WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey western regions

  1. Herpetological surveys of south-western and south-eastern regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herpetofauna of part of the south-western (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States) and south-eastern (Cross River State) regions were investigated. Specimens were located opportunistically during visual surveys. Both regions fall in the tropical zone, and the south-western region surveyed, was mostly lowland, degraded forests ...

  2. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Seabirds Coastal and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    From the cold, high Arctic area of Alaska to the warm, tropical Pacific area of Hawai'i, a diverse array of seabird species numbering in the millions of individuals live off the bounty of the Pacific Ocean. Many come to land only to nest and raise their young - these are species supremely adapted for life on the water, whether it be near the coast or hundreds of miles at sea. Those seabirds that reside in the North Pacific year-round are joined each summer by millions of migrant birds that leave the southern hemisphere in winter for better feeding conditions in the north. Seabirds in the Pacific remain one of the great wildlife spectacles on the earth. Yet, seabirds face a number of threats such as oil spills, introduction of predators to their nesting islands, and conflicts with fisheries. State and Federal agencies require increasingly sophisticated information on population dynamics, breeding biology, and feeding ecology to successfully manage these species and their ecosystems. Within the Western Region of the USGS, scientists from the Alaska Science Center (ASC), Western Ecological Research Center (WERC), and Pacific Islands Ecosystems Research Center are leading the way in conducting research on many of these little known species. Their aim is to improve our understanding of seabirds in the Pacific and to provide information to support informed management of the birds and their ecosystems.

  4. Smoking is the most frequent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in Croatian Western region: findings of the Croatian health survey 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrietta Benčević-Striehl,

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To estimate the prevalence of selected behavioral risk factorsfor cardiovascular diseases in the western region of Croatia and todetermine the differences based on age and gender.Methods A national survey on health status and health behavior ofthe adult population has been conducted. The representative sampleof 10,766 households for six officially defined regions of Croatiahas been determined, and Western region has been included with1,562 inhabitants, aged 18 years and older. The overall responserate of administered face-to-face questionnaire was 85-6%. Prevalencerates per 100 inhabitants (smoking, eating habits, alcoholconsumption, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics,chronic conditions have been determined.Results Nearly half (46.3% of the adults were smokers or hadquit smoking less than 10 years ago. Prevalence of high bloodpressure was high amounting to 40.6% and it was higher in middleaged males (46.7%, p<0.01 and young males (13.7%, p<0.01.Prevalence of obesity was 38.9%, highest in females aged 35-64(51.2%, p<0.001 and 65 and older (73.8%, p<0.01.Almost a quarter of respondents (23.3% has been insufficientlyphysically active, especially young females 22.5%, p<0.01.Conclusion There was a significant difference in the prevalenceof all observed behavioral risk factors according to the gender andage. Moreover, smoking tobacco has been found as the most frequentrisk factor in the observed population.

  5. Validating a hospital medicines formulary survey in the Western Pacific Region--a global hospital pharmacy initiative based on the Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Basel Statements were developed to reflect the future of hospital pharmacy worldwide. Included were a key set of statements regarding the expanding role of hospital pharmacists' influence on prescribing from the management of medicines formularies to being an active member of the therapeutic decision-making process. This study aimed to validate a survey to measure Basel Statement 26 regarding the role of medicines formularies and the factors that affect its use in the Western Pacific Region (WPR). The survey was developed in consultation with a WPR advisory group and current literature. The survey was translated using the forward-backward method into Chinese (simplified) and Vietnamese. The instrument was pilot tested in a stratified random sample of 260 hospital pharmacy directors in the WPR. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to assess construct validity of the Medicines Formulary Scale that assessed responders' perceptions of their formulary and impact on utilization. The Medicines Formulary Survey was completed by 107 hospital pharmacy directors or equivalent. The survey contained the Medicines Formulary Scale in addition to questions regarding the content and review process of the hospital's formulary as well as demographic questions. Application of the PCA procedures resulted in a parsimonious 2-factor solution in which 33.8% of the variance was explained. The Cronbach alpha for the 17-item scale was found to be 0.70. The Cronbach alpha values for the first and second factor/subscales were 0.76 and 0.68, respectively. The Medicines Formulary Survey appears reliable and valid for assessing hospital pharmacy directors' perceptions of hospital medicine formularies in the WPR. Further development of validated instruments to assess other areas of hospital pharmacy practice will help track the progression of hospital pharmacy and aid in globalization of the profession. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Reactions of nepali adults to warning labels on cigarette packages: a survey with employee and medical students of a tertiary care medical college of Western region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Badri; Paudel, Klara; Timilsina, Deepa

    2013-10-01

    For the past 30 years, there have been no changes in the text-only cigarette warning labels in Nepal. During this same time period, other countries placed large graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. The purpose of the current study was primarily to compare the differences in reactions to different types of warning labels on cigarette packages, with a specific focus on whether the new warning label adopted by WHO FCTC was better than the text only label used by Nepal. This study was conducted in Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital (GMCTH) in 2012, in a tertiary care hospital located in the western region of Nepal. Eligible study participants included in this survey were those aged 18 years and over and those who are studying MBBS/Nursing or who were employees of GMCTH. 500 participants finished the survey. Participants were shown nine types of warning labels found on cigarette packages.They comprised one text only warning label used within Nepalese market and eight foreign brand labels. Participants were asked about the impact of the warning labels on: their knowledge of harm from smoking, giving cigarettes as a gift, and quitting smoking. On comparing the Nepalese warning label with other foreign labels with regards to providing knowledge of harm warning, impact of quitting smoking and giving cigarettes as a gift, the overseas labels were found to be more effective. Both smokers and non-smokers thought that warning labels with text plus graphics were substantially more of a deterrent than text-only labels. The findings from this study support previous research that has found that text-plus graphic warning labels were more salient and potentially more effective than text-only labels.Warning labels are one of the component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger Nepalese public health educational efforts.

  8. Evidencing a prominent Moho topography beneath the Iberian-Western Mediterranean Region, compiled from controlled-source and natural seismic surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, J; Gallart Muset, Josep; Carbonell, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    The complex tectonic interaction processes between the European and African plates at the Western Mediterranean since Mesozoic times have left marked imprints in the present-day crustal architecture of this area, particularly as regarding the lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. The detailed mapping of such variations is essential to understand the regional geodynamics, as it provides major constraints for different seismological, geophysical and geodynamic modeling met...

  9. Regional competitiveness: The case of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the concept of regional competitiveness and the factors that influence on it. A large number of various authors explain this concept, based on its different aspects, including: productivity, mikroaspekts (firm, quality of human capital, innovation, technology, infrastructure, social capital, etc.. Taking into account complex nature of regional competitiveness, it is difficult to determine a standard definition of this term. The second part of this paper refers to the case of western China. Substantial disparity in regional development is a reality in every geographically large country, and the causes of the disparity are numerous and complex. Regional inequality has been an important issue in China. This paper generally summarized China's Western regions geography, government policies and development situation. The authors put forward some practical strategies on how to help the western regions create a favorable environment to attract national and international investment.

  10. Providing Western Regional Climate Services - Perspectives from the Western Regional Climate Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The western United States faces distinct challenges such as persistent drought, dwindling water resources amidst an expanding population, and climate-sensitive alpine environments. The complex terrain of the region compounds these challenges. The Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC), one of six National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) university-based regional climate centers, has been providing climate services since 1986 that support the unique needs of stakeholders in the mountainous region of the western U.S. This includes meteorological data, tools, and products for thousands of stations across the West, and gridded data products, such as based on PRISM for example, that are used for drought assessment among other needs. WRCC and partners have developed numerous web-based tools and products to support decision-making and research pertinent to the West. Changing climate and variability along with the diverse physical and human geographies of the western U.S. require continuous advancements in climate knowledge and applications development. Examples include the need for tools and model downscaling that support and inform adaptation, mitigation and resiliency planning; web-based analytics that would allow users to interact and explore temporal and spatial data and relationships, and products from new satellite sensors that can provide higher resolution information on soil moisture and vegetation health given the sparseness of in-situ observations for the vastness of the West. This presentation provides an overview of some insights, opportunities and challenges of providing current and future climate services in the West.

  11. Regional osteoporosis in western Sydney women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcos, G.; Lawson-Smith, R. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Recently, 15% of elderly Japanese-American women have been shown to have marked heterogeneity of bone mineral density (BMD) between measured sites. The purposes of this study were to determine (1 ) the prevalence of this finding in an Australian population; and (2) potential association with clinical factors such as age, years since menopause (YSM), alcohol, smoking, family history, exercise, and body mass index. One hundred and fourteen peri-or post- menopausal Caucasian women (mean age 55 + 8.8 years) were referred for osteoporotic (OP) fracture risk assessment. Patients (pts) had no disorders or drugs known to affect BMD and no evidence of scoliosis or arthritic change. Bone densitometry of the lumbar spine (PA), hip and distal radius were measured using a Norland XR-26. According to WHO criteria, 30 pts (26%) were normal (T score > -1) at all sites; no pts (0%) had generalised OP (T score < -2.5); 29 (25%) had OP in one or two sites only (hip = 25, spine = 13, wrist = 1); the remaining 55 pts (48%) were osteogenic (-2.5 < T score < -1) in at least one site. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, only YSM predicted regional OP (odds ratio = 1.14; pWestern Sydney women; of clinical factors only YSM is independently associated with regional OP. Fracture risk classification may be improved by BMD measurement of multiple sites.

  12. Basic Western Lviv Region Conversational Ukrainian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the first complete Guide for studying the Western-Ukrainian Dialect and its scientific description of Phonology. Methodology: descriptive, contrastive and analytical methods of defining the peculiarities of the Dialect. Results: the regularities and the laws have been defined as to the specifics of the Western-Ukrainian Dialect…

  13. Status Report on Ambulatory Care and Education in the VA Western Region and Western Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Alan S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    New programs and related activities in ambulatory care and education in the Western Region Veterans' Health Administration and its 11 affiliated medical schools are reported, including advisory activities, innovative projects, and a conference. Future activities in the expanded western region are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  14. Western Pond Turtle Observations - Region 1 [ds313

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...

  15. Preliminary raptor surveys in western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, Merlin H.; Tsengeg, Pu

    1995-01-01

    Raptors were observed on a 5200 km expedition from Ulaan Baatar through the Hangay Mountains to the Russian Altay Mountains with return through the Gobi Altay Mountains. The focus of the expedition was on nesting ecology of the Saker (Falco cherrug) and Altay falcons (F. altaicus) (25 eyries were located), but nests were also found for seven other species including more than 30 nests found of the upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius). We conducted 21 day-long counts and 10 more formal raptor road counts. Raptors were concentrated in areas where perches were common and where food was most abundant. Western Mongolia remains a vast undeveloped land where camel trains and yak carts are normal. No developed highway network exists. Raptor work in the interior must be supported by four-wheel drive vehicles traveling cross country. Food and fuel for a research team are difficult to procure, but raptor populations are largely unexploited. Raptors frequently nest on the ground or on very low cliffs and tress, and often nest in close proximity of pairs of their own and other species. Several areas of special significance to raptors are discussed including the Taleen Ulaan (Red Steppe) areas of granite dells which we recommend for status as an international reserve.

  16. Leading for Sustainability in Western Australian Regional Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Coral

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I report on leadership for sustainability in regional schools in Western Australia (WA) in the context of the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI-WA). Case studies are developed to examine leading cultural change in eight WA regional schools with data presented in three representative narrative accounts. Consistency is…

  17. Quaternary Glacial Mapping in Western Wisconsin Using Soil Survey Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlke, Betsy M.; Dolliver, Holly A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of soils in the western Wisconsin have developed from glacial sediments deposited during the Quaternary Period (2.6 million years before present). In many regions, multiple advances and retreats have left a complex landscape of diverse glacial sediments and landforms. The soils that have developed on these deposits reflect the nature…

  18. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Raynal C; Konings, Frank

    2016-01-01

    On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84%) countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  19. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal C Squires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84% countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  20. Human Capital Development in Western Region, Nigeria, 1955-1968

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...

  1. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Catch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Region Headboat Survey (SRHS), administered by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC) personnel based at...

  2. Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions in Western Eurasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Walter, W.R.; Flanagan, M.P,; O' Boyle, J.; Pasyanos, M.E.

    2000-04-03

    The authors present a regionalized crustal model of Western Eurasia, WEA. The model is constructed using results from published studies and maps of geological and geophysical parameters in this region, and was developed in conjunction with the updated regionalization of Middle East and North Africa by Walter et al.[2000]. As this is the first realization of the Eurasian modeling effort, they have limited themselves to only twelve broad regions. Particular attention has been given to identifying the boundaries for each region. The main use of this model will be to assist in monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Specifically, this model will help them to calibrate and predict the travel time and amplitudes of various regional seismic phases and to locate events accurately. The model based approach allows them to readily calibrate both the seismic and the aseismic parts of western Eurasia. Each region is specified by an one-dimensional model of compressional and shear velocities, densities and layer thicknesses. Further improvements to this model will involve, but not be limited to, increasing the spatial coverage toward the east and west of Eurasia, identify sub-regions based on their distinct physical properties and the use of new and improved body wave and surface wave datasets. In the future, they expect to use this model and its successors to be the baseline model for calibration techniques, e.g., kriging, to improve their capability to detect, locate and discriminate different seismic events in Eurasia.

  3. The shadows of a ghost: a survey of canine leishmaniasis in Presidente Prudente and its spatial dispersion in the western region of São Paulo state, an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida Zampieri; Fonseca, Elivelton da Silva; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Guimarães, Raul Borges; Yamashita, Renata Corrêa; Soares, Célio Nereu; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo

    2015-10-26

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an emerging zoonosis and its geographic distribution is restricted to tropical and temperate regions. Most of the individuals infected in Latin America are in Brazil. Despite the control measures that have been adopted, the disease is spreading throughout new regions of the country. Domestic dogs are involved in the transmission cycle and are considered to be the main epidemiologic reservoir of Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CL) and Ehrlichiosis infection in Presidente Prudente as well as the spatial dispersion of the disease in the western region of São Paulo state. Dogs underwent clinical examination and symptoms related to CL were recorded. Anti- Leishmania antibodies were detected using ELISA, rK39-immunocromatographic tests (DPP), and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Anti-E. canis antibodies were detected by IFAT. A follow-up was conducted in dogs that were positive in the ELISA at the baseline study. Data on the spatial distribution of L. longipalpis and CL in São Paulo state were obtained from Brazilian public health agencies. Serum samples from 4547 dogs were analyzed. The seroprevalence of CL was 11.2% by ELISA and 4.5 % by IFAT. In the follow-up, seroprevalence was 32.9% by ELISA, 15.3% by IFAT, 11.8 % by DPP test, and 66.5% for E. canis. There was a significant positive association between Leishmania and E. canis infection (P < 0.0001). In the follow-up, clinical examinations revealed symptoms compatible with CL in 33.5% of the dogs. L. longipalpis was found in 24 and CL in 15 counties of the Presidente Prudente mesoregion. The dispersion route followed the west frontier of São Paulo state toward Paraná state. Low CL and high ehrlichiosis prevalence rates were found in Presidente Prudente city. This emerging focus of CL is moving through the western region of São Paulo state toward the border of Paraná state. Integrated actions to

  4. Child pneumonia - focus on the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T K P; Tran, T H; Roberts, C L; Graham, S M; Marais, B J

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in infants and young children (aged pneumonia disease burden, as well as the aetiology and management practices in different parts of the world, with a specific focus on the WHO Western Pacific Region. In 2011, the Western Pacific region had an estimated 0.11 pneumonia episodes per child-year with 61,900 pneumonia-related deaths in children less than 5 years of age. The majority (>75%) of pneumonia deaths occurred in six countries; Cambodia, China, Laos, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Viet Nam. Historically Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the commonest causes of severe pneumonia and pneumonia-related deaths in young children, but this is changing with the introduction of highly effective conjugate vaccines and socio-economic development. The relative contribution of viruses and atypical bacteria appear to be increasing and traditional case management approaches may require revision to accommodate increased uptake of conjugated vaccines in the Western Pacific region. Careful consideration should be given to risk reduction strategies, enhanced vaccination coverage, improved management of hypoxaemia and antibiotic stewardship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mars: Stratigraphy of Western Highlands and Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.; Tuesink, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies of Mars based on Viking images improved knowledge of the relative age and occurrence of geologic units on a global scale. Densities of geologic units or features during the Noarchian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods are indicated for the North and South polar regions as well as the equatorial region of Mars. Cumulative counts of crater size frequencies for craters larger than 2 km in diameter on plateau units mapped in the western region of Mars counts indicate that the plateau terrain as a whole was thinly resurfaced during the Hesperian Period, and a large proportion of pre-existing craters less than 10 to 15 km in diameter was buried. The formation of northern plains, subpolar highlands, and both polar regions is also described.

  6. Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee: progress and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee (rGLC WPR was established in 2011 to promote the rational scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (PMDT. We reflect on its achievements, consider the challenges faced, and explore its potential future role. Achievements include the supervision and support of national PMDT action plans, increased local ownership, contextualized guidance, and a strong focus on regional capacity building, as well as a greater awareness of regional challenges. Future rGLC activities should include (1 advocacy for high-level political commitment; (2 monitoring, evaluation, and supervision; (3 technical support and contextualized guidance; and (4 training, capacity building, and operational research. Regional activities require close collaboration with both national and global efforts, and should be an important component of the new Global Drug-resistant TB Initiative.

  7. Lg Attenuation Characteristic of Gujarat Region (Western India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Namrata; Singh, Chandrani

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the Lg attenuation characteristics of the Gujarat Region in Western India by using a reliable two-station method. This region comes under the V, IV and III seismicity zone. So, in India this is the seismic active region other than Himalayas, which shows high seismicity. Lg is typically the most prominent short-period seismic phase on high frequency seismogram observed over the continental paths from regional to teleseimic distance. We use data from 15 earthquakes with magnitude > 5 mb and focal depth Gujarat region. Low Q0 (Gujarat. The northern region of Saurashtra (Gujarat) shows a high Q0 (> 300) value. These observations are consistent with the results of the body wave attenuation structure reported for the region. The variations in the attenuation characteristics may be caused due to both the intrinsic and scattering contributions caused by thermal effects, sedimentary layer thickness as well as heterogeneities present below the study region. Our results are found to be comparable with the previous studies of the attenuation characteristics of the Gujarat region.

  8. Preliminary fish survey of Lac Tseny in north- western Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. We surveyed the fish fauna of Lac Tseny, in the Sofia Region of northwestern Madagascar, during October 2010 by observ- ing commercial catches and targeted netting of areas used by endemic species. We recorded seven native fish species at the lake, including three endemic cichlids, a herring and a catfish ...

  9. On fortification of ancient settlements of the western Volga region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrat M. Gubaydullin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine specific features of defense lines in the pre-Mongol medieval forts from the Western Volga region (10th – early 13th centuries. Such fortified settlements are located in the valley of the Sura river, predominantly. The archaeological studies revealed some specific features of fortification on these sites. However, all of them fit into the general concept of fortifications in the Volga Bulgaria. Most of the forts in this region are located on capes, and thus are compact. Still, they have a complex system of fortifications consisting of one or several (up to three lines of ramparts with wooden walls and moats. Some of them are arranged as one belt, others consist of separate protective boundaries and divide settlements into internal and external town. Walls had different constructive features and varied between vertical palisades (row of stakes to wooden cages. Suburbs could be protected by a simple wooden wall without any additional earthen fortifications.

  10. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  11. Survey of international regional anesthesia fellowship directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lansdown AK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrew K Lansdown,1,2 Paul G McHardy,1 Sanjiv C Patel,1,3 Catherine M Nix,1 Colin JL McCartney1 1Department of Anesthesia, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3University College Hospital, London, UK Background: The scope of regional anesthesia fellowship programs has not been analyzed but may provide insights that could improve fellowship training and standards. Methods: Regional anesthesia fellowship directors across the world were asked to complete a comprehensive survey that detailed the range of educational and practical experience and attitudes as well as assessment procedures offered in their programs. Results: The survey response rate was 66% (45/68. Overall, the range of activities and the time and resources committed to education during fellowships is encouraging. A wide range of nerve block experience is reported with most programs also offering acute pain management, research, and teaching opportunities. Only two-thirds of fellowships provide formal feedback. This feedback is typically a formative assessment. Conclusion: This is the first survey of regional anesthesia fellowship directors, and it illustrates the international scope and continuing expansion of education and training in the field. The results should be of interest to program directors seeking to benchmark and improve their educational programs and to faculty involved in further curriculum development. Keywords: anesthesia, regional, fellowship, education

  12. Regional patterns of Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism in western Alaska revealed by new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages: Chapter D in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, vol. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Miller, Marti L.; Friedman, Richard M.; Layer, Paul W.; Bleick, Heather A.; Jones, James V.; Box, Steven E.; Karl, Susan M.; Shew, Nora B.; White, Timothy S.; Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Ullrich, Thomas D.

    2017-03-02

    porphyry copper deposit along the Gulf of Alaska continental margin. More than half of the new ages fall between 75 and 65 Ma, confirming the existence, based on conventional potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages, of a 70-Ma igneous flare-up across southwestern Alaska. Our new ages hint that during this pulse, the locus of magmatism shifted toward the Gulf of Alaska, that is, toward a more outboard position. This shift is consistent with the hypothesis that magmatism was the product of rollback of a subducted slab, which at that time would have been the Resurrection Plate. Intrusive rocks in the Taylor Mountains and Sleetmute quadrangles in the age range of 63 to 59 Ma were emplaced shortly before the onset of ridge subduction as dated by near-trench plutons in the adjacent part of the Chugach accretionary complex. Southwestern Alaska at this time would have been positioned above a very young subducted slab belonging to the Resurrection Plate; magmas, in this scenario, were generated near the edge of the slab window related to ridge subduction. A 56.3±0.2 Ma granite in Taylor Mountains quadrangle and a 54.7±0.7 Ma ashfall tuff in McGrath quadrangle were likely emplaced above the Resurrection-Kula slab window, which by this time is inferred to have entered the region. Another ashfall tuff in McGrath quadrangle, at 42.8±0.5 Ma, likely belongs to the Meshik Arc, the product of renewed subduction after inferred passage of the slab window. A 49.0±0.3-Ma rhyolite in Taylor Mountains quadrangle is about the age of the transition from slab window to renewed subduction. Two plutons in the western Alaska Range, at 31.8±0.4 and 30.9±0.6 Ma, belong to a suite of gabbro to peralkaline granite of unknown origin. Finally, a 4.6±0.1-Ma basalt from a flow in Taylor Mountains quadrangle belongs to the Neogene basaltic province of western Alaska. These rocks were erupted in a distal retroarc setting; the cause of magmatism is unknown. 

  13. HIV drug resistance assessment in the Western Pacific region. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongbao; Sutherland, Donald; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Jordan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy is being rapidly scaled-up in Western Pacific region countries. Prevention and assessment of HIV drug resistance is an essential component of successful global antiretroviral therapy scale-up. We performed a systematic review of public health surveys and HIV drug resistance studies conducted in the low- and middle-income countries in the Western Pacific region. A total of 38 publications assessing HIV drug resistance were reviewed. Studies assessing transmitted drug resistance in recently infected individuals or drug resistance among individuals starting antiretroviral therapy found low rates of HIV drug resistance. Assessments of HIV drug resistance emerging in populations receiving antiretroviral therapy demonstrated variable rates of drug resistance, but suggest an urgent need to support antiretroviral therapy adherence and retention in care, ensure the use of quality assured drugs, and guarantee continuous drug supplies. Additionally, programmatic assessment informed by routine standardized surveillance of transmitted and acquired HIV drug resistance is essential to optimize antiretroviral therapy delivery in the Western Pacific region.

  14. Native title contestation in Western Australia's Pilbara region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cleary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rights afforded to Indigenous Australians under the Native Title Act 1993 (NTA are very limited and allow for undue coercion by corporate interests, contrary to the claims of many prominent authors in this field. Unlike the Commonwealth’s first land rights law, Aboriginal Lands Rights (Northern Territory Act 1976 (ALRA , the NTA does not offer a right of veto to Aboriginal parties; instead, they have a right to negotiate with developers, which has in practice meant very little leverage in negotiations for native title parties. And unlike ALRA, developers can deal with any Indigenous corporation, rather than land councils. These two factors have encouraged opportunistic conduct by some developers and led to vexatious litigation designed to break the resistance of native title parties, as demonstrated by the experience of Aboriginal corporations in the iron ore-rich Pilbara region of Western Australia.

  15. Structural problems of mining region innovative development (Kuzbass, Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsenko Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the issues of overcoming the negative structural shift in Russian economy, accelerating economic growth, reducing technological and social- and-economic gap between Russia and the developed countries are strategically important. Modern structure of Russian economy which had been developed as a part of market model does not generate the innovative type of development. In this situation, mining regions, the structure of which was formed in the early 20th century and is represented by the extractive industries, are undergoing the greatest problems of innovative development. Therefore, despite high urbanization and industrial development level the economy of Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia is characterized by significant structural problems. They are associated with primary extractive nature of the regional industry, in which coal and iron ore, metallurgical and chemical industries dominate. They highly depend on Russian and global market of raw materials, widely use low-productive technologies, and they are characterized by high level of fixed capital depreciation and insufficient pace of innovative infrastructure development. The solution of the structural problems of economic development of mining region is connected with technological modernization of extractive industries and use of modern materials for the production of high-tech products.

  16. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.

  17. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  18. Community seroprevalence survey for yaws and trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Naomi; Rainima-Qaniuci, Merelesita; Yalen, Chelsea; Macleod, Colin; Nakolinivalu, Apisalome; Migchelsen, Stephanie; Roberts, Chrissy H; Butcher, Robert; Kama, Mike; Mabey, David; Marks, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in several countries in the Pacific. In co-endemic countries there may be potential synergies between both control programmes. We undertook a cluster randomised trachoma and yaws seroprevalence survey of children in the Western Division of Fiji. Children were examined for skin lesions consistent with active yaws. A dried blood spot was collected which was tested using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test and an ELISA to detect antibodies against Pgp3. A total of 607 children from 305 households across 23 villages were recruited into the survey. On skin examination, no child had clinical evidence of yaws, and the TPPA assay was negative in all children (0%, 95% CI 0.0-0.6). The seroprevalence of Pgp3 antibodies was 20.9% (95% CI 17.8-24.6%). In this study there was neither clinical nor serological evidence that transmission of yaws was ongoing. The Pgp3 seroprevalence pattern was consistent with either low level transmission of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis or exposure to C. trachomatis in the birth canal which is consistent with a survey conducted in the same region in 2013. These data suggest neither yaws nor ocular chlamydia infection are a significant public health problem in the Western Division of Fiji. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Politics in the Western Maya Region (II: Emblem Glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express ideas and concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. In this article I investigate the meaning of emblem glyphs. I suggest that originally they were toponyms but later on they became titles of origin which indicated descendance from a common origin place.En una serie de artículos investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental que se conectan con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan ideas y conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. En este artículo investigo el significado de los glifos emblema. Propongo que originalmente fueron topónimos y después llegaron a ser títulos de origen que indicaron descendencia común de un lugar original.

  20. Geophysical models of Western Aphrodite-Niobe region: Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenkov, K. I.; Saunders, R. S.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    have modeled the region of Western Aphrodite and the Niobe plains to get reasonable depths of compensation. Crust mantle boundary relief is calculated for Western Aphrodite-Niobe relative to a mean crustal thickness of 50 km. The calculations include the consequences of simple crust models and more complicated models with a weak, ductile lower crust, a strong upper mantle and a weak lower mantle layer.

  1. Atmospheric water budget over the western Himalayas in a regional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During winter months (December, January, February – DJF), the western Himalayas (WH) receive precipitation from eastward moving extratropical cyclones, called western disturbances (WDs) in Indian parlance. Winter precipitation–moisture convergence–evaporation (P–C–E) cycle is analyzed for a period of 22 years ...

  2. Atmospheric water budget over the western Himalayas in a regional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During winter months (December, January, February – DJF), the western Himalayas (WH) receive pre- cipitation from eastward moving extratropical cyclones, called western disturbances (WDs) in Indian par- lance. Winter precipitation–moisture convergence–evaporation (P–C–E) cycle is analyzed for a period of. 22 years ...

  3. Patients’ and Caretakers’ Satisfaction at Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Dahal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Curative services are highly demanded component of health service. Besides competence in technical aspects; behavior of health care providers, availability of consumer friendly environment and the trusting relationship with the physician along with open two way communication between health care provider and consumer determines the consumers’ perception about the quality of service that further determines whether they seek and continue to use services. This study was conducted with the objective of finding out consumers’ satisfaction with the services of Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara and the findings can be helpful in designing interventions accordingly. A client-exit interview was conducted which included 146 respondents representing both old and new OPD cases of the hospital. Two Focus Group Discussions were also conducted. Results obtained showed that service of hospital were of good satisfaction to more than half of the respondents. Drug availability and cheap cost of service were strong aspects of hospital. More than half of the respondents had visited private medicals before coming to hospital. Poor place of examination, poor hospital sanitation, long waiting time for doctor and service of staffs other than doctor were some of the aspects that consumers were poorly satisfied with. Fifty four out of 115 (47% who had spent less than 5 minutes with the doctor, had good satisfaction with doctors’ service. Hence, consumers’ satisfaction is influenced by the factors like behavior of attending physician and other hospital staffs, place of examination, waiting time for doctor, hospital sanitation etc.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6364 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 205-16

  4. Aerial survey of the proposed western addition to the Arctic National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From April 23, 1974, until April 27, 1974, Averill Thayer, Manager of the Arctic National Wildlife Range, and I conducted an aerial survey of the proposed Western...

  5. Australia's role in promoting and supporting tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kerrie A

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-one percent of the world's tuberculosis cases are found in the Western Pacific Region. The region has demonstrated a lower rate of decline in incidence than the regions of Africa, the Americas and Europe. Issues around drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes impact on the burden of tuberculosis disease in the Western Pacific Region. Australia has exhibited a low and relatively stable tuberculosis incidence rate but has not progressed toward the desired international goal for tuberculosis elimination (globalisation and Australia's increasing economic and strategic engagement within the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia. Promoting and supporting tuberculosis control within the Western Pacific Region provides an opportunity for Australia to maintain its low tuberculosis incidence rate and progress toward elimination.

  6. Regional Survey of the Knowledge Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Čelebič

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the most important factors of economic development. On the leve! of countries and regions there are parallels between economic development and education. This statement was confirmed in Slovenian statistic regions, too. Economically more developed regions (in central Slovenia have a larger stock and flow of education assets than less developed regions (Pomutje, Zasavje. Each Slovenian statistic region has specific problems regarding education. Among regions there are big differences in education of the population and their involvement in education; and these gaps are only becoming deeper. The author shows education circumstances in the central Slovenian region (economically the most developed, Pomurje region (border and depopulated region with the highest percentage of rural population and Zasavje region (a region in industrial decline. In Slovenia provinces should be established as soon as possible (the law of provinces is stili in its preparati ve phase to define specific problems regarding education as well as the appropriate measures for solving them.

  7. Industrialization of western region of ukraine: problems of environmental consequences management

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Malyarchuk

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on the consequences of industrialization of the western region of the Ukrainian SSR – large-scale construction industry provided jobs for the active population of the region, led to the expansion of infrastructure of settlements and towns, strengthened social sphere and became a positive factor for the development of the western regions of Ukraine. However, due to the increased production capacity natural resources got depleted. The ability of ecosystems to self-healing an...

  8. Epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminths in the Western Region of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Henrietta; Sithey, Gyambo; Padmasiri, EA; Montresor, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In May 2003 a survey was conducted in the Western Region of Bhutan to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections after 15 years of school deworming in the country. Five schools were randomly selected in the region and 266 schoolchildren were examined. Stool samples were collected from each child as well as nutritional indicators and general information on each school. The survey found a cumulative prevalence of 16.5% STH (4.8% in schools treated in the last three months and 24% in the untreated schools). An unexpected finding was that tapeworm infection rate of 6.7%. These results indicate a high reinfection rate in this area. WHO recommends a 50% prevalence as the threshold for the establishment of community intervention. However, in our view, Bhutan needs to continue its deworming programme because the present, relatively low, prevalence level was found despite a long period of intervention; an interruption of the control activities will result in a return to very high levels of prevalence and intensity of infection. PMID:15916067

  9. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey: The Bright Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, Christopher H.; Balser, Dana; Armentrout, William Paul; Anderson, Loren; Bania, Thomas; Dawson, Joanne; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Shea, Jeanine

    2018-01-01

    HII regions, the zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass stars, are the archetypical tracers of Galactic structure. The census of Galactic HII regions in the Southern sky is vastly incomplete due to a lack of sensitive radio recombination line (RRL) surveys. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS) is a 900-hour Australia Telescope Compact Array cm-wavelength RRL and continuum emission survey of hundreds of third and fourth quadrant Galactic HII region candidates. These candidates are identified in the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Catalog of Galactic HII Regions based on coincident 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (Southern Galactic Plane Survey) emission. The SHRDS is an extension of HII Region Discovery Surveys in the Northern sky with the Green Bank Telescope and Arecibo Telescope which discovered ~800 new HII regions. In the first 500 hours of the SHRDS, we targeted the 249 brightest HII region candidates and 33 previously known HII regions. We discuss the data reduction, analysis, and preliminary results from this first stage of the survey.

  10. Survey of bioactive components in Western Canadian berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowska-Barczak, Anna M; Marianchuk, Myles; Kolodziejczyk, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Berries native to Western Canada were analyzed for total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC). Values ranged from 1.60 to 9.55 mmol trolox equivalent per 100 g fresh mass. Anthocyanin content ranged from 41.6 (in red twinberries) to 1081 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g fresh mass (in honeysuckle fruits). Honeysuckle fruits contained the highest amount of total polyphenols, 1111 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g, among analyzed fruits. Additionally, anthocyanins in the investigated berries were identified and characterized by HPLC - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometric method coupled with diode array detection. The number of anthocyanins varied from 4 in saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) to 20 in bilberries (Vaccinum myrtilloides Michx.). In all the samples analyzed, 6 common anthocyanidins:, cyanidin, delphinidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin, were found. Half the analyzed berries contained acylated anthocyanins, but a significant amount was found only in bilberries. The analyzed berry seed oils contained high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (over 90%), but only the golden currant seed oil contained gamma-linolenic acid.

  11. Formulary systems and pharmacy and therapeutics committees in the Western Pacific Region: exploring two Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Dechun, Jiang; Moles, Rebekah

    2013-06-01

    The use of formulary systems and pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committees in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) and the factors associated with their use were explored. Minor additions were made to a previously validated survey and reviewed by a WPR advisory committee. The Basel Statements 26 and 27 survey was made available in eight languages and sent electronically to 1989 hospital pharmacy directors through respective hospital pharmacy associations in the WPR. A total of 797 responses (40%) from 34 nations were received. Of these responses, 87% of hospitals (691 of 797) used a formulary. Also, 93% of respondents (619 of 664) indicated that their hospital had a P&T committee. However, only 44% of respondents (274 of 626) reported that more than half of their formulary medicines were linked to standard treatment guidelines. Furthermore, only 41% of hospitals (247 of 601) had a policy for off-label medication use. The pharmacy directors' perceived benefits of formularies were correlated with having more formulary medicines linked to standard treatment guidelines, basing their use on the best available evidence, and having a policy for the use of off-label medicines. A large proportion of hospitals in the WPR have implemented formularies and P&T committees. Although formularies are commonly used, their effectiveness may be limited, as formularies are often not linked to standard treatment guidelines or the best available evidence.

  12. Interactive Development of Regional Climate Web Pages for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, N.; Redmond, K. T.

