExoMars landing sites and the closest to the northern polar cap water source. The primary source of water vapor to the atmosphere is the northern polar cap during the northern summer. In order to highlight MV habitability implications, additional numerical experiments at Ls90, 140 and 180, highest column abundance of water vapor is found over MV [4], were performed to study how the atmospheric circulation connects MV with the polar water source. Once the winter CO2 retreats, the underlying polar water ice is exposed and begins to sublimate. The water is transported equatorward where it is manifested in the tropical aphelion cloud belt. If transport is assumed to be the result of the summer Hadley Cell, then the polar water is carried aloft in the northern high latitude rising branch before moving equatorward and eventually toward the southern high latitudes. Thus, the mean meridional summer circulation precludes a direct water vapor connection between MV and the polar source. Around the equinoxes (Ls0 and Ls180), there is a brief transition period where the rising branch quickly crosses from one hemisphere into the other as it migrates to its more typical solstitial location

  9. Knowledge and Attitudes of Nursing Home Staff and Surveyors about the Revised Federal Guidance for Incontinence Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBeau, Catherine E.; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Palmer, Mary H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed nursing home staff and state nursing home surveyors regarding their knowledge and attitudes about urinary incontinence, its management, and the revised federal Tag F315 guidance for urinary incontinence. Design and Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey of a convenience sample of nursing home staff and state nursing home…

  10. Comparison of T7E1 and surveyor mismatch cleavage assays to detect mutations triggered by engineered nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillot, Léna; Thélie, Aurore; Pollet, Nicolas

    2015-01-07

    Genome editing using engineered nucleases is used for targeted mutagenesis. But because genome editing does not target all loci with similar efficiencies, the mutation hit-rate at a given locus needs to be evaluated. The analysis of mutants obtained using engineered nucleases requires specific methods for mutation detection, and the enzyme mismatch cleavage method is used commonly for this purpose. This method uses enzymes that cleave heteroduplex DNA at mismatches and extrahelical loops formed by single or multiple nucleotides. Bacteriophage resolvases and single-stranded nucleases are used commonly in the assay but have not been compared side-by-side on mutations obtained by engineered nucleases. We present the first comparison of the sensitivity of T7E1 and Surveyor EMC assays on deletions and point mutations obtained by zinc finger nuclease targeting in frog embryos. We report the mutation detection limits and efficiencies of T7E1 and Surveyor. In addition, we find that T7E1 outperforms the Surveyor nuclease in terms of sensitivity with deletion substrates, whereas Surveyor is better for detecting single nucleotide changes. We conclude that T7E1 is the preferred enzyme to scan mutations triggered by engineered nucleases.

  11. Effect of Intermittent Flow on the Mobility of Metals from Abandoned Uranium Mine Waste Sites on Native American Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Artyushkova, K.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    Column experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent flow on the mobility of metals from abandoned uranium mine waste sites in Blue Gap Tachee (BGT), AZ and Laguna, NM. Intermittent flow represent the rainfall patterns in the southwestern United States, involving alternate wet and dry cycles. In order to simulate these rainfall patterns shorter wet periods of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 360 minutes, followed by longer dry periods of 24 hours, were adopted for the column experiments. The experiment involved sequential leaching of sediments from Laguna and BGT with 18MὨ water (pH 5.4), Synthetic Rain Water (SRW, pH 5.6), 10mM bicarbonate solution (pH 7.9) and 10mM acetic acid (pH 3.4) solution that represent the environmentally relevant conditions as witnessed in BGT water samples (pH 3.8 and 7.4). These reagents were specifically chosen to target most metal species through various transport mechanisms which include advective-dispersive forces, ion-exchange, desorption and dissolution. With just 18MὨ water and SRW almost 90 µg/L of U, 4500 µg/L of V and 20 µg/L of As were released from BGT mine waste while the Laguna sample showed the release of 380 µg/L of U, 2 µg/L of V and 40 µg/L of As. The released U concentrations were 3-13 times its EPA MCL for U which under natural circumstances could threaten the proximate communities. Bicarbonate and acetic acid extractions on the other hand released 3500-6000 µg/L of U, 50-3000 µg/L of V and 14-35 µg/L of As from both Laguna and BGT mine waste respectively. Based on our previously published results, U and V from the uranyl-vanadate (U-V) species within BGT mine waste samples were only partially released with bicarbonate unlike the column experiments where almost all of the U and V from the U-V species were dissolved and released using 10mM bicarbonate solution. For reference, the columns were also leached continuously with bicarbonate and acetic acid for a week (each), to identify if the phases were

  12. An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Some Martian Regolith Simulants with Respect to the Surface Properties at the InSight Mission Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, Pierre; Karakostas, Foivos; Dhemaied, Amine; Belmokhtar, Malik; Lognonné, Philippe; Golombek, Matt; De Laure, Emmanuel; Hurst, Ken; Dupla, Jean-Claude; Keddar, Sharon; Cui, Yu Jun; Banerdt, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    In support of the InSight mission in which two instruments (the SEIS seismometer and the HP3 heat flow probe) will interact directly with the regolith on the surface of Mars, a series of mechanical tests were conducted on three different regolith simulants to better understand the observations of the physical and mechanical parameters that will be derived from InSight. The mechanical data obtained were also compared to data on terrestrial sands. The density of the regolith strongly influences its mechanical properties, as determined from the data on terrestrial sands. The elastoplastic compression volume changes were investigated through oedometer tests that also provided estimates of possible changes in density with depth. The results of direct shear tests provided values of friction angles that were compared with that of a terrestrial sand, and an extrapolation to lower density provided a friction angle compatible with that estimated from previous observations on the surface of Mars. The importance of the contracting/dilating shear volume changes of sands on the dynamic penetration of the mole was determined, with penetration facilitated by the ˜1.3 Mg/m3 density estimated at the landing site. Seismic velocities, measured by means of piezoelectric bender elements in triaxial specimens submitted to various isotropic confining stresses, show the importance of the confining stress, with lesser influence of density changes under compression. A power law relation of velocity as a function of confining stress with an exponent of 0.3 was identified from the tests, allowing an estimate of the surface seismic velocity of 150 m/s. The effect on the seismic velocity of a 10% proportion of rock in the regolith was also studied. These data will be compared with in situ data measured by InSight after landing.

  13. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David

    2012-01-01

    We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron...... Reflectometer also measured particles with energies >30 MeV that penetrated the aluminum housing of the instrument and were detected directly by microchannel plates in the instrument interior. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental results, we show how the Electron Reflectometer microchannel plates...... recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with similar to 45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar...

  14. Proton Cyclotron Waves Upstream from Mars: Observations from Mars Global Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Romanelli, Norberto; Gomez, Daniel; Mazelle, Christian; Delva, Magda

    2013-01-01

    We present a study on the properties of electromagnetic plasma waves in the region upstream of the Martian bow shock, detected by the magnetometer and electron reflectometer (MAG / ER) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during the period known as Science Phasing Orbits (SPO). The frequency of these waves, measured in the MGS reference frame (SC), is close to the local proton cyclotron frequency. Minimum variance analysis (MVA) shows that these 'proton cyclotron frequency' waves (PCWs) are characterized - in the SC frame - by a left-hand, elliptical polarization and propagate almost parallel to the background magnetic field. They also have a small degree of compressibility and an amplitude that decreases with the increase of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle and radial distance from the planet. The latter result supports the idea that the source of these waves is Mars. In addition, we find that these waves are not associated with the foreshock . Empirical evidence and theoretica...

  15. Combustion of Organic Molecules by the Thermal Decomposition of Perchlorate Salts: Implications for Organics at the Mars Phoenix Scout Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D.W.; Morris, R.V.; Niles, B.; Lauer, H.V.; Archer, P.D.; Sutter, B.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission successfully landed on May 25, 2008 and operated on the northern plains of Mars for 150 sols. The primary mission objective was to study the history of water and evaluate the potential for past and present habitability in Martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. Phoenix landed near 68 N latitude on polygonal terrain created by ice layers that are a few centimeters under loose soil materials. The Phoenix Mission is assessing the potential for habitability by searching for organic molecules in the ice or icy soils at the landing site. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. Phoenix searched for organic molecules by heating soil/ice samples in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA, [2]). TEGA consists of 8 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) ovens integrated with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-140 daltons [2]. Endothermic and exothermic reactions are recorded by the TEGA DSC as samples are heated from ambient to 1000 C. Evolved gases, including any organic molecules and their fragments, are simultaneously measured by the mass spectrometer during heating. Phoenix TEGA data are still under analysis; however, no organic fragments have been identified to date in the evolved gas analysis (EGA). The MECA Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) discovered a perchlorate salt in the Phoenix soils and a mass 32 peak evolved between 325 and 625 C for one surface sample dubbed Baby Bear [3]. The mass 32 peak is attributed to evolved O2 generated during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. Perchlorates are very strong oxidizers when heated, so it is possible that organic fragments evolved in the temperature range of 300-600 C were combusted by the O2 released during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. The byproduct of the combustion of organic molecules is CO2. There is a prominent release of CO2 between 200

  16. Estimating photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil fractions using Landsat and MODIS data: Effects of site heterogeneity, soil properties and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Scarth, P.; McVicar, T.; Malthus, T. J.; Stewart, J.; Rickards, J.; Trevithick, R.; Renzullo, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation fractional cover is a key indicator for land management monitoring, both in pastoral and agricultural settings. Maintaining adequate vegetation cover protects the soil from the effects of water and wind erosion and also ensures that carbon is returned to soil through decomposition. Monitoring vegetation fractional cover across large areas and continuously in time needs good remote sensing techniques underpinned by high quality ground data to calibrate and validate algorithms. In this study we used Landsat and MODIS reflectance data together with field measurements from 1476 observations across Australia to produce estimates of vegetation fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Specifically, we aimed at separating fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (B). We used Landsat reflectance averaged over a 3x3 pixel window representing the area actually measured on the ground and also a 'degraded' Landsat reflectance 40x40 pixel window to simulate the effect of a coarser sensor. Using these two Landsat reflectances we quantified the heterogeneity of each site. We used data from two MODIS-derived reflectance products: the Nadir BRDF-Adjusted surface Reflectance product (MCD43A4) and the MODIS 8-day surface reflectance (MOD09A1). We derived endmembers from the data and estimated fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Log transforms and band interaction terms were added to account for non-linearities in the spectral mixing. For each reflectance source we investigated if the residuals were correlated with site heterogeneity, soil colour, soil moisture and land cover type. As expected, the best model was obtained when Landsat data for a small region around each site was used. We obtained root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.134, 0.175 and 0.153 for PV, NPV and B respectively. When we degraded the Landsat data to an area of ~1 km2 around each site the model performance decreased to

  17. Environmental Modeling, The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nutrient removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use,...

  18. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  19. Holocene local forest history at two sites in Småland, southern Sweden - insights from quantitative reconstructions using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiaoyu; Gaillard, Marie-José; Lemdahl, Geoffrey; Olsson, Fredrik; Sugita, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of past vegetation using fossil pollen was long very problematic. It is well known that pollen percentages and pollen accumulation rates do not represent vegetation abundance properly because pollen values are influenced by many factors of which inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and vegetation structure are the most important ones. It is also recognized that pollen assemblages from large sites (lakes or bogs) record the characteristics of the regional vegetation, while pollen assemblages from small sites record local features. Based on the theoretical understanding of the factors and mechanisms that affect pollen representation of vegetation, Sugita (2007a and b) proposed the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to estimate vegetation abundance in percentage cover for well defined spatial scales. The LRA includes two models, REVEALS and LOVE. REVEALS estimates regional vegetation abundance at a spatial scale of 100 km x 100 km. LOVE estimates local vegetation abundance at the spatial scale of the relevant source area of pollen (RSAP sensu Sugita 1993) of the pollen site. REVEALS estimates are needed to apply LOVE in order to calculate the RSAP and the vegetation cover within the RSAP. The two models were validated theoretically and empirically. Two small bogs in southern Sweden were studied for pollen, plant macrofossil, charcoal, and coleoptera in order to reconstruct the local Holocene forest and fire history (e.g. Greisman and Gaillard 2009; Olsson et al. 2009). We applied the LOVE model in order to 1) compare the LOVE estimates with pollen percentages for a better understanding of the local forest history; 2) obtain more precise information on the local vegetation to explain between-sites differences in fire history. We used pollen records from two large lakes in Småland to obtain REVEALS estimates for twelve continuous 500-yrs time windows. Following the strategy of the Swedish VR LANDCLIM project (see Gaillard

  20. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

  1. Postdepositional losses of methane sulfonate, nitrate, and chloride at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, R.; Traufetter, F.; Fischer, H.; Oerter, H.; Piel, C.; Miller, H.

    2004-04-01

    We quantified postdepositional losses of methane sulfonate (MSA-), nitrate, and chloride at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) drilling site in Dronning Maud Land (DML) (75°S, 0°E). Analyses of four intermediate deep firn cores and 13 snow pits were considered. We found that about 26 ± 13% of the once deposited nitrate and typically 51 ± 20% of MSA- were lost, while for chloride, no significant depletion could be observed in firn older than one year. Assuming a first order exponential decay rate, the characteristic e-folding time for MSA- is 6.4 ± 3 years and 19 ± 6 years for nitrate. It turns out that for nitrate and MSA- the typical mean concentrations representative for the last 100 years were reached after 5.4 and 6.5 years, respectively, indicating that beneath a depth of around 1.2-1.4 m postdepositional losses can be neglected. In the area of investigation, only MSA- concentrations and postdepositional losses showed a distinct dependence on snow accumulation rate. Consequently, MSA- concentrations archived at this site should be significantly dependent on the variability of annual snow accumulation, and we recommend a corresponding correction. With a simple approach, we estimated the partial pressure of the free acids MSA, HNO3, and HCl on the basis of Henry's law assuming that ionic impurities of the bulk ice matrix are localized in a quasi-brine layer (QBL). In contrast to measurements, this approach predicts a nearly complete loss of MSA-, NO3-, and Cl-.

  2. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  3. (Ca,Mg)-Carbonate and Mg-Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Evaluation of the Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Data Using Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (4.5 wt. %) was detected in the soil at the Phoenix Landing site by the Phoenix Lander s The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer [1]. TEGA operated at 12 mbar pressure, yet the detection of calcium carbonate is based on interpretations derived from thermal analysis literature of carbonates measured under ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (10(exp -3) mbar) conditions [2,3] as well as at 100 and 30 mbar [4,5] and one analysis at 12 mbar by the TEGA engineering qualification model (TEGA-EQM). Thermodynamics (Te = H/ S) dictate that pressure affects entropy ( S) which causes the temperature (Te) of mineral decomposition at one pressure to differ from Te obtained at another pressure. Thermal decomposition analyses of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing carbonates at 12 mbar is required to enhance the understanding of the TEGA results at TEGA operating pressures. The objectives of this work are to (1) evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of a suite of Fe-, Mg-, Ca-carbonate minerals at 1000 and 12 mbar and (2) discuss possible emplacement mechanisms for the Phoenix carbonate.