    2013-12-01

    presented in meetings of target user groups at several stages of development. Feedback was collected by observing people as they used the sites to complete a task as well as through surveys and informal discussion. The resultant web products meet the needs of the target audience and give them a sense of ownership, making them more inclined to utilize the sites. Even with Western Regional Climate Center's considerable experience in the provision of climate services, this proved to be a very fruitful exercise in how to better serve our clientele and revealed opportunities for improving our products. The lessons learned from this 'co-development' process about how people search for, use, and perceive weather and climate data in the West provide valuable insight for others wishing to create an online tool to supply this type of information.

  13. Impact of mining and forest regeneration on small mammal biodiversity in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Ofori, Benjamin Y

    2017-05-01

    Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the region's rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the impact of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western Region of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation). The forest reserves recorded higher species abundance than the mining areas. Majority of the species captured in the forest reserves, including Hylomyscus alleni, Praomys tullbergi, Malacomys cansdalei, and Hybomys trivirgatus, are forest obligate species. Only one individual each of H. alleni and P. tullbergi was captured in the naturally regenerated areas (core areas of mining activities that were allowed to revegetate naturally), while 32 individuals belonging to four species (Lophuromys sikapusi, Mus musculoides, Mastomys erythroleucus, and Crocidura olivieri) were recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Our data suggested negative effects of mining on small mammal diversity and the restoration of species diversity and important ecological processes after rehabilitation of altered habitats. We strongly encourage deliberate conservation efforts, particularly the development of management plans that require the restoration of degraded land resulting from mining activities.

  14. Education, safe drinking practices and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Phillip S; Payne, Jennifer S

    2014-09-01

    There are alarming rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the Kimberley region of Western Australia despite numerous international studies demonstrating the links between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and FASD. The aim of this research was to help determine factors that may be associated with correct knowledge about safe drinking practices during pregnancy, with these factors used to help inform future interventions. Ninety-nine residents (40 males, 59 females, 39% of which self-identified as Indigenous) from the Kimberley region (Broome and smaller remote communities) completed a survey examining knowledge of currently recommended safe drinking practices during pregnancy and knowledge of the outcomes for children with FASD over a period of approximately 2 months. The results revealed that education level (i.e. not completing high school through to completing university) is the biggest predictor (β = 0.44, P education regarding the consequences of alcohol consumption for women of childbearing age should be paramount in this or similar communities. Suggestions for targeted interventions are discussed in light of these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yazvenko, S. B.; McDonald, T. L.; Blokhin, S. A.; Johnson, S. R.; Melton, H. R.; Newcomer, M. W.; Nielson, R.; Wainwright, P. W.

    2007-01-01

    Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August? September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is located in the vicinity of the seismic survey. This paper presents data...

  16. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

    2002-01-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of...

  17. Natural Hazards and the press in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llasat-Botija

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses press articles published between 1982 and 2005 in an attempt to describe the social perception of natural hazards in Catalonia. The articles included in the database have been classified according to different types of risk. In addition, the study examines the evolution of each type of risk in the press coverage during the study period. Finally, the results have been compared to data provided by insurance companies with respect to compensations paid out for damages. Conclusions show that floods are the most important natural hazard in the region, but that the number of headlines for each event is greater in the case of snowfalls and forest fires. Factors such as the season of the year, the proximity of the affected region to the capital, the topical issues at the time, and the presence of other important news must be considered when the impact in the press is analysed.

  18. Astronomical Site Survey for Mountain Wumingshan Area in Western Sichuan Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    In the Western-China Astronomical Site Survey project, we utilize the Geographic Information System (GIS) for the collection of long-term data, in order to investigate and study the Wumingshan (WMS) mountain and its surrounding areas for their geography, geology, climate, meteorology, social and demographic trends. Data analysis results show that the WMS mountain is located in the eastern fold belt of the Tibet Plateau--the typical region of the Hengduan Mountains, which leads to its large elevation, gently trended ridge, and stable geological structure. The highest altitude above the sea level at the WMS is more than 5000 m, but there are population settlements nearby with the low altitude of only 2000-3000 m, which are important for realizing low-level cost logistics conditions for the future headquarter or logistic base. Earthquake landslides and other geological disasters were rarely recorded. The other facts are such as the dry and clean atmosphere, the sparse vegetation, the semi-dry-state land, the perennial prevailing southwest wind, the rain-less winter, and the relatively short rainy-season summer, the location in the heartland of the large Shangri-La, no records of dust storms and the other inclement weather, low cloud coverage, the stability of wind direction, the small wind speed, the high possibility of clear sky, the far distance away from the developed areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and Tibet Autonomous Region, the sparsely populated people, the slowly developed economy, the peaceful and stable social environment, etc. Specially, in recent years, with the development of the local tourist resources, the traffic conditions in Daocheng have been significantly improved. With high quality highway maintenance and daily air transport capacity, the transportation of land and aviation is rarely interrupted due to snowing, which often happens in high plateau regions. Therefore, the WMS area possesses the potential conditions to establish the future

  19. Barium in landscape components of the western Transbaikal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashin, V. K.

    2015-10-01

    Barium concentrations in parent materials, soils, and plants of the forest-steppe, steppe, and dry steppe landscapes of the Transbaikal region have been studied. The average concentration of this element in rocks and soils of this region exceeds its clarke by 1.8-2.1 times. A positive correlation between the contents of Ba in soils, soil-forming rocks, and plants has been found. The concentration of Ba in soils does not correlate with the soil pH and humus content. Distribution patterns of Ba in the soil profiles have been characterized. With respect to the coefficient of the biological uptake by plants, Ba is assigned to the group of low accumulation (0.55-0.65) for mineral soils and of strong accumulation (6.0) for alluvial bog soils. Average concentrations of Ba in the steppe, meadow, and cultivated vegetation of the region are 1.9-2.3 times higher in comparison with the average concentration of this element in plants of the continents. The biological migration of Ba is most active in meadow landscapes, whereas steppe landscapes are characterized by the least active biological migration of this element.

  20. Marine Biodiversity in Temperate Western Australia: Multi-Taxon Surveys of Minden and Roe Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Richards

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that temperate marine ecosystems are being tropicalised due to the poleward extension of tropical species. Such climate mediated changes in species distribution patterns have the potential to profoundly alter temperate communities, as this advance can serve to push temperate taxa, many of which are southern Australian endemics, southward. These changes can lead to cascading effects for the biodiversity and function of coastal ecosystems, including contraction of ranges/habitats of sensitive cool water species. Hence there is growing concern for the future of Australia’s temperate marine biodiversity. Here we examine the diversity and abundance of marine flora and fauna at two reefs near Perth’s metropolitan area—Minden Reef and Roe Reef. We report the presence of 427 species of marine flora and fauna from eight taxon groups occurring in the Perth metropolitan area; at least three species of which appear to be new to science. Our data also extends the known range of 15 species, and in numerous instances, thousands of kilometres south from the Kimberley or Pilbara and verifies that tropicalisation of reef communities in the Perth metropolitan area is occurring. We report the presence of 24 species endemic to south-west Australia that may be at risk of range contractions with continued ocean warming. The results of these surveys add to our knowledge of local nearshore marine environments in the Perth metropolitan area and support the growing body of evidence that indicates a diverse and regionally significant marine fauna occurs in temperate Western Australia. Regular, repeated survey work across seasons is important in order to thoroughly document the status of marine biodiversity in this significant transition zone.

  1. Behavioural responses of western gray whales to a 4-D seismic survey off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gailey, Glenn; Sychenko, Olga; McDonald, Trent; Racca, Roberto; Rutenko, Alexander; Bröker, Koen

    2016-01-01

    A seismic survey was conducted off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia in 2010. The survey area was adjacent to the only known near-shore feeding ground of the Critically Endangered population of western gray whales Eschrichtius robustus in the western Pacific south of the Aleutian

  2. Application of regional climate models to the Indian winter monsoon over the western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A P; Yasunari, T; Wiltshire, A; Kumar, P; Mathison, C; Ridley, J; Jacob, D

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayan region is characterized by pronounced topographic heterogeneity and land use variability from west to east, with a large variation in regional climate patterns. Over the western part of the region, almost one-third of the annual precipitation is received in winter during cyclonic storms embedded in westerlies, known locally as the western disturbance. In the present paper, the regional winter climate over the western Himalayas is analyzed from simulations produced by two regional climate models (RCMs) forced with large-scale fields from ERA-Interim. The analysis was conducted by the composition of contrasting (wet and dry) winter precipitation years. The findings showed that RCMs could simulate the regional climate of the western Himalayas and represent the atmospheric circulation during extreme precipitation years in accordance with observations. The results suggest the important role of topography in moisture fluxes, transport and vertical flows. Dynamical downscaling with RCMs represented regional climates at the mountain or even event scale. However, uncertainties of precipitation scale and liquid-solid precipitation ratios within RCMs are still large for the purposes of hydrological and glaciological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogeography and change among regional coral communities across the Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R McClanahan

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are biodiverse ecosystems structured by abiotic and biotic factors operating across many spatial scales. Regional-scale interactions between climate change, biogeography and fisheries management remain poorly understood. Here, we evaluated large-scale patterns of coral communities in the western Indian Ocean after a major coral bleaching event in 1998. We surveyed 291 coral reef sites in 11 countries and over 30° of latitude between 2004 and 2011 to evaluate variations in coral communities post 1998 across gradients in latitude, mainland-island geography and fisheries management. We used linear mixed-effect hierarchical models to assess total coral cover, the abundance of four major coral families (acroporids, faviids, pocilloporids and poritiids, coral genus richness and diversity, and the bleaching susceptibility of the coral communities. We found strong latitudinal and geographic gradients in coral community structure and composition that supports the presence of a high coral cover and diversity area that harbours temperature-sensitive taxa in the northern Mozambique Channel between Tanzania, northern Mozambique and northern Madagascar. Coral communities in the more northern latitudes of Kenya, Seychelles and the Maldives were generally composed of fewer bleaching-tolerant coral taxa and with reduced richness and diversity. There was also evidence for continued declines in the abundance of temperature-sensitive taxa and community change after 2004. While there are limitations of our regional dataset in terms of spatial and temporal replication, these patterns suggest that large-scale interactions between biogeographic factors and strong temperature anomalies influence coral communities while smaller-scale factors, such as the effect of fisheries closures, were weak. The northern Mozambique Channel, while not immune to temperature disturbances, shows continued signs of resistance to climate disturbances and remains a priority for

  4. Biogeography and Change among Regional Coral Communities across the Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy R.; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Darling, Emily S.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Muthiga, Nyawira A.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are biodiverse ecosystems structured by abiotic and biotic factors operating across many spatial scales. Regional-scale interactions between climate change, biogeography and fisheries management remain poorly understood. Here, we evaluated large-scale patterns of coral communities in the western Indian Ocean after a major coral bleaching event in 1998. We surveyed 291 coral reef sites in 11 countries and over 30° of latitude between 2004 and 2011 to evaluate variations in coral communities post 1998 across gradients in latitude, mainland-island geography and fisheries management. We used linear mixed-effect hierarchical models to assess total coral cover, the abundance of four major coral families (acroporids, faviids, pocilloporids and poritiids), coral genus richness and diversity, and the bleaching susceptibility of the coral communities. We found strong latitudinal and geographic gradients in coral community structure and composition that supports the presence of a high coral cover and diversity area that harbours temperature-sensitive taxa in the northern Mozambique Channel between Tanzania, northern Mozambique and northern Madagascar. Coral communities in the more northern latitudes of Kenya, Seychelles and the Maldives were generally composed of fewer bleaching-tolerant coral taxa and with reduced richness and diversity. There was also evidence for continued declines in the abundance of temperature-sensitive taxa and community change after 2004. While there are limitations of our regional dataset in terms of spatial and temporal replication, these patterns suggest that large-scale interactions between biogeographic factors and strong temperature anomalies influence coral communities while smaller-scale factors, such as the effect of fisheries closures, were weak. The northern Mozambique Channel, while not immune to temperature disturbances, shows continued signs of resistance to climate disturbances and remains a priority for future regional

  5. 76 FR 28422 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... Fishery Management Council (Western Pacific Council), is subject to overfishing. NMFS notifies the appropriate fishery management council (Council) whenever it determines that; overfishing is occurring, a...

  6. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  7. Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffelfinger, James D; Li, Xi; Batmunkh, Nyambat; Grabovac, Varja; Diorditsa, Sergey; Liyanage, Jayantha B; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Bahl, Sunil; Vannice, Kirsten S; Hyde, Terri B; Chu, Susan Y; Fox, Kimberley K; Hills, Susan L; Marfin, Anthony A

    2017-06-09

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of JE vaccination into national immunization schedules in all areas where the disease is a public health priority (1). This report updates a previous summary of JE surveillance and immunization programs in Asia and the Western Pacific in 2012 (2). Since 2012, funding for JE immunization has become available through the GAVI Alliance, three JE vaccines have been WHO-prequalified,* and an updated WHO JE vaccine position paper providing guidance on JE vaccines and vaccination strategies has been published (1). Data for this report were obtained from a survey of JE surveillance and immunization practices administered to health officials in countries with JE virus transmission risk, the 2015 WHO/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, notes and reports from JE meetings held during 2014-2016, published literature, and websites. In 2016, 22 (92%) of 24 countries with JE virus transmission risk conducted JE surveillance, an increase from 18 (75%) countries in 2012, and 12 (50%) countries had a JE immunization program, compared with 11 (46%) countries in 2012. Strengthened JE surveillance, continued commitment, and adequate resources for JE vaccination should help maintain progress toward prevention and control of JE.

  8. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  9. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  10. Behavioural responses of western gray whales to a 4-D seismic survey off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gailey, Glenn; Sychenko, Olga; McDonald, Trent; Racca, Roberto; Rutenko, Alexander; Bröker, Koen

    2016-01-01

    A seismic survey was conducted off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia in 2010. The survey area was adjacent to the only known near-shore feeding ground of the Critically Endangered population of western gray whales Eschrichtius robustus in the western Pacific south of the Aleutian Islands. This study examined the effectiveness of efforts to minimize the behavioural responses of the whales to vessel proximity and sound during the survey. Two shore-based behavioural observation t...

  11. Environmental Survey in Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Summary report; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    An environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, has been carried out. This report presents the results from the analyses carried out on samples from a total of 316 stations at 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of the environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (Author)

  12. 75 FR 22725 - Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 242 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 100 Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting (teleconference). SUMMARY: This...

  13. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... CONTACT: Jody S. Sundsted, Power Marketing Manager, Upper Great Plains Region, Western Area Power... marketing administration (PMA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), is publishing a recommendation to pursue...' marketing of power across the seams. To address certain transmission congestion in the MISO and SPP...

  14. Impact of climate induced glacial melting on coastal marine systems in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region

    OpenAIRE

    Abele, Doris; Bers, A. V.; Costi, Juliana; Deregibus, D.

    2012-01-01

    IMCOAST is an international research program that features a multidisciplinary approach involving geo and biological sciences, field investigations, remote sensing and modeling and knowledge into the hydrographical and biological history of the marine coastal ecosystems of the Western Antarctic Peninsula region.

  15. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolando Bastida-Zavala, J.; Hove, ten Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Hydroides species (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region is presented. Twenty-six taxa are described, including a comparison between four species with ‘winged’ verticil spines: Hydroides alatalateralis, H. elegantulus, H. floridanus and H. spongicola,

  16. Dust from the dark region in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, I.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296912743; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; Reichart, G.-J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165599081; Sluijs, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X

    2011-01-01

    A dark region tens of kilometres wide is located in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. The dark appearance is caused by higher amounts of dust relative to the brighter surroundings. This dust has either been deposited recently or was brought to the surface by melting of

  17. Croton maasii (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from the western Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riina, R.; Berry, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Croton maasii, a new species from South America, is described and illustrated. The species is only known from terra firme forests of the extreme western Amazonian region, in W Brazil and adjacent E Peru. Croton maasii resembles C. pachypodus, a more abundant and widely distributed species in the

  18. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  19. Secondary analysis of snake bite data in the Western Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Method: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional review of 2006 - 2010 snake bite secondary data generated by the Western Regional Health Information Office in Ghana. Data was .... Estimate of the burden of Snake bites in Sub-Saharan Africa; A meta-analytic approach. Toxicon. 2011; 57(4): 586-99.

  20. Survey of Viruses Affecting Legume Crops in the Amhara and Oromia Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bekele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were undertaken to identify the viral diseases affecting lentil, faba bean, chickpea, pea, fenugreek and grass pea in two regions of Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in the regions of Amhara (Gonder and Gojam administrative zones and Oromia (Bale administrative zone during the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 growing seasons, respectively. The survey covered 138 randomly selected fields (48 faba bean, 10 pea, 38 grass pea, 34 chickpea, 8 lentil in the Amhara region, and 51 legume fields (29 faba bean, 12 pea, 3 lentil, 5 fenugreek, 2 chickpea in the Oromia region. Virus disease incidence was determined by laboratory testing of 100–200 randomly-collected samples from each field against the antisera of 12 legume viruses. Of the 189 fields surveyed, 121 and 7 had, at the time of the survey, a virus disease incidence of 1% or less and more than 6%, respectively, based on visual inspection in the field; later laboratory testing showed that the number of fields in these two categories was in fact 99 and 56, respectively. Serological tests indicated that the most important viruses in the Amhara region were Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV and the luteoviruses [e.g. Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV, Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV]. By contrast, only FBNYV and the luteoviruses were detected in the Oromia region. Other viruses, such as Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, were rarely detected in the Amhara region. This is the first report in Ethiopia of natural infection of faba bean, pea and fenugreek with SbDV, of fenugreek with BWYV, and of grass pea with BYMV, PSbMV and BWYV, and it is also the first recorded instance of BBMV infecting legume crops in Ethiopia.

  1. Standing Height and its Estimation Utilizing Foot Length Measurements in Adolescents from Western Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine standing height in both Kosovan genders in the Western Region as well as its association with foot length, as an alternative to estimating standing height. A total of 664 individuals (338 male and 326 female participated in this research. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of ISAK. The relationships between body height and foot length were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a ninety-five percent confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and foot length between genders was performed using a t-test. After that a linear regression analysis were carried out to examine extent to which foot length can reliably predict standing height. Results displayed that Western Kosovan male are 179.71±6.00cm tall and have a foot length of 26.73±1.20cm, while Western Kosovan female are 166.26±5.23cm tall and have a foot length of 23.66±1.06cm. The results have shown that both genders made Western-Kosovans a tall group, a little bit taller that general Kosovan population. Moreover, the foot length reliably predicts standing height in both genders; but, not reliably enough as arm span. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo as the results from Western-Kosovans don’t correspond to the general values.

  2. Mapping telemedicine efforts: surveying regional initiatives in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being supported using telemedicine systems? All data were surveyed from the Telemedicinsk Landkort, a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. The results of this study suggest that a growing numbers of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations exist in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. The results of this study provide a timely picture of the factors that are shaping the telemedicine landscape of Denmark and suggest potential strategies to help policymakers increase and improve national telemedicine deployment.

  3. A survey of oil and gas leases for most of the western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shofner, P.G. (State Land Commission, Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1992-12-01

    A survey on 13 of the western states is presented. These states have been surveyed on the new trends in marketing and managing the income from minerals. The survey covers 13 states with approximately 81 million acres of land in the western part of the US. The annual income from oil and gas production on these land is over two billion dollars, which is placed in permanent trusts. That permanent trust in the State of Texas is about eight billion dollars. The State of Oklahoma has approximately three-quarters of a billion dollars in a permanent trust. The interest off the income on these trust funds is distributed to education annually. The Oklahoma School Land Commission provides about 80 million dollars a year for the support of schools. As state revenues have dropped, the Land Commissions in the various states are looked at to provide additional income to offset the increasing cost of education. Almost every state at this time is having some sort of problem providing proper financial support for educational institutions. The survey was compiled to try to come up with new ideas to increase income, therefore, providing greater income for schools and hopefully offsetting some of the loss in the state revenues.

  4. Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungate, Bruce A. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    2013-05-02

    The major goal of this project was fostering, integrating, synthesizing, and disseminating experimental, observational, and modeling research on predicted climate change in the western region of the U.S. and the impacts of that change on the structure, productivity, and climatic interactions of the region's natural and managed ecological systems. This was accomplished through administering a competitive grants program developed in collaboration with the other four regional centers of the NICCR. The activities supported included efforts to synthesize research on climate change in the western U.S. through meta-analysis studies, model comparisons, and data synthesis workshops. Results from this work were disseminated to the scientific and public media. This project also supported the development of the NICCR web site, hosted at NAU, which was used as the means to accept pre-proposal and proposal submissions for each funding cycle, and served as a clearing house for public outreach for results from NICCR-funded research

  5. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  6. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AS A CHAIN PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS AND TECHNOLOGICAL ROUTES: THE CASE OF SANTA CATARINA'S WESTERN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cristina Aléssio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a transformation of the concept of development and of the analysis of its explanatory variables. Regional/local specificities became important aspects of development processes since each territory reacts differently to different strategies and creates specific solutions for its development. This article analyzes the path of a regional development process from the perspective of the institutional, schumpeterian and territorial approach theories. They provide important references to analyze development processes at the local level, as they consider history, culture, behavior codes, values and techniques as determinants of development. The study builds on Santa Catarina's Western region case and shows that regional development processes can be analyzed with the support of these theories as a chain of organizational dynamics and local technological trajectories that influence each other and determine the possible courses of territorial development.

  7. AFSC/ABL: Deep-Water Longline Survey for Giant Grenadier and Sablefish in the Western Gulf of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experimental bottom longline survey was conducted at depths >1,000 m in the western Gulf of Alaska in August 2008. The objective was to investigate the...

  8. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Edyniesky; Calistri, Paolo; Fonseca, Osvaldo; Ippoliti, Carla; Alfonso, Pastor; Iannetti, Simona; Abeledo, María A; Fernández, Octavio; Percedo, María I; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Although avian influenza (AI) virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI). Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30%) were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  9. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyniesky Ferrer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although avian influenza (AI virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI. Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30% were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  10. Western Australia facing critical losses in its midwifery workforce: a survey of midwives' intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Judith D; Twigg, Diane E; Martin, Tracy L; Rai, Tapan

    2013-05-01

    the ongoing attrition of the midwifery workforce frustrates future workforce planning and the provision of maternity services in Western Australia. This project determined factors contributing to the intention of the midwives to move jobs and/or leave the profession. a cross-sectional survey approach was taken for this descriptive research utilising a self-administered questionnaire developed by the Nursing and Midwifery Office, Department of Health, Western Australia. public and private health sectors in Western Australia, April-May 2010. 1,600 midwives employed in the public and private health sectors throughout Western Australia were invited to participate: 712 responded (44.5%), one-fifth of the state's registered midwives. most midwives worked part-time in a clinical role in public hospitals. Almost half intended moving jobs within 5 years and/or leaving midwifery. Excluding midwives of retirement age, the most common reasons for intending to move jobs were family commitments, working conditions and role dissatisfaction. Those intending to leave midwifery cited work-life balance, career change and family commitments. Midwives thought addressing the following issues would improve midwifery retention: flexible work arrangements, remuneration, staffing and caseload, workplace culture, professional development and models of care. retaining the midwifery workforce requires attention to workforce practices particularly flexible work arrangements and workloads; models of care to strengthen midwives' relationships with clients and colleagues; and accessible professional development. a review of workplace practices at unit and institution levels is urgently required in Western Australia so that midwives can achieve work-life balance and practice to the full extent of their professional role. These changes are necessary to forestall premature retirement of skilled and experienced midwives from the profession and workforce churn. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by

  11. OILSPILL RESPONSE ON THE WESTERN REGION OF GHANA: ENVIRONMENTAL MANEGEMENT PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    DORIS BAAH; KHARLAMOVA M.

    2016-01-01

    The research project attempted to investigate, examine, highlight, and understand if prevention of oil spill is better than cure (in management system terms with regards to two oil companies), to ascertain whether improving maintenance and control of facilities goes a long way to reduce the cost of managing oil and gas spillage while evaluating the post spill impacts on the western regional people of Ghana.This research study was a combination of both qualitative and quantitative research met...

  12. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in the Western Pacific Region: update with 2013 case notification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hiatt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the year 2000, tuberculosis (TB prevalence in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region decreased 36%. However, there were an estimated 1.6 million TB cases in the Region in 2013. This study describes a regional analysis using the WHO global TB database data from 2000 to 2013. Methods: TB surveillance data are annually collected from 36 countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region using a web-based system. TB case notifications, treatment outcomes and information on TB/HIV coinfection are analysed descriptively. Stratified analysis of the TB data by age, sex and countries and areas were conducted. Results: Countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region notified 1.3 million new and relapse TB cases in 2013. TB notification rate increased in the early 2000s, stabilized for several years and declined recently. Country-specific TB notification rates declined over time for all age groups in most countries. TB treatment success rates remain high in the Region with 16 countries reaching or maintaining 85% (or higher in 2013. HIV testing among TB cases has increased gradually with approximately 11 000 HIV-positive TB cases diagnosed each year since 2009. Discussion: The results suggest that true TB incidence is possibly declining. Treatment success rates have remained high for six of seven high-burden countries. TB surveillance data analysis is an important source of programmatic and epidemiological information. Careful interpretation of these findings can provide useful insight for programmatic decision-making. While the TB burden remains immense, national TB programmes must evolve and adapt to build upon previous efforts.

  13. Survey of Internship Education in Western Countries and the Problems to be Considered in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Toru; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Kaneko, Katsuhiko

    To survey the states of internship education in western countries, the authors visited seven universities, three companies and an institute in North America and Europe. The survey showed that internship of one semester (2-3 months) or more is quite common in these countries. In the graduate courses, joining some research/development projects out of the school, including overseas, is strongly recommended. Accepting internship students gives benefits also to the host companies/institutions by carrying short term projects as well as attracting talented students as expected employees. To promote such internship system in Japan, it is necessary to make education programs concordant with such long term internships. Marked improvement in practical abilities of students will also be reflected to research activities and will result in the benefit of the universities. Promotion of internship here is also necessary from the global aspect, to attract good overseas students.

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  15. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  16. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties, and Zoogeographical Composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Family in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region. PMID:24787627

  17. Challenges and future perspective for dengue vector control in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Md Abdur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue remains a significant public health issue in the Western Pacific Region. In the absence of a vaccine, vector control is the mainstay for dengue prevention and control. In this paper we describe vector surveillance and vector control in the Western Pacific countries and areas.Vector surveillance and control strategies used by countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region vary. Vector control strategies include chemical, biological and environmental management that mainly target larval breeding sites. The use of insecticides targeting larvae and adult mosquitoes remains the mainstay of vector control programmes. Existing vector control tools have several limitations in terms of cost, delivery and long-term sustainability. However, there are several new innovative tools in the pipeline. These include Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal system and Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium, to inhibit dengue virus in the vector. In addition, the use of biological control such as larvivorous fish in combination with community participation has potential to be scaled up. Any vector control strategy should be selected based on evidence and appropriateness for the entomological and epidemiological setting and carried out in both inter-epidemic and epidemic periods. Community participation and interagency collaboration are required for effective and sustainable dengue prevention and control. Countries and areas are now moving towards integrated vector management.

  18. Stand structure of a primate rich rainforest region in the central Western Ghats of southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Roy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats of southern India are one of the most important biodiversity regions in the world, not only due to their faunal diversity and abundance but also due to different habitat types, floral diversity and the presence of several endemic plant species. The rainforests in the central Western Ghats are inhabited by several primate species. We investigated the vegetation pattern and tree species occupancy of one of the prime primate habitats in the central Western Ghats. Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus, Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata, Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus achates and Malabar Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus malabaricus inhabit the study area. We studied the density, dominance, frequency and Importance Value Index (IVI of different tree species, using the belt transect method on randomly selected plots covering 4.1ha. We found that all the plant species that emerged to be the most dominant species with high IVI in the forest were also used by the diurnal primates for foraging. Knema attenuata and Syzygium gardneri were found to be the ‘keystone’ species. Since the forests of the study area do not come under the ‘protected area network’ for wildlife, the data obtained during this study will be helpful in the forestry management practices with a view for wildlife conservation of the region.

  19. Sympatric wolf and coyote populations of the western Great Lakes region are reproductively isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation of the genetic composition and taxonomic history of wolves in the western Great Lakes region (WGLR) of the United States has long been debated and has become more important to their conservation given the recent changes in their status under the Endangered Species Act. Currently, the two competing hypotheses on WGLR wolves are that they resulted from hybridization between (i) grey wolves (Canis lupus) and western coyotes (C. latrans) or (ii) between grey wolves and eastern wolves (C. lycaon). We performed a genetic analysis of sympatric wolves and coyotes from the region to assess the degree of reproductive isolation between them and to clarify the taxonomic status of WGLR wolves. Based on data from maternal, paternal and bi-parental genetic markers, we demonstrate a clear genetic distinction between sympatric wolves and coyotes and conclude that they are reproductively isolated and that wolf-coyote hybridization in the WGLR is uncommon. The data reject the hypothesis that wolves in the WGLR derive from hybridization between grey wolves and western coyotes, and we conclude that the extant WGLR wolf population is derived from hybridization between grey wolves and eastern wolves. Grey-eastern wolf hybrids (C. lupus × lycaon) comprise a substantial population that extends across Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and western Ontario. These findings have important implications for the conservation and management of wolves in North America, specifically concerning the overestimation of grey wolf numbers in the United States and the need to address policies for hybrids. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. [Regional anesthesia practice in Chile: an online survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvetto, M; McCready, M; Cook, C; Pietrobon, R; Altermatt, F

    2010-04-01

    To conduct a survey to profile the practice of regional anesthesia in Chile and determine the limitations on its use. A link to an online questionnaire was sent by e-mail to anesthesiologists who were members of their national professional association (Sociedad Chilena de Anestesiologia). The survey was processed anonymously. Multiple choice items elicited responses concerning general demographic information, professional experience as an anesthetist, academic degree, hospital size, and the use of regional anesthesia in clinical practice (number of procedures and types of techniques). Finally, the questionnaire focused on the use of nerve and plexus blocks. A total of 209 completed questionnaires were received, for a response rate of 54%. Regional anesthesia was part of routine practice for 97% of the respondents; 68% reported that regional techniques were used in more than 30% of their caseload. Most performed neuraxial techniques: 98.1% were spinal blocks, 96.2% lumbar epidural blocks, and 66.9% thoracic epidural blocks. Routine use of peripheral nerve blockade was reported by 73.7%. Upper limb anesthesia was provided significantly more often than lower limb anesthesia (P =.011). The most common technique involved use of a peripheral nerve stimulator (64%). Skills were mainly acquired through residency programs (68.9%) and self-teaching (20.1%). Peripheral nerve blocks were never performed by 26.3% of the respondents; the reason given most often was lack of training. Although regional anesthesia is commonly used in Chile, neuraxial blocks remain the most frequently used types. Peripheral nerve blocks are used fairly often, mostly on an upper limb. Training should stimulate attempts to promote more widespread use of all forms of regional anesthesia.

  1. Industrialization of western region of ukraine: problems of environmental consequences management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Malyarchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the consequences of industrialization of the western region of the Ukrainian SSR – large-scale construction industry provided jobs for the active population of the region, led to the expansion of infrastructure of settlements and towns, strengthened social sphere and became a positive factor for the development of the western regions of Ukraine. However, due to the increased production capacity natural resources got depleted. The ability of ecosystems to self-healing and self-cleaning was not taken into account, which caused devastating impact on nature and human health. Uncontrolled industrial pollution of air, water and land resources became a common phenomenon for the urbanized western region. Promoting environmental knowledge and declaration of achievement of significant progress in official documents gave no mechanisms to solve environmental problems. Overcoming the difficulties of the past is connected with the Ukraine had been being a part of the USSR. The leading place took environmental issues. Poor environmental condition of the whole country was not only caused by the world’s largest man-made disaster on the Chernobyl nuclear plant in April 1986, but also intensive industrialization and collectivization. Full conversion of the economy and agriculture in the middle of the last century led to the growth of anthropogenic impact on the environment. A radical break steady of socio-political and socio-economic life took place in western Ukraine in the second half of the twentieth century. Party-Soviet government in a short time made a «socialist transformation» and social progress was considered only as a means to achieve this goal. A number of issues concerning environmental protection, safety of life, were ignored. Environmental protection, regulation of environmental and economic activities, guaranteeing rights of Ukrainian citizens to environmental safety is currently among the national priorities of the

  2. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.

  3. Seismic hazard assessment of Kashmir and Kangra valley region, Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basab Mukhopadhyay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A complete earthquake catalogue of the Western Himalaya (latitudes 30°N–36°N and longitudes 72°E–78°E for the period of 1501–2010 has been compiled with earthquake magnitude computed in moment magnitude (Mw scale. Pre- and early twentieth century records of earthquake damage have been documented from rare and out of print publications. Seismotectonics and seismic hazard for Kohistan arc, Kashmir–Hazara Syntaxis, Nanga-Parbat (Western Syntaxis, Karakoram and Himachal Himalaya are discussed with special reference to 1905 Kangra and 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquakes. Analyses of spatio-temporal variation in b-value from the region indicate significant precursor prior to the 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake; progressive rise of background b-value observed and the main shock locates close to relative high b-value domains. Regions surrounding the location of the 1905 Kangra earthquake also display such high b-value for the period of 2005–2010 that calls for closer scrutiny. Temporal analysis of b-value from the epicentral block of Muzaffarabad earthquake clearly showed a high–low b-value couplet of 1.45–0.72, which may be treated as a typical precursor before an imminent large earthquake. Gumbel extreme value statistics indicate probability of occurrence of an event of Mw > 7.0 within 50 years in the region.

  4. Telephoning of interim blood culture results: a regional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, H M; Breathnach, A S

    2008-10-01

    Most staphylococci grown from blood cultures are contaminants. Since they are microscopically indistinguishable from non-contaminants, considerable time and resources may be spent following up all patients with positive blood cultures before the identification is made the following day. Since there is no formal guidance or standard available in this area, this report surveyed practice in our region. An interview was conducted by telephone, using a standardised questionnaire. Results were analysed using descriptive techniques. The majority of microbiologists did not communicate all presumptive staphylococci but waited for identification in some cases. There is a range of practice in laboratories due to conflicting pressures: limited time, fear of criticism if results are not phoned, fear of causing confusion with provisional information and lack of clarity concerning what is "good practice." This survey concludes that a decision not to telephone every presumptive Staphylococcus in blood cultures on Day 1 is reasonable.

  5. Specific identification of Western Atlantic Ocean scombrids using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region sequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paine, Melissa A; McDowell, Jan R; Graves, John E

    2007-01-01

    .... The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region was evaluated as a molecular marker for the specific identification of the 17 members of the family Scombridae common to the western Atlantic Ocean...

  6. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali, R; McFarlane, D; Varma, S; Dawes, W; Emelyanova, I; Hodgson, G

    2012-01-01

      This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall...