  4. In situ mineralogical-chemical analysis of Martian materials at landing/roving sites by active and passive remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, G.; Lehmann, F.; Regner, P.; Jaumann, R.

    1988-01-01

    Remote sensing of the Martian surface from the ground and from orbiting spacecraft has provided some first-order insight into the mineralogical-chemical composition and the weathering state of Martian surface materials. Much more detailed information can be gathered from performing such measurements in situ at the landing sites or from a rover in combination with analogous measurements from orbit. Measurements in the wavelength range of approximately 0.3 to 12.0 micrometers appear to be suitable to characterize much of the physical, mineralogical, petrological, and chemical properties of Martian surface materials and the weathering and other alteration processes that have acted on them. It is of particular importance to carry out measurements at the same time over a broad wavelength range since the reflectance signatures are caused by different effects and hence give different and complementing information. It appears particularly useful to employ a combination of active and passive methods because the use of active laser spectroscopy allows the obtaining of specific information on thermal infrared reflectance of surface materials. It seems to be evident that a spectrometric survey of Martian materials has to be focused on the analysis of altered and fresh mafic materials and rocks, water-bearing silicates, and possibly carbonates.

  5. Environmental and socio-economic sustainability appraisal of contaminated land remediation strategies: A case study at a mega-site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinan; Hou, Deyi; Zhang, Junli; O'Connor, David; Li, Guanghe; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Shupeng; Liu, Peng

    2017-08-11

    Green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has become a global trend in the contaminated land remediation field. Growing numbers of countries have adopted GSR procedures published in regulatory and/or technical guidance. China is fast becoming one of the largest remediation markets in the world, and is beginning to engage with GSR. Among other efforts, a taskforce is currently developing the first Chinese technical standard on GSR. This paper presents the context positioning and development of a sustainable remediation assessment indicator set for China. This sustainability indicator set was formed based on existing sustainable remediation guidelines and literature. LCA was used to evaluate environmental impacts, and the results combined with social and economic appraisal via MCA. The indicator set was applied to a remediation 'mega-site' in China. The results showed that compared to excavation and landfill, an alternative treatment strategy of soil washing, thermal desorption and S/S brought about relatively less waste generation, better worker safety, and preferable local impacts, leading to higher scores in the environmental and social-economic domains. However, the social-economic scores were limited by a lack of public engagement. The results of the case study have shown that the indicator set is valid, with lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

  7. The Behavior of Warm Molecules in Planet-forming Disks and CHESS: a Pathfinder UV Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of gas over the lifetime of protoplanetary disks provides us with important clues about how planet formation mechanisms drive the diversity of exoplanetary systems observed to date. In the first part of my talk, I will discuss how we use emission line observations of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the far-ultraviolet (far-UV) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the warm molecular regions (a disks. We compare the observations with analytic disk models that produce synthetic H2 profiles, and we statistically determine the disk representations that best replicate the data. I will discuss the results of our comparisons and how the modeled radial distributions of H2 in the disk help provide important constraints on the effective density of gas left in the inner disk of protoplanetary disks at various disk evolutionary stages. Finally, I will talk about follow-up studies that look to connect the warm, UV-pumped molecular populations of the inner disk to thermally-excited molecules observed in similar regions of the disk in the near- to mid-IR.In the second part of my talk, I will discuss the observational requirements in the UV and IR band passes to gain further insights into the behavior of the warm, gaseous protoplanetary disk, focusing specifically on a spectrograph concept for the next-generation LUVOIR Surveyor. I will discuss a testbed instrument, the Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), built as a demonstration of one component of the LUVOIR spectrograph and new technological improvements to UV optical components for the next generation of near- to far-UV astrophysical observatories. CHESS is a far-UV sounding rocket experiment designed to probe the warm and cool atoms and molecules near sites of recent star formation in the local interstellar medium. I will talk about the science goals, design, research and development (R&D) components, and calibration of the CHESS

  8. Close-up images of the final Philae landing site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko acquired by the ROLIS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S. E.; Mottola, S.; Arnold, G.; Grothues, H.-G.; Jaumann, R.; Keller, H. U.; Michaelis, H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Pelivan, I.; Koncz, A.; Otto, K.; Remetean, E.; Souvannavong, F.; Dolives, B.

    2017-03-01

    After coming to rest on the night side of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the ROLIS camera on-board Rosetta's Philae lander acquired five images of the surface below the lander, four of which were with the aid of LED illumination of different colors. The images confirm that Philae was perched on a sloped surface. A local horizon is visible in one corner of the image, beyond which we can see the coma. Having spent a full day on the surface Philae was commanded to lift and rotate, after which a final, sixth, LED image was acquired. The change in perspective allowed us to construct a shape model of the surface. The distance to the foreground was about 80 cm, much larger than the nominal 30 cm. This caused stray light, rather than directly reflected LED light, to dominate the image signal, complicating the analysis. The images show a lumpy surface with a roughness of apparently fractal nature. Its appearance is completely different from that of the first landing site, which was characterized by centimeter to meter-sized debris (Mottola et al., 2015). We recognize neither particles nor pores at the image resolution of 0.8 mm per pixel and large color variations are absent. The surface has a bi-modal brightness distribution that can be interpreted in terms of the degree of consolidation, a hypothesis that we support with experimental evidence. We propose the surface below the lander to consist of smooth, cracked plates with unconsolidated edges, similar to terrain seen in CIVA images.

  9. UNESCO World Heritage Site Hallstatt: Rockfall hazard and risk assessment as basis for a sustainable land-use planning- a case study from the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, Sandra; Mölk, Michael; Schiffer, Michael; Gasperl, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    In times of decreasing financial resources, the demand for the investment in protection measures with a positive return on investment is of high importance. Hazard and risk assessments are essential tools in order to ensure an economically justifiable application of money in the implementation of preventive measures. Many areas in the Eastern Alps are recurrently affected by rockfall processes which pose a significant hazard to settlements and infrastructures. Complex tectonic, lithological and geomorphologic settings require a sufficient amount of effort to map and collect high quality data to perform a reliable hazard and risk analysis. The present work summarizes the results of a detailed hazard and risk assessment performed in a community in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Upper Austroalpine Unit). The community Hallstatt is exposed to very steep limestone cliffs, which are highly susceptible towards future, in many parts high magnitude rock failures. The analysis of the record of former events shows that since 1652 several rockfall events damaged or destroyed houses and killed or injured some people. Hallstatt as a Unesco World Heritage Site represents a very vulnerable settlement, the risk being elevated by a high frequency tourism with greater one million visitors per year. Discussion will focus on the applied methods to identify and map the rockfall hazard and risk, including a magnitude-frequency analysis of events in the past and an extrapolation in the future as well as a vulnerability analysis for the existing infrastructure under the assumed events for the determined magnitude-frequency scenarios. Furthermore challenges for a decision making in terms of a sustainable land use planning and implementation of preventive measures will be discussed.

  10. The impact of soil moisture on the spin up of 1-D Noah land surface model at a site in monsoonal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Mandal, M.