  7. Impact of Illness and Medical Expenditure on Household Consumptions: A Survey in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuangnan; Jiang, Yefei; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study is to examine the associations between illness conditions and out-of-pocket medical expenditure with other types of household consumptions. In November and December of 2011, a survey was conducted in three cities in western China, namely Lan Zhou, Gui Lin and Xi An, and their surrounding rural areas. Results Information on demographics, income and consumption was collected on 2,899 households. Data analysis suggested that the presence of household members with chronic diseases was not associated with characteristics of households or household heads. The presence of inpatient treatments was significantly associated with the age of household head (p-value 0.03). The level of per capita medical expense was significantly associated with household size, presence of members younger than 18, older than 65, basic health insurance coverage, per capita income, and household head occupation. Adjusting for confounding effects, the presence of chronic diseases was negatively associated with the amount of basic consumption (p-value 0.02) and the percentage of basic consumption (p-value 0.01), but positively associated with the percentage of insurance expense (p-value 0.02). Medical expenditure was positively associated with all other types of consumptions, including basic, education, saving and investment, entertainment, insurance, durable goods, and alcohol/tobacco. It was negatively associated with the percentage of basic consumption, saving and investment, and insurance. Conclusions Early studies conducted in other Asian countries and rural China found negative associations between illness conditions and medical expenditure with other types of consumptions. This study was conducted in three major cities and surrounding areas in western China, which had not been well investigated in published literature. The observed consumption patterns were different from those in early studies, and the negative associations were not observed. This

  8. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Marn

    Full Text Available Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i two different regional subsets and (ii three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications.Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  9. Threshold responses in regional runoff from a heterogeneous low relief terrain - Western Canada's Boreal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Kevin; Anderson, Axel; Kettridge, Nick; Mendoza, Carl; Petrone, Rich; Silins, Uldis; Smith, Kevin; Waddington, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Runoff from larger catchments (>1000km) in the continental Boreal Plains (BP) eco-region of Western Canada, although low, can range over 3 orders of magnitude (4 mm to 350 mm/yr) among years and be difficult to predict. This region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedentedly rapid and large-scale industrial development. There is a need to assess and understand the dominant controls on the temporal and spatial threshold responses of regional runoff generation to be able to predict and mitigate the potential impacts of land use and effectiveness of reclamation practices on surface water quantity and quality. The Boreal Plain climate has regional moisture deficit (P 200 mm) states occurring every 2-3 decades. The differing CMD states altered the hydrologic connectivity among different portions of HRA's and HUs within catchments. During dry states base flow conditions ranged by over an order of magnitude (2 to 80 mm/yr), and increased with percent area of coarse textured HRAs. In fine textured landforms significant runoff was observed only in catchments with >30% wetland area. During mesic conditions catchment runoff coefficients were positively correlated with percent wetland area, suggesting that wetland networks were the primary source areas of surface water to regional runoff. During the infrequent wet states, runoff coefficients were similar among all catchments indicating that storage in forest HUs was exceeded and both forestlands and wetlands contribute to catchment runoff. Integrating the CMD with the configuration of wetland and forestland HUs and the type of glacial landforms HRAs rather than topographic drainage networks appears to better represent water cycling and sink source dynamics controlling runoff in low relief glacial landscapes such as the Boreal Plain.

  10. Bedrock geologic and structural map through the western Candor Colles region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    The Candor Colles are a population of low, conical hills along the southeast flank of Ceti Mensa, in west Candor Chasma, within the Valles Marineris system of Mars (fig. 1). Ceti Mensa and the adjacent Candor Mensa are mounds of layered sedimentary deposits and are the most prominent landforms within west Candor Chasma. Prior to the arrival of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) in orbit around Mars in 2006 (Zurek and Smrekar, 2007), geologic maps of the area utilized the relatively low resolution Viking Orbiter photomosaics (20–150 m/pixel). Geologic maps covering west Candor Chasma were created at scales of 1:15,000,000 for the western equatorial region of Mars (Scott and Tanaka, 1986), 1:2,000,000 for the Valles Marineris region (Witbeck and others, 1991), and 1:500,000 for the far eastern part of west Candor Chasma (Mars Transverse Mercator quadrangle–05072; Lucchitta, 1999). 

  11. Nutritional aspects of changes in disease patterns in the Western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L T; Rosman, A; de Boer, A S; Darnton-Hill, I

    1996-01-01

    One impact of socioeconomic progress on populations has been to reduce the number of cases due to diseases of undernutrition and microbial contamination of food, which affected mostly infants and young children, and to increase those due to diseases of excessive food consumption, which are affecting adults and a growing number of children. This article reviews the main dietary factors which have an influence on cardiovascular disease and cancer, and discusses the link between economic development and increased rates of chronic diseases. There is evidence that the noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors have risen rapidly in countries of the WHO Western Pacific Region. Data from 29 countries and areas in the region indicate that 70% of them show lifestyle diseases in three or more of the top five causes of death. While public health measures have been implemented by some countries to prevent and control nutrition-related chronic diseases, further action is needed.

  12. Regional paleotopographic trends and production, Chesterian and Morrowan strata, Western Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolson, J.; Adams, C.; Van Zant, K. (Amoco Production Co., Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Late Chesterian (Mississippian) and Morrowan (Pennsylvanian) unconformity-bounded packages in the Western Interior have traditionally been viewed as sequences separated by a regional basal Pennsylvanian unconformity. Analysis of alluvial valley trends and paleontological data suggests that these sequences are related and formed in response to multiple relative sea level fluctuations initiated in the Chesterian which continued throughout the Pennsylvanian. The Darwin, Tyler, Morrowan, and Humbug formations of the Western Interior appear to have formed in retrogradational parasequence sets of alluvial valley fills and marine transgressive systems tracts repeatedly developed around the flanks of the transcontinental arch. Relative sea level rises following each major incisement created a complex intertonguing of marine strata responsible for fluvial aggradation of each valley system. These sequences progressively backstep and grow younger toward the transcontinental arch, where Atokan and Desmoinesan strata cap the oldest preserved surfaces. At least four major paleodrainage basins have been identified, and valley-fill production has been established in three of these. The previously unrecognized age equivalency of these formations provides a new regional sequence stratigraphic interpretation which has hydrocarbon exploration implications in frontier areas of Utah and Colorado. Seismic resolution and an understanding of hydrocarbon migration paths hold the key to developing new exploration trends.

  13. Farmers' awareness on landslide susceptibility on their plots: a first step towards household resilience in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Lies; Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet

    2016-04-01

    In the mountainous area of the Rwenzori region, western Uganda, landslides frequently destroy houses and plots of farmers living and cultivating on unstable slopes. The impact of these landslides on the local livelihoods depends on the exposure and the resilience of the households. Both the exposure and the resilience can be modified to a certain extent with specific measures, e.g. planting slope stabilizing trees of paying for (informal) insurance. The adoption of such measures and the willingness to accept measures imposed by local governments crucially depends on the local awareness of landslide risk. The aim of this research is to estimate awareness on landslide susceptibility, as a proxy for landslide risk, among household heads in a landslide prone area in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda. The objective is to compare household and plot characteristics between aware and unaware households. This will allow us to identify those households which are less aware of landslide susceptibility and therefore most likely to be less resilient when exposed to landslide risk. We use data from a susceptibility map constructed in 2016 and a structured household survey conducted in the Rwenzori region in 2015. The susceptibility map is based on a SRTM 30m DEM and validated with field observations, while the household survey includes the answers of more than 450 households that have been asked to evaluate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. Simple probit models at plot level are used to compare the estimated landslide susceptibility with the modelled susceptibility. We use this comparison to identify the household characteristics of those households that do not correctly estimate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. We will exploit the fact that landslide susceptibility is very space specific and that households can therefore have plots in both susceptible and unsusceptible areas. The research is currently ongoing, but we hypothesize that younger farmers

  14. A blind HI survey in the Ursa Major region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, K.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Minchin, R. F.; Boyce, P. J.; Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.; Jordan, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted the first blind HI survey covering 480 deg2 and a heliocentric velocity range from 300 to 1900 km s-1 to investigate the HI content of the nearby spiral-rich Ursa Major region and to look for previously uncatalogued gas-rich objects. Here we present the catalogue of HI sources. The HI data were obtained with the four-beam receiver mounted on the 76.2-m Lovell telescope [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) 12 arcmin] at the Jodrell Bank Observatory (UK) as part of the HI Jodrell All Sky Survey (HIJASS). We use the automated source finder duchamp and identify 166 H i sources in the data cubes with HI masses in the range of 107-1010.5 M⊙. Our Ursa Major HI catalogue includes 10 first-time detections in the 21-cm emission line. We identify optical counterparts for 165 HI sources (99 per cent). For 54 HI sources (˜33 per cent) we find numerous optical counterparts in the HIJASS beam, indicating a high density of galaxies and likely tidal interactions. Four of these HI systems are discussed in detail. We find only one HI source (1 per cent) without a visible optical counterpart out of the 166 HI detections. Green Bank Telescope (FWHM 9 arcmin) follow-up observations confirmed this HI source and its HI properties. The nature of this detection is discussed and compared to similar sources in other HI surveys.

  15. [B chromosome polymorphism of blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae) from the north-western region of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubareva, L A; Petrova, N A

    2006-01-01

    We have studied karyofonds of natural populations and B-chromosome morphology of 8 species of blackflies from the North-Western region of Russia: Odagmia ornata Mg., Hellichiella crassa Rubz., Simulium morsitans Edw., Simulium argyreatum Mg., Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duo-decimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. For this purpose we made slides of squashed blackflies larvae with salivary gland polytene chromosomes stained by aceto-orcein, in addition to similarly stained slides with mitotic chromosomes from gonads and ganglia. Morphology of polytene B-chromosomes of Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duodecimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. has been first described. B-chromosome polymorphism was found in all species, but the number of B chromosomes was conserved within each differences in polytene individual. Stable and distinct interspecific differences in the morphology of polytene B-chromosomes were demonstrated, and these characters are advisable to use to distinguish the species. We have investigated for the first time karyofonds of Od. ornata populations from Arkhangelsk Region (Solovetskie Islands) and Leningrad Region (railway station Sablino), and those of S. argyreatum populations from Murmansk Region (Kandalaksha environs) and Karelia (railway station Chupa). A long term study of Od. ornata and S. argyrestum population from North-Western Russia revealed interspecific and interpopulation dynamics of the occurrence of specimens with B-chromosomes. Some populations showed an increased percentage of individuals with B-chromosomes. It is suggested that B-chromosomes may play a role in adaptation of polulations to severe environmental conditions.

  16. Settlement patterns and communication routes of the western Maya wetlands: An archaeological and remote-sensing survey, Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, David R.

    This dissertation investigates the role of the seasonal wetlands in the political economy and subsistence strategies of the ancient Maya of Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico. A combination of pedestrian surveys and remote-sensing tasks were performed in order to better understand the settlement patterns and potential communication routes in and through the wetlands between Chunchucmil and the Gulf of Mexico. These western wetlands had been proposed as the principal avenue for interregional trade between coastal merchants and inland consumers, yet were thought to be uninhabited and uncultivable. Following the survey tasks outlined in this dissertation, these wetlands were found to contain an abundance of archaeological settlements and features indicating habitation, utilization, and trade throughout this diverse ecological zone. The remote-sensing platforms utilized in this study include both multispectral (Landsat) and synthetic aperture radar (AirSAR), combined with additional remotely sensed resources. One of the goals of this survey was to test the capabilities of these two sensors for the direct detection of archaeological features from air and space. The results indicate that Landsat can be highly successful at detecting site location and measuring site size under certain environmental conditions. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar proved to be adept at detecting large mounded architecture within the Yucatecan karstic plain, but its further utility is hampered by limitations of resolution, scale, and land cover. One of the salient features of the landscape west of Chunchucmil is a network of stone pathways called andadores. These avenues through the wetlands outline a dendritic network of communication, trade, and extraction routes. The following dissertation places this network and its associated settlements (from suburban centers to diminutive camps) within their regional context, examining the roles they may have played in supporting a large mercantile

  17. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  18. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  19. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  20. Resilience, Adaptive Capacity, and the "Lock-in Trap" of the Western Australian Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Allison

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Western Australian (WA agricultural region as an example of a large-scale social-ecological system (SES, this paper applies a framework based on resilience theory to examine the region's resilience and capacity for change and renewal. Despite numerous policies directed at controlling natural resource degradation in this SES, sustainable natural resource management (NRM has not been achieved. Disparities between the scale and complexity of the problem, the design of management policies, and region's history have all contributed to policy resistance. Historically, when considered as an integrated system, changes may be described by two iterations of the adaptive cycle. These cycles are also synchronous with the third and fourth Kondratiev long-wave economic cycles. The WA agricultural region has experienced sequential periods of growth and accumulation followed by reorganization and renewal, and currently is in the backloop (reorganization to exploitation phases of the adaptive cycle. A region's adaptive capacity is achieved by substituting direct reliance on regional factors with institutional intervention and sophisticated technology, often generated at the global scale. This substitution alters the thresholds of the commodity system and gives the perception of an adaptive system. In contrast, however, if resource depletion, environmental pollution, and population decline, also effects of the commodity system, are included within the model then the region may be considered to be in a "Lock-in" pathological trap. We propose that the dynamics of land-use change between 1900-2003 were driven by macroeconomics at the global scale, mediated by institutions at the national and state scale. Also, the SES, which is composed of relatively fast-moving variables, is largely decoupled from the slow-moving ecological variables.

  1. Integrated chronostratigraphy of Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary beds in the western Anabar region, northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Adams, W.

    1996-01-01

    Carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks of the western Anabar region, northern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolutionary and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic/Cambrian boundary. Sedimentologically, the boundary succession can be divided into three sequences representing successive episodes of late transgressive to early highstand deposition; four parasequences are recognized in the sequence corresponding lithostratigraphically to the Manykal Formation. Small shelly fossils are abundant and include many taxa that also occur in standard sections of southeastern Siberia. Despite this coincidence of faunal elements, biostratigraphic correlations between the two regions have been controversial because numerous species that first appear at or immediately above the basal Tommotian boundary in southeastern sections have first appearances scattered through more than thirty metres of section in the western Anabar. Carbon- and Sr-isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at one- to two-metre intervals in a section along the Kotuikan River, favour correlation of the Staraya Reckha Formation and most of the overlying Manykai Formation with sub-Tommotian carbonates in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, isotopic data suggest that the uppermost Manykai Formation and the basal 26 m of the unconformably overlying Medvezhya Formation may have no equivalent in the southeast; they appear to provide a sedimentary and palaeontological record of an evolutionarily significant time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlations with radiometrically dated horizons in the Olenek and Kharaulakh regions of northern Siberia suggest that this interval lasted approximately three to six million years, during which essentially all 'basal Tommotian' small shelly fossils evolved.

  2. Modern epidemiology of hepatitis A in the north-western region of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliakhtenko, L; Plotnikova, V; Levakova, I; Rubis, L; Solovieva, E; Mukomolov, S

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiological features of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were studied in eleven territories located in the north-western region of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of HAV infection in Russia and in the region were evaluated during a 17-year period. The age-specific incidence was calculated and 229 305 patients with acute HAV were identified. The analysed database included HA mixed with other viral hepatitis infections: it included information about 8 809 HAV patients. Special attention has been paid to the sero-epidemiological studies conducted in St Petersburg city. These studies included analysis of age-specific incidence in persons 20 years of age and older during 6 years and testing of blood sera from 1 892 healthy persons for IgG anti-HAV. In general there is a trend to reduction of HAV incidence in Russia, and in the north-western region, high indices were registered in some provinces in different years. It was established three types of age-specific incidence distribution: predominated incidence in 3-14 years of age (first type), 15-29 years of age (second type) and uniform distribution in different age groups (third type). It was shown that decrease of HAV incidence in children and young adults lead to the reduction of sero-positivity level in the groups 20+ years of age. These characteristics should be taken in account to define indications for HAV vaccine prophylaxis. HAV infection in 10-13% of cases mixed with acute or chronic hepatitis B and C in the last 15 years in St Petersburg. In the middle of 1990s, HAV mostly mixed with acute viral hepatitis of different aetiology, but in the modern time predominated type of mixture was presented by HAV and chronic HBV and HCV infections. The obtained results are useful for viral hepatitis surveillance and control.

  3. Climate change and forests: Impacts and adaption. A regional assessment for the Western Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sukumar, R. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deshingkar, P. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Potential climate change over the next 50 to 100 years could have major impacts on tropical forests. Forests, particularly in the tropics, are subjected to anthropogenic pressures leading to degradation and loss of forest ecosystems. Given the significant dependence of local people and economies on forests in tropical and temperate countries, there is a need to assess the possible impacts of climate change and to develop adaption measures. The diversity of forest types in the Western Ghats ranges from wet evergreen and deciduous forest to dry thorn and montane forests with a wide range of annual rainfall regimes (from less than 65 cm to over 300 cm). The study was conducted in two regions of the Western Ghats; the Uttara Kannada district and the Nilgiris. Climate change projections for 2020 and 2050 were used in assessing the possible impacts on forests. In general, the `most likely` projections of climate change were an increase in mean temperature in the range of 0.3-1.0 deg C and an increase in precipitation of 3-8% over the study regions by the year 2050. The `worst case` scenario was an increase in temperature of 1 deg C and a decrease in precipitation by 8% by 2050. To assess the vegetational responses to climate change, a simple model based on present-day correlations between climatic (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and vegetation types for these regions was developed. Likely changes in the areas under different forest types were assessed for `moderate climate` sensitivity and central scaling factor (referred to as the `most likely scenario`) for the years 2020 and 2050, and `high climate` sensitivity and a lower scaling factor (the `worst case scenario`) for 2050 90 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  4. First round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwoon Yong Pok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue surveillance and control. The objective of this programme was to assess dengue diagnostic proficiency among national-level public health laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. Methods: Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 (Module A and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B. A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. Results: All 16 laboratories testing Module A performed reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both RNA and serotype detection. Of these, 15 had correct results for RNA detection and all 16 correctly serotyped the viruses. All nine laboratories performing NS1 antigen detection obtained the correct results. Sixteen of the 18 laboratories using IgM assays in Module B obtained the correct results as did the 13 laboratories that performed IgG assays. Detection of ongoing/recent dengue virus infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 15/19 participating laboratories. Discussion: This first round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics was successfully conducted in national-level public health laboratories in the WHO Western Pacific Region, revealing good proficiency in both molecular and serological testing. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing for dengue virus and other priority pathogens in the Region will be assessed during future rounds.

  5. Clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing in the Western Pacific Region based on the FIP Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2015-06-01

    Clinical pharmacy services have been associated with decreased mortality rates, length of stay, medication errors, adverse drug reactions and total cost of care. Such services have recently been introduced to the Western Pacific Region (WPR), particularly in Asia. A survey to measure clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing has been validated in the WPR and can be used to explore the implementation of such services. To explore the implementation of clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing in the WPR and the barriers and facilitators involved in their implementation. Hospital pharmacies in the WPR. Hospital pharmacy directors in the WPR were emailed a link to the validated survey. Surveys were available in English, Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Lao, Khmer, French and Mongolian. (1) Percentage of hospitals offering clinical pharmacy services. (2) Percentage of in-patients receiving a medication history, review or discharge counselling by a pharmacist. In total, 726 responses were received from 31 countries and nations. Nearly all hospitals, 90.6 % (658/726), stated they provided clinical pharmacy services. On average 28 % of their clinical pharmacists attended medical rounds regularly. The median percentage of inpatients receiving a medication history and discharge counselling by a pharmacist was 40 and 30 % respectively. Higher internal facilitator factor scores significantly increased the likelihood of offering clinical services and having pharmacists attend medical rounds regularly. Internal facilitators included individual pharmacist traits and pharmacy departmental structure/resources. Higher environmental facilitator factor scores and having a higher percentage of pharmacists attend medical rounds regularly significantly increased the likelihood of inpatients receiving a medication history, a medication review and discharge counselling by a pharmacist. Environment facilitators included government support, patient and physician

  6. Public perspectives of fire, fuels, and the Forest Service in the Great Lakes Region: a survey of citizen-agency communication and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Shindler; Eric Toman; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    Relative to the western United States, where fire and fuel management programs have received greater emphasis, few community-based studies have focused on the Great Lakes region. The present paper describes public opinion research from counties surrounding National Forests inWisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. Survey data address citizen perspectives on (1) fuel...

  7. Regional Trends in Large Wildfires and Climate in the Western U.S., 1984-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, P. E.; Brewer, S.; Arnold, J.; Moritz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database provides remote sensing-based maps of fire perimeters for all fires larger than 405 ha (1000 acres) in the Western U.S. The database uniquely permits analysis of large fires on all lands, collected using a uniform methodology, for the 1984-2010 period. We used MTBS data to examine changes in the annual number of large fires, total area burned in large fires, large fire size, and day of year of ignition (DOY) for ten ecoregions across the Western U.S. Fire trends were compared to seasonal trends in maximum temperature, precipitation, and Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (SCPDSI) derived from monthly PRISM data. In a majority of ecoregions, our analysis revealed statistically significant positive trends in the number of large fires and/or total area burned in large fires per year. When all regions were combined, fire occurrence increased at a rate of six large fires per year and total area burned increased at a rate of 274 km2 per year over the 1984-2010 period. Multiple ecoregions demonstrated significant increases in the 90th percentile of large fire size, with trends as high as +3 km2 per year. The 10th percentile of DOY, an indicator of early season large fires, declined in two high elevation ecoregions. This finding agrees with previous research that has observed correlations between earlier snowmelt and increased fire activity at high elevation. Fall maximum temperature trended warmer and SCPDI in all seasons trended drier in the ecoregions with strongest increases in fire activity. At the Western U.S. scale, increases in large fire occurrence and total area burned coincide with increased drought severity over the 1984-2010 period.

  8. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland, western Norway, with a survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Godske Bjørklund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Bjørklund BG. 2009. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland western Norway with a u survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway. Fauna Norvegica29: 11-54. A total of 156 species (or subspecies o rotifers, mostly non-planktonic, have been identified from freshwater or slightly brackish-water localities in the county of Hordaland; 83 are new to Norway and 24 others are new to the county. One hundred of the species were collected from the two valleys of Eksingedalen and Teigdalen in spring and summer 1967. Samples were taken on the shallow shores of lake-like parts of the rivers, and in pools, tarns and small lakes. Forty more or less euryhaline fresh­water rotifers were also collected during studies of slightly brackish-water localities around Bergen in 1963-1969. A number of freshwater rotifers were collected at several localities in and around Bergen in 1968-1970, and on the western part of Hardangervidda. Of those so far identified ,23 are new to Norway and 8 more are new to the county. They are therefore included in the species list. A few additional ones are referred to in the taxonomical notes. All the species are listed with localities and habitat categories, or, in the case of the last-mentioned ones, just the district where they were collected. The paper includes notes, measurements and ,in most cases, figures regarding 44 little known, variable or taxonomically problematical species, especially in the genera Cephalodella and Trichocerca. Comments are given on the distribution , abundance and diversity of the species. The paper presents asurvey of previous investigations on rotifers in Norway, listing 200 previously recorded freshwater (a few euryhaline rotifers, giving other names, the authors who recorded the finds and, in most cases, the counties where the species were collected. 

  9. Cryptosporidium parvum IId family: clonal population and dispersal from Western Asia to other geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Axén, Charlotte; Bjorkman, Camilla; Jian, Fuchun; Amer, Said; Liu, Aiqin; Feng, Yaoyu; Li, Guoquan; Lv, Chaochao; Zhao, Zifang; Qi, Meng; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Helei; Sun, Yanru; Ning, Changshen; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-02-27

    In this study, 111 Cryptosporidium parvum IId isolates from several species of animals in China, Sweden, and Egypt were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). One to eleven subtypes were detected at each of the 12 microsatellite, minisatellite, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, forming 25 MLST subtypes. Host-adaptation and significant geographical segregation were both observed in the MLST subtypes. A clonal population structure was seen in C. parvum IId isolates from China and Sweden. Three ancestral lineages and the same RPGR sequence were shared by these isolates examined. Therefore, the present genetic observations including the higher nucleotide diversity of C. parvum IId GP60 sequences in Western Asia, as well as the unique distribution of IId subtypes (almost exclusively found in Asia, Europe, and Egypt) and in combination with the domestication history of cattle, sheep, and goats, indicated that C. parvum IId subtypes were probably dispersed from Western Asia to other geographical regions. More population genetic structure studies involving various C. parvum subtype families using high-resolution tools are needed to better elucidate the origin and dissemination of C. parvum in the world.

  10. Recent trends in incidence of cervical cancer in several regions of south-western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L; Ménégoz, F; Fioretta, G

    1995-01-01

    In recent decades, most Western countries have experienced a decline in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. More recently, a reversal of this trend has been noted in young women, especially in anglo-saxon countries. These trends have been attributed to the beneficial results of cervical cancer screening on the one hand, to the widespread increase of high risk sexual behaviors on the other. Recent trends in Latin European countries have not previously been studied. Time trends of incidence data from 10 regions of South-Western Europe (Geneva, Vaud, Calvados, Doubs, Bas-Rhin, Isère, Ragusa, Varese, Zaragoza and Navarra) were analysed by means of log-linear models. The data were provided for various periods of time between 1970 and 1990. The mean incidence rate varies threefold between Navarra where rates are the lowest to Calvados where they are the highest. The overall decrease rate is of the order of -3% per year but rate changes differ by age group. The reduction seems to concern mostly middle aged women. A definite trend could not be determined among younger women due to low case numbers. Thus, the hypothesis of a rising incidence in young women cannot be confirmed at this time.

  11. Western Region Renewable Energy Markets: Implications for the Bureau of Land Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.; Billman, L.; Gelman, R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) with an overview of renewable energy (RE) generation markets, transmission planning efforts, and the ongoing role of the BLM RE projects in the electricity markets of the 11 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) that comprise the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Region. This analysis focuses on the status of, and projections for, likely development of non-hydroelectric renewable electricity from solar (including photovoltaic [PV] and concentrating solar power [CSP]), wind, biomass and geothermal resources in these states. Absent new policy drivers and without the extension of the DOE loan guarantee program and Treasury's 1603 program, state RPS requirements are likely to remain a primary driver for new RE deployment in the western United States. Assuming no additional policy incentives are implemented, projected RE demand for the WECC states by 2020 is 134,000 GWh. Installed capacity to meet that demand will need to be within the range of 28,000-46,000 MW.

  12. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  13. Composition of iron ores from Mongolian western region and its applicability for cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Tserenkhand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research were studied the chemical and mineral compositions of some iron ores in Mongolian the western region. Also the study investigated the effect of calcium fluoride on decomposition temperatures of calcite in the raw mix for obtaining cement clinker. The chemical investigation result showed that iron oxide (Fe2O3 content in the western Mongolian iron ores represents in Uvgondatsan (Khovd – 87.23%, Suul Khar (Khovd – 85.00% and Kharganat (Uvs – 89.29%, respectively. Iron ores of Kharganat and Uvgundatsan are mostly contained magnetite (Fe3O4 while iron ore of Suul Khar is mostly contained hematite (Fe2O3. The decomposition temperature of calcite (CaCO3 was reduced by 5°C, 10°C, and 15°C when calcium fluoride (CaF2 in the raw mix for obtaining cement clinker that consists of Shokhoit limestone, Shal clay and Kharganat iron ore was added up 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.204 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p75-79

  14. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  15. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASPECTS OF HUMAN GRANULOCYTIC ANAPLASMOSIS IN THE WESTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, I I; Biletska, H V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data of complex study of human granulocytic anaplasmosis the human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the western region of Ukraine. Natural HGA foci were identified, where the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in the main vector (I. ricinus) amount to (12.0 +/- 0.7) %, and seroprevalence of HGA among the healthy population--(28.6 +/- 1.6) %. It's shown that A. phagocytophilum is the etiologic agent of (33.7 +/- 4.9) % of undiagnosed cases of seasonal febrile diseases. Principal characteristics of HGA epidemiology: spring-summer scasonality, the prevalence of disease in the age structure of people of active age (45.30 +/- 1.95 years), a significant level combination with (60.4 +/- 2.2) % Lyme-horreliosis and other tick-borne infections (mixed infections), the different level of activity of HGA epidemic process in forest and steppe geographical landscape zones--were revealed.

  16. THE POTENTIAL OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A REGIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ENGINE IN THE WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the objectives, activities, and the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research carried out in the AntrES project (AntrES - Project acronym "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. A new school for women entrepreneurship" – Antreprenoriatul şi egalitatea de şanse. Un nou model de şcoală antreprenorială pentru femei, during the two years of implementation, in the Western Romania referring to the new businesses start up; business development; the motivation and difficulties of female entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; of their perceptions regarding the need for entrepreneurship education, the role of female entrepreneurship promotion and the impact of the successful models on new businesses start up – this paper presents directions of action meant to emphasize and support the potential of the female entrepreneurship in Romania, as a regional growth and development engine.

  17. WHO collaboration in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hisashi [Western Pacific Regional Environmental Health Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Since April 1989 when the World Health Organization`s (WHO`s) activities in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region were presented at the Pacific Basin Conference in Singapore, WHO and its Member States have carried out a number of collaborative activities in hazardous waste management. These activities focused on three main areas: national capacity building in the management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in rapidly industrializing countries, management of clinical or medical waste, and hazardous waste management in Pacific Island countries. This paper summarizes these collaborative activities, identifies the main problems and issues encountered, and discusses future prospects of WHO collaboration with its Member States in the area of hazardous waste management. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Postglacial uplift of the Earth crust in the North-Western part of the Kola region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstobrov D.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new lithological, micropaleontological and chronological data received as a result of studying the lake bottom sediments sequences in a valley of the Tuloma River have been presented. Investigation of lakes situated in different areas of the Tuloma River valley at different elevations and their correlation with position of ancient marine coastal lines and forms has allowed recognizing the character of sedimentation and specific of neotectonic movements of the Earth's crust in the Late Glacial and Holocene in the North-Western part of the Kola region. The equidistant diagram of relative lines of the Earth's crust uplift has been presented for the studied area. The magnitude of the different-age uplift correlated to these lines, and uplift gradient along the valley of the Tuloma River and Kola Bay of the Barents Sea has been estimated

  19. Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hugo, Martin; Doney, Scott C; Ducklow, Hugh W; Fraser, William; Martinson, Douglas; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Schofield, Oscar

    2009-03-13

    The climate of the western shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is undergoing a transition from a cold-dry polar-type climate to a warm-humid sub-Antarctic-type climate. Using three decades of satellite and field data, we document that ocean biological productivity, inferred from chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), has significantly changed along the WAP shelf. Summertime surface Chl a (summer integrated Chl a approximately 63% of annually integrated Chl a) declined by 12% along the WAP over the past 30 years, with the largest decreases equatorward of 63 degrees S and with substantial increases in Chl a occurring farther south. The latitudinal variation in Chl a trends reflects shifting patterns of ice cover, cloud formation, and windiness affecting water-column mixing. Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations.

  20. NEOLITHIC PLANT USE IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE AGRIWESTMED PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Peña-Chocarro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the preliminary results of the AGRIWESTMED project which focuses on the archaeobotanical analyses of early Neolithic sites in the western Mediterranean region (both in Iberia and in northern Morocco. A large number of sites has been studied producing an interesting dataset of plant remains which places the earliest examples of domesticated plants in the second half of the 6th millennium cal BC. Plant diversity is high as it is shown by the large number of species represented: hulled and naked wheats, barley, peas, fava beans, vetches, lentils and grass peas. To more crops, poppy and flax, are also part of the first agricultural crops of the area. Although agriculture seems to occupy a first place in the production of food, gathering is well represented in the Moroccan sites where a large number of species has been identified. 

  1. Building regional threat-based networks for estuaries in the Western United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Merrifield

    Full Text Available Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S. Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16% have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25% of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography.

  2. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  3. Implication of World Health Organization growth standards on estimation of malnutrition in young Chinese children: Two examples from rural western China and the Tibet region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how malnutrition rates change in young Chinese children when 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards are used instead of 1978 WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference. Cross-sectional survey data were used from rural western China and the Tibet region. The heights and weights of children of malnutrition between two references differed in magnitude. The scale of change in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight is much greater when 2006 reference was introduced. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Temporal and Regional Variability in the Skin Microbiome of Humpback Whales along the Western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlich, K C; Miller, Carolyn; DeForce, Emelia; Friedlaender, Ari S; Johnston, David W; Apprill, Amy

    2018-03-01

    The skin is the first line of defense between an animal and its environment, and disruptions in skin-associated microorganisms can be linked to an animal's health and nutritional state. To better understand the skin microbiome of large whales, high-throughput sequencing of partial small subunit rRNA genes was used to study the skin-associated bacteria of 89 seemingly healthy humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) sampled along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) during early (2010) and late (2013) austral summers. Six core groups of bacteria were present in 93% or more of all humpback skin samples. A shift was observed in the average relative abundances of these core bacteria over time, with the emergence of four additional core groups of bacteria that corresponded to a decrease in water temperature, possibly caused by season- or foraging-related changes in skin biochemistry that influenced microbial growth, or other temporal factors. The skin microbiome differed between whales sampled at several regional locations along the WAP, suggesting that environmental factors or population may also influence the whale skin microbiome. Overall, the skin microbiome of humpback whales appears to provide insight into animal- and environment-related factors and may serve as a useful indicator for animal health or ecosystem alterations. IMPORTANCE The microbiomes of wild animals are currently understudied but may provide information about animal health and/or animal-environment interactions. In the largest sampling of any marine mammal microbiome, this study demonstrates conservation in the skin microbiome of 89 seemingly healthy humpback whales sampled in the Western Antarctic Peninsula, with shifts in the bacterial community composition related to temporal and regional variability. This study is important because it suggests that the skin microbiome of humpback whales could provide insight into animal nutritional or seasonal/environment-related factors, which are becoming

  5. Local vs. Regional Groundwater Flow Delineation from Stable Isotopes at Western North America Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E; Boldt, Elizabeth M; Junghans, Katie M

    2017-01-01

    The recharge location for many springs is unknown because they can be sourced from proximal, shallow, atmospheric sources or long-traveled, deep, regional aquifers. The stable isotope (18 O and 2 H) geochemistry of springs water can provide cost-effective indications of relative flow path distance without the expense of drilling boreholes, conducting geophysical studies, or building groundwater flow models. Locally sourced springs generally have an isotopic signature similar to local precipitation for that region and elevation. Springs with a very different isotopic composition than local meteoric inputs likely have non-local recharge, representing a regional source. We tested this local vs. regional flow derived hypothesis with data from a new, large springs isotopic database from studies across Western North America in Arizona, Nevada, and Alberta. The combination of location-specific precipitation data with stable isotopic groundwater data provides an effective method for flow path determination at springs. We found springs in Arizona issue from a mix of regional and local recharge sources. These springs have a weak elevation trend across 1588 m of elevation where higher elevation springs are only slightly more depleted than low elevation springs with a δ18 O variation of 5.9‰. Springs sampled in Nevada showed a strong elevation-isotope relationship with high-elevation sites discharging depleted waters and lower elevation springs issuing enriched waters; only a 2.6‰ difference exists in 18 O values over an elevation range of more than 1500 m. Alberta's springs are mostly sourced from local flow systems and show a moderate elevation trend of 1200 m, but the largest range in δ18 O, 7.1‰. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Quality of Liver and Kidney Function Tests among Public Medical Laboratories in Western Region of Amhara National Regional State of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Abaynesh; Kibatu, Girma

    2012-03-01

    Medical laboratories play essential roles in measurements of substances in body fluids for the purpose of diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and for greater understanding of the disease process. Thus, data generated from have to be reliable for which strict quality control, management and assurance are maintained. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and precision of clinical chemistry laboratories in western region of Amhara national regional state of Ethiopia in testing liver and kidney functions. Eight laboratories in hospitals and a Regional Health Research Laboratory Center participated in this study from February to March, 2011. Each participant was requested to measure six specimens for six chemistry tests from two control samples. Three hundred twenty four test results to be reported from all participant laboratories, if all measurements can be made, were designed to be collected and statistically evaluated. None of the study subject laboratories could deliver all the six tests for estimation of both liver and renal functions simultaneously during the study period. Only 213 values from the expected 324 values were reported and about 65 % of the 213 values reported fell outside of the allowable limits of errors for the chemistry tests of the control specimen used. This study finding showed that there were lack of accuracy and precision in chemistry measurements. A regular survey on medical laboratories should be conducted questioning the accuracy and precision of their analyses in order to sustain improvements in the quality of services provided by participating laboratories for the benefit of patients. Laboratory Quality Management Systems appreciate the need for regular quality control and quality assessment schemes in medical laboratories.

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McCallum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

  8. Metagenomic survey for viruses in Western Arctic caribou, Alaska, through iterative assembly of taxonomic units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita C Schürch

    Full Text Available Pathogen surveillance in animals does not provide a sufficient level of vigilance because it is generally confined to surveillance of pathogens with known economic impact in domestic animals and practically nonexistent in wildlife species. As most (re-emerging viral infections originate from animal sources, it is important to obtain insight into viral pathogens present in the wildlife reservoir from a public health perspective. When monitoring living, free-ranging wildlife for viruses, sample collection can be challenging and availability of nucleic acids isolated from samples is often limited. The development of viral metagenomics platforms allows a more comprehensive inventory of viruses present in wildlife. We report a metagenomic viral survey of the Western Arctic herd of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti in Alaska, USA. The presence of mammalian viruses in eye and nose swabs of 39 free-ranging caribou was investigated by random amplification combined with a metagenomic analysis approach that applied exhaustive iterative assembly of sequencing results to define taxonomic units of each metagenome. Through homology search methods we identified the presence of several mammalian viruses, including different papillomaviruses, a novel parvovirus, polyomavirus, and a virus that potentially represents a member of a novel genus in the family Coronaviridae.

  9. A baseline survey: oral health status of prisoners--Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Yengopal, V; Cohen, B

    2005-02-01

    South African prison populations continue to grow because of the escalating crime and an overstretched judicial system. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of prison inmates in the Western Cape (Pollsmoor, Goodwood, Paarl and Worcester). A cross-sectional epidemiological survey involving a clinical oral examination and face-to-face interviews was used to collect information on DMFT, periodontal health, perceived needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of inmates to oral health. Clinical examinations were carried out using WHO criteria. Of the 340 study participants, 264 were male and 76 were female. The prevalence of oral disease was high. The mean DMFT was 15.45 and the total DMFT increased with age. There was a reported impact on oral health quality of life, with many citing problems with eating, drinking and pain. Self-reported dental needs indicated a perceived need for dentures, scaling and fillings. Over two thirds of the sample (72%) reported that the dental services that they presently receive are poor. This study found a high prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease among the correctional service populations. There is an urgent need for the development of a basic oral health care package that should be offered to all inmates as eventually many of them will be returning to the community.

  10. A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Climatic Drivers of Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Mia Akin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is considered to be a significant influence for infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Climatic and non-climatic developments act together resulting in current and future infectious disease risk. This study uses a survey to explore Dutch expert perspectives on climate change induced infectious disease risk. The results show that the experts consider temperature change, precipitation change, humidity change, and climate change induced habitat change to be relatively important for water-related infectious disease risk, vector-borne disease risk excluding zoonoses, and the risk of zoonoses. The climatic drivers are seen as relatively less important for food-related infectious disease risk. The experts rate many non-climatic drivers to be highly important for infectious disease risk. Comparatively, the majority of the non-climatic drivers assessed are seen as more important than climate change drivers. The degree of uncertainty in the future development of climatic drivers is viewed as moderate to high, and for non-climatic drivers mostly as moderate. An analysis of subsamples based on professional backgrounds reveals differences in experts’ opinions for e.g., socio-cultural drivers, and similarities. Diversity and consensus amongst expert perspectives on climate change and infectious diseases can have implications for policy. Further research to uncover and compare prevailing perspectives is necessary.

  11. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  12. Forest surveys and wildfire assessment in the Los Alamos Region; 1998-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy G. Balice; Jay D. Miller; Brian P. Oswald; Carl Edminster; Stephen R. Yool

    2000-06-01

    To better understand the structural characteristics of vegetation in the Los Alamos region, the authors conducted two years of field surveys and associated analyses. This report introduces field methods, lists the summarized field data, and discusses the results of preliminary spatial analyses. During 1998 and 1999, seventy-six terrestrial plant communities were sampled for topographic characteristics, soil surface features, and vegetational conditions. A nested, randomized design was used to select the plot locations and to guide the sampling of the plot. The samples included a variety of fuel types, including surface fuels and ground fuels, shrubby and small tree fuels, and overstory fuels. Species composition data were also collected. The fuels data were summarized by vegetation type and evaluated for the topographic and spatial relationships of major field categories. The results of these analyses indicate that many of the fuels categories depend on topographic factors in a linear and curvilinear fashion. In particular, middle elevations within the Los Alamos region tend to support more surface fuels and ground fuels, whereas large-diameter trees are most dense at higher elevations and are specific to community types at these elevations. Small-diameter trees occur in more dense stands at lower and middle elevations and on specific soil and topographic conditions. Areas that burned in 1954 were found to be relatively free of fuels. The implications are that the western portions of the Los Alamos region are at risk from wildfire during dry, summer periods.

  13. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in the Western Pacific Region: analysis of 2012 case notification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hiatt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB control in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region has seen substantial progress in the last decade, with a 33% reduction in prevalent TB cases since 2000. The burden remains immense, however, and national TB programmes must evolve and adapt to build upon these gains. Through routine surveillance, countries and areas in the Region reported 1.4 million TB cases in 2012. The case notification rate increased in the early 2000s, appears to have stabilized in recent years and is in decline for all forms and new smear-positive cases. The age and sex breakdown for smear-positive TB case rates by country shows generally higher rates with increased age and declining rates over time for all age groups. Treatment success remains high in the Region, with 15 countries reaching or maintaining an 85% success rate. HIV testing among TB patients has increased gradually along with a slow decline in the number of HIV-positive patients found. The trend of TB notification is heavily influenced by programmatic improvements in many countries and rapidly changing demographics. It appears that cases are being found earlier as reflected in declining rates of smear-positive TB and steady rates of TB in all forms. WHO estimates depict a decline in TB incidence in the Region. HIV testing, while still low, has increased substantially in recent years, with essential TB/HIV services expanding in many countries. TB surveillance data, within inherent limitations, is an important source of programmatic and epidemiological information. Careful interpretation of these findings can provide useful insight for programmatic decision-making.

  14. Effects of snow persistence on streamflow generation in mountain regions of the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. C.; Kampf, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountain regions, both snowpack trend analyses and modeling studies suggest that streamflow generation is sensitive to loss of snow, yet we still lack understanding of where the most snow-sensitive regions are located. Snow persistence (SP), defined as the fraction of year that an area is snow-covered, is a useful variable for identifying snow-sensitive regions because it is easily observed globally using remote sensing. SP can affect streamflow generation by shifting the timing and magnitude of water input. All other factors being equal, we hypothesize that declining SP decreases the ratio of streamflow to precipitation (runoff ratio), and the magnitude of this effect is greater in arid climates than in humid climates. To evaluate whether streamflow generation declines with decreasing SP, we used the MODSCAG fractional snow cover product and 68 USGS reference catchments across five mountainous regions of the Western U.S. to compute annual and mean annual SP and discharge for water years 2000 to 2011. We used PRISM precipitation to compute the annual and mean annual runoff ratio for each catchment. Results show strong positive relationships between annual SP and annual runoff ratio in the Northern Rockies, Southern Rockies, and Basin and Range, where annual precipitation ranges from 0.25 m at low elevations in the Basin and Range to 2.5 m at high elevations in the Northern Rockies. Mean annual runoff ratios for these regions range from 0.32-0.53, and they also increase with mean annual SP. No relationships between annual SP and runoff ratios are evident in the wetter North Cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges, where annual precipitation ranges from 0.44 m in the low elevation Sierras to 4.8 m in the high elevation Cascades. Mean annual runoff ratios for these regions are 0.53-0.87 and show no clear dependence on SP. These results suggest that streamflow generation in arid regions may be most sensitive to loss of persistent winter snow.

  15. The geological history of the Latimojong region of western Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lloyd T.; Hall, Robert; Armstrong, Richard A.; Barber, Anthony J.; BouDagher Fadel, Marcelle; Baxter, Alan; Wakita, Koji; Manning, Christina; Soesilo, Joko

    2017-05-01

    We present an updated geological map and revised stratigraphy of the Latimojong region of central-western Sulawesi. This work includes new biostratigraphic ages from the Latimojong Metamorphic Complex, Toraja Group, Makale Formation and Enrekang Volcanics, together with whole-rock geochemical data and sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb analyses from zircons extracted from igneous rocks in the region. Previous work on the study region and in other parts of Sulawesi have discussed the age and character of two different rock sequences with similar names, the Latimojong Complex and the Latimojong Formation. One would assume that the type location for these two sequences is in the Latimojong Mountains. However, there is considerable confusion as to the character and location of these sequences. We make a distinction between the Latimojong Formation and the Latimojong Complex, and propose that the Latimojong Complex be renamed the Latimojong Metamorphic Complex to minimise the confusion associated with the current nomenclature. The Latimojong Metamorphic Complex is an accretionary complex of low- to high-grade metamorphic rocks tectonically mixed with cherts and ophiolitic rocks, while the Latimojong Formation consists of Upper Cretaceous weakly deformed, unmetamorphosed sediments or very low-grade metasediments (previously interpreted as flysch or distal turbidites that unconformably overlie older rocks). Our work indicates that the Latimojong Formation must be restricted to isolated, unobserved segments of the Latimojong Mountains, or is otherwise not present in the Latimojong region, meaning the Latimojong Formation would only be found further north in western Sulawesi. Radiolaria extracted from chert samples indicate that the Latimojong Metamorphic Complex was likely assembled during the Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) and was later metamorphosed. Ages obtained from benthic and planktonic foraminifera were used to differentiate and map the Toraja Group

  16. Interannual variability in net community production at the Western Antarctic Peninsula region (1997-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuchuan; Cassar, Nicolas; Huang, Kuan; Ducklow, Hugh; Schofield, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we examined the interannual variability of net community production (NCP) in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) using in situ O2/Ar-NCP estimates (2008-2014) and satellite data (SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua) from 1997 to 2014. We found that NCP generally first peaks offshore and follows sea-ice retreat from offshore to inshore. Annually integrated NCP (ANCP) displays an onshore-to-offshore gradient, with coastal and shelf regions up to 8 times more productive than offshore regions. We examined potential drivers of interannual variability in the ANCP using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The EOF's first mode explains ˜50% of the variance, with high interannual variability observed seaward of the shelf break. The first principal component is significantly correlated with the day of sea-ice retreat (R = -0.58, p Oscillation (ENSO) climate indices in austral spring. Although the most obvious pathway by which the day of sea-ice retreat influences NCP is by controlling light availability early in the growing season, we found that the effect of day of sea-ice retreat on NCP persists throughout the growing season, suggesting that additional controls, such as iron availability, are preconditioned or correlated to the day of sea-ice retreat.

  17. Recent landscape history in arid western New South Wales, Australia: a model for regional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Patricia C.

    1999-09-01

    Accelerated erosion by wind and water has taken place in arid western New South Wales, Australia, since the introduction of domestic and feral herbivores by Europeans in the nineteenth century. This action led to widespread soil loss by sheetwash, rilling, gullying, and aeolian deflation. Upland creek systems, formerly comprising shallow sinuous channels, are now entrenched into alluvial fills on the valley floor. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal from Aboriginal cooking pits, exposed by this erosion, indicates that the current phase of incision of the valley floor has occurred since grazing of domestic animals began about 140 years ago. Stratigraphic evidence is presented which suggests that this type of incision (gullying or arroyo cutting in the valley floor) may not have occurred before within the 20,000 year sedimentary history of the valley fills studied. Channel enlargement and knickpoint retreat, initiated by these changes, is ongoing, and the implications of this for land and heritage management in the region are discussed. A conceptual model is presented which summarises the hydrogeomorphic changes which have occurred in upland catchments in the region as a result of changes in landcover.

  18. Region-specific genetic heterogeneity of HBB mutation distribution in South-Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachatzopoulou, Adamantia; Kourakli, Alexandra; Stavrou, Eleana F; Fragou, Ekaterini; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Patrinos, George P; Athanassiadou, Aglaia

    2010-01-01

    beta-Thalassemia (beta-thal), is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of beta-globin chains resulting in impaired erythropoiesis. It is the most common single gene defect disease in Greece, with heterozygous rates reaching, on average, 8% in the general population. Here, we performed molecular analyses on 199 unrelated beta-thal and compound beta-thal/sickle cell disease patients, of whom 157 originated from three prefectures of South-Western Greece, namely Achaia, Ilia and Etoloakarnania. Our results indicate that the frequency of specific HBB gene mutations, namely the HBB:c.118C>T (codon 39, C>T), HBB:c.92+6T>C (IVS-I-6, T>C), and HBB:c.20A>T [Hb S, beta6(A3)Glu-->Val, GAG>GTG], present distinct distribution patterns in the Achaia and Ilia prefectures (p HBB gene mutations is useful for genetic counseling in the region, and illustrates that the identification of the HBB gene mutation spectrum in this region is necessary for population carrier screening and for efficient provision of prenatal diagnosis.

  19. Geodiversity action plans for the enhancement of geoheritage in the Piemonte region (north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ferrero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geoethical approach to geodiversity allows better understanding of the value of abiotic nature and enhances its conservation and development. Our basic assumption is that even during an economical crisis, geoheritage sites can serve both public and private interests. A set of nine strategic geothematic areas were chosen to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, north-western Italy, each of which is characterized by great potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreational activities, and economic support to the local communities. Specialized research teams individuated critical aspects to advance our knowledge of the geological history of the Piemonte region, through climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources. The scientific concepts and techniques were coupled with geodiffusion actions and products: not only geosites, but also museum collections, evidence of mining and quarrying activities, science exhibitions, and nature trails. The preliminary results have allowed action plans to be developed with local partners, to assess the geoheritage management requirements. A series of investigations were carried out to improve the visual representation of the geological processes and the evolutionary scenarios. Further outcomes of the project will include didactic tools for educators, schools, and the public in general.

  20. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  1. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  2. The meandering Dijle River in the western European loess region: an anthropogenic landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broothaerts, Nils; Verstraeten, Gert; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Kasse, Cornelis; Bohncke, Sjoerd; Vandenberghe, Jef

    2013-04-01

    Floodplain deposition rates have increased markedly under influence of human impact throughout the Late Holocene in many Western and Central European catchments. These variations in sedimentation rates have changed the geomorphology and ecology of many floodplains. In this study we discuss the human impact and its influence on floodplain geoecology during the Middle and Late Holocene for the Dijle catchment (760 km²), located in the Belgian part of the western European loess belt. Based on sedimentological and palynological data, the geoecology of the floodplain and the regional vegetation was reconstructed at 6 locations. Age-depth models for each of the studied sequences were obtained through 60 radiocarbon dates. Human impact in the catchment was quantified based on statistical analysis of the pollen data (cluster analysis and correspondence analysis). Our data shows that until ca. 2500 cal BP, human impact was either absent or limited to local disturbances yielding no clear influence on the floodplain geoecology. The river environment was in a stable phase and consisted of a marshy environment were organic material could accumulate, which is interpreted as the natural state of the floodplain. From ca. 2500 cal BP onwards, human impact gradually increased. However, only when human impact in the catchment crossed a threshold, the floodplain geoecology changed with clearing of the Alder carr forest, the dominance of minerogenic overbank sedimentation and the emergence of a single channel meandering river. Spatial and temporal variability in the coupling between increasing human impact and changes in floodplain geoecology can be attributed to differences in hillslope-fluvial system connectivity and local differences in human impact. Overall, this study shed new lights on the indirect effect of anthropogenic forces on floodplain geoecology. It also shows that the contemporary morphology of the Dijle River floodplain contrasts widely with that of the Middle Holocene

  3. Seafloor geodetic survey revealed partial creep of North Anatolian Fault at the western part of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Motoyuki; Yamamoto, Ryusuke; Ohta, Yusaku; Takahashi, Narumi; Yamamoto, Yujiro; Kalafat, Dogan; Pinar, Ali; Ozener, Haluk; Ozeren, Sinan; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    exponential decay, but is still visible even after 20 months. Taken together all of these information, we obtained change rate of each baselines and their projections or direction cosines to the fault strike were 9-14 mm/yr indicating right-lateral movement. There still remain a few mm/yr uncertainty in the slip rate, it is obvious that coupling rate of NAF at this site is roughly a half at least near the surface compared to the regional rate of 22-25 mm/year. Looking at onshore GNSS data along a perpendicular line to NAF including the Western High, slight decay of displacement rate at northern and southern innermost sites compared to the regional rate gives some information on the depth extent of the partial coupling. We have extended two additional GNSS site along the line closer to NAF than above sites for more strong constraint on the depth extent in the future, which can be discussed with seismicity distribution obtained by repeated OBS survey.

  4. Survey on maize post-harvest losses and its management practices in the western hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in order to assess the losses of maize under farmers’ storage conditions in the Western hills of Nepal in 2014. The survey area included Thanapati Village Development Committee (VDC of Gulmi, Aalamdebi VDC of Syangja, Khasauli VDC of Palpa and Baglung municipality-12, Baglung district. Primary information was collected through semi-structured questionnaires among the heterogenous groups of the farming communities. Survey revealed that about 61% respondents reported the storage pest as the major pests and about 12% respondents reported that field pests as the major pests in the western hills. Maize weevil (Sitophylus zeamais Mostsch. and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. were found to be major storage insect pests in surveyed areas. Majority of respondents (39% presumed on 10-20% losses during storage. Among the other biotic factors, farmers ranked insect (42%, weeds (32% and diseases (17% respectively. Maize storage methods had distinct among the surveyed areas compared with Baglung district to other surveyed areas. In Baglung, about (73% farmers had stored maize in the form of grain whereas in Palpa, Gulmi and Syangja, about (77% farmers had practice of storing maize with husk for 5-7 months. Approximately, 40% respondents were using open floor in upper stair “Aanti”as a major maize storage place in Palpa, Gulmi and Syangja whereas almost (79% of respondents were using sacks to store shelled grains in Baglung. Hence, there is ample opportunity to reduce the storage losses of maize depending upon the existing situation.

  5. The Calabrian in the Western Transcaucasian basin (Georgia): Paleomagnetic constraints from the Gurian regional stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscher, U.; Oms, O.; Bruch, A. A.; Shatilova, I.; Chochishvili, G.; Bachtadse, V.

    2017-03-01

    The precise Eurasian chronostratigraphy of the Neogene-Quaternary period is still hampered by the existence of numerous regional stages often lacking independent and absolute age constraints. Therefore, detailed paleoclimatic reconstructions of areas like the Caucasus are still poorly constrained and the influence of climate variability on faunal interchange between Africa and Eurasia in the late Neogene-Quaternary is still difficult to address. During the last decades, Quaternary sections from western Georgia have produced a wealth of paleoclimatic proxy data. Unfortunately, these sections do not have a robust age control. This is especially true for the Gurian stage which has been vaguely defined as being coeval with the lower Pleistocene on the basis of poorly documented bio- and magnetostratigraphic data. In order to constrain the age of the Gurian stage, a detailed magnetostratigraphic study has been carried out. All major sections with known Gurian sediments in the former Rioni bay (a marine restricted area to the southeast of the Major Caucasus) have been studied. Our results confirm for the first time the strict correlation between the Gurian succession and the Calabrian stage. In addition, our data provides further information on the tectonic setting of the Rioni bay during the Calabrian in this region: (1) in the north, Gurian sediments were unconformably deposited on older Meotian sediments in a piggy back basin, (2) in the south, Gurian sediments are conformably overlying Kujalnician (Plio-Pleistocene) strata, (3) magnetostratigraphic correlation among sections indicate drastic changes in sediment accumulation rates within the basin, (4) rock magnetic experiments reveal significant magnetomineralogical differences between Gurian and the underlying Miocene sediments likely documenting a transition related to changes in oxic conditions, supply of terrigenous material and sedimentation rate close to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. These results provide a

  6. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  7. [Correlation Between Nursing Work Environment and Nurse Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention in the Western Region of Mainland China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Meng; Fang, Jin-Bo

    2016-02-01

    Nurse burnout and low job satisfaction are main reasons that cause nurses to leave their current position. Improving the nursing work environment may reduce the severity of job burnout and of job dissatisfaction and thus decrease the turnover intention of nursing staff. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the nursing work environment and the outcome variables of burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in the western region of Mainland China. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Survey data were collected between February and December 2012 from 1,112 clinical nurses working at 83 medical, surgical, and intensive care units in 20 hospitals across the western region of Mainland China. Multistage sampling was conducted on some of the participants. The research instruments that were used included the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Nurse Job Satisfaction Scale, and the self-developed basic information and turnover intention questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0. The level of statistical significance was set at pwork environment, collegial nurse-physician relations earned the most favorable mean scores (3.57±0.68; total=4 points), whereas adequacy of staffing and resources earned the lowest (3.21±0.82). Over half of the participants (58.4%) reported experiencing a high level of emotional exhaustion (EE) burnout, 45.2% reported experiencing a high level of depersonalization (DP) burnout, and 24.6% reported experiencing a high level of personal accomplishment (PA) burnout. About 59% of the participants were satisfied with their work and 3.8% reported intention to leave. Participants in self-reported "favorable" work environments were less likely to report high burnout, less likely to report intention to leave, and more likely to report job satisfaction than their peers in self-reported "poor

  8. Surveys on the Prevalence of Pediatric Bronchial Asthma in Japan: A Comparison between the 1982, 1992, and 2002 Surveys Conducted in the Same Region Using the Same Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankei Nishima

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: BA prevalence in the third survey increased 2.1 and 1.4 times respectively compared to the first survey and second survey, indicating an upward trend in all regions and age groups surveyed.

  9. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified – one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS. Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.. As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l. and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l., consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three. This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is

  10. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to

  11. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  12. Language barriers in the community pharmacy: a survey of northern and western Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Emily; Tsang, Bobby; Thornley, Simon

    2011-06-01

    Community pharmacists play an important role in increasing patient understanding of medication use. Lack of resources to facilitate communication with non-English speaking (NES) patients may be a communication barrier. To identify obstacles and coping strategies of community pharmacists when counselling NES patients in Auckland's North Shore and West Auckland. A cross-sectional survey of 46 community pharmacies in West Auckland and the northern Auckland region was carried out in February 2009. Community pharmacists frequently counsel NES patients (65% reported at least once a week). Use of bilingual staff was the most commonly employed strategy (78% of respondents) to communicate with these customers. Pharmacies that reported serving NES clients at least daily all had bilingual staff, compared with 70% of pharmacies with less frequent NES contact (p=0.017). No pharmacists reported using professional interpreting services. In our sample, telephone interpreting was the most preferred (63% of respondents) method of communicating with such patients, assuming that further services were made available. Community pharmacists frequently serve NES patients, with limited access to interpreting services or translated resources. Although pharmacists have, in some way, adapted to the needs of their patients, our survey suggests that accessible professional interpreting services would further improve pharmacist/NES client interaction.

  13. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  14. Potential Flooding area for local Tsunami in Nayarit Region (Western Coast of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Gomez, E.; Ortiz, M.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The western coast of Mexico in the region of Jalisco and Nayarit states has a complex tectonics and a high seismic activity. In the last century, four big tsunamis occurred in this area, (three of them in 1932 and one in 1995, that hit the coast of Colima, Jalisco and Nayarit. Three of these tsunamis were generated by earthquakes and one more (22 June 1932) by an underwater landslide. Currently, there is a seismic Gap on the north coast of Jalisco and southern Nayarit. Recent published papers (Urías-Espinosa et al, 2016) and the first results of TsuJal Project (Núñez- Cornú et al, 2016) suggest that subduction regime to the north of Cabo Corrientes changes and the Rivera plate subducts with a very low angle and this structure remains until Maria Madre Island at north of the Marias Islands. The hypothesis of this work is the estimation of the tsunami run up and the flooding zone after a great magnitude earthquake generated by the rupture of the hypothetical subduction structure north of Cabo Corrientes. The possible effects on the coasts of Nayarit, Islas Marias and Banderas Bay (Puerto Vallarta) are proposed in this study.

  15. Performance Analysis of Hybrid PV/Diesel Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbul A. M. Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential implementation of hybrid photovoltaic (PV/diesel energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia is analyzed in this paper. The solar radiation intensity considered in this study is in the range of 4.15–7.17 kWh/m2/day. The HOMER software is used to perform the technical and economical analysis of the system. Three different system configurations, namely, stand-alone diesel system, and hybrid PV/diesel system with and without battery storage element, will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV penetration and battery storage on energy production, cost of energy, number of operational hours of diesel generators, fuel savings, and reduction of carbon emission for the given configurations. The simulation results indicate that the energy cost of the hybrid PV/diesel/battery system with 15% PV penetration, battery storage of 186.96 MWh, and energy demand of 32,962 MWh/day is $0.117/kWh.

  16. Occurrences of large-magnitude earthquakes in the Kachchh region, Gujarat, western India: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Prosanta Kumar; Mohanty, Sarada Prasad; Sinha, Sushmita; Singh, Dhananjay

    2016-06-01

    Moderate-to-large damaging earthquakes in the peninsular part of the Indian plate do not support the long-standing belief of the seismic stability of this region. The historical record shows that about 15 damaging earthquakes with magnitudes from 5.5 to ~ 8.0 occurred in the Indian peninsula. Most of these events were associated with the old rift systems. Our analysis of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and its 12-year aftershock sequence indicates a seismic zone bound by two linear trends (NNW and NNE) that intersect an E-W-trending graben. The Bouguer gravity values near the epicentre of the Bhuj earthquake are relatively low (~ 2 mgal). The gravity anomaly maps, the distribution of earthquake epicentres, and the crustal strain-rate patterns indicate that the 2001 Bhuj earthquake occurred along a fault within strain-hardened mid-crustal rocks. The collision resistance between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate along the Himalayas and anticlockwise rotation of the Indian plate provide the far-field stresses that concentrate within a fault-bounded block close to the western margin of the Indian plate and is periodically released during earthquakes, such as the 2001 MW 7.7 Bhuj earthquake. We propose that the moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes in the deeper crust in this area occur along faults associated with old rift systems that are reactivated in a strain-hardened environment.

  17. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  18. Modulation of Summer Monsoon Circulation over Peninsular India by Western Ghats- A regional Climate modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanayagam, Lorna; Janardanan, Rajesh; Ram Mohan, H. S.

    The aim of the study is to understand the wind pattern over the Peninsular India with the modification of Orography over the region using Regional climate model. The model used in this study is the recent version (Version III) of the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Climate Model RegCM3. The model integration is done on a horizontal resolution of 60 km. . The planetary boundary layer scheme used is that of Holtslag, cumulus parameterization scheme Emanuel of MIT, SUBEX large scale precipitation scheme and BATS ocean flux parameterization scheme. The model is run from 1st May to 30th September. The first month is taken for the spin up. The next four months are taken to study the monsoon. The simulation has been carried out for the 100%, 90%, 60% and 30% Orography (hereafter 100%o,90%o, 60%o, and 30%o) cases with RegCM3. The Zonal wind pattern for the 100%o and 90%o are similar, whereas the pattern changed for the 60% and 30%o. For the 60% and 30%o cases, the Zonal wind strengthened over the south peninsular India gradually increasing towards north. The Meridional component of the wind has a maximum over the Western Ghats between the latitudes 10o N and 15o N for the 100%o. Similar pattern has been observed for the 90%o also. For the 60%o and 30%o, the core has shifted to the northeast of India. The magnitude has decreased for the 30%o and the magnitude of meridional component is zero over the region south of 10o N. Keywords: Orography, Zonal and Meridional wind. References: Giorgi F, Mon. Wea Rev. 121: 2794 (1993) Giorgi F, Marinucci M R and Bates G T , Mon. Wea Rev. 121: 2794 (1993) K. C. Chow, Timing Liu, Johnny C. L. Chan and Yihui Ding, Int. J. Climatol. 26:1339-1359 (2006) K. C. Chow, Hang-Wai Tong and Johnny C. L. Chan, Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-007- 0301-6

  19. Clay sediment accumulation rates on the monsoon-dominated western continental shelf and slope region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.

    Clay accumulation rates shown in sediment cores from the nearshore to outer continental shelf and slope regions in water depths of 10-1246 m on the western continental margins of India were determined by the 210Pb dating technique. The 210Pb excess...

  20. Tagging reveals limited exchange of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta between regions in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Revelles

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta between the northern and southern regions of the western Mediterranean was investigated using data obtained from several Spanish tagging programmes. Tagged turtles ranged in straight carapace length from 23.0 to 74.0 cm. Thirty-six turtles were recaptured after an average interval of 390.5±462.6 days (SD. As the mean dispersal distance (MDD of a turtle population that spreads over the western Mediterranean would stabilize after 117 days (CI 95%: 98 to 149, two analyses were conducted that included data from turtles recaptured after 98 and 149 days respectively. In both analyses, turtles were recaptured more often than expected in the same region where they had been tagged. No difference was found in either of the two regions between the average distance between the capture and recapture locations and the expected MDD if the turtles were to remain in the region where they were first captured. Turtles recaptured after 15 and 25 days respectively were excluded from the analysis to ensure data independence. The overall evidence indicates that immature turtles exhibit strong site fidelity to certain areas and that there is a strong barrier to dispersal between the northern and southern parts of the western Mediterranean. Therefore, loggerhead turtles in the western Mediterranean should be split into at least two management units.

  1. Analysis of measured L-band airborne land clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents backscatter analysis of L-band land clutter data, measured from an airborne platform, over various terrain types encountered in the Western Cape region of South Africa. The data processing steps are described and the backscatter...

  2. Yield and financial performance estimates of four elite loblolly pine seed sources planted in the Western Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; A. Gordon Holley

    2015-01-01

    Eastern seed sources of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) have been planted in the Western Gulf region for nearly three decades because they often have higher growth rates than local seed sources. However, productivity gains for eastern families are sometimes offset by poorer survival rates relative to local families.

  3. Three new genera and nine new species of the subfamily Candoninae (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Podocopida) from the Pilbara region (Western Australia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanovic, Ivana; Marmonier, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Three new ostracod genera: Humphreyscandona n. gen., Pilbaracandona n. gen., and Notacandona n. gen., and nine new species are described from subterranean waters of the Pilbara Region, Western Australia. They belong to the subfamily Candoninae of the order Podocopida, and are characterized by a

  4. Politics in the Western Maya Region (I: Ajawil/Ajawlel and Ch'e'n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. Words such as 7ajawil, 7ajawlel, the kennings built on the base of ch'e7n (cave, pond, the emblem glyphs and titles will be examined in light of what they tell us about the functioning of the political organisation of the Classic Period in a constrained region.En una serie de artículos como éste investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental vinculadas con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. Términos como ajaw'ü I ajawlel, los difrasismos con base ch'e'n (cueva, pozo, los glifos emblemas y los títulos serán examinados tomando en cuenta la información que nos proporcionan sobre el funcionamiento de la organización política de la época Clásica en una región restringida.

  5. Maternal depression and child development: Evidence from São Paulo's Western Region Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentani, Alexandra; Fink, Günther

    2016-09-01

    While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children's early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children's development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798) mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré' region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015. Maternal mental health was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Mothers were classified as "possibly depressed" if their EPDS score was between 10 and 13 and as "likely depressed" if their EPDS score was > 13. The child outcomes analyzed were height, weight, and overall development as assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Height and weight were age-normalized using WHO growth standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ) 2. Adjusted and unadjusted linear regression models were used to assess the associations between Edinburgh scores and child outcomes. No association was found between maternal depression variables and children's height, weight, stunting, and obesity. Positive associations were found between possible depression and ASQ (delta = 0.33; 95CI 0.11-0.54; p-valuechild development in the study setting analyzed. Further research will be needed to understand this lack of association: while it is possible that caregivers' mental health did not affect caregiving behavior, it is possible that the effect of maternal depression can vary according to timing, persistence, and intensity. It is also possible that the EPDS instrument may fail to identify mothers with clinical depression, or that children with depressed mothers get increased support from other family members or public early childhood focused programs.

  6. Iron mineralization at the Songhu deposit, Chinese Western Tianshan: a type locality with regional metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Long; Wang, Yi-Tian; Dong, Lian-Hui; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Evans, Noreen J.; Zhang, Bing; Ren, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Hosted by volcaniclastics of the Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation, the Songhu iron deposit is located in the central segment of the Awulale metallogenic belt, Chinese Western Tianshan. Mineralization and alteration are structurally controlled by orogen-parallel NWW-striking faults. Integrating with mineralogical and stable isotopic analyses based on paragenetic relationships, two types of iron mineralization have been identified. The deuteric mineralization (Type I) represented by brecciated, banded, and disseminated-vein ores juxtaposed with potassic-calcic alteration in the inner zone, which was formed from a magmatic fluid generated during the late stages of regional volcanism. In contrast, the volcanic-hydrothermal mineralization (Type II) is characterized by hydrothermal features occurring in massive and agglomerated ores with abundant sulfides, and was generated from the magmatic fluid with seawater contamination. Two volcaniclastic samples from the hanging and footwall of the main orebody yield zircon U-Pb ages of 327.8 ± 3.1 and 332.0 ± 2.0 Ma, respectively, which indicate Middle Carboniferous volcanism. Timing for iron mineralization can be broadly placed in the same epoch. By reviewing geological, mineralogical, and geochemical features of the primary iron deposits in the Awulale metallogenic belt, we propose that the two types of iron mineralization in the Songhu iron deposit are representative regionally. A summary of available geochronological data reveals Middle-Late Carboniferous polycyclic ore-related volcanism, and nearly contemporaneous iron mineralization along the belt. Furthermore, petro-geochemistry of volcanic-volcaniclastic host rocks indicates that partial melting of a metasomatized mantle wedge under a continental arc setting could have triggered the continuous volcanic activities and associated metallogenesis.

  7. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  8. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute, leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis, antigout of Juniperus procera, removing warts for Ficus palmata. 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not been

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in snakebite treatments in Western and Sabaragamuwa provinces in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadasa, R M; Akalanka, G C; Muthukumarana, P R M; Wijesekara, R G S

    2016-02-17

    Sri Lanka has a great diversity of snake species. In this relation, over 40,000 cases of snakebite accidents are reported annually from different agro-ecological regions of the country. Since more than 95% of victims rely on traditional treatments, there is an urgent necessity to improve the system. Traditional knowledge on snakebite treatments has been passed on from generation to generation within families. Unfortunately, there has been a limited update of information on pertinent issues related to this subject. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive survey on the types of medicinal plant materials, including the specific plant parts that are available for this purpose. In addition, various treatment types, frequency index, heavily used and rare materials, family wise distribution, challenges faced by traditional practitioners and future prospects were also explored. The present survey covered two provinces with a high population of traditional practitioners for snakebites treatment in Sri Lanka.Information was gathered from a total of seventy-four (74) traditional practitioners from the Sabaragamuwa and Western provinces. A questionnaire was prepared and pre-tested by 10-15 respondents prior to the survey. Actual data were gathered through face-to-face interviews. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. A total of 341 different plant species belonging to 99 families were documented. The highest number of plants was reported from the family Fabaceae (32 species). This was followed by Malvaceae (16 species), Asteraceae (15 species), Rutaceae (13 species Apocyanaceae (14 species), Lamiaceae (11 species), Poaceae, Euphorbaceae and Phyllanthaceae (10 species per each) respectively. Different parts of the plant such as leaves (53.67%), barks (26.10%), entire plant (14.08%), roots (10.26%), bulbs (8.80%), seeds (7.62%), fruits (6.45%), buds (5.87%), flowers (3.23%) stems (2.93%) and latex (2.05%) were used for the preparation of nine different types of

  10. Intensive survey methods in the framework of a regional project: the Serena Region study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayoral Herrera, Victorino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the survey methods developed in the framework of a research project carried out in the Serena region (Badajoz Province, Spain. We start from a critical use of the notion of archaeological site and an assessment of the meaning of intensive surface collection in the context of the study of the structure of preindustrial agrarian landscapes. We offer a detailed exposition of the survey planning, data capture and spatial analysis. In a first stage we make a global estimate of density of surface finds, locating possible areas of interest. In a second phase detected dispersions are qualified by systematic sampling. Its main purpose is to dismiss selective procedures leading to remarkable biases in surface record. We emphasize the balance achieved between data resolution and effort invested. This method has shown its effectiveness to characterize archaeological entities often not considered in Peninsular regional projects. Other factors affecting the recognition of sherd scatters are discussed, like the so-called “background noise”.