    2014-12-01

    Model spin-up is the process through which the model is adequately equilibrated to ensure balance between the mass fields and velocity fields. In this study, an offline 1-D Noah land surface model (LSM) has been used to investigate the impact of soil moisture on the model spin up at Kharagpur, India which is a site in monsoonal region. The model is integrated recursively for 3-years to assess its spin-up behavior. Several numerical experiments are performed to investigate the impact of initial soil moisture and subsequent dry or wet condition on model spin-up. These include simulations with different initial soil moisture content (observed soil moisture; dry soil; moderately wet soil; saturated soil), simulations initialized before different rain conditions (no rain; infrequent rain; continuous rain) and simulations initialized in different seasons (Winter, Spring, Summer/Pre-Monsoon, Monsoon and Autumn). It is noted that the model has significantly longer spin-up when initialized with very low initial soil moisture content than with higher soil moisture content. It is also seen that in general, simulations initialized just before a continuous rainfall event have the least spin-up time. In a region affected by the monsoon, such as Kharagpur, this observation is reinforced by the results from the simulations initialized in different seasons. It is seen that for monsoonal region, the model spin-up time is least for simulations initialized during Summer/Pre-monsoon. Model initialized during the Monsoon has a longer spin-up than that initialized in any other season. It appears that the model has shorter spin-up if it reaches the equilibrium state predominantly via drying process. It is also observed that the spin-up of offline 1-D Noah LSM may be as low as two months under quasi-equilibrium condition if the initial soil moisture content and time of start of simulations are chosen carefully.

  11. Mozambique - Urban Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This baseline survey was developed for the impact evaluation of activities related to 'improving land access in urban hotspot areas.' The site-specific interventions...

  12. LAND AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN HEALTH INPUT PARAMETERS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETRY AND RISK ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

    2010-08-06

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6

  13. The MESSIER surveyor: unveiling the ultra-low surface brightness universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Gabaud, David; MESSIER Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The MESSIER surveyor is a small mission designed at exploring the very low surface brightness universe. The satellite will drift-scan the entire sky in 6 filters covering the 200-1000 nm range, reaching unprecedented surface brightness levels of 34 and 37 mag arcsec-2 in the optical and UV, respectively. These levels are required to achieve the two main science goals of the mission: to critically test the ΛCDM paradigm of structure formation through (1) the detection and characterisation of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, which are predicted to be extremely abundant around normal galaxies, but which remain elusive; and (2) tracing the cosmic web, which feeds dark matter and baryons into galactic haloes, and which may contain the reservoir of missing baryons at low redshifts. A large number of science cases, ranging from stellar mass loss episodes to intracluster light through fluctuations in the cosmological UV-optical background radiation are free by-products of the full-sky maps produced.

  14. Status and path forward for the large ultraviolet/optical/infrared surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Rioux, Norman M.; Perez, Mario R.; Smith, Erin C.

    2016-07-01

    In preparation of the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has commenced a process for the astronomical community to study several large mission concepts leveraging the lessons learned from past Decadal Surveys. This will enable the Decadal Survey committee to make more informed recommendations to NASA on its astrophysics science and mission priorities with respect to cost and risk. Four astrophysics large mission concepts were identified. Each of them had a Science and Technology Definition Teem (STDT) chartered to produce scientifically compelling, feasible, and executable design reference mission (DRM) concepts to present to the 2020 Decadal Survey. In addition, The Aerospace Corporation will perform an independent cost and technical evaluation (CATE) of each of these mission concept studies in advance of the 2020 Decadal Survey, by interacting with the STDTs to provide detailed technical details on certain areas for which "deep dives" are appropriate. This paper presents the status and path forward for one of the four large mission concepts, namely, the Large UltraViolet, Optical, InfraRed surveyor (LUVOIR).

  15. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  16. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19 deg x 14 deg with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5 deg. FWHM.

  17. Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Shuvo; Francis, John; Li, Xiaoyi; DeLee, Hudson; Purves, Lloyd; Willis, Dewey; Nixon, Conor; Mcguinness, Dan; Riall, Sara; Devine, Matt; hide

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) can dramatically enhance NASAs ability to explore the solar system because of their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore technically enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. Employing cryogenic propellants will allow NASA to perform missions to planetary destinations that would not be possible with the use of traditional hypergolic propellants. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LOX as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43 launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a conventional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission.

  18. Development of x-ray microcalorimeter imaging spectrometers for the X-ray Surveyor mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Adams, Joseph S.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Miniussi, Antoine R.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wakeham, Nicholas A.; Wassell, Edward J.; Yoon, Wonsik; Becker, Dan; Bennett, Douglas; Doriese, William B.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gard, Johnathan D.; Hilton, Gene C.; Mates, Benjamin; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N.; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Irwin, Kent D.; Lee, Sang-Jun; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Four astrophysics missions are currently being studied by NASA as candidate large missions to be chosen in the 2020 astrophysics decadal survey.1 One of these missions is the "X-Ray Surveyor" (XRS), and possible configurations of this mission are currently under study by a science and technology definition team (STDT). One of the key instruments under study is an X-ray microcalorimeter, and the requirements for such an instrument are currently under discussion. In this paper we review some different detector options that exist for this instrument, and discuss what array formats might be possible. We have developed one design option that utilizes either transition-edge sensor (TES) or magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) in pixel array-sizes approaching 100 kilo-pixels. To reduce the number of sensors read out to a plausible scale, we have assumed detector geometries in which a thermal sensor such a TES or MCC can read out a sub-array of 20-25 individual 1" pixels. In this paper we describe the development status of these detectors, and also discuss the different options that exist for reading out the very large number of pixels.

  19. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Joseph R; Chuss, David T; Marriage, Tobias A; Wollack, Edward J; Zeng, Lingzhen; 10.1117/12.925464

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19deg x 14deg with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5deg FWHM.

  20. Future Japanese X-ray TES Calorimeter Satellite: DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Miyazaki, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Kuromaru, G.; Suzuki, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Sakai, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Tawara, Y.; Mitsuishi, I.; Babazaki, Y.; Nakamichi, R.; Bandai, A.; Yuasa, T.; Ota, N.

    2016-08-01

    We present the latest update and progress on the future Japanese X-ray satellite mission Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS). DIOS is proposed to JAXA as a small satellite mission, and would be launched with an Epsilon rocket. DIOS would carry on the legacy of ASTRO-H, which carries semiconductor-based microcalorimeters and is scheduled to be launched in 2016, in high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. A 400-pixel array of transition-edge sensors (TESs) would be employed, so DIOS would also provide valuable lessons for the next ESA X-ray mission ATHENA on TES operation and cryogen-free cooling in space. We have been sophisticating the entire design of the satellite to meet the requirement for the Epsilon payload for the next call. The primary goal of the mission is to search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy by detecting redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The results would have significant impacts on our understanding of the nature of "dark baryons," their total amount and spatial distribution, as well as their evolution over cosmological timescales.

  1. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-09-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19° x 14° with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5° FWHM.

  2. Land concentration and land grabbing in Europe: a preliminary analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der J.D.; Franco, J.; Saturnino, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers three insights. First, the renewed global land rush is indeed global: it occurs in the Global North too. Second, the ongoing trend of (generic) land concentration is just as problematic as land grabbing. Third, political processes involving actors at various sites and levels of t

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, pdog site 2 parcels, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as...