    El propósito de este trabajo es mostrar la metodología de prospección de superficie empleada en el marco de un proyecto regional sobre la evolución del paisaje en la comarca de La Serena (Badajoz. Se parte de una utilización crítica del concepto de sitio arqueológico y de una valoración del significado de estrategias intensivas de prospección de superficie en el contexto del estudio de la estructuración de los paisajes agrarios preindustriales. Se exponen los planteamientos, diseño y ejecución de los últimos trabajos efectuados. En una primera etapa se realiza una estimación global de la densidad de ítems y se determinan los posibles puntos de interés. Posteriormente se caracterizan cualitativamente las dispersiones detectadas mediante un muestreo aleatorio estratificado. Se pretende de este modo desterrar procedimientos selectivos y poco sistemáticos en la

  11. Optimal Maintenance Works for the Aborshada Road in the Western Region of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Medhat Abdelrahman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the condition of a road pavement was investigated for the Aborshada Road in the Gharian region of Libya to determine the optimal maintenance works. Previously, a simple engineering judgment was the only procedure followed by the Gharian municipal engineers for evaluating pavements and prioritizing maintenance. The surface condition of the Aborshada Road pavement was investigated using “the Pavement Condition Index (PCI” visual technique. The pavement was inspected to survey the different distresses in each sample unit. Ninteen pavement distresses were classified according to the PCI standards (PCI for roads and parking lots became an ASTM standard in 2007 (D6433-07. It was necessary to know the most common distresses of the Aborshada Road to provide assistance for the decision maker in his evaluation of the pavement and the optimum repair method to be selected.

  12. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anant

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the

  13. Possible future lakes resulting from continued glacier shrinkage in the Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Godio, Alberto; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Aosta Valley (NW-Alps, Italy) is the region with the largest glaciarized area of Italy (133.73 km2). Like the other alpine regions it has shown a significant glacier retreat starting from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1850 AD), by losing about 60% of its glaciarized area. As a direct consequence of glacier shrinkage, within glacially-sculpted landscapes, glacier-bed overdeepenings become exposed, offering suitable conditions for glacier lakes formation. In the Aosta Valley region, about 200 glacier lakes have been recognized in different time periods within LIA maximum extent boundaries, mainly dammed by bedrock landforms. With respect to human activities, glacier lakes represent both opportunities (e.g. Miage lake for tourism) and risks (e.g. outburst flood of the Gran Croux lake above Cogne in August 2016) in such a densely populated and developed region. The objective of this contribution is to assess locations of possible future glacier lakes in the Aosta Valley by using the GlabTop2 model (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2). Understanding where future lakes will appear is of fundamental importance for the identification of potential hazards and the interpretation of conditioning factors and dynamics. We first assessed ice thickness and consequently glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas of the region, by using both glaciers outlines related to 1999 (provided by the GlaRiskAlp project) and the regional DEM of 1990 (provided by the Aosta Valley Region) as input data. We performed several runs by varying different input parameters (e,g.: pixel size and basal shear stress). Then we compared modelled results on selected test glaciers (Rutor and Grand Etrèt) with available GPR data. As a validation, we also carried out a GPR survey during summer 2016 on the central area of Indren Glacier (Monte Rosa massif) where GlabTop2 shows the presence of a possible subglacial overdeepening morphology. We found that ice thickness and consequently the

  14. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las

  15. Orogenic inheritance in Death Valley region, western US Basin and Range: implications for Neogene crustal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Prior, M. G.; Stockli, D. F.; Kelly, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Deformation and temperature evolution during orogenic stages may influence later fabric development, thus controlling large-scale extensional processes that can occur millions of years later. Here, we describe pressure-temperature and fabric evolution from the Death Valley (DV) region and show how inherited fabrics, formed in late orogenic stages during Late Cretaceous time, influenced later Neogene age Basin and Range (BR) extension. The DV region is one of the most extended and thinned regions in the western US BR province, and the two of the ranges that bound the eastern valley expose basement rocks exhumed during the Neogene extension. In the Funeral range, it has been established that older (Precambrian) basement underwent Mesozoic age syn-deformational metamorphism during the Sevier-Laramide orogeny. In contrast, the Black Mountains record widespread tectonic stretching and magmatism of Miocene age on Precambrian basement, and have, overall, been lacking previous evidence of Mesozoic metamorphism and fabric development. In the Funeral Range Late Cretaceous migmatitic fabrics were overprinted by zones of high-strain fabrics formed due to melt-consuming reaction that define an overall P-T cooling path likely during late- to post-orogenesis. These fabrics form interconnected layers of quartz + biotite aggregates, in which individual quartz grains lack evidence of intracrystalline plastic deformation and show consistently random [c]-axis microfabrics. This suggests coupled reaction-diffusion processes that favored diffusion-assisted creep. New geochronometric results of melt products in the Black Mountains show evidence of partial melting of Late Cretaceous age. Contrasting with the neighboring Funeral Range, overprinting by extensional fabrics of Miocene age is widespread, and consists of high-strain, anastomosing foliation composed of retrograde products from preexisting, higher-temperature fabrics. These include interconnected fine-grained chlorite + quartz

  16. Sea level variability influencing coastal flooding in the Swan River region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Matt

    2012-02-01

    Coastal flooding refers to the incidence of high water levels produced by water level fluctuations of marine origin, rather than riverine floods. An understanding of the amplitude and frequency of high water level events is essential to foreshore management and the design of many coastal and estuarine facilities. Coastal flooding events generally determine public perception of sea level phenomena, as they are commonly associated with erosion events. This investigation has explored the nature of coastal flooding events affecting the Swan River Region, Western Australia, considering water level records at four sites in the estuary and lower river, extending from the mouth of the Swan River to 40 km upstream. The analysis examined the significance of tides, storms and mean sea level fluctuations over both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The relative timing of these processes is significant for the enhanced or reduced frequency of coastal flooding. These variations overlie net sea level rise previously reported from the coastal Fremantle record, which is further supported by changes to the distribution of high water level events at an estuarine tidal station. Seasonally, coastal flooding events observed in the Swan River region are largely restricted to the period from May to July due to the relative phases of the annual mean sea fluctuation and biannual tidal cycle. Although significant storm surge events occur outside this period, their impact is normally reduced, as they are superimposed on lower tidal and mean sea level conditions. Over inter-annual time scales tide, storminess and mean sea level produce cycles of enhanced and depressed frequency of coastal flooding. For the Swan River region, the inter-annual tidal variation is regular, dominated by the 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle. Storminess and mean sea level variations are independent and irregular, with cycles from 3 to 10 year duration. Since 1960, these fluctuations have not occurred in phase

  17. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Western Snowy Plover Monitoring - Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Western snowy plover numbers have declined along the U.S. Pacific coast due to habitat degradation and expanding predator populations. One of the most significant...

  18. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Western Snowy Plover Monitoring - Nest Success

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On March 5, 1993, the Pacific Coast population of the western snowy plover was federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C....

  19. Home delivery and newborn care practices among urban women in western Nepal: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Sabitri

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 98% of newborn deaths occur in developing countries, where most newborns deaths occur at home. In Nepal, approximately, 90% of deliveries take place at home. Information about reasons for delivering at home and newborn care practices in urban areas of Nepal is lacking and such information will be useful for policy makers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the immunisation clinics of Pokhara city, western Nepal during January and February, 2006. Two trained health workers administered a semi-structured questionnaire to the mothers who had delivered at home. Results A total of 240 mothers were interviewed. Planned home deliveries were 140 (58.3% and 100 (41.7% were unplanned. Only 6.2% of deliveries had a skilled birth attendant present and 38 (15.8% mothers gave birth alone. Only 46 (16.2% women had used a clean home delivery kit and only 92 (38.3% birth attendants had washed their hands. The umbilical cord was cut after expulsion of placenta in 154 (64.2% deliveries and cord was cut using a new/boiled blade in 217 (90.4% deliveries. Mustard oil was applied to the umbilical cord in 53 (22.1% deliveries. Birth place was heated throughout the delivery in 88 (64.2% deliveries. Only 100 (45.8% newborns were wrapped within 10 minutes and 233 (97.1% were wrapped within 30 minutes. Majority (93.8% of the newborns were given a bath soon after birth. Mustard oil massage of the newborns was a common practice (144, 60%. Sixteen (10.8% mothers did not feed colostrum to their babies. Prelacteal feeds were given to 37(15.2% newborns. Initiation rates of breast-feeding were 57.9% within one hour and 85.4% within 24 hours. Main reasons cited for delivering at home were 'preference' (25.7%, 'ease and convenience' (21.4% for planned deliveries while 'precipitate labor' (51%, 'lack of transportation' (18% and 'lack of escort' during labor (11% were cited for the unplanned ones. Conclusion High-risk home delivery and

  20. The spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufin K. Assaré

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis poses a considerable public health burden in sub- Saharan Africa and a sound understanding of the spatial distribution facilitates to better target control interventions. The objectives of this study were i to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni among school-aged children in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire; ii to determine demographic, climatic and environmental factors that influence the distribution of S. mansoni; and iii to map and predict the distribution of S. mansoni in non-sampled locations. Parasitological surveys were carried out in 264 schools from June to December 2011. In each school, we aimed to examine 50 children for S. mansoni infection using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Schools were georeferenced using a hand-held global positioning system receiver. Demographic data were obtained from readily available school lists, while climatic and environmental data were extracted from open-access remote sensing databases. Multivariable, binary non-spatial models and a Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression model were used to identify demographic, climatic and environmental risk factors for S. mansoni infection. Risk maps were developed based on observed S. mansoni prevalences and using Bayesian geostatistical models to predict prevalences at non-sampled locations. Overall, 12,462 children provided a sufficiently large stool sample to perform at least one Kato-Katz thick smear. The observed overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 39.9%, ranging from 0 to 100% at the unit of the school. Bayesian geostatistical analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and difference between land surface temperature at day and night were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The S. mansoni risk map presented here is being been used by the national schistosomiasis control programme for spatial targeting of praziquantel and other interventions.

  1. Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to record and conserve oral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province, Korea. Our research team interviewed 46 key informants (20 men and 26 women) who have lived over 50 years in the area. The average age of the informants was 74 (with a minimum age of 56 to maximum 84). Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observation using semi-structured questionnaires. Ethnobotanical inventory possessed by the residents included 183 species of plants distributed in 156 genera belonging to 68 families and were used in 626 use-reports. Among them, the medicinal plants were comprised as 42 families, 75 genera, and 83 species in usage in 195 ways. A total of 71 ailments were treated with 222 kinds of remedies using medicinal plants. Parts of plant that were used as treatments total up to 17 and the methods of preparation for medicinal materials add up to 28. Informant consensus factor (ICF) showed that the muscular-skeletal disorders had the highest agreement measure (1.0) followed by cuts and wounds (0.87) and respiratory system disorders (0.77). Overall, 29 plant species showed fidelity level of 100%. This study is noteworthy in that it records rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in a time period of pressing environmental changes with regard to the newly built sea wall, eventually leading more or less to the immigration of the seaside inhabitants and the familiarization of the modern medical systems to the farmland inhabitants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endophthalmitis in the western Sydney region: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsumitkul, S; Myers, P C; O'Rourke, M T; Chandra, J

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for endophthalmitis following routine intraocular surgery. A review was performed of consecutive cases of endophthalmitis from three teaching hospitals in the western Sydney region and matched controls from the same institutions between 1996 and 1998. There were 31 cases and 66 controls. Eighty procedures were phacoemulsification, 15 conventional extracapsular cataract extraction, and two were penetrating keratoplasties. Of the 80 patients who had phacoemulsification surgery, 50 had a clear corneal incision, and 26 had a scleral incision (four were unknown). Logistic regression showed an increased risk of endophthalmitis with surgical complications (P = 0.002) and clear cornea temporal incisions (P = 0.007). Risk of endophthalmitis was reduced with use of subconjunctival injections (P = 0.008). The yield for the Gram stain was 47% and for culture was 67%. Anterior chamber tap in addition to vitreous biopsy alone did not increase the yield for microorganism (P = 0.78). Mean visual acuity on presentation was hand movement with 13 patients (50%) showing visual improvement following intravitreal injections of antibiotics (P = 0.003). Visual prognosis did not correlate with presenting visual acuity but appeared to be better in those who grew Staphylococcus epidermidis or were culture negative. Although this study is unable to draw definite conclusions regarding risk of endophthalmitis in clear corneal temporal cataract surgery, sufficient data suggest the importance of incision type and location. Surgical complication is an important risk factor for endophthalmitis. Use of subconjunctival antibiotic injections at the conclusion of the procedure is recommended.

  3. Gestational trophoblastic disease in the western region of Saudi Arabia (single-institute experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinan, Nisrin; Sait, Khalid; Sait, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in the western region of Saudi Arabia, and to evaluate the success of treatment and the effect of age and risk group on survival. Between January 2001 and December 2010, all patients treated for GTD were identified from the King Abdulaziz University Hospital database. Patients with persistent disease were evaluated according to their clinical treatment outcomes. In total, 122 cases of GTD were identified in the database. Of these, 77 (63%) cases were diagnosed and received initial treatment at the study centre, resulting in an incidence of 1.26 cases per 1000 deliveries. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the study participants was 31.52 ± 10.8 years, mean gestational age at diagnosis was 12.42 ± 3.2 weeks, and mean follow-up for each patient was 24 months. There were 20 cases (26%) of persistent GTD after treatment. The majority of patients with low-risk disease were treated with single-agent methotrexate, with an overall success rate of 83%. The overall 5-year survival rate for all patients was 98%. Using the Wilcoxon (Gehan) test, risk group and age (cut-off 40 years) were not found to be significantly associated with survival (p=0.69). This single-institute study reports the first survival data for GTD for Saudi Arabia. However, the overall incidence of GTD in Saudi Arabia will be defined by establishment of a GTD registry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of migration on rural employment and earnings in the Western Development Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, I P

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the impact of migration on rural employment and income in the Western Development Region of Nepal. Data were obtained from interviews conducted among a sample population among villages in the mountain zone of the north, to the Terai in the south. The study area boundaries are irregular in order to ensure adequate spatial, topographic, and socioeconomic representation. The sample included 1387 hill people, 1248 mountain people, and 96 Terai people. Only 15.8% of the sample had access roads to villages in hill areas. 51% had access to roads in the Terai. There is no history of occupational mobility, but settlements changed over time as an adjustment to conditions. Pioneer models of development that aimed to increase economic opportunity included planned settlements. Presently, migration is comprised of rural to rural, rural to urban, and urban to urban. Rural to rural migration is primarily short distances, while long distances accompany hill to Terai moves. 37.0% of immigrants in hill areas migrate between hill districts. About 33% of hill valley settlers were first generation in-migrants, of which about 60% were migrants from hill settlements. Over 60% of the Terai plains' immigrants were from hill districts. The largest short distance movements were from higher to lower elevations, followed by horizontal movements. Permanent emigration has declined in recent years. At least one member from 34.9% of households was a temporary emigrant seeking employment. 41.5% of households had at least one employee in the Eastern Pokhara Valley. Many hill emigrants travel to foreign countries. Migrants were better educated and more involved in agriculture and salaried jobs. Analysis of variance findings indicates that rural temporary migrants came from households with smaller landholdings and larger family size. Findings support the Todaro hypothesis and findings of House and Rempel (1980) in Kenya, that reflect the benefits from migration.

  5. Groundwater Discharges to Rivers in the Western Canadian Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J.; Jasechko, S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater discharges into rivers impacts the movement and fate of nutrients and contaminants in the environment. Understanding groundwater-surface water interactions is especially important in the western Canadian oil sands, where groundwater contamination risks are elevated and baseline water chemistry data is lacking, leading to substantial uncertainties about anthropogenic influences on local river quality. High salinity groundwater springs sourced from deep aquifers, comprised of Pleistocene-aged glacial meltwater, are known to discharge into many rivers in the oil sands. Understanding connections between deep aquifers and surficial waterways is important in order to determine natural inputs into these rivers and to assess the potential for injected wastewater or oil extraction fluids to enter surface waters. While these springs have been identified, their spatial distribution along rivers has not been fully characterized. Here we present river chemistry data collected along a number of major river corridors in the Canadian oil sands region. We show that saline groundwater springs vary spatially along the course of these rivers and tend to be concentrated where the rivers incise Devonian- or Cretaceous-aged aquifers along an evaporite dissolution front. Our results suggest that water sourced from Devonian aquifers may travel through bitumen-bearing Cretaceous units and discharge into local rivers, implying a strong groundwater-surface water connection in specialized locations. These findings indicate that oil sands process-affected waters that are injected at depth have the potential to move through these aquifers and reach the rivers at the surface at some time in the future. Groundwater-surface water interactions remain key to understanding the risks oil sands activities pose to aquatic ecosystems and downstream communities.

  6. Protracted Regional Dissemination of GIM-1-Producing Serratia marcescens in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Andreas F; Kaase, Martin; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Peter, Silke; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Rieber, Heime; Pfeffer, Klaus; MacKenzie, Colin R; Willmann, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase GIM-1 has been found in various bacterial host species nearly exclusively in western Germany. However, not much is known about the epidemiology of GIM-1-positive Serratia marcescens Here we report on a surprisingly protracted regional dissemination. In-hospital transmission was investigated by using conventional epidemiological tools to identify spatiotemporal links. Strain typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Bayesian phylogeny was used to infer the time axis of the observed occurrence. Thirteen S. marcescens strains from 10 patients from 6 different German hospitals were investigated. Suspected in-hospital transmissions were confirmed by molecular typing at a higher resolution by WGS than by PFGE. A detailed sequence analysis demonstrated the spread of one predominant strain variant but also provided evidence for transfer of the blaGIM-1 gene cassette between different strains. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the most recent common ancestor of the identified clonal cluster could be dated back to April 1993 (95% highest posterior density interval, January 1973 to March 2003) and that this strain might have already harbored the blaGIM-1 at that time and, therewith, years before the first detection of this resistance gene in clinical specimens. This study shows a long-standing clonal and plasmid-mediated expansion of GIM-1-producing S. marcescens that might have gone unnoticed in the absence of a standardized and effective molecular screening for carbapenemases. The systematic and early detection of resistance is thus highly advisable, especially for the prevention of potentially long-term dissemination that may progress beyond control. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Wildlife Surveys - CDFG Lands, Region 2 [ds325

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data represent wildlife observations from surveys in 2004 and 2005 of 56 different Wildlife Areas and Ecological Reserves (units) managed by the California...

  8. [Hepatitis C virus genotypes in a province of western Black-Sea region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Elif; Ogedey, Esra Deniz; Külah, Canan; Beğendik Cömert, Füsun

    2010-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the significant causes of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma all throughout the world. There are six genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV. HCV genotyping is of crucial importance in the determination of the treatment protocols and the follow-up of the clinical course since treatment success is low and the duration of treatment is longer in HCV genotype 1 infected cases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HCV genotype profiles of the patients with chronic hepatitis C in Zonguldak, providing the first data about HCV genotypes from western Black-Sea region, Turkey. The HCV genotypes of 44 patients (26 female, 18 male; age range: 29-89 years, mean age: 60.05 ± 10.81 years) with positive anti-HCV antibody and HCV-RNA results, admitted to the hospital between May 2007 and July 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and included in the study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of the patients were between 8-160 IU/L (mean 63.99 ± 37.15 IU/L) and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were between 17-160 IU/L (mean 62.77 ± 36.75 IU/L). HCV antibody was determined by ELISA method (Abbott Laboratories, USA), and HCV-RNA was determined by two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction systems [Cobas Taqman (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and Rotor-Gene 6000 (Corbett Research, USA)]. The genotyping was performed by a reverse hybridization based method, Versant® HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) 2.0 (Bayer Health Care, Belgium). HCV genotypes could not be determined for 5 (11.4%) patients since HCV-RNA levels were low. Genotyping could be performed for 39 (88.6%) patients and 38 (97.4%) had genotype 1b and one (2.6%) patient had genotype 1a. In conclusion, in concordance with the other studies conducted in our country, genotype 1b was found to be the most prevalent genotype in patients from our region.

  9. G6PD deficiency alleles in a malaria-endemic region in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jamille G; Souza, Rodrigo M; Curry, Jonathan; Hinton, Laura; Silva, Natercia R M; Grignard, Lynn; Gonçalves, Ligia A; Gomes, Ana Rita; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Drakeley, Chris; Huggett, Jim; Clark, Taane G; Campino, Susana; Marinho, Claudio R F

    2017-06-15

    Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria. In Brazil, few studies have reported the frequency of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) present in malaria-endemic areas. This is particularly important, as G6PDd screening is not currently performed before primaquine treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PDd in the region of Alto do Juruá, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, an area characterized by a high prevalence of P. vivax infection. Five-hundred and sixteen male volunteers were screened for G6PDd using the fluorescence spot test (Beutler test) and CareStart™ G6PD Biosensor system. Demographic and clinical-epidemiological data were acquired through an individual interview. To assess the genetic basis of G6PDd, 24 SNPs were genotyped using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR assay. Twenty-three (4.5%) individuals were G6PDd. No association was found between G6PDd and the number of malaria cases. An increased risk of reported haemolysis symptoms and blood transfusions was evident among the G6PDd individuals. Twenty-two individuals had the G6PDd A(-) variant and one the G6PD A(+) variant. The Mediterranean variant was not present. Apart from one polymorphism, almost all SNPs were monomorphic or with low frequencies (0-0.04%). No differences were detected among ethnic groups. The data indicates that ~1/23 males from the Alto do Juruá could be G6PD deficient and at risk of haemolytic anaemia if treated with primaquine. G6PD A(-) is the most frequent deficiency allele in this population. These results concur

  10. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of nine cities in the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jarad, F; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-01-01

    The results of a first phase of an indoor radon survey in a total of 1610 dwellings distributed in nine cities of the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia are presented. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data for seven cities in the Eastern province. Khafji, Hafr Al-Batin, Abqaiq, Qatif, Al-Ahsa, Dammam and Khobar and to compare this with two cities in the Western province, Madina and Taif. So far, detailed radon data is not available for Saudi Arabia: therefore, this radon survey provides a base line for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. On average, 200 indoor radon dosemeters were distributed in each city and placed for a period of one year starting from May 2001 to May 2002. The total number of collected dosemeters was 847. A total of 724 houses and 98 schools were covered in this survey. The results of the survey in the cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 137 and 22 Bq m(-3), respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviations of the radon distribution were found to be 18 and 1.92, respectively. In one of the dwellings in Qatif city, radon concentration, measured by a passive system and then confirmed by an active system, was found to be 535 +/- 23 and 523 +/- 22 Bq m(-3), respectively. The result of a radon survey in 98 schools showed that the minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 70 and 19 Bq m(-3), respectively. The average radon concentration for each city was also determined. The lowest average radon concentration (8 Bq m(-3)) was found in Al-Ahsa while the highest average concentration (40 Bq m(-3)) was found in Khafji.

  11. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of nine cities in the eastern and western provinces of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-07-01

    The results of a first phase of an indoor survey in a total of 1610 dwellings distributed in nine cities of the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia are presented. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data for seven cities in the Eastern province, Khafji, Hafr Al-Batin, Abqaiq, Qatif, Al-Ahsa, Dammam and Khobar and to compare this with two cities in the Western province, Madina and Taif. So far, detailed radon data is not available for Saudi Arabia; therefore, this radon survey provides a base line for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. On average, 200 indoor radon dosemeters were distributed in each city and placed for a period of one year starting from May 2001 to May 2002. The total number of collected dosemeters was 847. A total of 724 houses and 98 schools were covered in this survey. The results of the survey in the cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 137 and 22 Bq m {sup -3}, respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviations of the radon distribution were found to be 18 and 1.92, respectively. In one of the dwellings in Qatif city, radon concentration, measured by a passive system and then confirmed by an active system, was found to be 535 {+-} 23 and 523 {+-} 22 Bq m {sup -3}, respectively. The result of a radon survey in 98 schools showed that the minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 70 and 19 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The average radon concentration for each city was also determined. The lowest average radon concentration (8 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Al-Ahsa while the highest average concentration (40 Bq m {sup -3}) was found in Khafji. (author)

  12. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Western Snowy Plover Monitoring - State and Rangewide Breeding and Winter Window Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inventories, monitoring, research, assessments, and studies are essential to high-quality habitat and population management. Conducting population surveys for the...

  13. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  14. A survey of the summer coccolithophore community in the western Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Jacques; Hulot, Vivien; Hanquiez, Vincent; Devaux, Ludovic; Howa, Hélène; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    The Barents Sea is particularly vulnerable to large-scale hydro-climatic changes associated with the polar amplification of climate change. Key oceanographical variables in this region are the seasonal development of sea-ice and the location and strength of physico-chemical gradients in the surface and subsurface water layers induced by the convergence of Arctic- and Atlantic-derived water masses. Remote sensing imagery have highlighted the increasing success of calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) in the summer phytoplankton production of the Barents Sea over the last 20 years, as a response to an overall larger contribution of Atlantic waters to surface and sub-surface waters, as well as to enhanced sea-ice melt-induced summer stratification of the photic layer. The present study provides a first thorough description of coccolithophore standing stocks and diversity over the shelf and slope of the western Barents Sea from two sets of surface and water column samples collected during August-September 2014 from northern Norway to southern Svalbard. The abundance and composition of coccolithophore cells and skeletal remains (coccoliths) are discussed in view of the physical-chemical-biological status of the surface waters and water column based on in-situ (temperature, salinity, fluorescence) and shore-based (microscope enumerations, chemotaxonomy) measurements, as well as satellite-derived data (Chl a and particulate inorganic carbon contents). The coccolithophore population is characterized by a low species diversity and the overwhelming dominance of Emiliania huxleyi. Coccolithophores are abundant both within the well stratified, Norwegian coastal water - influenced shallow mixed layer off northern Norway, as well as within well-mixed cool Atlantic water in close vicinity of the Polar Front. Bloom concentrations with standing stocks larger than 4 million cells/l are recorded in the latter area north of 75°N. Our limited set of chemotaxonomic data suggests

  15. Drivers Motivating Community Health Improvement Plan Completion by Local Public Health Agencies and Community Partners in the Rocky Mountain Region and Western Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anne; Wolf, Holly J; Scallan, Elaine; Case, Jenny; Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne

    There are numerous drivers that motivate completion of community health improvement plans (CHIPs). Some are more obvious and include voluntary public health accreditation, state requirements, federal and state funding, and nonprofit hospital requirements through IRS regulations. Less is known about other drivers, including involvement of diverse partners and belief in best practices, that may motivate CHIP completion. This research investigated the drivers that motivated CHIP completion based on experiences of 51 local public health agencies (LPHAs). An explanatory mixed-methods design, including closed- and open-ended survey questions and key informant interviews, was used to understand the drivers that motivated CHIP completion. Analysis of survey data involved descriptive statistics. Classical content analysis was used for qualitative data to clarify survey findings. The surveys and key informant interviews were conducted in the Rocky Mountain Region and Western Plains among 51 medium and large LPHAs in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. More than 50% of respondents were public health directors; the balance of the respondents were division/program directors, accreditation coordinators, and public health planners. CHIP completion. Most LPHAs in the Rocky Mountains and Western Plains have embraced developing and publishing a CHIP, with 80% having completed their plan and another 13% working on it. CHIP completion is motivated by a belief in best practices, with LPHAs and partners seeing the benefit of quality improvement activities linked to the CHIP and the investment of nonprofit hospitals in the process. Completing a CHIP is strengthened through engagement of diverse partners and a well-functioning partnership. The future of CHIP creation depends on LPHAs and partners investing in the CHIP as a best practice, dedicating personnel to CHIP activities, and enhancing leadership skills to contribute to a synergistic

  16. Potential Regional Impacts of Global Warming on Precipitation in the Western United States

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

    1997-01-01

    Snow and melting of the snowpack provide the principal supply of water to much of the Western United States. Whether global warming threatens this water supply is the focus of this research. This study builds upon a previous Global Climate Change Response Program investigation. Charts were generated of four geopotential height parameters for a domain covering the eastern North Pacific Ocean and western North America. Out of 131 total winter months (from 1946-89), 35 were selected as analo...

  17. Addressing the military gap in the western Balkans and closing the gap through regional cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    113 of the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline, which will come to the Western Balkans through Turkey, Greece, and Albania will affect energy dependence in the...should be a study of the impact of the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline on the dependence on Russia for energy by the Western Balkans. Trans-Adriatic...Membership Action Plan, Security Environment, European Union, NATO, Joint Enabling Capabilities 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  18. How can we fight against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Gu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The public health community is faced with the global challenge posed by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs-producing enterobacteriaceae. The need to address this issue prompted the focus of World Health Day 2011, which was entitled “Antimicrobial resistance: no action today, no cure tomorrow.”In today’s world of international travel, the globalization of drug-resistant bacteria is a pressing issue for public health professionals. In the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region, as well as other regions in the world, more and more new types of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria have come to the forefront. An important example is New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase 1 (NDM-1-carrying enterobacteriaceae, which attracted attention in Europe in 2010 as imported cases associated with health care contact in India and Bangladesh. Although some NDM-1 cases were reported from Australia and Japan,2 no outbreaks were reported in the Western Pacific Region.In this perspective article, we consider four focus areas for countries in the Western Pacific Region to consider when strategizing their response to antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

  19. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  20. Living with the Risks of Cyclone Disasters in the South-Western Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishawjit Mallick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. Cyclone disasters that affect millions of people, destroy homesteads and livelihoods, and trigger migration are common in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The aim of this article is to understand how the coastal communities in Bangladesh deal with the continuous threats of cyclones. As a case study, this study investigates communities that were affected by the Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and Cyclone Aila in 2009, covering 1555 households from 45 coastal villages in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. The survey method incorporated household based questionnaire techniques and community based focus group discussions. The pre-event situation highlights that the affected communities were physically vulnerable due to the strategic locations of the cyclone shelters nearer to those with social supreme status and the location of their houses in relatively low-lying lands. The victims were also socio-economically vulnerable considering the high rate of illiteracy, larger family size, no ownership of land, and extreme poverty. They were mostly day labourers, farmers, and fishermen. Post-event situation reveals that the victims’ houses and livelihoods were severely damaged or destroyed. Most victims were forced to shift their occupations (e.g., from farmers to fishermen, and many became unemployed. They also became heavily dependent on micro-credits and other forms of loans. A significant number of people were displaced and migrated to large urban agglomerations in search of livelihoods to maintain their families back in the affected villages. Migration was primarily undertaken as an adaptation strategy.

  1. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  2. Find Cancer Early: Evaluation of a Community Education Campaign to Increase Awareness of Cancer Signs and Symptoms in People in Regional Western Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Jane Croager

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCancer outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas are worse than for those living in urban areas. Although access to and quality of cancer treatment are important determinants of outcomes, delayed presentation has been observed in rural patients.MethodsFormative research with people from rural Western Australia (WA led to the Find Cancer Early campaign. Find Cancer Early was delivered in three regions of WA, with two other regions acting as controls. Staff delivered the campaign using a community engagement approach, including promotion in local media. Television communications were not used to minimize contamination in the control regions. The campaign evaluation was undertaken at 20 months via a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI survey comparing campaign and control regions. The primary outcome variable was knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms.ResultsRecognition and recall of Find Cancer Early and symptom knowledge were higher in the campaign regions. More than a quarter of those who were aware of the campaign reported seeing the GP as a result of their exposure.ConclusionDespite limited use of mass media, Find Cancer Early successfully improved knowledge of cancer symptoms and possibly led to changes in behavior. Social marketing campaigns using community development can raise awareness and knowledge of a health issue in the absence of television advertising.

  3. A Survey of Associate of Arts and Associate of Science Degree Programs in 13 Western States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerald

    The Associate of Arts and Associate of Science degree programs offered by selected colleges and universities in 13 western states were examined to determine relevant information regarding the composition of the degrees offered. The study specifically concerned: the purpose of the degree, the title assigned to the degree, the length of time…

  4. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  5. Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Theileria equi in team roping horses from central-western region of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Prochno,Hanna Carolina; Scorsin, Lucas Milléo; De Melo, Fatiane Rodrigues; Baldani,Cristiane Divan; Falbo, Margarete Kimie; Aquino,Lucia Cury Thomaz de; Lemos, Karen Regina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi in horses from central western region of Paraná state, Brazil. The presence of antibodies IgG against T. equi was determined in serum samples obtained from 400 team roping horses of the district of Guarapuava by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that 242 (61%) animals were positive which demonstrates that equine piroplasmosis is widespread and therefore it might be a contributing factor for ...

  6. Depression and inflammatory arthritis are associated in both Western and Non-Western countries: Findings from the World Health Survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian; Brandstetter, Susanne; Herr, Raphael; Ehrenstein, Boris; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked arthritis to depression. However, it remains unclear to what degree the association between arthritis and depression extends to low income countries and whether it can be replicated for inflammatory arthritis (IA). We aimed to address these knowledge gaps based on a large multi-national sample. Cross-sectional data was drawn from the 2002 World Health Survey. IA was defined as reports of either a diagnosis or treatment of arthritis and morning stiffness for >30min. Self-reported depression was defined as positive if participants reported its prior diagnosis or treatment or if they were classified as suffering from a major depressive episode by a seven-item screening instrument. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the entire sample and stratified by sex and continent. The odds of IA was 2.6-fold increased in those with depression compared to those without (OR=2.64, 95% CI 2.18-3.21) in the entire sample. This association was observed in both men (OR=3.06, 95% CI 2.19-4.27) and women (OR=2.50, 95% CI 1.95-3.21). Similar associations were found on the continent level, but were generally stronger for the Americas and Asia compared to Africa and Europe. Although our definition of IA was limited by the use of self-reported morning stiffness, this study suggests that there is a positive association between inflammatory arthritis and depression in Western and Non-Western countries, suggesting that this relationship represents a universal phenomenon. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  8. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  9. NQO1 C609T polymorphism correlated to colon cancer risk in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiu-Lan; Yan, Mei-Rong; Yang, Ling

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T polymorphism and colon cancer risk in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to analyze NQO1 C609T polymorphism from 160 healthy controls and 76 colon cancer patients. Among the colon cancer patients, the incidence of NQO1 T allele (53.29%) was significantly higher than it in control group (33.75%, Pwestern region of Inner Mongolia.

  10. A Perspective on the Applicability of the Quadripartite Model of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Organizations of the Western Development Region, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GĂNESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issues of social obligations that organizations have to society, starting from an analysis of the quadripartite model of corporate social responsibility described by Archie B. Carroll in 1979 and known by 1991 as the "pyramid of corporate social responsibility". The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that social responsibility dimensions do not exclude each other, but can in practice be approached by companies at the same time, but in different weights. A sociological survey conducted in the industrial organizations operating in the Western Development Region of Romania supports this hypothesis and, by creating a set of key factors, illustrates the reason why organizations tend to rely mainly on one or more of the specific dimensions of social responsibility. This research is, in our opinion, the first attempt to highlight the applicability of the model of social responsibility in businesses in Romania.

  11. Signature of ionospheric irregularities under different geophysical conditions on SBAS performance in the western African low-latitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Abe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rate of change of TEC (ROT and its index (ROTI are considered a good proxy to characterize the occurrence of ionospheric plasma irregularities like those observed after sunset at low latitudes. SBASs (satellite-based augmentation systems are civil aviation systems that provide wide-area or regional improvement to single-frequency satellite navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System constellations. Plasma irregularities in the path of the GNSS signal after sunset cause severe phase fluctuations and loss of locks of the signals in GNSS receiver at low-latitude regions. ROTI is used in this paper to characterize plasma density ionospheric irregularities in central–western Africa under nominal and disturbed conditions and identified some days of irregularity inhibition. A specific low-latitude algorithm is used to emulate potential possible SBAS message using real GNSS data in the western African low-latitude region. The performance of a possible SBAS operation in the region under different ionospheric conditions is analysed. These conditions include effects of geomagnetic disturbed periods when SBAS performance appears to be enhanced due to ionospheric irregularity inhibition. The results of this paper could contribute to a feasibility assessment of a European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System-based SBAS in the sub-Saharan African region.

  12. Regional changes and global connections: monitoring climate variability and change in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry F. Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the Western United States are complex and include cold desert biomes, such as those found in Nevada; subpolar biomes found in the upper treeline zone; and tundra ecosystems, occurring above timberline. Many studies (for example, Thompson 2000) suggest that high-elevation environments, comprising glaciers, snow, permafrost, water, and the...

  13. The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

    The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

  14. Occurrence of hymenopterous parasitoids of Diuraphis spp. in the western Rocky Mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species within the genus Diuraphis occur in the western United. The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, an invasive species which was first detected in the United States in the spring of 1986, is the only economically important one of this group. It is the most prevalent species o...

  15. Consumption and perception of processed fruits in the Western Balkan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Cvetkovic, M.; Stojanovic, Z.; Spiroski, I.; Milosevic, J.; Mora, C.; Butigan, R.; Mugosa, B.; Esteve, M.; Pohar, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of the consumption and perception of processed fruits in Western Balkan countries in order to support consumer-oriented product development. In-depth interviews (n = 183) were used to explore the consumption of processed fruits, the motives to

  16. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M T E

    2015-08-18

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample's prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these.

  17. Quantitative map interpretation in regional planning surveys. | J.A. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A procedure followed for the quantitative interpretation of maps compiled for regional planning purposes of the Upper Orange catchment-basin is presented. The analyses provided useful figures concerning the distribution of dominant vegetation components and their association with relevant habitat factors. Keywords: ...

  18. Turning soil survey data into digital soil maps in the Energy Region Eger Research Model Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Dobos, Anna; Kürti, Lívia; Takács, Katalin; Laborczi, Annamária

    2015-04-01

    Agria-Innoregion Knowledge Centre of the Eszterházy Károly College has carried out targeted basic researches in the field of renewable energy sources and climate change in the framework of TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV project. The project has covered certain issues, which require the specific knowledge of the soil cover; for example: (i) investigation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of natural and landscape resources; (ii) determination of local amount and characteristics of renewable energy sources; (iii) natural/environmental risk analysis by surveying the risk factors. The Energy Region Eger Research Model Area consists of 23 villages and is located in North-Hungary, at the Western part of Bükkalja. Bükkalja is a pediment surface with erosional valleys and dense river network. The diverse morphology of this area results diversity in soil types and soil properties as well. There was large-scale (1:10,000 and 1:25,000 scale) soil mappings in this area in the 1960's and 1970's which provided soil maps, but with reduced spatial coverage and not with fully functional thematics. To achive the recent tasks (like planning suitable/optimal land-use system, estimating biomass production and development of agricultural and ecomonic systems in terms of sustainable regional development) new survey was planned and carried out by the staff of the College. To map the soils in the study area 10 to 22 soil profiles were uncovered per settlement in 2013 and 2014. Field work was carried out according to the FAO Guidelines for Soil Description and WRB soil classification system was used for naming soils. According to the general goal of soil mapping the survey data had to be spatially extended to regionalize the collected thematic local knowledge related to soil cover. Firstly three thematic maps were compiled by digital soil mapping methods: thickness of topsoil, genetic soil type and rate of surface erosion. High resolution digital elevation model, Earth

  19. Geological characteristics and ore-forming process of the gold deposits in the western Qinling region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajun; Liu, Chonghao; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Yujie; Mao, Zhihao; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yinhong; Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Degao; Zhang, Huafeng; Shan, Liang; Zhu, Laimin; Lu, Rukui

    2015-05-01

    The western Qinling, belonging to the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen between the North China Block and South China Block, is one of the most important gold regions in China. Isotopic dates suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids in the western Qinling region emplaced during the Middle-Late Triassic, and the deposits formed during the Late Triassic. Almost all gold deposits in the western Qinling region are classified as orogenic, Carlin-type, and Carlin-like gold deposits, and they are the products of Qinling Orogenesis caused by the final collision between the North China Block and the South China Block. The early subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic crust and the latter collision between South Qinling Terrane and the South China Block along the Mian-Lue suture generated lithosphere-scale thermal anomalies to drive orogen-scale hydrothermal systems. The collision-related magmatism also provided heat source for regional ore-forming fluids in the Carlin-like gold deposits. Orogenic gold deposits such as Huachanggou, Liziyuan, and Baguamiao lie between the Shang-Dan and Mian-Lue sutures and are confined to WNW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones in Devonian and Carboniferous greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks that were highly-deformed and regionally-metamorphosed. These deposits are typical orogenic gold deposits and formed within a Late Triassic age. The deposits show a close relationship between Au and Ag. Ores contain mainly microscopic gold, and minor electrum and visible gold, along with pyrite. The ore-forming fluids were main metamorphic fluids. Intensive tectonic movements caused by orogenesis created fluid-migrating channels for precipitation locations. Although some orogenic gold deposits occur adjacent to granitoids, mineralization is not synchronous with magmatism; that is, the granitoids have no genetic relations to orogenic gold deposits. As ore-forming fluids converged into dilated fractures during the extension stage of orogenesis

  20. A new Hypothesis for the Origin and Redistribution of Sulfates in the Equatorial Region of Western Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Wolff, J. A.; Fairen, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of sulfates on Mars has been under debate since they were identified by several Mars missions starting from the 1970s. We propose that sulfates formed as evaporites in enclosed standing bodies of water in the Valles Marineris area following the early alteration of Martian basaltic crust, were then elevated by the Tharsis uplift, and transported together with rock materials to Meridiani Planum by periodic outbursts of water, where they were deposited as sediments. The proposed model comprehensively addresses all forms of sulfate occurrences near the equator in the western Martian hemisphere and relates it to physiographic processes (volcanic, tectonic and sedimentary) affecting the Martian surface (Fan et al. 2008). Fan, C., Schulze-Makuch, D., Wolff, J.A., and Fairen, A.G. (2008) A new hypothesis for the origin and redistribution of sulfates in the equatorial region of Western Mars. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L06201, doi:10.1029/2007GL033079

  1. A survey of Western Australian sheep, cattle and kangaroos to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banazis, Michael Janis; Bestall, Abbey Simone; Reid, Simon Andrew; Fenwick, Stan Gordon

    2010-07-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in two domestic ruminant species (cattle and sheep) and the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia (WA). The IDEXX CHEKiT Q Fever ELISA and CFT were used to test sera from 50 sheep and 329 head of cattle for anti-C. burnetii antibodies and 343 kangaroo sera were tested using an indirect ELISA developed specifically for this study. Faecal or urine samples collected from the same animals were tested with two PCR assays to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Only two of the 379 ruminant sera had detectable levels of anti-C. burnetii antibodies according to the ELISA while the CFT did not detect any positive samples. In contrast 115 of the 343 western grey kangaroo serum samples were positive when tested with the antibody-ELISA. The first qPCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element, identified 41 of 379 ruminant and 42 of 343 kangaroo DNA samples as positive for C. burnetii DNA. The second qPCR, targeting the JB153-3 gene, identified nine C. burnetii DNA-positive ruminant samples and six positive kangaroo samples. Sequence comparisons showed high degrees of identity with C. burnetii. Isolation of C. burnetii from faeces was also attempted but was not successful. From the results presented here it appears that domestic ruminants may not be the most significant reservoir of C. burnetii in WA and that kangaroos may pose a significant threat for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. From Odysseus to Robinson Crusoe: A Survey of Early Western Island Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Chet Van Duzer

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the history and development of books about islands in Western culture. Islands are prominent in Homer’s Odyssey, and Plato’s island of Atlantis is perhaps the most famous mythical island of all time. The Greeks were the first to develop the island-book as such, but Roman writers showed much less interest in insular themes. The article traces the history of the immrama (medieval Irish accounts of mythical Atlantic island voyages), notes the importance of islands in Marco Po...

  3. VVV Survey Microlensing Events in the Galactic Center Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, María Gabriela; Minniti, Dante; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    We search for microlensing events in the highly reddened areas surrounding the Galactic center using the near-IR observations with the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea Survey (VVV). We report the discovery of 182 new microlensing events, based on observations acquired between 2010 and 2015. We present the color-magnitude diagrams of the microlensing sources for the VVV tiles b332, b333, and b334, which were independently analyzed, and show good qualitative agreement among themselves. We detect an excess of microlensing events in the central tile b333 in comparison with the other two tiles, suggesting that the microlensing optical depth keeps rising all the way to the Galactic center. We derive the Einstein radius crossing time for all of the observed events. The observed event timescales range from t E = 5 to 200 days. The resulting timescale distribution shows a mean timescale of =30.91 days for the complete sample (N = 182 events), and =29.93 days if restricted only for the red clump (RC) giant sources (N = 96 RC events). There are 20 long timescale events ({t}{{E}}≥slant 100 days) that suggest the presence of massive lenses (black holes) or disk-disk event. This work demonstrates that the VVV Survey is a powerful tool to detect intermediate/long timescale microlensing events in highly reddened areas, and it enables a number of future applications, from analyzing individual events to computing the statistics for the inner Galactic mass and kinematic distributions, in aid of future ground- and space-based experiments.

  4. AREA MONITORING OF AMBIENT DOSE RATES IN PARTS OF SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA USING A GPS-INTEGRATED RADIATION SURVEY METER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeyode, I C; Rabiu, J A; Alatise, O O; Makinde, V; Akinboro, F G; Al-Azmi, D; Mustapha, A O

    2017-04-01

    A radiation monitoring system comprising a Geiger-Muller counter connected to a smart phone via Bluetooth was used for a dose rate survey in some parts of south-western Nigeria. The smart phone has the Geographical Positioning System, which provides the navigation information and saves it along with the dose rate data. A large number of data points was obtained that shows the dose rate distribution within the region. The results show that the ambient dose rates in the region range from 60 to 520 nSv -1 and showed a bias that is attributable to the influence of geology on the ambient radiation dose in the region. The geology influence was demonstrated by superimposing the dose rate plot and the geological map of the area. The potential applications of the device in determining baseline information and in area monitoring, e.g. for lost or abandoned sources, radioactive materials stockpiles, etc., were discussed in the article, particularly against the background of Nigeria's plan to develop its nuclear power program. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, May-Helen; Cochrane, Sabine; Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    There has been an environmental investigation in Region VI Halten Bank. This report presents the results of the chemical and biological assays performed on samples from a total of 316 stations in 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (AG)

  6. Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identifying Fossil Shell Resources via Geophysical Surveys: Chesapeake Bay Region, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    330 ft) along a given seismic line and (2) the Matlab method includes incorrect FOS locations. In contrast, the hand-digitization method generates a...northwest corner of the site. Here, the Matlab method indicated substantial FOS regions. Core and seismic data, however, indicate this region is...feasibility of using acoustic sub-bottom seismic surveys for determining the location and quantity of buried FOS. Over 280 miles of seismic surveys and

  8. How Does Education Affect Environmental Knowledge: A Survey in Urban and Regional Planning Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Baris; Ergen, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring of environmental knowledge of students who select environmental science course in Urban and Regional Planning Department at Bozok University. This article includes a survey research, with this survey, we can get information about knowledge of environment of students and where they learn them. First briefly, it provides…

  9. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Hong, JaeSub

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively...

  10. Floristic Survey of Summer Aspect in Chosen China Clay Pits in Western Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Botková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different china clay pits in the western part of the Czech Republic were explored and plant species were determined. These chosen pits were: Hájek-western part, Chlumčany, Horní Bříza, Otovice and Podlesí II. China clay pits with active excavation represent a specific environment concerning both physical and chemical characteristics. This article is presenting a list of the higher plants which were found within active excavation or former excavation areas. Species with a protection status according to the Czech legislation are presented in more detail. 189 different species have been found in total, including 2 species from category C4 – potentially vulnerable taxa, 6 species from category C3 – endangered taxa and 1 species from the C1 – critically threatened taxa from the Red List of Vascular Plants of the Czech Republic. 28 different species occurred at each of the five sites. Predominant species favour sandy substratum and bare surface.

  11. Shorelines of the western North Carolina (NCwest) coastal region used in shoreline change analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  12. Offshore baseline for the western North Carolina (NCwest) coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  13. Equine peripheral dental caries: An epidemiological survey assessing prevalence and possible risk factors in Western Australian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K; Kelty, E; Tennant, M

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral dental caries is defined as macroscopic destruction of the calcified dental tissues and can cause considerable dental pathology and pain. It appears to occur at a high prevalence in Western Australian horses. At present, risk factors for the condition are poorly understood, making treatment and prevention difficult. To assess the prevalence of and potential risk factors for peripheral caries in Western Australian horses. Cross-sectional, epidemiological study. A survey of 500 Western Australian horses was administered in two sections. The first section was completed by the owner and referred to the horse's signalment, diet and husbandry conditions. The second section was completed by veterinarians and focused on the horse's oral health. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with peripheral caries. Peripheral caries was present in 58.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.5-63.1%) of surveyed horses. Breed was significantly associated with peripheral caries, with Warmbloods (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.82; P = 0.009) and Western breeds (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.78; P = 0.008) being less likely to have peripheral caries than Thoroughbreds. Dietary risk factors included oaten hay (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.87-4.53; Pcaries than horses without access to grazing (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.66; P = 0.002), as were horses on groundwater compared with horses on rainwater (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.65-6.78; P = 0.001), drinking water (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.14-3.62; P = 0.016) or dam water (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.08-11.53; P = 0.037). Peripheral caries was positively correlated with periodontal disease (OR 4.53, 95% CI 2.91-7.06; Pcaries. Management factors that may help to prevent or reduce peripheral caries include more access to quality pasture, use of groundwater, feeding on meadow hay and avoidance of oaten hay. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Endometrial carcinoma clinical management: results of a regional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, G

    2009-01-01

    In Southern regions of Italy, many women affected by oncologic pathology go to larger towns to referral hospitals to be treated. However there is the impression that this does not apply to endometrial cancer, which affects older women less prone to seek care far from home. To verify this premise and to ascertain the quality of treatment these patients received, and the degree of compliance of their treatment with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) recommendations, a database was created collecting information concerning the clinical management of endometrial cancer in 13 different gynecological units in the Campania region. We confirmed that endometrial carcinoma, the most frequent oncologic pathology in all participating units, was treated independently from the dimensions of all of these units. The adopted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures seemed to be largely compliant with FIGO guidelines. Limited dishomogeneity only regarded the smallest units. Overall, a good quality of treatment seemed to be given to women affected by this pathology who wanted to be treated in, or close to, their town of residence.

  15. Open / Unipede 1995 survey on uranium and enrichment requirements and supplies in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the current global situation with respect to uranium and enrichment supply and demand in Europe, as well as future prospects, based upon a survey conducted in mid-1995 by Unipede and Open among their member companies. The nuclear fuel cycle committees of Unipede and Open maintain an interest in all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle from uranium procurement up to final disposal of radioactive waste. Regarding the front-end of the fuel cycle, the work within those committees currently concentrates of uranium and enrichment supply and demand in Europe, including the recycling of uranium and of plutonium recovered from reprocessing. For the past fifteen years, the nuclear fuel cycle committees of Unipede and Open have jointly conducted an annual survey among their members about uranium and enrichment requirements and supplies. The 1995 survey involved all nuclear electric utilities in Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Exclusively electric utilities are surveyed, i.e. excluding national procurement organizations, traders, brokers, financial institutions, etc. The data obtained from the individual utilities in the same format, are aggregated and form the basis of the report. The quality of these data is guaranteed by the fact that the respondents are generally those people who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the nuclear fuel cycle in their company.

  16. Short Note: Preliminary fish survey of Lac Tseny in north- western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Priority next steps at the lake include (i) additional surveys and biological studies of the endemic fish species and the Critically Endangered Madagascar big - headed turtle, Erymnochelys madagascariensis, (ii) clarification of the taxonomic status of Paretroplus cf. kieneri and, should it prove a new taxon, its formal scientific ...

  17. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus), Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), giant knotweed (Polygonum sa- chalinense), and a common hybrid of...include diamond- leaf willow (Salix planifolia), Geyer willow (S. geyerana), mountain willow (S. monticola), and Drum- mond willow (S. drummondiana...intermountain basins, such as areas transi- tional to the Arid West or Great Plains Regions, common riparian-wetland species include narrow- leaf cottonwood

  18. Regional Conflicts in the Western Balkans and the Caucasus Revisited: Comparison of Kosovo to South Ossetia and Abkhazia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Đorđević

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that the Western Balkans and the Caucasus have in common is an extremely challenging legacy of the past. The dissolution of two multinational states – the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1990s – led to ethno-nationalist conflicts on a large scale. While the Yugoslav crisis ended in 1999 after the FRY was bombed by NATO during its Kosovo campaign, the Caucasus still remains a conflict-ridden region where Russian and Western influences keep colliding. The purpose of this article is to present an analytical comparison of the three respective regional conflicts – Kosovo, Georgia and South Ossetia – by enumerating and analyzing similarities and differences between them, as this proves to be one of current and more intriguing issues of the contemporary international political scene. The article aims at providing answers to two different issues: Did Kosovo’s independence influence the establishment of a specific political pattern applicable to other disputed regions; and to what degree are the cases in question comparable to each other?

  19. Simulation of the diurnal variation of rainfall over the western Maritime Continent using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the performance of the MIT regional climate model (MRCM) in simulating the temporal and spatial structure of the diurnal variation of rainfall over the western Maritime Continent. In order to investigate the effect of model resolution, two identical simulations with 27 and 12 km horizontal resolutions are performed for a 30-year period (1982-2011). The simulated climatological features are compared with the TRMM 3B42 3-h observations. The analysis is focused on the regional characteristics of diurnal variation of rainfall in terms of phase and amplitude, with an emphasis on the difference in behaviors between land and ocean. Systematic modulation of the diurnal cycle over land and ocean characterizes the rainfall pattern over the Maritime Continent. The evening peak with strong amplitude over land and the morning peak with weak amplitude over ocean reflect the contrast in behavior between land and ocean. In general, both simulations are able to capture major features of diurnal rainfall variations with similarity in several aspects to TRMM observation. However, the improvement from increasing resolution is more apparent in the coastal and offshore areas, where rainfall processes are strongly tied with low-level wind that varies diurnally and regionally. A more realistic coastline and a sharp gradient of elevation derived from high resolution boundary conditions enhance the local circulation associated with land-sea breeze and topographic complexity, which in turn induces a favorable condition for the offshore convergence and associated rainfall occurrence. The MRCM with 12 km resolution simulates propagation of rainfall from inland to coastal or offshore areas, such as in the vicinity of western Sumatra, northern Java, and western Borneo Islands. However, further improvements can be gained from even higher resolution models, such as convection-permitting scale.

  20. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  1. From Odysseus to Robinson Crusoe: A Survey of Early Western Island Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chet Van Duzer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the history and development of books about islands in Western culture. Islands are prominent in Homer’s Odyssey, and Plato’s island of Atlantis is perhaps the most famous mythical island of all time. The Greeks were the first to develop the island-book as such, but Roman writers showed much less interest in insular themes. The article traces the history of the immrama (medieval Irish accounts of mythical Atlantic island voyages, notes the importance of islands in Marco Polo and John of Mandeville, describes the rise of the isolario, or island-book illustrated with maps, and concludes with the emergence of the Robinsonade.

  2. Survey of Beaver-related Restoration Practices in Rangeland Streams of the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  3. Climate Change and Western Public Lands: a Survey of U.S. Federal Land Managers on the Status of Adaptation Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli M. Archie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated consequences pose an increasing risk to public lands in the western United States. High-level mandates currently require federal agencies to begin planning for adaptation, but the extent to which these mandates have resulted in policies being implemented that affect on the ground practices is unclear. To examine the status of adaptation efforts, we conducted an original survey and semistructured interviews with land managers from the four major federal land management agencies in the U.S. states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The survey was designed to examine current planning for adaptation on public lands and how it differs from prior planning, the major challenges facing land managers in this region, the major barriers preventing managers from planning for adaptation, and the major hurdles associated with implementing adaptation plans. Our results show that some adaptation planning is currently taking place, but that few adaptation projects have made it to the implementation phase. Overall, respondents considered lack of information at relevant scales, budget constraints, lack of specific agency direction, and lack of useful information to be the most common barriers to adaption planning. Budget constraints, lack of perceived importance to the public, and lack of public awareness or demand to take action were reported to be the biggest hurdles to implementation of adaptation projects. Agencies showed differing levels of adaptation activity, and reported different barriers to adaptation and hurdles to implementation. Reasons for the differences and implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  4. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, R.; Mcfarlane, D; Varma, S.; W. Dawes; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18 percent are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduce recharge rates b...

  5. Response of herbaceous species to a degradation gradient in the western region of Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.P. Du plessis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation status of 88 sample plots situated in two plant communities in the western region of Etosha National Park was determined. Herbaceous species frequency was correlated by means of an ordination technique with utilisation intensities. Species were categorised in ecological categories (Decreasers and Increasers according to their abundance along a degradation gradient. This more objective approach is compared with an initial subjective grouping of species. The dangers of blindly following the ordinated results are discussed, and it is concluded that ordination results need to be verified by careful ecological interpretation.

  6. Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks Show a Mixed Response to Cattle Grazing in the Intermountain Region of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Harrison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing in the shortgrass steppe of the Intermountain region of British Columbia is predicted to have significant effects on grassland habitats and their associated ground-nesting bird communities. We tested whether grazed and ungrazed sites could be discriminated on the basis of their vegetation communities, whether the abundance of two ground-nesting bird species, Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus and Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, differed between grazed and ungrazed sites, and whether vegetation variables found to differ between grazed and ungrazed plots could be used to predict the abundance of the two bird species at a fine scale. Grazed sites were easily distinguishable from a site that had been ungrazed for >30 years based on the structure and composition of their vegetation communities. However, more detailed grazing categories could not be distinguished on the basis of vegetation characteristics. Despite the existence of grazing effects on vegetation structure and composition, we found no consistent differences in abundance of Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks between the grazed and ungrazed sites. However, there was weak evidence that the abundance of both species was higher at fine-scale plots (100 m radius point count station with less bare ground and taller vegetation. Bare ground cover was lower on grazed plots, but vegetation was taller on ungrazed plots. Combined, our results suggest that low intensity grazing leads to grassland habitat change with both negative and positive effects on Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks, resulting in no net change in their broad-scale abundance.

  7. Unplanned roads impacts assessment in Phewa Lake watershed, Western region, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, Geoffroy; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Penna, Ivanna; Adhikari, Anu; Khanal, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    This work describes current research being conducted in the Phewa Lake watershed, near Pokhara in Nepal's Siwaliks/Middle hills, a moist sub-tropical zone with the highest amount of annual rainfall in Nepal (4,500 - 5,000 mm). The watershed lithology is mainly siltstone, sandstones and intensively weathered rocks, highly prone to erosion and shallow landslides (Agrawala et al., 2003). The main purpose of this study is to focus on the impact of unplanned earthen road construction in the Phewa Lake watershed as part of land use changes over 30 years in one of Nepal's most touristic regions. Over the past three decades, the road network has expanded exponentially and a majority of rural earthen roads are often funded by communities themselves, with some government subsidies. They are usually constructed using a local bulldozer contractor with no technical or geological expertise increasing erosion processes, slope instabilities risk and impacts to settlements, forests, water sources, agriculture lands, and infrastructure. Moreover, these human-induced phenomena are being compounded by increasingly intense monsoon rains, likely due to climate change (Petley, 2010). Research methods were interdisciplinary and based on a combination of remote sensing, field observations and discussions with community members. The study compared 30 year-old aerial photos with current high resolution satellite images to correlate changes in land use with erosion and slope instabilities. Secondly, most of the watershed's roads were surveyed in order to inventory and quantify slope instabilities and soil loss events. Using a failure-characteristics grid, their main features were measured (location, size, type and extension of damage areas, etc.) and a GIS data base was created. We then estimated economic impacts of these events in terms of agriculture lands losses and road maintenance, based on field observations and discussions with affected people. Field work investigations have shown that

  8. Strengthening collaboration on chemical hazards in food among food safety authorities and the World Health Organization in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bishop

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to highlight the benefits of sharing information to Western Pacific Region Member States and to identify similarities at the regional level in terms of food safety issues and public health protection. In addition, it aims to propose an improved partnership among regional food safety authorities and WHO on targeted objectives.

  9. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m

  10. Regional and local maize seed exchange and replacement in the western highlands of Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.; Bruin, de S.

    2007-01-01

    Regional distributions of crop diversity are important to take into account for the spatial design of in situ, farmer-participatory interventions in crop genetic management. Regional seed flows are an important factor in shaping geographical distributions of crop diversity. This study contributes to

  11. Wildland fire, risk, and recovery: results of a national survey with regional and racial perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; Siew Hoon Lim; H. Ken Cordell; Gary T. Green; Sandra Rideout-Hanzak; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    We used a national household survey to examine knowledge, attitudes, and preferences pertaining to wildland fire. First, we present nationwide results and trends. Then, we examine opinions across region and race. Despite some regional variation, respondents are fairly consistent in their beliefs about assuming personal responsibility for living in fire-prone areas and...

  12. A comparison of antibiotic point prevalence survey data from four Irish regional/general hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naughton, C

    2011-06-01

    Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are increasingly used to examining and compare hospital antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to identify the (1) point prevalence of antibiotic use in one regional hospital and (2) compare PPS data from similar regional\\/general hospitals.

  13. NOAA tools to support CSC and LCC regional climate science priorities in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. P.; Marcy, D.; Robbins, K.; Shafer, M.; Stiller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an active regional partner with the Department of Interior (DOI) in supplying and supporting the delivery of climate science and services. A primary mechanism for NOAA-DOI coordination at the regional scale is the Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) network, which is supported in part by DOI Climate Science Centers (CSC). Together, the CSCs and LCCs provide a framework to identify landscape-scale science and services priorities for conservation and management. As a key partner of the CSCs and an active member of many LCCs, NOAA is working to ensure its own regional product and service delivery efforts will help address these conservation and management challenges. Two examples of NOAA's regional efforts are highlighted here, with a focus on the coastal and interior geographies of the western Gulf of Mexico where NOAA partners with the South Central CSC and participates as a member of the Gulf Coast Prairie LCC. Along the Texas coastline, a sea level rise and coastal flooding impacts viewer, produced by NOAA's Coastal Services Center and available via its Digital Coast interface, allows constituents to visualize estimates of sea level rise, measures of uncertainty, flood frequencies, and environmental (e.g., marsh migration) and socioeconomic (e.g., tidal flooding of built environments) impacts. In the interior of Texas and Louisiana, NOAA's Southern Regional Climate Center is leading a consortium of partners in the development of a unified source of regional water reservoir information, including current conditions, a historical database, and web-based visualization tools to illustrate spatio-temporal variations in water availability to a broad array of hydrological, agricultural, and other customers. These two examples of NOAA products can, in their existing forms, support regional conservation and management priorities for CSCs and LCCs by informing vulnerability assessments and adaptation

  14. Influence of dyslipidemia in control of arterial hypertension among type-2 diabetics in the western region of the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Amet; Ferati, Fatmir; Rexhepi, Atila; Pocesta, Bekim; Orovcanec, Nikola; Lala, Dali; Polisi, Gafur; Iseni, Mair; Mirto, Arben; Zeqiri, Agim

    2014-01-01

    To determine the influence of dyslipidemia in control of blood pressure in patients with type 2 Diabetes. To test the hypothesis that, blood pressure and lipid levels are not sufficiently controlled in patients with type 2 Diabetes, in the western region of the Republic of Macedonia. Abnormalities of lipid and lipoprotein levels in the serum (dyslipidemia) are recognized as major modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and have been identified as independent risk factors for essential hypertension, giving rise to the term dyslipidemic hypertension. While patient-related data from primary care that demonstrate an under-treatment of blood pressure and dyslipidemia in type 2 Diabetics are vastly available in clinical practice, results from population-based studies are scarce. The study was conducted on outpatients in Primary Health Care Clinics in 8 cities on the western region of the Republic of Macedonia. Prospectively the tests were performed on 600 (45.6% women and 54.4% men) participants with a mean age of 62 ± 5.8. Study participants were selected among primary care patients, who were actively on therapy for diabetes mellitus and hypertension during the period of March 2013 - March 2014. Patients' demographic characteristics, clinical laboratory and drug usage data were obtained. The patients were classified according to the BP control, into 2 groups. A total of 600 patients, of which 45.6% female and 54.3% male, completed the survey and had data for a 1-year medical record review. It was observed that a high percentage, 65.3% of patients, did not have controlled blood pressure despite the ongoing medical treatment, according to evidence and current guidelines in a cohort of hypertensive diabetics. (Chi-square: 19.85, pinfluence of dyslipidemia on the control of blood pressure in patients with type 2 Diabetes, was observed in our study. In a small country as Republic of Macedonia (with a population of around 2.000.000, especially the western region with

  15. Investigating the nature of interprofessional collaboration in primary care across the Western Health Region of Brasília, Brazil: A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Diana; Parreira, Clelia; Queiroz, Elizabeth; Abbad, Gardênia; Reeves, Scott

    2018-03-01

    Primary care can provide a supportive context for the development of interprofessional collaborative practice owing to its nature and dynamics. In Brazil, a number of practice changes have already occurred to primary care, notably the implementation of the Family Health Strategy which promoted interprofessional collaboration (IPC). In Brasilia, a new arrangement was implemented in 2016 that focused on an expansion of primary healthcare. However, it is not clear how these reforms will affect the nature of IPC or the delivery of patient care. The article presents a study protocol which describes a study that aims to explore the nature of IPC in the context of primary care in the Western Health Region of Brasilia. A sequential mixed methods design will be used to gather both quantitative and qualitative data. Initially, we will translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate an IPC scale for a survey of primary care teams. We will then undertake a series of focus groups with a purposeful sample of team members to explore the results from the survey. Quantitative data will be analysed with descriptive and multivariate statistics. A content analysis will be undertaken with the focus group data. We expect that the results will illuminate a range of elements linked to IPC in primary care as well as identify areas for improving IPC skills, patient safety, quality of care, and healthcare outcomes in this clinical context.

  16. Surveys of Gynaecotyla squatarolae and Microphallus koreana (Digenea: Microphallidae) Metacercariae in Two Species of Estuarine Crabs in Western Coastal Areas, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jung; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Jin-Woo; Jin, Ho; Min, Kwan-Hong; Cho, Yong-Jun

    2010-01-01

    To figure out the geographical distribution of Gynaecotyla squatarolae and Microphallus koreana metacercariae in Korea, shore crabs of southwestern coastal areas were examined. Eight coastal areas in Inchon-si (A), Gyeonggi-do (B), Chungcheongnam-do (C, D, and E), Jeollabuk-do (F), and Jeollanam-do (G and H) were selected, and 2 kinds of crabs, Macrophthalmus dilatatus and/or Macrophthalmus japonicus, were caught. After transportation to the laboratory, 15 crabs per each group were grouped and ground in a mortar and pestle, and examined for microphallid metacercariae. In M. dilatatus, G. squatarolae metacercariae were recovered from 3 (C, E, and H) out of 6 regions, but M. koreana metacercariae were not recovered. In the case of M. japonicus, G. squatarolae metacercariae were recovered from 6 (B, D, E, F, G, and H) of 7 areas surveyed, and M. koreana matacercariae were detected from 5 regions (A, B, D, F, and H). These results indicate that the life cycle of G. squatarolae is maintained in the western coastal areas using M. dilatatus and M. japonicus as intermediate hosts, while that of M. koreana is maintained only using M. japonicus. PMID:20333292

  17. Feeding guilds of western Mediterranean demersal fish and crustaceans: an analysis based in a spring survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Cartes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The MEDITS-99 sampling was performed along all the Iberian Peninsula coasts of the western Mediterranean (from the Alborán Sea to Cape Creus in a space-scale of 1000 Km N-S, at depths ranging between 27-790 m. Fish and decapod crustaceans were dominant in the megafaunal compartment sampled by trawling. Based on both the fish and the decapod crustacean compositions, a comparison of trophic guilds has been attempted, with fish and decapods classified as: 1 migrator macroplankton feeders (mM, 2 non-migrator macroplankton feeders (nmM, 3 nektobenthos-suprabenthos feeders (NS, 4 epibenthos feeders (Epib, 5 large detritus-scavengers (Sca, 6 infaunal feeders (Inf, 7 deposit feeders (Dep and 8 small detritivorous feeders (Det. Multivariate techniques showed the following differences in the trophodynamics of the megafaunal assemblages along the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula: 1 crustaceans (mainly decapods have different trophic structures on the shelf and on the slope; 2 on the slope, fish exhibited more clear changes as a function of the geographical gradient than crustaceans; and 3 trophodynamics of bathyal fish showed some geographic variations between the Alborán Sea, the Catalano-Balearic Basin, and the Algerian Basin (Vera Gulf and Alicante sectors, with a progressive north-south increase in planktophagous species.

  18. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  19. Re-ordering the Region? China, Latin America and the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Philips

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available – China in Latin America: The Whats and Wherefores, by R. Evan Ellis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.– Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations beyond the Washington Consensus, edited by Alex E. Fernández Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2010.– The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, by Kevin P. Gallagher and Roberto Porzecanski. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.– China and Latin America: Economic Relations in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Rhys Jenkins and Enrique Dussel Peters. Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik, 2009.– China’s Expansion into the Western Hemisphere: Implications for Latin America and the United States, edited by Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2008.

  20. The energy situation in the Western region; Situacion energetica en el hemisferio occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weintraub, Sidney [Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The Inter-American affairs have never been simple, in fact, they become even more complicated when the energy is the topic. Due to political and economic reasons as well as those provoked by the resources availability, the western countries seem to have the same differences among them. On the other hand, by means of an analysis of 11 nations, there can be found the challenges that American continent confronts with regard to the energy issue. [Spanish] Las relaciones interamericanas nunca han sido faciles. Menos aun cuando se trata de energia. Debido a razones tanto politicas y economicas como a las ocasionadas por la disponibilidad de recursos, los paises del hemisferio occidental parecen no poder reconciliar sus diferencias. Mediante el analisis de 11 naciones se aprecian los desafios que encara el continente americano en materia energetica.

  1. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of magnitude series of seismicity of Kachchh region, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Lovallo, Michele; Khan, P. K.; Rastogi, B. K.; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-05-01

    The sequence of magnitudes of the earthquakes occurred in Kachchh area (Gujarat, Western India) from 2003 to 2012, has been analysed by using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The complete and the aftershock-depleted catalogues with minimum magnitude M3 were investigated. Both seismic catalogues show multifractal characteristics. The aftershock-depleted catalogue is more multifractal and also more persistent than the whole catalogue; this indicates that aftershock magnitudes contribute to increase the homogeneity and the randomness of the magnitude sequence of the whole seismicity. The singularity spectrum of the whole catalogue, however, is more left-skewed than that of the aftershock-depleted one, indicating a stronger dependence of the multifractality on the large magnitude fluctuations.