  4. Origin(s) of the local structures at the Philae landing site and possible implications on the formation and evolution of the 67P nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, F.; Lucchetti, A.; Bibring, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The in situ images of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus acquired by the CIVA cameras on-board PHILAE revealed a rough, irregular and inhomogeneous terrains dominated by fractures and agglomerates of consolidated materials. While the composition of these materials is unknown, they provide unique structures to constrain the conditions prevailing at the surface of a comet and also possibly to the nucleus formation. A quantitative analysis of some microscopic structures (namely fractures and grains that look like pebbles) will be presented using a manual extraction from the CIVA data set with the software ArcGIS. Fractures/cracks are rather ubiquitous at various spatial scales with network and size (from sub-cm to 10 cm) well correlated to the texture of the landscape. The pebble size distribution are reasonably well fitted by power-laws having different cumulative indexes. The nature of the landscape of the landing site will be then discussed in relation to both endogenic and exogenic processes that could have sculpted it. The block seen in CIVA#1 is interpreted to be a close-up of fractured boulders/cliff belonging to the boulder field identified from the orbit near Abydos, this boulder field being itself the result of gravitational regressive erosion due to sublimation (Lucchetti et al. 2016). The observed fractures are best explained by thermal insolation leading to thermal fatigue and/or to loss of volatile materials (e.g., desiccation). This surficial fragmentation (up to >10 cm length) could generate macroscopic erosion that is also visible at larger scale from the orbit. While the pebbles are difficult to be formed by any current physical processes, there is at least an intriguing possibility that they are remnants of primordial accretion processes, as there are several lines of evidence that the nucleus could be primordial (Davidsson et al., 2016), and not a collisional rubble piles of a large body (Morbidelli and Rickman A&A, 2015). We thus speculate that

  5. Inferences on Late Holocene climate from stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratio variability in soil and land snail shells from archaeological site 41KM69 in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D.; Mauldin, R.; Munoz, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Well-preserved land snail shell excavate from archaeological site 41KM69 in Texas, USA, span the past 2200 years and provide an opportunity to explore the paleoclimate implications of isotopic variability in archaeological shell carbonates, bulk soil carbonates and soil organic matter. Terrestrial snail shells belonging to three genera (Polygyra, Rabdotus, and Helicina) were hand-picked from the 120 cm thick soil profile, for stable isotopic analyses. A wood charcoal radiocarbon date constrains samples below 100 cm depth in our soil profile to be ~2200 14C yr BP. Isotopic composition of modern adult snail specimens (n=24) and plants (n=18), collected from the study area, were determined for comparison with the archaeological data sets. All isotopic analyses were performed at the University of Texas at San Antonio using a Thermo Finnigan Gasbench II and a Costech Elemental Analyzer (EA) attached online to a DeltaPlus XP Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer in continuous flow mode. Carbon isotopic compositions of both modern (-12.72 to -5.49%) and archaeological (-5.34 to -8.99%) adult snail shell carbonates suggest significant (> 60%) input of C3 plants into the diet of the snails over the past 2200 yrs. Oxygen isotopic compositions of archaeological and modern shells vary from -2.21% to -0.71% and -2.88 to +0.99%), respectively. This suggests that isotopic composition of environmental water (mainly rainwater) available at the time of shell growth was similar to that of the present day. A linearly decreasing trend in δ13C of soil organic matter from -22.83% at 2200 14C yr BP to -25.61% for modern samples imply progressively increasing abundance of C3 plants up to the present day. This implies a progressively wetter climate, or decreasing summer rainfall and less severe water stress conditions, in agreement with other studies on Holocene climate change in the southern Great Plains of USA. The studies, in general, document warm/arid conditions at ~ 2000 BP and

  6. The CONSERT Instrument during Philae's Descent onto 67P/C-G's surface: Insights on Philae's Attitude and the Surface Permittivity Measurements at the Agilkia-Landing-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettemeier, D.; Statz, C.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Herique, A.; Pasquero, P.; Rogez, Y.; Zine, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Kofman, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    necessary for the mapping of dominant signatures and the estimation of the dielectric properties of prominent features. From this data it is possible to create a contrast and permittivity mapping of the comet's surface in the vicinity of the Agilkia landing site.

  7. Mirko Danijel Bogdanić (1760-1802, Astronomer, Mathematician, Surveyor and Croatian Educator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kren

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides valuable information about the life and work of Mirko Danijel Bogdanić (Bogdanić Imre Dániel (Virovitica, 1762 – Buda, 1802 who was an astronomer, mathematician, surveyor and the author of a book on world history in Croatian. This article observes his life and work from the historical perspective of the time of Emperor Joseph II in Austria. From 1782 to 1785, Bogdanić studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in Buda and Pešt. He often worked with famous Croatian scientists such as Ivan Paskvić (János Pasquich, Franjo Bruna (Ferenc Bruna, Josip Mitterpacher (József Mitterpacher and others. Particular attention is paid to the period between approximately 1791 and 1796, which he spent in Vienna. At first, he focused on publishing the first volume of his history of the world in Croatian (Dogodjaji svieta (World events, 1792 in which he paid particular attention to astronomy and Croatian astronomical terminology. From 1793 to 1795, he studied astronomy at the University of Vienna. The following period was the most important in his life. He was second, then first assistant at the Buda Observatory (1796–1802 and also (1798–1802 appointed Imperial Assistant Astronomer to the cartographer János Lipszky, charged with conducting precise astronomical observations to determine the geographical coordinates for the geographical map of Hungary (Mappa Generalis Regni Hungariae. His observations, especially of latitudes, were considered excellent. He spent many long, hard hours working in the field under adverse weather conditions, leading to extreme exhaustion, which resulted in serious illness and his premature death.

  8. Global-scale external magnetic fields at Mars from Mars Global Surveyor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among those of the terrestrial planets. It is the net result of the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere. Internal fields of crustal origin have been the subject of extensive studies; the focus of our work is identification and characterization of contributions from external magnetic fields using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data. We investigate the magnitude, average spatial structure and temporal variability of the external magnetic field at the MGS mapping altitude of 400 km by first subtracting expected contributions from crustal fields using existing global crustal field models. We identify contributions to the residual dayside fields from two sources: the draped IMF and a source that we interpret to be of ionospheric origin. As observed in previous work, nightside external fields are minimal at mapping orbit altitudes. The IMF contribution changes polarity every 13 days due to the geometry of the heliospheric magnetic field and Mars' orbit. This allows us to calculate the amplitude of the IMF at mapping orbit altitudes. The ionospheric contribution results in a quasi-steady dayside signal in the MGS observations because of the limited local time sampling of the MGS mapping orbit. The ionospheric contribution can be isolated by averaging the external fields over timescales longer than several Carrington rotations, to average out the IMF contribution. We present a global average of the ionopsheric field for the duration of the mapping orbit (2000-2006) and analyze daytime and nightime fields separately. We show that some structure in the time-averaged ionospheric field is organized in the Mars body-fixed frame, due for example, to the influence of crustal fields. We also show that the ionospheric fields vary in amplitude and geometry with martian season. Broader local time coverage over a restricted latitude

  9. Quantitative studies of volcanic processes on Mars using data from the Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Louise Jane

    Volcanic processes on Mars were investigated using topographic profiles derived with the help of IDL software from data collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the Mars Global Surveyor Mission (MGS) in 1997-2001 and images obtained by the MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and by the earlier Viking mission. Thickness and slope values for lava flows at both Elysium Mons and Alba Patera made it possible to compute flow emplacement times and effusion rates using the flow growth model proposed by C. R. J. Kilburn and R. M. C Lopes in 1990. Geological mapping of the Elysium volcanic region showed that Elysium Mons was emplaced as a result of a single shift in vent position on top of an older volcanic edifice, here termed the Ancient Volcanic Edifice (AVE). This implies that there have been substantial variations in both position and time for the magma supply. Calculations suggest that the flows at Alba Patera were emplaced more quickly than those at Elysium Mons, possibly owing to differences in fissure width and lava composition. There is evidence for both aa and pahoehoe on the summit areas of Elysium Mons and Alba Patera. The presence of aa is consistent with the view that long lava flows on Mars are emplaced quickly. Pahoehoe flows imply slow emplacement, and their inferred presence on Mars provides support for the theory that long terrestrial lavas are often emplaced as sheets of inflated pahoehoe. MOC image analysis indicated that late-stage explosive activity has occurred at several Martian volcanoes where it was previously undetected, contrary to the prevalent view that Martian volcanism evolves from explosive to effusive activity. To resolve the many ambiguities inherent in morphological data and imagery the need remains for ground truthing by experienced observers and detailed geochemical analyses in situ or by means of a sample return mission

  10. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): In search of the energy scale of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.