  2. Genetic analysis of historic western Great Lakes region wolf samples reveals early Canis lupus/lycaon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Tyler; White, Bradley N

    2009-02-23

    The genetic status of wolves in the western Great Lakes region has received increased attention following the decision to remove them from protection under the US Endangered Species Act. A recent study of mitochondrial DNA has suggested that the recovered wolf population is not genetically representative of the historic population. We present microsatellite genotype data on three historic samples and compare them with extant populations, and interpret published genetic data to show that the pre-recovery population was admixed over a century ago by eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) and grey wolf (Canis lupus) hybridization. The DNA profiles of the historic samples are similar to those of extant animals in the region, suggesting that the current Great Lakes wolves are representative of the historic population.

  3. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  4. The influence of land use systems on soil and surface litter fauna in the western region of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Luise Carolina Bartz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the abundance of soil and surface litter fauna in the western region of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, in the following land use systems (LUS: no-tillage crops (NT, integrated crop-livestock (ICL, pasture (PA, Eucalyptus plantation (EP and native forest fragments (NF. Sampling was done in three counties in the western region of Santa Catarina: Xanxerê, Chapecó and São Miguel do Oeste, in two seasons (winter and summer. The evaluation of soil/litter fauna in each LUS was performed by installing nine "pitfall traps" per sampling grid (3 x 3. The counties are true replicas. The soil for the chemical attributes was collected at the same sampling points for soil fauna. Altogether, 17 taxa were identified in the five LUS. The presence of groups of fauna was influenced by the type of soil management used. The LUS NF and EP provide better soil conditions for the development of a higher diversity of soil fauna groups compared to other LUS, which showed varying degrees of human intervention, regardless of the sampling season (winter or summer. However, annual crop systems NT and ICL groups showed greater richness and total abundance when compared to the perennial systems (EP and PA. Principal component analysis is an important tool in the study of biological indicators of sustainability because it allows use of soil attributes (chemical and physical as explanatory environmental variables, which helps in the interpretation of ecological data.

  5. Examination of Relationships among Organizational Characteristics and Organizational Commitment of Nurses in Western and Eastern Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A S; Namba, M; Pokharela, T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify relationships between three components of organizational commitment and organizational characteristics of nurses in the western and the eastern region of Nepal. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data from 310 nurses currently working at various hospitals in the eastern and the western region of the country. The questionnaire included three sections namely 1) personal characteristics 2) organizational characteristics and 3) organizational commitments scale. Descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to identify significance in various relationships. Out of the 240 completed questionnaires, 226 were found valid for analysis. The mean age was 27.4 years. For each depended variable affective, continuance and normative commitment, multiple regression analysis was performed with personal Characteristics and organizational characteristics as independent variables. All independent variables were found significantly related to each of the two dependent variables; affective commitment and normative commitment (R2 adjusted=0.24, pcommitment. Both support from boss (β=0.138, pcommitment. On the other hand, satisfaction with training (β=0.191, pcommitment. Since both support from boss and training program were found to be positive and significant with affective commitment, hospitals must encourage supervisors to provide more assistance to the subordinate nurses. Moreover, hospitals should develop more training programs to keep nurses motivated.

  6. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van, G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m temperature, T-ann.max). Linear trends in T-ann.max from historical runs of 14 RCMs driven by atmospheric reanalysis data are compared with trends in gridded station data. The ensemble of RCMs significantly...

  7. Statistics for Community Governance: The Yawuru Indigenous Population Survey, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of an exercise in Aboriginal community governance in Australia. It sets out the background events that led the Yawuru Native Title Holders Aboriginal Corporation in the town of Broome on Australia’s northwest coast to secure information for its own needs as an act of self-determination and essential governance, and it presents some of the key findings from that exercise. As the Indigenous rights agenda shifts from the pursuit of restitution to the management and implementation of benefits, those with proprietary rights are finding it increasingly necessary to build internal capacity for post-native title governance and community planning, including in the area of information retrieval and application. As an incorporated land-holding group, the Yawuru people of Broome are amongst the first in Australia to move in this area of information gathering, certainly in terms of the degree of local control, participation, and conceptual thinking around the logistics and rationale for such an exercise. An innovative addition has been the incorporation of survey output data into a Geographic Information System to provide for spatial analysis and a decision support mechanism for local community planning. In launching and administering the "Knowing our Community" household survey in Broome, the Yawuru have set a precedent in the acquisition and application of demographic information for internal planning and community development in the post-native title determination era.

  8. Inventory of experiences from national/regional dietary monitoring surveys using EPIC-Soft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, I; Casagrande, C; Nicolas, G; Geelen, A; Crispim, S P; De Keyzer, W; Freisling, H; De Henauw, S; De Maeyer, M; Krems, C; Amiano, P; de Boer, E J; Ocké, M C; de Vries, J H; Slimani, N

    2011-07-01

    The EPIC-Soft 24-h recall (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) has been used in several regional/national dietary monitoring surveys. The main objective of the study was to present and discuss design, settings, logistics, data management and quality controls of dietary monitoring surveys that used EPIC-Soft for the collection of food consumption data. Within European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire including questions on current/past EPIC-Soft experiences and requirements for the future was developed and sent to all institutes that used EPIC-Soft in their food consumption survey(s) (five surveys in four different countries). EPIC-Soft was used in the national food consumption survey in Belgium (≥ 15-97 years), Germany (14-80 years), the Netherlands (19-30 years and 2-6 years) and Spain (regional only; 4-18 years). Participation rates in these surveys were 46% (Belgium), 42% (Germany), 42% (Dutch survey in adults), 79% (Dutch survey in children) and 77% (Basque survey). Two 24-HDRs were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews in Belgium and Spain, and through telephone interviews in Germany and the Netherlands. Except the Netherlands (19-30 years), where the study was conducted only in autumn, in all other countries the study was conducted throughout the four seasons, including all days of the week. Interviews were conducted by dietitians, except in Germany and Spain. Mean EPIC-Soft interview time was 20-34 min. The dropout rate between the first and second interviews was low (surveys. EPIC-Soft has been used in different study settings and populations for nutritional exposure assessments. To guarantee the comparability of data across countries, recommendations for the design of future pan-European dietary monitoring surveys using EPIC-Soft should be drawn.

  9. On the dominant intra-seasonal modes over the East Asia-western North Pacific summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyung-Ja; Oh, Hyoeun

    2017-04-01

    Intra-seasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task due to high impact on 2/3 of world populations' daily life, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intra-seasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): preMeiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. The major modes tend to be dominated by the moisture convergence of the moisture budget equation along the rain-band. The preMeiyu-Baiu mode is strongly linked to both the anomalous low-level convergence and vertical wind shear through baroclinic instability, and the Changma&Meiyu mode has a strengthened tropic-subtropics connection along the western north Pacific subtropical high, which induces vertical destabilization and strong convective instability. The WNPSM and monsoon gyre modes are characterized by anomalous southeasterly flow of warm and moist air from western north Pacific monsoon, and low-level easterly flow, respectively. Prominent difference in response to the ENSO leads to different effects of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific thermal state, and consequently, the distinct moisture supply and instability variations for the EASM intra-seasonal modes. We discuss the major driving forces of sub-seasonal variability over EA-WNPSM regions. Lastly we attempted to determine the predictability sources for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the SST/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the ENSO and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the preMeiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the WNP, which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode

  10. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  11. Qualitative Interpretation Of Aerogravity And Aeromagnetic Survey Data Over The South Western Part Of The Volta River Basin Of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study area South western part of Volta River Basin of Ghana covering an area of 8570 km2 which is one-eleventh the area of the Volta River basin of Ghana has been subjected to numerous academic research works but geophysical survey works because of virtual perceptive reasons. It is now believed to overly mineral-rich geological structures hence the use of magnetic and gravity survey methods to bring out these mineral-rich geological structures.Geographically it study area is located at the south western part of the Voltaian basin at latitudes 07o 00 N and 08o 00 N and longitudes 02o 00 W and 01o 00 W respectively. Airborne gravity and magnetic survey methods were employed in the data collection. The field data correction and error reduction were applied to the two raw data on the field after which Geosoft Oasis Montaj 7.01 Encom Profile Analysis P.A 11 and 13 Model Vision 12 and ArcGIS 10.0 were used to process enhance e.g. reduce to pole at low latitude first vertical derivative etc. model the reduced and corrected airborne magnetic data and also to produce maps from them data. Low-to-moderate-to-high gravity and magnetic anomalies were obtained in the complete Bouguer anomaly CBA and total magnetic intensity TMI reduced to pole at low latitude with many of these anomalies trending NE-SW by which the Birimian Metasediments and Metavolcanics can be said to be part of the causative structures of these anomalies with cross-cut NW-SE faults. From the quantitative point of view the intrusive granitic bodies of the study area have a mean depth location of 1.7 km while the isolated anomaly is located at a depth of 1.4 km computed from Euler deconvolution. The NE-SW trending anomalies show the trend direction of their causative structures which are the basement rocks and the basinal intrusive bodies.

  12. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  13. Regional Lake Surveys in The Barents region of Finland - Norway - Sweden and Russian Kola 1995 - Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Mannio, Jaakko; Wilander, Anders; Moiseenko, Tatyana; Traaen, Tor S.; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa; Fjeld, Eirik; Vuorenmaa, Jussi

    1997-12-31

    Because of the special interests in the local resources in the Barents area, a project has been done to evaluate the chemical properties of the lakes within this area of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. This report discusses the results. In general, the lakes in the Norwegian, Swedish and Finish parts are less acid than the lakes in these countries as a whole. The most acid lakes are found in Russian Kola, where the organic carbon content is also greatest. The nitrate concentrations are generally lower in the Barents region than in the countries as a whole, which agrees well with the low nitrogen depositions in the Barents region. The critical loads of acidity in the region are highest in Norway and much higher than for the whole country. For Finland and Sweden the opposite is the case. The critical loads are exceeded in the Barents region, the highest percentages are found in Russian Kola (14%) and in Norway (12%) while Sweden has the lowest percentage (3%). It is found that the lakes in the are respond rapidly to reduced sulphur deposition. The planned reconstruction of the ``Pechenganikel`` smelter will significantly reduce the emissions of sulphur and heavy metals and so reduce the adverse effects on the ecosystems in the area. It is important to continue environmental research and monitoring in the border area in order to study the reversibility of acidification and to what extent actions will be sufficient. 23 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The results of the Survey of Employment in the South Moravian Region in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Konečný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of 2008, significant impacts of the world economic crisis became evident in the Czech labour market. In 2009, employment and the number of vacancies gradually declined and the number of the unemployed continually increased. This paper aims to show the impact of the crisis on the development (2008–2009 of the structure of employment according to industries and sectors of national economy in South Moravia as revealed by the unique “Survey of Employment in the South Moravian Region on the date of 31 December 2009”. This paper is a presentation of the general parameters of this survey – the number of companies participating in this survey, the number of their employees and regional differences of these characteristics are evaluated. Brief attention is also paid to the expected development of employment in 2010, which is compiled on the basis of the assumed recruitment/release of employees of businesses participating in the survey.

  15. Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic bacteria from soil samples from the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Graciela; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Díaz, Manuel; Companionis, Ariamys; Menéndez, Zulema; Gato, René

    2013-06-01

    The use of insect pathogens is a viable alternative for insect control because of their relative specificity and lower environmental impact. The search for wild strains against dipterans could have an impact on mosquito control programs. We have made an extensive screening of soil in western Cuba to find bacteria with larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. A total of 150 soil samples were collected and isolates were identifying using the API 50 CHB gallery. Phenotypic characteristics were analyzed by hierarchical ascending classification. Quantitative bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions following the World Health Organization protocol in order to ascertain the toxicity and efficacy of isolates. The protein profiles of the crystal components were determined by SDS-PAGE. Eight hundred and eighty-one bacterial isolates were obtained, and 13 isolates with entomopathogenic activity were isolated from nine samples. Nine isolates displayed higher entomopathogenic activity against both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti compared with the reference strain 266/2. All toxic isolates showed higher biological potency than the 266/2 strain. These isolates with high entomopathogenic activity displayed a protein pattern similar to the B. thuringiensis var. israelensis IPS-82 and 266/2 strains. These results are a valuable tool for the control of Diptera of medical importance. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers.

  17. Groundwater characterization and selection of suitable water type for irrigation in the western region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir Rahman, Mirza A. T. M.; Saadat, A. H. M.; Islam, Md. Safiqul; Al-Mansur, Md. Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim

    2017-03-01

    The main source of irrigation water in Bangladesh is groundwater, hence its quality needs to be ensured; otherwise, it can damage soil and reduce crop production. In current research, work by analyzing hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater different water types have been assessed to find out the suitable irrigation water of Godagari upazila in the western zone of Bangladesh. Studied parameters include pH, EC, TDS, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3 - and SO4 2- along with sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSBC), permeability index (PI), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelley's ratio (KR), Mg:Ca and Na:Ca. XLSTAT and AquaChem software were used to perform factor analysis and determine water types of groundwater, respectively. The mean trends of cations and anions of the study area are Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fe2+ and Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > NO3 - where silicate-weathered minerals influence the groundwater quality of the study area. Except PI all parameters satisfy irrigation water standards. However, Na-Ca-Mg and Na-Ca-Cl types of water need to be under observation for any future changes since SSP is not satisfied for both of them and considering KR Na-Ca-Cl water type is not suited. Except these two groups, Ca-Na-Mg and Ca-Na-Mg-Cl water types are suitable for irrigation.

  18. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y, E-mail: anna.peregon@nies.go.j [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr{sup -1}. It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  19. Comparative aggressiveness of Mycosphaerella pinodes on peas from different regions in western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Setti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycosphaerella blight caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. et Blox. Vestergr. is now recognized as one of the major problems limiting yield of pea crops in Algeria. The present work was carried out to study the aggressiveness of 75 M. pinodes isolates collected from different pea-growing areas forming four population groups representing four geographic areas in western Algeria. The latent period, incubation period and disease severity were measured in the greenhouse for each isolate × cultivar combination. All three aggressiveness components differed significantly between isolates and between cultivars. No significant interaction however was noted between isolates and cultivars. Both principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA were employed to analyze the variation pattern within and between population groups. Cluster analysis, which summarizes the relationship between isolates according to their distance of similarity, sorted isolates into six distinct aggressiveness groups. Aggressiveness group 1 was the most represented, with 34% of all isolates. Both PCA and cluster analysis revealed that many isolates were closely related irrespective of the geographic area or the host cultivar from which they were collected. At the same time, and based on the same aggressiveness components, the cv. Onward, Lucy and DP were the most susceptible, whereas the cv. Rondo and MK were partially resistant.

  20. Site fidelity in the Sichuan Torrent Frog (Amolops mantzorum in a montane region in western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Bo Liao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I used mark-recapture technique to estimate site fidelity in a subtropical high-elevation torrent frog (Amolops mantzorum during the breeding season in Fengtongzhai National Nature Reserve in western China. I captured, measured, and individually marked 30 males and 15 females in 20 May 2007. I recorded each individual’s initial positions using a Global Positioning System (GPS. For each night from 21 May to 10 June 2007, I recaptured the marked individuals and recorded capture points. The results showed that 16 males and 4 females were never recaptured in the field experiment. Most of the remaining individuals were recaptured only one time. Males and female were recaptured more than 2 and 8 times, respectively. Males and females were recaptured from subsequent positions as far apart as 55 m and 30 m, as close as 0.2 m and 0.1 m. Average neighbor distances on successive capture positions of males recaptured was 10.1 m, and that of females was 4.2 m, suggesting that there were significant difference in site fidelity between females and males. However, there was not significant average activity distance between the sexes. For females, small average activity areas were 10.9 ± 14.9 m2.

  1. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  2. Frequency-Dependent Characteristics of Regional Seismic Phases: Propagation of Pn in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    cratonic regions, such as the Indian shield or the Tarim and Sichuan basins (McNamara et al., 1997; Liang and Song, 2006; Pei et al., 2007). The...between 84°E and 86°E extending from the Ganga foreland basin , over the Lesser and Higher Himalayas, crossing the Indus-Yarlung suture and the

  3. Pathways out of poverty in lagging regions: evidence from rural western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaensen, L.; Pan, L.; Wang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    How to reduce poverty in lagging regions remains much debated and underserved with solid empirical evidence. This study illustrates an empirical methodology to analyze the pathways households followed out of poverty and to explore their potential in the future using 20002004 rural household panel

  4. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Wagner, Anita K; Yang, Shimin; Jiang, Minghuan; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Limited access to essential medicines is a global problem. Improving availability and affordability of essential medicines is a key objective of the National Essential Medicine Policy (NEMP) in China. In its initial implementation in 2009, the NEMP targeted primary hospitals with policies designed to increase availability of essential medicines and reduce patients' economic burden from purchasing medicines. We assessed medicine availability and price during the early years of the health reform in Shaanxi Province in underdeveloped western China. We undertook two public (hospitals) and private (pharmacy) sector surveys of prices and availability of medicines, in September, 2010 and April, 2012, by a standard methodology developed by WHO and Health Action International. We measured medicine availability in outlets at the time of the surveys and inflation-adjusted median unit prices (MUPs), taking 2010 as the base year. We used general estimating equations to calculate the significance of differences in availability from 2010 to 2012 and the Wilcoxon signed rank test to calculate the significance of differences in adjusted median prices. We collected data from 50 public sector hospitals and 36 private sector retail pharmacies in 2010 and 72 public hospitals and 72 retail pharmacies in 2012. Mean availability of surveyed medicines was low in both the public and private sectors; availability of many essential medicines decreased from 2010 to 2012, particularly in primary hospitals (from 27·4% to 22·3% for lowest priced generics; pFund (71103141/G0308), the China Medical Board Faculty Development Awards, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011jdhz62), the Shaanxi Provincial Social Science Fund (10E066), and the Harvard Medical School Pharmaceutical Policy Research Fellowship. Copyright © 2013 Fang et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  5. Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gailey, Glenn; W?rsig, Bernd; McDonald, Trent L.

    2007-01-01

    A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and proximity to the seismic survey by employing scan sampling, focal follow, and theodolite tracking methodolo...

  6. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Apurv; Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A.; Vankar, Jagdish; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Setting Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villa...

  7. Ground motion modelling in the Gujarat region of Western India using empirical Green's function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pallabee; Chopra, Sumer; Roy, Ketan Singha; Sharma, Jyoti

    2016-04-01

    In this study, ground motions are estimated for scenario earthquakes of Mw 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0 at 17 sites in Gujarat region using Empirical Green's function technique. The Dholavira earthquake of June 19, 2012 (Mw 5.1) which occurred in the Kachchh region of Gujarat is considered as an element earthquake. We estimated the focal mechanism and source parameters of the element earthquake using standard methodologies. The moment tensor inversion technique is used to determine the fault plane solution (strike = 8°, dip = 51°, and rake = - 7°). The seismic moment and the stress drop are 5.6 × 1016 Nm and 120 bars respectively. The validity of the approach was tested for a smaller earthquake. A few possible directivity scenarios were also tested to find out the effect of directivity on the level of ground motions. Our study reveals that source complexities and site effects play a very important role in deciding the level of ground motions at a site which are difficult to model by GMPEs. Our results shed new light on the expected accelerations in the region and suggest that the Kachchh region can expect maximum acceleration of around 500 cm/s2 at few sites near source and around 200 cm/s2 at most of the sites located within 50 km from the epicentre for a Mw 7.0 earthquake. The estimated ground accelerations can be used by the administrators and planners for providing a guiding framework to undertake mitigation investments and activities in the region.

  8. Residential, soil and water radon surveys in north-western part of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Papp, Botond; Dicu, Tiberius; Moldovan, Mircea; Burghele, Denissa Bety; Moraru, Ionuţ Tudor; Tenţer, Ancuţa; Cosma, Constantin

    2017-01-01

    The exposure to radon and radon decay products in homes and at workplaces represents the greatest risk from natural ionizing radiation. The present study brings forward the residential, soil and water radon surveys in 5 counties of Romania. Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors exposed for 3 months on ground-floor level of dwellings, according to the NRPB Measurements Protocol. Radon concentrations in soil and water were measured using the LUK3C device. The indoor radon concentrations ranged from 5 to 2592 Bq⋅m-3 with an updated preliminary arithmetic mean of 133 Bq⋅m-3, and a geometric mean of 90 Bq⋅m-3. In about 6% of the investigated grid cells the indoor radon concentrations exceed the threshold of 300 Bq⋅m-3. The soil gas radon concentration varies from 0.8 to 169 kBq⋅m-3, with a geometric mean of 28.4 kBq⋅m-3. For water samples, the results show radon concentrations within the range of 0.3-352 kBq⋅m-3 with a geometric mean of 7.7 Bq⋅L-1. The indoor radon map was plotted on a reference grid developed by JRC with the resolution 10 × 10 km2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Swiss ethnoveterinary knowledge on medicinal plants - a within-country comparison of Italian speaking regions with north-western German speaking regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Maria; Zbinden, Mirjam; Vogl, Christan R; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Meier, Beat; Amorena, Michele; Maeschli, Ariane; Hamburger, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2017-01-03

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Europe may play an important role as a basis for sustainable treatment options for livestock. Aims of our study were (a) to compare the ethnoveterinary practices of two culturally and sociodemographically different regions of Switzerland, (b) to compare results with earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland and in adjacent Italian regions and, (c) to evaluate possible reasons for regional differences in European ethnoveterinary medicine. 25 interviews were conducted in 2014 in all Italian speaking regions (ItR) of Switzerland, and 31 interviews were held in five north-western German speaking Cantons (GeC). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect detailed information regarding plant species, mode of preparation, dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with outcomes of the treatments. A total of 162 homemade remedies in ItR and 219 in GeC were reported, out of which 125 and 145, respectively, were reported to contain only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedy report, HSHR). 44 ItR and 43 GeC plant species were reported to treat livestock, of which only a half were used in both regions. For each HSHR, we classified the treatment intention of all use reports (UR), leading to a total of 205 and 219 UR in ItR and GeC respectively. While cattle were the most often treated livestock species in both study regions, in ItR 40% of UR were administered to small ruminants. Main indications in both regions were gastrointestinal diseases and skin afflictions, but in ItR a high number of URs were reported as antiparasitics. URs were mainly handed down from the past generation, but in GeC the source of knowledge for 20% of URs were from courses. Regarding the used plant species, ItR showed a higher concordance with Swiss than Italian studies, but with some differences to all regions. A total of 22 (14 ItR; 8 GeC) plant species in this study

  10. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  11. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE: DEFI NING U.S. INTERESTS IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testimony analyses the emerging importance of Latin America and the Caribbean relative to the security of the United States. Author highlights that relations between the United States and the region of Latin America are related to the USA’s investments and trade as well as to a whole range of problems such as terrorists, crime and refugees. According to the author there are four fundamental challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean: organized crime, Islamic radicalism, Russia and China. The author examines in detail these challenges and analyses their infl uence in the region on the United States. Furthermore, the author stresses that the USA should take necessary measures and develop further strategy to improve the relations with Latin-American countries.

  12. Crisis Region Western Africa - The cradle of African migration to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kohnert, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades the number of refugees from conflict regions in Africa increased dramatically. West Africa is the cradle of migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe, were most African migrants with overseas destinations live. The European Union shares dual responsibility for the continuing migration pressure: First, because they fostered over decades corrupt and autocratic regimes with dire disregard to principles of "good governance". The aftermath of these regimes is still to be felt...

  13. AGRICULTURE MARKETING: A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVES IN THE FAR WESTERN REGION OF NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Nepal, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Nepal is a developing country with the resources and prospects to flourish in the agricultural sector. Agriculture contributes the largest share of the GDP in Nepal. The effective production and marketing of agricultural products in the various regions of Nepal could bring significant changes to the economic development of the nation. To develop the agricultural sector, many foreign nations and their development agencies are assisting Nepal in various development programs. One of them is the ...

  14. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  15. Palynostratigraphy of the Zorritas Formation, Antofagasta region, Chile: Insights on the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in western Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. Rubinstein

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Member of the Zorritas Formation in the Antofagasta region of northern Chile, yielded terrestrial and marine palynomorph assemblages which span the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary. The assemblages show a clear predominance of terrestrial palynomorphs with 70 miospore species, 18 marine phytoplankton species, two non-marine algae and one chitinozoan species, all coming from 15 productive levels. Palynomorphs are poorly preserved and most of them are reworked. Three palynological associations are recognized based on miospores. These are assigned to the Tournaisian–Visean, Tournaisian and probable latest Famennian. Age assignments are discussed in the frame of the spore zonal schemes established for Euramerica and western Gondwana. The stratigraphical distribution of spores allows the identification of the probable position of the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary within the Zorritas Formation. This system boundary is proposed for the first time in Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks of northern Chile. The presence of Gondwanan typical miospore species indicates affinities with this palaeocontinent even though the Tournaisian and Tournaisian–Visean miospore associations support the cosmopolitanism already suggested for the early Carboniferous flora. The significant number of reworked palynomorphs together with the sedimentological analysis of the studied sections, suggest that these deposits were severely impacted by the climatic change and major sea level fluctuations. Similar conditions were recorded in coeval western Gondwana basins.

  16. Review: Regional groundwater flow modeling in heavily irrigated basins of selected states in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.

    2013-09-01

    Water resources in agriculture-dominated basins of the arid western United States are stressed due to long-term impacts from pumping. A review of 88 regional groundwater-flow modeling applications from seven intensively irrigated western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska and Texas) was conducted to provide hydrogeologists, modelers, water managers, and decision makers insight about past modeling studies that will aid future model development. Groundwater models were classified into three types: resource evaluation models (39 %), which quantify water budgets and act as preliminary models intended to be updated later, or constitute re-calibrations of older models; management/planning models (55 %), used to explore and identify management plans based on the response of the groundwater system to water-development or climate scenarios, sometimes under water-use constraints; and water rights models (7 %), used to make water administration decisions based on model output and to quantify water shortages incurred by water users or climate changes. Results for 27 model characteristics are summarized by state and model type, and important comparisons and contrasts are highlighted. Consideration of modeling uncertainty and the management focus toward sustainability, adaptive management and resilience are discussed, and future modeling recommendations, in light of the reviewed models and other published works, are presented.

  17. A Comparison of Dynamical Seasonal Tropical Cyclone Predictions for the Australian and Western Pacific Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kay; Charles, Andrew; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Hendon, Harry; Kuleshov, Yuriy

    2013-04-01

    The Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) issues predictions of tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the Australian and South Pacific regions in the October before the TC season (November to April). Currently, these predictions utilise a statistical model based on the historical relationship between tropical cyclone activity and (i) sea surface temperature anomalies in the Equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) and (ii) the Southern Oscillation Index over the past few decades. Variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-TC relationship that are not contained within the historical record can lead to deficiencies in future predictions. The use of dynamical (physics-based) climate models (GCMs) offers an alternative to statistical TC prediction schemes. Any changes to the environment (whatever their character or cause) are incorporated in the analyses used to initialise a dynamical model. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) Program, BoM is developing dynamically-based seasonal TC predictions for the Australian, South Pacific and North-West Pacific regions. The seasonal TC predictions from two fully-coupled GCMs are evaluated and compared. These models are BoM's Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) and the Japan Meteorological Agency/Meteorological Research Institute Coupled GCM (JMA/MRI-CGCM). The resolution of POAMA's atmospheric component is T42 (~2.5° x 2.5°), while JMA/MRI-CGCM is T95 (~1.8° x 1.8°). Two TC tracking methods are employed and applied to both models to evaluate the influence of model composition and tracking technique on seasonal TC predictions. In the more traditional TC detection scheme TCs are identified where 850-hPa relative vorticity is a maximum (minimum in the Southern Hemisphere) and exceeds a certain threshold. Additionally, the 500-200-hPa thickness and the difference in maximum winds at 850 and 200 hPa are used to differentiate tropical from extratropical

  18. Asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax infections induce robust IgG responses to multiple blood-stage proteins in a low-transmission region of western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Rhea J; França, Camila T; White, Michael T; Kumpitak, Chalermpon; Sa-Angchai, Patiwat; Gruszczyk, Jakub; Hostetler, Jessica B; Yadava, Anjali; King, Christopher L; Fairhurst, Rick M; Rayner, Julian C; Tham, Wai-Hong; Nguitragool, Wang; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Mueller, Ivo

    2017-04-28

    Thailand is aiming to eliminate malaria by the year 2024. Plasmodium vivax has now become the dominant species causing malaria within the country, and a high proportion of infections are asymptomatic. A better understanding of antibody dynamics to P. vivax antigens in a low-transmission setting, where acquired immune responses are poorly characterized, will be pivotal for developing new strategies for elimination, such as improved surveillance methods and vaccines. The objective of this study was to characterize total IgG antibody levels to 11 key P. vivax proteins in a village of western Thailand. Plasma samples from 546 volunteers enrolled in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in Kanchanaburi Province were utilized. Total IgG levels to 11 different proteins known or predicted to be involved in reticulocyte binding or invasion (ARP, GAMA, P41, P12, PVX_081550, and five members of the PvRBP family), as well as the leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate (CSP) were measured using a multiplexed bead-based assay. Associations between IgG levels and infection status, age, and spatial location were explored. Individuals from a low-transmission region of western Thailand reacted to all 11 P. vivax recombinant proteins. Significantly greater IgG levels were observed in the presence of a current P. vivax infection, despite all infected individuals being asymptomatic. IgG levels were also higher in adults (18 years and older) than in children. For most of the proteins, higher IgG levels were observed in individuals living closer to the Myanmar border and further away from local health services. Robust IgG responses were observed to most proteins and IgG levels correlated with surrogates of exposure, suggesting these antigens may serve as potential biomarkers of exposure, immunity, or both.

  19. Mineralogy of agricultural soil of selected regions of South Western Karnataka, Peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, P G; Byrappa, K; Ranganathaiah, C

    2015-07-01

    Agricultural soils of selected regions of Southwestern Karnataka, Peninsular India, were subjected to systematic mineralogical characterization along with the study of soil physical properties. Physical properties such as soil texture and micro porosity were studied using particle size analyses and positron annihilation lifetime analysis (PALS) technique, respectively. The latter was used to analyze micro porosity of agricultural soil. Both major and minor minerals were identified and confirmed by some analytical techniques like thin section study, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alkadi, Nasr [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ma, Ookie [USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) contains triplicate putative control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dankan; Tang, Yunxia; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Fan, Jiaqin

    2012-09-10

    To investigate the features of the control region (CR) and the gene rearrangement in the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Thysanoptera insects, we sequenced the whole mt genome of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The mt genome is a circular molecule with 14,889 nucleotides and an A+T content of 76.6%, and it has triplicate putative CRs. We propose that tandem duplication and deletion account for the evolution of the CR and the gene translocations. Intramitochondrial recombination is a plausible model for the gene inversions. We discuss the excessive duplicate CR sequences and the transcription of the rRNA genes, which are distant from one another and from the CR. Finally, we address the significance of the complicated mt genomes in Thysanoptera for the evolution of the CR and the gene arrangement of the mt genome. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Desertification and its effect on the erosion of vegetation in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Elhakem, Abeer Hamdy

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in Jazan region of south-western Saudi Arabia. Vegetation cover, frequency, abundance and soil characteristics were analysed at three locations with different quantitative and descriptive vegetation characteristics. Plant species were classified into three primary communities dominated by Salvadora persic, Acacia tortilis and Ziziphus spini-Christi. The results indicated that the distribution of plant species is controlled by soil characteristics. Very limited water resources are also limiting factor in vegetation growth. Among the three studied sites, desert and coastal environments are affected by desertification. Rehabilitation of the degraded lands requires collaborative efforts and support from the different related governmental sectors. Ecological conservation and sustainable development must be adopted as tools of rehabilitation.

  3. Visibility Graph Analysis of the 2003-2012 Earthquake Sequence in the Kachchh Region of Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Aggarwal, S. K.; Khan, P. K.; Rastogi, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    A visibility graph (VG) is a rather novel statistical method in earthquake sequence analysis; it maps a time series into networks or graphs, converting dynamical properties of the time series into topological properties of networks. By using the VG approach, we defined the parameter window mean interval connectivity time , that informs about the mean linkage time between earthquakes. We analysed the time variation of in the aftershock-depleted catalogue of Kachchh Gujarat (Western India) seismicity from 2003 to 2012, and we found that : i) changes through time, indicating that the topological properties of the earthquake network are not stationary; and, ii) appeared to significantly decrease before the largest shock (M5.7) that occurred on March 7, 2006 near the Gedi fault, an active fault in the Kachchh region.

  4. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frassy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification’s accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.

  5. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Nodari, Francesco Rota; Via, Giorgio Dalla; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified. PMID:25166502

  6. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18 percent are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduce recharge rates by between 33 and 49 percent relative to that under the historical period climate. Relative to the historical climate, reductions of up to 50 percent in groundwater discharge to the ocean and drainage systems are also expected. Sea-water intrusion is likely in the Peel-Harvey Area under the dry future climate and net leakage to confined systems is projected to decrease by up to 35 percent which will cause reduction in pressures in confined systems under current abstraction. The percentage of net annual recharge consumed by groundwater storage, and ocean and drainage discharges is expected to decrease and percentage of net annual recharge consumed by pumping and net leakage to confined systems to increase under median and dry future climates. Climate change is likely to significantly impact various water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems of south-western Australia. We assess the quantitative climate change impact on the different components (the amounts using the most widely used GCMs in combination with dynamically linked recharge and physically distributed groundwater models.

  7. Abnormal cervical cytology risk factors in the Western Black Sea Region and the importance of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sımavli, Serap; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Cukur, Selma; Aksel, Ferda

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytological findings in the Western Black Sea Region and investigate an association between socio-demographic risk factors and the presence of cytological abnormalities. The reports of 11,539 cervical smears diagnosed according to Bethesda System 2001 version in the Pathology Department between January 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively from the hospital records and cytopathology reports. Repeated smear results, unsatisfactory smear results, patients with known gynecologic malignancy history, smear results of patients with hysterectomy and smear results of patients whose socio-demographic information could not be obtained were excluded from the evaluation. The results of 7,740 patients who met the criteria for the study were evaluated. The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities was 1.8 % in general. The prevalence rates for atypical squamous cells with undetermined significance (ASC-US), atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and atypical glandular cells (AGC) were 1.16%, 0.11%, 0.29%, 0.15%, and 0.03% respectively. The prevalence of cytologically diagnosed cervical invasive neoplasia was 0.025%. Advanced age, low education level (primary school or less) and not having health insurance were found as to be risk factors for preinvasive and invasive lesions. Women who had a high school education and previously had a smear test had decreased risk for developing preinvasive and invasive lesions. This study shows prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology findings and associated risk factors in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. The most important risk factor was identified as not having health insurance.

  8. Serological survey for Chagas disease in the rural areas of Manaus, Coari, and Tefé in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa Maria Lopes Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Deforestation, uncontrolled forest, human population migration from endemic areas, and the large number of reservoirs and wild vectors naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi promote the endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon region. METHODS: We conducted an initial serological survey (ELISA in a sample of 1,263 persons; 1,095 (86.7% were natives of the State of Amazonas, 666 (52.7% were male, and 948 (75.1% were over 20 years old. Serum samples that were found to be reactive, indeterminate, or inconclusive by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI or positive with low titer by IFA were tested by Western blot (WB. Serologically confirmed patients (WB were evaluated in terms of epidemiological, clinical, ECG, and echocardiography characteristics. RESULTS: Fifteen patients had serologically confirmed T. cruzi infection, and 12 of them were autochthonous to the state of Amazonas, for an overall seroprevalence of 1.2% and 0.9% for the state of Amazonas. Five of the 15 cases were males, and the average age was 47 years old; most were farmers with low education. One patient who was not autochthonous, having originated from Alagoas, showed right bundle branch block, bundle branch block, and anterosuperior left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 54%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study ratify the importance of monitoring CD cases in Amazonia, particularly in the state of Amazonas.