    The hypothesis that the early universe underwent a period of accelerating expansion, called inflation, has become an essential mechanism for explaining the flatness and homogeneity of the universe and explaining the fluctuations found in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Inflation predicts the existence of primordial gravitational waves that would have produced a unique polarization pattern on the CMB. Measurement of the amplitude of these gravitational waves can be used to infer the energy scale of the potential driving the expansion. Detection of this signal would be a dramatic confirmation of the inflation paradigm and significantly tighten constraints on inflationary models. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a new ground-based instrument designed to search for the inflationary B-mode signal from the Atacama Desert in northern Chile (elevation ~ 5200 m). The CLASS instrument will observe over 60% of the sky to target the large scale polarization signal (> 10 deg), and consist of four separate telescopes: one observing at 40 GHz, two observing at 90 GHz and one observing at 150 GHz. The detectors for each band will be background limited antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) will be placed as the first optical element in each of the telescopes. The front-end polarization modulator will mitigate many systematic effects and provide a powerful means of distinguishing the instrument response from the input signal. This dissertation contains an overview of the CLASS instrument. Specific emphasis is placed on the connection between the science goals and the instrument architecture. A description of the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope is given, and the application of the VPM technology to the CLASS instrument is described. We end with an overview of the detectors.

  11. Carbon-cycle effects of differences in soil moisture and soil extracellular enzyme activity at sites representing different land-use histories in high-elevation Ecuadorian páramo landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, J.; Harden, C. P.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecuadorian páramo grasslands are important regional soil carbon sinks. In the páramo of the Mazar Wildlife Reserve, differences in soil carbon content among different types of land use may reflect changes in soil carbon-acquisition related microbial enzyme activity after land cover and soil moisture are altered; however, this hypothesis has not been tested explicitly for Ecuadorian páramos. This study used a fluorescence enzyme assay to assess the activities of four different extracellular enzymes representing carbon acquisition: α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-D-cellulobiohydrolase, and β-xylosidase in Andean páramo soils. Acquisition activities were also measured for nitrogen (N-acetyl-β-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase) and phosphorus (phosphatase) to assess stoichiometric differences between land-uses, which can affect soil microbial activity related to carbon acquisition. Soils were analyzed from four land uses: native forest, grass páramo, recently burned grass páramo, and non-native pine plantation. Carbon acquisition activity was highest at the pine site (678 nmol h-1 g-1) and lowest at the recently burned páramo site (252 nmol h-1 g-1), indicating the lowest and highest available soil carbon, respectively. Carbon-acquisition EE activity was significantly higher at the grass páramo site (595 nmol h-1 g-1) than at the recently burned páramo and native forest sites. At the grass páramo site, a history of burning as a management strategy and high carbon-acquisition EE activity could indicate the presence of pyrogenic soil organic matter, which is more resistant to microbial decomposition. Soils at the native forest and both grassland sites were phosphorus limited, and soil at the pine site had higher nitrogen-acquisition activity, indicative of a shift to nitrogen-limited soil stoichiometric conditions. To our knowledge these are the first data reported for soil extracellular enzyme activities for Ecuadorian páramos.

  12. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  13. 宅基地使用权制度变迁与现代化构建%On the Transition in the Institution of Land Use Right of House Site and Its Modernized Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇敏

    2013-01-01

    为了实现优先发展工业尤其是重工业的战略目标,宅基地使用权制度伴随着农村集体土地所有制及户籍管理制度的产生而应运而生。宅基地使用权制度从其成立之日起,即随着社会经济的变化发展而不断调整,变化更新是其常态,利益安排是制度博弈的核心。可持续发展的理念逐渐向宅基地使用权立法渗透并影响了宅基地使用权制度发展。%In order to realize the strategic goals of developing the industry, especially the heavy industry with the first priority, the institution of land use right of house site comes into effect along with the rural collective land ownership and the household registration system. Since its birth, the institution of land use right of house site has been constantly modified with the social and economic development. While the innovation is its normal status, the distribution of interests becomes the core of the system game. The concept of sustainable development is gradually being planted into the legislation of land use right of house site, affecting its institutional develop-ment.

  14. The Strategy for the Second Phase of Aerobraking Mars Global Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. D.; Esposito, P. B.; Alwar, V.; Demcak, S. W.; Graat, E. J.; Burkhart, P. D.; Portock, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    On February 19, 1999, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was able to propulsively establish its mapping orbit. This event followed the completion of the second phase of aerobraking for the MGS spacecraft on February 4, 1999. For the first time, a spacecraft at Mars had successfully employed aerobraking methods in order to reach its desired pre-launch mapping orbit. This was accomplished despite a damaged spacecraft solar array. The MGS spacecraft was launched on November 7, 1996, and after a ten month interplanetary transit was inserted into a highly elliptical capture orbit at Mars on September 12, 1997. Unlike other interplanetary missions, the MGS spacecraft was launched with a planned mission delta-V ((Delta)V) deficit of nearly 1250 m/s. To overcome this AV deficit, aerobraking techniques were employed. However, damage discovered to one of the spacecraft's two solar arrays after launch forced major revisions to the original aerobraking planning of the MGS mission. In order to avoid a complete structural failure of the array, peak dynamic pressure levels for the spacecraft were established at a major spacecraft health review in November 1997. These peak dynamic pressure levels were roughly one-third of the original mission design values. Incorporating the new dynamic pressure limitations into mission replanning efforts resulted in an 'extended' orbit insertion phase for the mission. This 'extended' orbit insertion phase was characterized by two distinct periods of aerobraking separated by an aerobraking hiatus that would last for several months in an intermediate orbit called the "Science Phasing Orbit" (SPO). This paper describes and focuses on the strategy for the second phase of aerobraking for the MGS mission called "Aerobraking Phase 2." This description will include the baseline aerobraking flight profile, the trajectory control methodology, as well as the key trajectory metrics that were monitored in order to successfully "guide' the spacecraft to

  15. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  16. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_AREAS_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Areas in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  17. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nitrogen removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land...

  18. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    layers of region A are predicted frequent and abundant coarse material, sandy lenses lamination grading downward from sand to cobbles. Volcanic debris from the Noachian crustal Plateau unit material, hydrothermal altered rocks, carbonates, Hesperian and possibly Amazonian volcanic material, from Apollinaris Patera, altered rocks and carbonates from Zephiria Mensae are expected. As a favorable environment for inception of life, possible biological records are expected in transported rock, (2) At the surface, and subsurface (<=100 m), large deposits sandy to silted material from Elysium paleolake basin mixed with fine-grained sediments from Ma'adim Vallis are expected mostly in the upstream part of region B, (3) on the shoreline of the estuarine delta, abundant fine material from Elysium paleolake basin (evaporites, carbonates), mostly Amazonian in age are expected. The Ma'adini estuary is a favorable landing site for all the above mentioned science aspects, and .for its location. The site lies near the equator, which is favorable for the rover solar power supply, and at 1000m elevation, which is a favorable configuration for the descent system braking. Another advantage is the extent of the area of high scientific interest (33,000 sq km), which provides a good ellipse, and potential long study traverses.

  19. Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, Coastal and Marine Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural coastal (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) sites. The variability in the wind field among the sites is ex...

  20. Improvement of job satisfaction and organisational commitment through work group identification: an examination of the quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yee Betty Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Though extant literatures in other sectors indicatethat job satisfaction and organizational commitment are important fordetermining individual and organisational outcomes, limited related researchhas been conducted amongst quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Given cooperativeworking arrangement in the quantity surveying profession, work groupidentification is regarded as an important antecedent for determining jobsatisfaction and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to examinewhether work group identification improves job satisfaction and organisationalcommitment. A questionnaire survey is conducted to collect data from quantitysurveyors working in private sector. A total of 71 valid responses are obtainedfrom 509 contacted quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Bivariate correlation andmultiple regression analyses are performed to find the significance ofrelationships among the variables. Data analysis results support mosthypotheses. Work group identification is found to have significant positiveeffect on job satisfaction, affective and normative commitment. The finding isa bold step for quantity surveying companies to improve their quantity surveyors’job satisfaction and commitment level. The role of other contextual and organisationalfactors on job satisfaction and organisational commitment needs to becomplemented for future research.

  1. A simple, high sensitivity mutation screening using Ampligase mediated T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease with microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mo Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Lim, Li Shi; Li, Mo-Huang

    2012-03-01

    Mutation and polymorphism detection is of increasing importance for a variety of medical applications, including identification of cancer biomarkers and genotyping for inherited genetic disorders. Among various mutation-screening technologies, enzyme mismatch cleavage (EMC) represents a great potential as an ideal scanning method for its simplicity and high efficiency, where the heteroduplex DNAs are recognized and cleaved into DNA fragments by mismatch-recognizing nucleases. Thereby, the enzymatic cleavage activities of the resolving nucleases play a critical role for the EMC sensitivity. In this study, we utilized the unique features of microfluidic capillary electrophoresis and de novo gene synthesis to explore the enzymatic properties of T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease for EMC. Homoduplex and HE DNAs with specific mismatches at desired positions were synthesized using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) gene synthesis. The effects of nonspecific cleavage, preference of mismatches, exonuclease activity, incubation time, and DNA loading capability were systematically examined. In addition, the utilization of a thermostable DNA ligase for real-time ligase mediation was investigated. Analysis of the experimental results has led to new insights into the enzymatic cleavage activities of T7 endonuclease I and Surveyor nuclease, and aided in optimizing EMC conditions, which enhance the sensitivity and efficiency in screening of unknown DNA variations.

  2. Field evaluation of synthetic lure (3-methyl-1-butanol) when compared to non odor-baited control in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Derfus, Kristin; Andrianjafy, Mbolatiana Tovo; Wright, Patricia C; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-03-07

    Malaria is the 4(th) largest cause of mortality in Madagascar. To better understand malaria transmission dynamics, it is crucial to map the distribution of the malaria vectors, mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. To do so, it is important to have a strong Anopheles-specific lure to ensure the maximum number of captures. Previous studies have isolated volatiles from the human skin microbiota and found the compound 3-methyl-1-butanol to be the most attractive to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in a laboratory setting; and recommended 3-methyl-1-butanol as a compound to increase An. gambiae captures in the field. To date, this compound's ability to lure wild mosquitoes in differing land-use settings has not been tested. In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in attracting Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar. CDC miniature light traps in combination with field produced CO(2) were deployed in and around six villages near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, agricultural sites, and forested habitats affiliated with each village). One was baited with the synthetic odor and the other was kept as a non-baited control. While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. gambiae s.l. in this study, we did not find traps baited with synthetic 3-methyl-1-butanol to be more successful in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes, (including Anopheles gambiae s.l.) than the non odor-baited control traps in any of the land-use sites examined; however, regardless of odor bait, trapping near livestock pens resulted in the capture of significantly more Anopheles specimens. A strong synthetic lure in combination with insecticide has great potential as a mosquito control. Our findings suggest that trapping mosquitoes near livestock in malaria

  3. On the applicability of surrogate-based Markov chain Monte Carlo-Bayesian inversion to the Community Land Model: Case studies at flux tower sites: SURROGATE-BASED MCMC FOR CLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Maoyi [Earth System Analysis and Modeling Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ray, Jaideep [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore California USA; Hou, Zhangshuan [Hydrology Technical Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ren, Huiying [Hydrology Technical Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liu, Ying [Earth System Analysis and Modeling Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Swiler, Laura [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque New Mexico USA

    2016-07-04

    The Community Land Model (CLM) has been widely used in climate and Earth system modeling. Accurate estimation of model parameters is needed for reliable model simulations and predictions under current and future conditions, respectively. In our previous work, a subset of hydrological parameters has been identified to have significant impact on surface energy fluxes at selected flux tower sites based on parameter screening and sensitivity analysis, which indicate that the parameters could potentially be estimated from surface flux observations at the towers. To date, such estimates do not exist. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of applying a Bayesian model calibration technique to estimate CLM parameters at selected flux tower sites under various site conditions. The parameters are estimated as a joint probability density function (PDF) that provides estimates of uncertainty of the parameters being inverted, conditional on climatologically-average latent heat fluxes derived from observations. We find that the simulated mean latent heat fluxes from CLM using the calibrated parameters are generally improved at all sites when compared to those obtained with CLM simulations using default parameter sets. Further, our calibration method also results in credibility bounds around the simulated mean fluxes which bracket the measured data. The modes (or maximum a posteriori values) and 95% credibility intervals of the site-specific posterior PDFs are tabulated as suggested parameter values for each site. Analysis of relationships between the posterior PDFs and site conditions suggests that the parameter values are likely correlated with the plant functional type, which needs to be confirmed in future studies by extending the approach to more sites.

  4. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  5. Land acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of lands acquired by Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2009. Lists of acres and locations of land acquired are provided for...

  6. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  7. 封场垃圾填埋场的治理与城市土地可持续利用%Remediation of Closed Waste Landfill Sites and Sustainable Utilization of Urban Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 王颋军; 唐跃刚; 王卓理

    2013-01-01

    The status and existing problems of closed waste landfill sites in China were introduced.The feasibility of its remediation was analyzed from policy support,technological level and economic level.Finally the main land reuse types of closed waste landfill sites and its main influencing factors were summarized.%介绍了我国封场填埋场现状和目前存在主要问题,从政策支持力度、技术水平及经济水平等方面分析了对其治理的可行性,总结填埋场封场治理后的主要土地利用类型及其主要影响因素.

  8. Conserved Organisation of 45S rDNA Sites and rDNA Gene Copy Number among Major Clades of Early Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Kovařík, Aleš; Garilleti, Ricardo; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes.

  9. Conserved Organisation of 45S rDNA Sites and rDNA Gene Copy Number among Major Clades of Early Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Kovařík, Aleš; Garilleti, Ricardo; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes. PMID:27622766

  10. Assessment of land suitability for olive mill wastewater disposal site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP, and WLC in a GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Louati, Mourad; Zairi, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information system-based multi-criteria site selection tool of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) disposal site in Sidi Bouzid Region, Tunisia. The multi-criteria decision framework integrates ten constraints and six factors that relate to environmental and economic concerns, and builds a hierarchy model for OMW disposal site suitability. The methodology is used for preliminary assessment of the most suitable OMW disposal sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The fuzzy set theory is used to standardize factors using different fuzzy membership functions while the AHP is used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by both environmental and economic decision criteria. The OMW disposal site suitability is achieved by applying a weighted linear combination that uses a comparison matrix to aggregate different importance scenarios associated with environmental and economic objectives. Three different scenarios generated by different weights applied to the two objectives. The scenario (a) assigns a weight of 0.75 to the environmental and 0.25 to the economic objective, scenario (b) has equal weights, and scenario (c) features weights of 0.25 and 0.75 for environmental and economic objectives, respectively. The results from this study assign the least suitable OMW disposal site of 2.5 % when environmental and economic objectives are rated equally, while a more suitable OMW disposal site of 1.0 % is generated when the economic objective is rated higher.

  11. Geologic characteristics of the Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 and Chang'E-3/Yutu landing sites, Northwest Mare Imbrium of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Wu, Yunzhao; Xiao, Long

    2015-11-01

    We compared and assessed the results of measurements and observations by the Lunokhod 1 and Yutu rovers, both of which explored the northwestern part of Mare Imbrium. Both sites are within the distinctive Eratosthenian-aged lava flow geologic unit and our comparisons showed that the geologies of these exploration sites are very similar. As in the majority of other areas of the Moon, the dominant landforms in these sites are small impact craters, having various degrees of morphologic prominence and states of preservation, and rock fragments, mostly associated with the rims and interiors of fresh craters. The shape and the degree of preservation of the observed rock fragments in these two sites are similar. In both sites sporadic rock fragments were observed whose morphologies suggest that their source rocks had columnar jointing. Localization of these specific rocks on the rims of 450-470 m in diameter craters implies that the source rocks are at depths of 40-50 m. Regolith in the study areas is typically a few meters thick, but locally can be much thicker. The ground penetrating radar of the Yutu rover revealed the multilayer regolith structure, which is determined by superposition of crater ejecta; with some local variations, this type of the regolith stratigraphy should be typical of the majority of lunar mare sites. The physico-mechanical properties of the regolith in these two sites appear to be rather similar: the bearing capacity ranges from 0.04 to 1.44 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.45 kg/cm2, and the shear strength ranges from 0.02 to 0.1 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.05 kg/cm2. Both these factors decrease by a factor of 3-4 with an increase of surface slope from ∼2 to 12°. The chemical composition of surface materials determined by the rover instruments at these two sites differ from those derived from the remote sensing data for the Eratosthenian-aged basalts on which the two sites are located. This could be partly due to low measurement accuracies

  12. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  13. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  14. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  15. Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W.

    2016-02-01

    The approach was to perform a document search, supplemented by a visual site inspection, to identify potential environmental contamination associated with the property. Factors evaluated included hazardous substances; petroleum products and derivatives; environmental restoration sites; areas of concern; storage tanks; oil/water separators; grease traps; wash racks; waste tanks; pesticides; military munitions/ordnance; medical or bio-hazardous waste; radioactive waste; solid/municipal waste; indoor air quality; groundwater; wastewater treatment, collection, and disposal/discharge; drinking water quality; utilities; asbestos; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); radon; lead-based paint; cultural resources; floodplains; and natural/biological resources.

  16. DHPLC/SURVEYOR nuclease: a sensitive, rapid and affordable method to analyze BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Brunella; De Summa, Simona; Danza, Katia; Papadimitriou, Stavros; Zaccagna, Paolo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for about 10% of all breast cancers and BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified as validated susceptibility genes for this pathology. Testing for BRCA gene mutations is usually based on a pre-screening approach, such as the partial denaturation DHPLC method, and capillary direct sequencing. However, this approach is time consuming due to the large size of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been developed to analyze gene mutations by using SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease digestion and DHPLC analysis. A subset of 90 patients, enrolled in the Genetic Counseling Program of the National Cancer Centre of Bari (Italy), was performed to validate this approach. Previous retrospective analysis showed that 9/90 patients (10%) were mutated in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and these data were confirmed by the present approach. DNA samples underwent touchdown PCR and, subsequently, SURVEYOR(®) nuclease digestion. BRCA1 and BRCA2 amplicons were divided into groups depending on amplicon size to allow multiamplicon digestion. The product of this reaction were analyzed on Transgenomic WAVE Nucleic Acid High Sensitivity Fragment Analysis System. The operator who performed the DHPLC surveyor approach did not know the sequencing results at that time. The SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease DHPLC approach was able to detect all alterations with a sensitivity of 95%. Furthermore, in order to save time and reagents, a multiamplicon setting preparation was validated.

  17. Between Two Levees: Archeological Testing and Evaluation of the National Register Eligibility of the Bayou Goula Landing Site, Iberville Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-20

    G.P. Putman , New York. Brown, Ian W. 1976 A Reexamination of the Houses of the Bayou Goula Site, Iberville Parish, Louisiana. Louisiana Archaeology 3...Historical Quarterly 27: 343-478. Worthy, Linda H. 1982 Classification and Interpretation of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Ceramics In

  18. Climate variability and long-term expansion of peat lands in Arctic Norway during the late Pliocene (ODP Site 642, Norwegian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Sina; Salzmann, Ulrich; Risebrobakken, Bjorg; De Schepper, Stijn; Pound, Matthew; Bachem, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We present the first high resolution reconstruction of vegetation and climate change in northern Norway between 3.6-3.14 Ma based on pollen assemblages in the marine sediments of ODP Hole 642B, Norwegian Sea (67°N). During the late Pliocene vegetation alternated between cool temperate forests during warmer-than-present intervals and boreal forest similar to today during cooler intervals. The northern boundary of the deciduous to mixed forest zone was displaced at least 4-8° further north and warmest month temperatures were 6-14.5°C higher than present during warm phases. Diverse cool temperate deciduous to mixed forests grew under warm climatic conditions in the lowlands of the Scandinavian mountains during the earliest late Pliocene (c. 3.6-3.47 Ma). A distinct cooling event at c. 3.47 Ma led to the predominance of boreal forest and the development of open, low alpine environments. The cooling culminated around 3.3 Ma, coinciding with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) M2. After c. 3.29 Ma a high variability of climate is indicated by the repeated expansion of forests and peat lands during warmer and cooler periods, respectively. Climate progressively cooled after 3.18 Ma, resembling climatic conditions during MIS M2. A long-term cooling is expressed by an expansion of Sphagnum peat lands that potentially contributed to the decline in atmospheric CO2-concentration at the end of the Piacenzian warm period. Correlations with other Northern Hemisphere records suggest hemisphere-wide effects of climate changes. Late Pliocene vegetation changes will be compared to alkenone-based sea surface temperature reconstructions and dinoflagellate cyst assemblage changes for ODP Hole 642B.

  19. Evaluation of Cast Re-Orientation on a Dental Surveyor Using Three Tripod Techniques: A Survey and In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mohammed E; Busaily, Idris A; Nahari, Rana J; Hakami, Ruaa O; Maashi, Sami M; Ramireddy, Naveen R

    2017-01-18

    To survey different educational levels (i.e., students, interns, technicians, and prosthodontic faculty) with regard to their opinions, attitudes, and adoption of three selected tripod techniques. The study will also investigate the accuracy of these techniques to reposition casts on the dental surveyor in anterio-posterior (AP) and lateral directions at both technique and educational levels. Tripod points, scored lines, and cemented post tripod techniques were used in this study. Three Kennedy class II modification I stone casts, duplicated from a standard cast, were assigned to each of the tripod techniques. The tilt angles of all casts were set on the dental surveyor to 10° (control angle) in AP and lateral directions using a digital angle gauge with an accuracy of 0.2°. The casts were tripoded accordingly. A total of 243 participants were involved in this study. Participants were first asked to remount the three casts on three different dental surveyors using the tripod technique noted on each cast. Questionnaires were then given to each participant in an individual interview setting; this assured a 100% response rate. The angle differences were calculated. All data were coded and entered into an Excel Spreadsheet file. Statistical analyses were performed using a paired Chi-square, Wilcoxon Matched-pairs, ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc tests at 5% level of significance. No significant difference was found between the educational levels relative to the responses to technique demands, sensitivity, and time required for reorientation (p = 0.08202, 0.8108, 0.6874, respectively); however, the majority of respondents reported low technique demands, low sensitivity, and time saving for technique C in comparison to techniques A and B. Significant differences were noted among the educational levels in response to preference and adoption questions (p = 0.0035 and 0.0015, respectively). The highest percentage of faculty chose technique A for inclusion into the academic

  20. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  2. ESTCP Technology Demonstration Final Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands With Application to Northern FUD