  9. Serological survey for Chagas disease in the rural areas of Manaus, Coari, and Tefé in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Belisa Maria Lopes; Coelho, Leíla Ines Aguiar Raposo Câmara; Maciel, Marcel Gonçalves; Ferreira, João Marcos Benfica Barbosa; Umezawa, Eufrozina Setsu; Coura, José Rodrigues; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation, uncontrolled forest, human population migration from endemic areas, and the large number of reservoirs and wild vectors naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi promote the endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon region. We conducted an initial serological survey (ELISA) in a sample of 1,263 persons; 1,095 (86.7%) were natives of the State of Amazonas, 666 (52.7%) were male, and 948 (75.1%) were over 20 years old. Serum samples that were found to be reactive, indeterminate, or inconclusive by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) or positive with low titer by IFA were tested by Western blot (WB). Serologically confirmed patients (WB) were evaluated in terms of epidemiological, clinical, ECG, and echocardiography characteristics. Fifteen patients had serologically confirmed T. cruzi infection, and 12 of them were autochthonous to the state of Amazonas, for an overall seroprevalence of 1.2% and 0.9% for the state of Amazonas. Five of the 15 cases were males, and the average age was 47 years old; most were farmers with low education. One patient who was not autochthonous, having originated from Alagoas, showed right bundle branch block, bundle branch block, and anterosuperior left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 54%. The results of this study ratify the importance of monitoring CD cases in Amazonia, particularly in the state of Amazonas.

  10. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  11. Health behaviours in people who respond to a web-based survey advertised on regional news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2008-06-01

    The internet has become a key tool in health research and is increasingly used for data collection via email and web-surveys. Whilst the demographics of those with and without access to the Internet in the UK are regularly reported, the health behaviours of those who choose to take part in web-based surveys, compared to the wider population, are not known. We compared the health behaviours of those responding to a web-based health and lifestyle survey advertised on regional TV and radio news with regional results from a large national health and lifestyle survey--the Health Survey for England 2003. After exclusion of duplicates, 1116 individuals responded to the survey and provided information on age and sex as well as a postcode in the Government Office for the North East region. Those responding to the web-survey were younger and lived in less deprived areas than the regional population. After weighting survey responses for age and deprivation, respondents to the survey reported higher mean BMI, greater fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as differing patterns of physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking, than regional respondents to the Health Survey for England. Conducting a web-based health and lifestyle survey advertised on regional news media was fast, cheap and relatively easy. Given the potential benefits of web-based surveys, further work is justified exploring who responds to web-based health and lifestyle surveys and whether or not more representative samples can be obtained.

  12. Regional and Local Controls on the Distribution of Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, M. F.; Blewitt, G.; Faulds, J. E.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    In the Great Basin (GB) of the western United States, geothermal systems with reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C can be classified into two main categories (magmatic and amagmatic) according to the presence or absence of shallow magmatic heat sources. Magmatic systems are restricted to the margins of the GB where they are closely associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, whereas amagmatic systems occur over a large portion of the Great Basin interior and are not spatially associated with young silicic volcanism. A tabulation of temperature gradients for known geothermal systems in the world confirms research by others indicating that both magmatic and amagmatic systems occur within areas of high temperature gradients and high heat flow. However, high heat flow alone is not sufficient to explain the abundance of high-temperature geothermal activity in the GB interior. While the distribution of favorable host rocks likely plays a role, active crustal tectonics appears instrumental in explaining patterns of geothermal activity. At a detailed scale, Quaternary faults control the location of most geothermal systems in the GB. However, hundreds of Quaternary faults are distributed throughout the GB, and most do not host high-temperature geothermal resources. Spatial statistical analysis demonstrates that high-temperature geothermal systems (more than 150 C) are preferentially associated with NE-striking Quaternary faults, which in turn are oriented roughly perpendicular to the current direction of crustal extension in the western GB. Maps of active crustal extension rates in the GB, derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity measurements and estimated slip rates on Quaternary faults, correlate well with the distribution of high-temperature geothermal systems and help explain why some faults with lower slip rates or unfavorable orientations don't host geothermal activity. Many geothermal systems in the GB occur in a broad transitional region

  13. Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography of Gujarat region, Western India and its implications to mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Mayank; Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, fundamental Rayleigh waves with varying period from 10 to 80 s are used to obtain group velocity maps in the northwest Deccan Volcanic Province of India. About 350 paths are obtained using 53 earthquakes (4.8 ≤ M ≥ 7.9) recorded by the SeisNetG (Seismic Network of Gujarat). Individual dispersion curves of group velocity of Rayleigh wave for each source-station path are estimated using multiple filter technique. These curves are used to determine lateral distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocity by tomographic inversion method. Our estimated Rayleigh group velocity at varying depths showed conspicuous corroboration with three tectonic blocks [Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB), Saurashtra Horst (SH), and Mainland Gujarat (MG)] in the region. The seismically active KRB with a thicker crust is characterized as a low velocity zone at a period varying from 10 to 30 s as indicative of mantle downwarping or sagging of the mantle beneath the KRB, while the SH and MG are found to be associated with higher group velocities, indicating the existence of the reduced crustal thickness. The trend of higher group velocity was found prevailed adjacent to the Narmada and Cambay rift basins that also correspond to the reduced crust, suggesting the processes of mantle upwarping or uplifting due to mantle upwelling. The low velocities at periods longer than 40 s beneath the KRB indicate thicker lithosphere. The known Moho depth correlates well with the observed velocities at a period of about 30 s in the Gujarat region. Our estimates of relatively lower group velocities at periods varying from 70 to 80 s may correspond to the asthenospheric flow beneath the region. It is interesting to image higher group velocity for the thinner crust beneath the Arabian Sea adjacent to the west coast of Gujarat at the period of 40 s that may correspond to the upwarped or upwelled mantle beneath the Arabian Sea. Our results have better resolution estimated by a radius of equivalent

  14. Evaluation of Neonatal Transport in Western Switzerland: A Model of Perinatal Regionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitriona Gilleece McEvoy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal transport is an essential part of regionalization for highly specialized neonatal intensive care. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on neonatal transport activity in a large Swiss perinatal network more than 1 year, aimed to quantify this activity, to identify the needs for staff, and the demands regarding know-how and equipment. Of the 565 admissions to the tertiary neonatology clinic, 176 (31.2% were outborn patients, transported as emergencies to the level III unit. In 71.6% of cases, respiratory insufficiency was one of the reasons for transfer. Circadian and weekly distribution showed increased transport activity on workdays between 8  am and 10  pm , but regular demands for emergency transports regardless of the time frame require a neonatal transport team available 24/7. This study highlights the importance of neonatal transport and unveils several functional and infrastructural insufficiencies, which led to suggestions for improvement.

  15. Remote Sensing of Environmental Change in the Antirio Deltaic Fan Region, Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Vassilakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the westernmost region of the rapidly widening Corinth rift, Greece, extensive development of roads, bridges and other human infrastructure has caused continuous environmental change over the past twenty years. River networks, the land surface and the coastal environment, have been altered, especially in the areas corresponding to deltaic fans. In this paper we use earth observation systems that have captured these environmental changes, particularly medium (Landsat TM and ETM+ and high (Quickbird resolution satellite images, to identify environmental changes between the periods 1992, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Six pseudo-color multi-temporal images in different spectral areas were created in order to detect changes to the terrestrial and coastal environment caused mainly by direct or indirect human impact. This methodology provided new data for quantifying significant alterations in the environment on different scales. In many cases this revealed their sequence during the time of observation.

  16. Variability of atmospheric aerosols at urban, regional and continental backgrounds in the western mediterranean basin

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Lozano, Noemí

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 14 de febrer de 2011 El estudio de los niveles y composición del material particulado atmosférico (PM) medido simultáneamente en diferentes ambientes a escala regional se llevó a cabo en la cuenca del Mediterráneo Occidental con el fin de entender las fuentes y patrones de transformación y transporte de aerosoles en esta zona. Para esto, la medida de niveles y caracterización química de PM10, PM2.5 y PM1 se llevó a cabo en tres estaciones de monitoreo: Montsec (MS...

  17. İstanbul-Atakent region (the western portion the underground investıgation and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Dağ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In study, the prior engineering structures planned to be done later in İstanbul-Atakent region, a modeling study of underground structures has been carried out for the purpose of to be taken against the problems that may arise due to soil properties and ground movements. Material information obtained from drilling wells and line sections are on the Ceylan Formation, Danişmen Formation and Çekmece Formation. Multiple electrode method from geophysical methods and Multi-channel surface wave analysis methods were used in the studies and obtained results were compared with the drilling sections. The resistivity changes obtained from geophysical methods, traces of seismic environments and existing skies of existing topography, it is marked in 2D and 3D graphics. Underground modeling of the examination area was made, after the determination that all the results are in accordance.

  18. Phytoplankton community structure and nitrogen nutrition in Leeuwin Current and coastal waters off the Gascoyne region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Christine E.; Waite, Anya M.; Thompson, Peter A.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Within the coastal waters of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to Western Australia, we tested the hypothesis that regenerated production (and, by inference, the microbial food web) would predominate in oligotrophic Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore (OS) surface waters. Conversely, we expected that new production would be more important within the ˜5 times more productive shelf countercurrents (Ningaloo and Capes Currents; NC&CC) and the LC&OS deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were assessed using both light microscopy and chemotaxonomic methods, and isotopic nitrogen uptake experiments ( 15NO 3-, 15NH 4+) were performed at trace (0.05 μM) and saturating (5.0 μM) levels. Phytoplankton community structure was statistically distinct between LC&OS and countercurrent regions. Picoplankton (unicellular cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) accounted for a mean of 55-65% of pigment biomass in LC&OS waters, with haptophytes as the other primary contributor (21-32%). Conversely, within countercurrent and shelf regions, diatoms (up to 22%) and haptophytes (up to 57%) were more abundant, although cyanobacteria still played an important role (up to 40% of pigment biomass). Absolute NO 3- uptake rates for all samples ranged between 0.5 and 7.1 nmol L -1 h -1, and in countercurrent waters were not significantly different at the surface (3.0±2.1 nmol L -1 h -1; mean±SD) compared to the DCM (2.7±2.3 nmol L -1 h -1). However, in LC&OS waters, rates were significantly lower at the surface (1.2±0.7 nmol L -1 h -1) than the DCM (3.9±2.5 nmol L -1 h -1; p=0.05). These values represent conservative estimates for the region due to methodological difficulties encountered with nitrogen uptake experiments in these oligotrophic waters. In contrast with the distinct community composition between different water types, mean estimates of the f-ratio were similar across sampling depths and water types: 0.17±0.07 at the surface and 0.16±0.06 at

  19. Regional behaviour among late Neanderthal groups in Western Europe: a comparative assessment of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tool variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebens, Karen

    2013-10-01

    Population dynamics between and within Pleistocene groups are vital to understanding wider behavioural processes like social transmission and cultural variation. The late Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 5d-3, ca. 115,000-35,000 BP [years before present]) permits a novel, data-driven assessment of these concepts through a unique record: bifacial tools made by classic Neanderthals. Previously, studies of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tools were hampered by a convoluted plethora of competing terms, types and regional entities. This paper presents a large-scale intercomparison of this tool type, and bridges typo-technological and spatio-temporal data from across Western Europe (Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Germany). Results indicate a high level of variation among individual bifacial tools and assemblages. Each bifacial tool concept is correlated with various methods of production, resulting in large degrees of morphological variation. Despite such variation, a distinct three-fold, macro-regional pattern was identified: the Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition (MTA) in the southwest dominated by handaxes, the Keilmessergruppen (KMG) in the northeast typified by backed and leaf-shaped bifacial tools, and, finally a new unit, the Mousterian with Bifacial Tools (MBT), geographically situated between these two major entities, and characterised by a wider variety of bifacial tools. Differing local conditions, such as raw material or function, are not sufficient to explain this observed macro-regional tripartite. Instead, the MTA and KMG can be viewed as two distinct cultural traditions, where the production of a specific bifacial tool concept was passed on over generations. Conversely, the MBT is interpreted as a border zone where highly mobile groups of Neanderthals from both the east (KMG) and west (MTA) interacted. Principally, this study presents an archaeological contribution to behavioural concepts such as regionality, culture, social transmission and

  20. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kue Young

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives: This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods: Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS. Results: Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions: A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with

  1. Living conditions among people with activity limitations in Zimbabwe. A representative regional survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Arne Henning; Nhiwathiwa, Sekai; Muderedzi, Jennifer; Loeb, E Mitch

    2003-01-01

    This research report provides results from a study on living conditions among people with and without activity limitations in Matabeleland, Manicaland and Midlands, Zimbabwe. The study began in 2001 and was completed in 2003. Living conditions among people with activity limitations in Zimbabwe. A representative regional survey.

  2. A survey of macrofungi in Edo/Delta region of Nigeria, their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty three (53) species of macrofungi were encountered at the end of the survey, 26 species comprising of 23 basidiomycetes and 3 ascomycetes were fully ... Mushroom hunters, 45% women and 26% youths (ages 18-28), hunt for the in the wild to supply the mushroom needs of the inhabitants of the Edo/Delta region.

  3. Geoid Model and Altitude at Mount Aconcagua Region (Argentina) from Airborne Gravity Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristina Pacino, M.; Jaeger, Eric; Forsberg, René

    2014-01-01

    Aconcagua is part of the Southern Andes in the Argentine Province of Mendoza and it is the highest mountain in the Americas. The Aconcagua region is mostly inaccessible for land surveys. The existing gravity data are sparsely distributed, and mainly along the route currently used to climb the mou...

  4. Inventory of experiences from national/regional dietary monitoring surveys using EPIC-Soft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybrechts, I.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Geelen, A.; Crispim, S.P.; Keyzer, de W.; Freisling, H.; Henauw, de S.; Maeyer, de M.; Krems, C.; Amiano, P.; Boer, de E.J.; Ocke, M.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Slimani, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft 24-h recall (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) has been used in several regional/national dietary monitoring surveys. The main objective of the study

  5. Delphi Survey of Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Priorities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Carolyn; Dohrn, Jennifer; Oweis, Arwa; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Abu-Moghli, Fathieh; Dawani, Hania; Ghazi, Cheherezade; Larson, Elaine

    2017-03-01

    As the shortage of nurses and midwives is expected to worsen in the Eastern Mediterranean region concomitantly with a growing focus on achievement of universal health coverage, nurses and midwives are expected to fill major gaps in health care. Hence, the need for a solid evidence base for nursing practice and a clear direction for clinical nursing research are paramount. Therefore, a Delphi survey was conducted to determine clinical (research focused on patient outcomes) nursing and midwifery priorities for research within this region. A Delphi survey, using iterative rounds of an online survey of regional clinical nursing and midwifery research experts, was conducted between January and April 2016. Consensus was determined by percentage agreement on level of priority for topics as determined by participants. Additionally, results were compared between countries within the region by income and mortality levels using Kendall's tau. Critical research topics were focused on public/community/primary care as well as emergency preparedness for disasters, and these priorities are well aligned with gaps in the literature for this region. There were statistically significant differences between priority level and country mortality group for geriatrics, self-management of disease, and sexually transmitted infections. Critical research priorities should focus on population-based health topics. Between-country differences should be analyzed further. A clinical research database for the region may help improve research access for nurses and midwives. Practicing nurses and midwives lack extensive evidence (including culturally relevant evidence) on which to practice. Increasing research in areas identified in this survey may improve patient outcomes and quality of care regionally. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  7. Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional cancer predisposition survey in the Zonguldak region of Northwest Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Selahattin; Önen-Hall, A. Piril; Aydin, S. Nihal; Yakicier, Cengiz; Akarsu, Nurten; Tuncer, Murat

    2008-03-01

    The Cretaceous-Eocene volcano-sedimentary units of the Zonguldak region of the western Black Sea consist of subalkaline andesite and tuff, and sandstone dominated by smectite, kaolinite, accessory chlorite, illite, mordenite, and analcime associated with feldspar, quartz, opal-CT, amphibole, and calcite. Kaolinization, chloritization, sericitization, albitization, Fe-Ti-oxidation, and the presence of zeolite, epidote, and illite in andesitic rocks and tuffaceous materials developed as a result of the degradation of a glass shards matrix, enclosed feldspar, and clinopyroxene-type phenocrysts, due to alteration processes. The association of feldspar and glass with smectite and kaolinite, and the suborientation of feldspar-edged, subparallel kaolinite plates to fracture axes may exhibit an authigenic smectite or kaolinite. Increased alteration degree upward in which Al, Fe, and Ti are gained, and Si, Na, K, and Ca are depleted, is due to the alteration following possible diagenesis and hydrothermal activities. Micromorphologically, fibrous mordenite in the altered units and the presence of needle-type chrysotile in the residential buildings in which cancer cases lived were detected. In addition, the segregation pattern of cancer susceptibility in the region strongly suggested an environmental effect and a genetic influence on the increased cancer incidence in the region. The most likely diagnosis was Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which is one of the hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, no mutations were observed in the p53 gene, which is the major cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The micromorphology observed in the altered units in which cancer cases were detected may have a role in the expression of an unidentified gene, but does not explain alone the occurrence of cancer as a primary cause in the region.

  8. Barriers to adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a regional hospital in Vredenburg, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo N. Azia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa currently runs the largest public antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in the world, with over 80% of people living with HIV and/or AIDS on ART. However, in order to appreciate the benefits of using ART, patients are subject to uncompromising and long-term commitments of taking at least 95% of their treatment as prescribed. Evidence shows that this level of adherence is seldom achieved because of a multilevel and sometimes interwoven myriad of factors. Objective: We described the challenges faced by patients on ART in Vredenburg with regard to ART adherence. Methods: A descriptive qualitative research design was used. Eighteen non-adhering patients on ART in the Vredenburg regional hospital were purposefully selected. Using a semistructured interview guide, we conducted in-depth interviews with the study participants in their mother tongue (Afrikaans. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The data were analysed manually using the thematic content analysis method. Results: Stigma, disclosure, unemployment, lack of transport, insufficient feeding, disability grants and alternative forms of therapy were identified as major barriers to adherence, whereas inadequate follow-ups and lack of patient confidentiality came under major criticisms from the patients. Conclusion: Interventions to address poverty, stigma, discrimination and disclosure should be integrated with group-based ART adherence models in Vredenburg while further quantitative investigations should be carried out to quantify the extent to which these factors impede adherence in the community.

  9. Crustal structure of the western Indian shield: Model based on regional gravity and magnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kilaru

    2013-11-01

    This study probes the geometry of the different crustal units in terms of density and susceptibility variations in order to decipher the imprints of the major tectonic processes the region has undergone. In order to decipher the crustal geometry of the Gadra–Fatehpur profile, two NW–SE gravity and magnetic profile vertical sections (A–A′ in the south and B–B′ in the north are modelled on the basis of the constraints provided from previous seismic models. The crustal model of the Gadra–Fatehpur profile is composed of alluvium, Tertiary sediments, MIS, Marwar Supergroup, low-density layers (LDLs and the middle–lower crustal layers, with a distinct change in configuration from the southwest to northeast. The Moho dips from SW to NE, the MIS in the SW gives way to the thick pile of the Marwar Supergroup to the NE. The evolution of MIS has been suggested to have occurred as a consequence of delamination of the upper mantle. LDLs are incorporated in Gadra–Fatehpur model. In the SW, LDL (2550 kg/m3 lies below the MIS in the NE, another LDL (2604 kg/m3 is depicted below the mid-crustal layer.

  10. Knowledge that Acts: Evaluating the Outcomes of a Knowledge Brokering Intervention in Western Australia's Ningaloo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kelly; Boschetti, Fabio; Fulton, Elizabeth; Horwitz, Pierre; Jones, Tod; Scherrer, Pascal; Syme, Geoff

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge exchange involves a suite of strategies used to bridge the divides between research, policy and practice. The literature is increasingly focused on the notion that knowledge generated by research is more useful when there is significant interaction and knowledge sharing between researchers and research recipients (i.e., stakeholders). This is exemplified by increasing calls for the use of knowledge brokers to facilitate interaction and flow of information between scientists and stakeholder groups, and the integration of scientific and local knowledge. However, most of the environmental management literature focuses on explicit forms of knowledge, leaving unmeasured the tacit relational and reflective forms of knowledge that lead people to change their behaviour. In addition, despite the high transaction costs of knowledge brokering and related stakeholder engagement, there is little research on its effectiveness. We apply Park's Manag Learn 30(2), 141-157 (1999); Knowledge and Participatory Research, London: SAGE Publications (2006) tri-partite knowledge typology as a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of knowledge brokering in the context of a large multi-agency research programme in Australia's Ningaloo coastal region, and for testing the assumption that higher levels of interaction between scientists and stakeholders lead to improved knowledge exchange. While the knowledge brokering intervention substantively increased relational networks between scientists and stakeholders, it did not generate anticipated increases in stakeholder knowledge or research application, indicating that more prolonged stakeholder engagement was required, and/or that there was a flaw in the assumptions underpinning our conceptual framework.

  11. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, George [Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Sub Centre, Kottayam South P.O, Kottayam-686 039, Kerala (India); James, E.J. [Water Institute and Dean (Research), Karunya University, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987) in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow) which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010). The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62% when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  12. Optimizing occupancy surveys by maximizing detection probability: application to amphibian monitoring in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitot, Maud; Manceau, Nicolas; Geniez, Philippe; Besnard, Aurélien

    2014-09-01

    Setting up effective conservation strategies requires the precise determination of the targeted species' distribution area and, if possible, its local abundance. However, detection issues make these objectives complex for most vertebrates. The detection probability is usually probability of amphibians sharply differed between species, the survey method used and the date of the survey. These three covariates also interacted. Thus, a minimum of three visits spread over the breeding season, using a combination of all three survey methods, is needed to reach a 95% detection level for all species in the Mediterranean region. Synthesis and applications: detection nondetection surveys combined to site occupancy modeling approach are powerful methods that can be used to estimate the detection probability and to determine the prospecting effort necessary to assert that a species is absent from a site.

  13. Barriers to Regionalized Surgical Care: Public Perspective Survey and Geospatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symer, Matthew M; Abelson, Jonathan S; Yeo, Heather L

    2017-10-23

    To describe public willingness to participate in regionalized surgical care for cancer. Improved outcomes at high-volume centers following complex surgery have driven a push to regionalize surgical care. Patient attitudes toward regionalization are not well described. As part of the Cornell National Social Survey, a cross-sectional telephone survey was performed. Participants were asked about their willingness to seek regionalized care in a hypothetical scenario requiring surgery. Their responses were compared with demographic characteristics. A geospatial analysis of hospital proximity was performed, as well as a qualitative analysis of barriers to regionalization. Cooperation rate was 48.1% with 1000 total respondents. They were an average of 50 years old (range 18 to 100 years) and 48.9% female. About 49.6% were unwilling to travel 5 hours or more to seek regionalized care for improved survival. Age >70 years [odds ratio (OR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.19-0.60] and perceived distance to a center >30 minutes (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.86) were associated with decreased willingness to seek regionalized care, while high income (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.39-3.16) was associated with increased willingness. Proximity to a major center was not associated with willingness to travel (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.67-1.22). Major perceived barriers to regionalization were transportation, life disruption, social support, socioeconomic resources, poor health, and remoteness. Americans are divided on whether the potential for improved survival with regionalization is worth the additional travel effort. Older age and lower income are associated with reduced willingness to seek regionalized care. Multiple barriers to regionalization exist, including a lack of knowledge of the location major centers.

  14. Review of surveys contributing to groundfish assessments with recommendations for an ecosystem survey program in the Maritimes Region.

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claytor, R; Clark, D; McIntyre, T; Stone, H; Cook, A; Harris, L; Simon, J; Emery, P; Hurley, P

    2014-01-01

    ...) and Summer RV Survey (4VWX5Yb)) and three collaborative surveys with the fishing industry (4Vn Sentinel Longline Survey, 4VsW Sentinel Longline Survey and the Individual Transferable Quota (ITQ...

  15. Structure of the Western Gulf of Mexico Salt Canopy Surface Imaged by Regional 2D Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, W. W.; Robla, V.; Emmet, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology of the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) shifts going from the smoother offshore Texas (TX) margin to the rugose central Louisiana (LA) offshore. This change is considered a reflection of the structure of mobile Jurassic salt residing within the margin sediment column. To test this hypothesis, the structure of the top of salt across the TX and western LA continental slopes has been imaged and compared to the bathymetry using a regional grid of 2D industry multichannel seismic data. The 2D data, provided by TGS, were analyzed using IHS Kingdom software. Prior studies, regional well data, and satellite gravity data were examined to support and constrain interpretations. Seafloor (SF) and top-of-salt (TOS) time picks from seismic profiles were gridded to make regional time-structure maps of these surfaces. Comparison of SF and TOS contours demonstrates the expected correlation. A closer inspection reveals that the preponderance of SF is coincident with the underlying highs and lows of the TOS and that the study area is characterized by a transition in salt morphology that corresponds to bathymetric expression. The western slope is dominated by large, shallow, circular, isolated salt bodies and the overlying seafloor is smooth with exception of large, circular high relief above nearly all of the interpreted salt structures. The TOS texture gradually changes going eastward where individual salt bodies increase in number and coalesce into large, shallow canopies of increasing rugosity. Again, the outline of the canopies, and many of the crests of the constitute salt bodies, are observable on the SF. Elongate salt structures dominate the north central and northeast study area, while a relatively continuous, highly rugged canopy spans the southern and outer margin of the slope. While some of the northern-most elongate bodies are less correlated with the SF, most are and the undulating relief of the canopy clearly translates to SF

  16. Spatial multi-criteria decision analysis for modelling suitable habitats of Ornithodoros soft ticks in the Western Palearctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, L; Ducheyne, E; Filatov, S; Gerilovych, A; McVey, D S; Sindryakova, I; Morgunov, S; Pérez de León, A A; Kolbasov, D; De Clercq, E M

    2018-01-15

    Ticks are economically and medically important ectoparasites due to the injuries inflicted through their bite, and their ability to transmit pathogens to humans, livestock, and wildlife. Whereas hard ticks have been intensively studied, little is known about soft ticks, even though they can also transmit pathogens, including African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) affecting domestic and wild suids or Borrelia bacteria causing tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in humans. We thus developed a regional model to identify suitable spatial areas for a community of nine Ornithodoros tick species (O. erraticus, O. sonrai, O. alactagalis, O. nereensis, O. tholozani, O. papillipes, O. tartakovskyi, O. asperus, O. verrucosus), which may be of medical and veterinary importance in the Western Palearctic region. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis was used due to the relative scarcity of high-quality occurrence data. After an in-depth literature review on the ecological requirements of the selected tick community, five climate-related factors appeared critical for feeding activity and tick development: (i) a spring temperature exceeding 10°C to induce the end of winter soft tick quiescent period, (ii) a three-months summer temperature above 20°C to allow tick physiological activities, (iii) annual precipitation ranging from 60mm to 750mm and, in very arid areas, (iv) dry seasons interrupted by small rain showers to maintain minimum moisture inside their habitat along the year or (v) residual water provided by perennial rivers near habitats. We deliberately chose not to include biological factors such as host availability or vegetation patterns. A sensitivity analysis was done by performing multiple runs of the model altering the environmental variables, their suitability function, and their attributed weights. To validate the models, we used 355 occurrence data points, complemented by random points within sampled ecoregions. All models indicated suitable areas in the Mediterranean Basin

  17. Geodynamics of the western part of the Mongolia Okhotsk collisional belt, Trans-Baikal region (Russia) and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, Yu. A.

    1999-05-01

    After the western edge of the Mongolian microcontinent joined the Siberian continent in the region of Central Mongolia in the earliest Permian, these two continental blocks remained turned at an angle of about 120° with respect to each other and separated (on greater extent of their present-day boundary) by an enormous gulf of the Paleopacific called the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean. Closure of this ocean at the Early/Middle Jurassic boundary led to the complete collision of Siberia and Mongolia, which by then had already become part of the Mongolia-North China continent. This main collisional episode, which lasted through the Middle and Late Jurassic, involved thrusting, folding and magmatism and produced the Mongolia-Okhotsk belt. The Onon island-arc, which was located in the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean, was squeezed between the two major continents. Inasmuch as the third element (the island arc) was involved in the collision it is reasonable to distinguish two branches of the Mongolia-Okhotsk suture. These branches control the spatial distribution of gold mineralization in the Trans-Baikal region. On the southeastern periphery of Siberia the crust thickened considerably after the collision and a plateau-like uplift formed. In the Early Cretaceous, when compression ceased, the collisional uplift collapsed and the thrusts were transformed into low-angle normal faults, the motions on which were responsible for the formation of rift basins and exhumation of metamorphic core complexes.

  18. Flood Hazard Assessment along the Western Regions of Saudi Arabia using GIS-based Morphometry and Remote Sensing Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Qianwen

    2014-12-01

    Flash flooding, as a result of excessive rainfall in a short period, is considered as one of the worst environmental hazards in arid regions. Areas located in the western provinces of Saudi Arabia have experienced catastrophic floods. Geomorphologic evaluation of hydrographic basins provides necessary information to define basins with flood hazard potential in arid regions, especially where long-term field observations are scarce and limited. Six large basins (from North to South: Yanbu, Rabigh, Khulais, El-Qunfza, Baish and Jizan) were selected for this study because they have large surface areas and they encompass high capacity dams at their downstream areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques were applied to conduct detailed morphometric analysis of these basins. The six basins were further divided into 203 sub-basins based on their drainage density. The morphometric parameters of the six basins and their associated 203 sub-basins were calculated to estimate the degree of flood hazard by combining normalized values of these parameters. Thus, potential flood hazard maps were produced from the estimated hazard degree. Furthermore, peak runoff discharge of the six basins and sub-basins were estimated using the Snyder Unit Hydrograph and three empirical models (Nouh’s model, Farquharson’s model and Al-Subai’s model) developed for Saudi Arabia. Additionally, recommendations for flood mitigation plans and water management schemes along these basins were further discussed.

  19. Long-Term Arctic Peatland Dynamics, Vegetation and Climate History of the Pur-Taz Region, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Andreev, Andrei; Bardeen, William; Mistretta, Francesca

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of peat composition, LOI, pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, and AMS ages are used to reconstruct the peatland, vegetation and climatic dynamics in the Pur-Taz region of western Siberia over 5000 years (9300 - 4500 BP). Section stratigraphy shows many changes from shallow lake sediment to different combinations of forested or open sedge, moss, and Equisetum fen and peatland environments. Macrofossil and pollen data indicate that Larix sibirica and Betula pubescens trees were first to arrive, followed by Picea obovata. The dominance of Picea macrofossils 6000-5000 BP in the Pur-Taz peatland along with regional Picea pollen maxima indicate warmer conditions and movement of the spruce treeline northward at this time. The decline of pollen and macrofossils from all of these tree species in uppermost peats suggests a change in the environment less favorable for their growth, perhaps cooler temperatures and/or less moisture. Of major significance is the evidence for old ages of the uppermost peats in this area of Siberia, suggesting a real lack of peat accumulation in recent millennia or recent oxidation of uppermost peat.

  20. Seasonal fuel consumption, stoves, and end-uses in rural households of the far-western development region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Upadhyay, Basudev; Maharjan, Shovana; Jagoe, Kirstie; Weyant, Cheryl L.; Thompson, Ryan; Uprety, Sital; Johnson, Michael A.; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how fuels and stoves are used to meet a diversity of household needs is an important step in addressing the factors leading to continued reliance on polluting devices, and thereby improving household energy programs. In Nepal and many other countries dependent on solid fuel, efforts to mitigate the impacts of residential solid fuel use have emphasized cooking while focusing less on other solid fuel dependent end-uses. We employed a four-season fuel assessment in a cohort of 110 households residing in two elevation regions of the Far-Western Development Region (Province 7) of Nepal. Household interviews and direct fuel weights were used to assess seasonality in fuel consumption and its association with stoves that met cooking and non-cooking needs. Per-capita fuel consumption in winter was twice that of other measured seasons, on average. This winter increase was attributed to greater prevalence of use and fuel consumption by supplemental stoves, not the main cooking stove. End-use profiles showed that fuel was used in supplemental stoves to meet the majority of non-meal needs in the home, notably water heating and preparation of animal food. This emphasis on fuels, stoves, and the satisfaction of energy needs—rather than just stoves or fuels—leads to a better understanding of the factors leading to device and fuel choice within households.

  1. Using temporarily coherent point interferometric synthetic aperture radar for land subsidence monitoring in a mining region of western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongdong; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Zhongbo; Du, Sen

    2017-04-01

    Yuyang mine is located in the semiarid western region of China where, due to serious land subsidence caused by underground coal exploitation, the local ecological environment has become more fragile. An advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique, temporarily coherent point InSAR, is applied to measure surface movements caused by different mining conditions. Fifteen high-resolution TerraSAR-X images acquired between October 2, 2012, and March 27, 2013, were processed to generate time-series data for ground deformation. The results show that the maximum accumulated values of subsidence and velocity were 86 mm and 162 mm/year, respectively; these measurements were taken above the fully mechanized longwall caving faces. Based on the dynamic land subsidence caused by the exploitation of one working face, the land subsidence range was deduced to have increased 38 m in the mining direction with 11 days' coal extraction. Although some mining faces were ceased in 2009, they could also have contributed to a small residual deformation of overlying strata. Surface subsidence of the backfill mining region was quite small, the maximum only 21 mm, so backfill exploitation is an effective method for reducing the land subsidence while coal is mined.

  2. Imaging of the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai Trough subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-03-01

    We performed 3D seismic tomography of the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai subduction zone, to investigate the relationship of the subducted part of Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) to coseismic rupture propagation, seismicity, and shallow very low frequency earthquakes. Combining active-source and passive-source data recorded both onshore and offshore, we imaged the deep slab from near the trough axis to the coastal area. Our results show the subducted KPR as a low-velocity belt oriented NW-SE extending down the plate boundary to around 30 km depth. At this depth, we suggest that the subducted KPR detaches from the slab and becomes underplated on the overriding continental plate. As the coseismic slip areas of past large earthquakes do not extend into the subducted KPR, we suggest that it may inhibit rupture propagation. The interior of the subducted KPR shows active intraslab seismicity with a wide depth distribution. Shallow very low frequency earthquakes are continuously active above the location of the subducted KPR, whereas they are intermittent to the northeast of the subducted KPR. Thus, the subducted KPR appears to be an important factor in coseismic rupture propagation and seismic phenomena in this region.

  3. Anomalous gold contents in brown coals and peat in the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Maslov, S.G.; Arhipov, V.S.; Belyaeva, A.M. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-02

    One hundred twenty-two samples of Jurassic and Paleogene brown coals and 1254 peat samples from the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform were analyzed for gold by the neutron-activation method. Mean content of Au in Jurassic coals is 30+/-8 ppb, in Paleogene coals is 10.6+/-4.8 ppb, and in peat is 6+/-1.4 ppb. Concentrations of gold as high as 4.4 ppm were found in coal ash and 0.48 ppm in the peat ash. Coal beds with anomalous gold contents were found at Western-Siberian platform for the first time. Negative correlation between gold and ash yield in coals and peat and highest gold concentrations were found in low-ash and ultra-low-ash coals and peat. Primarily this is due to gold's association with organic matter. For the investigation of mode of occurrence of Au in peat the bitumen, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances, humic acids, cellulose and lignin were extracted from it. It was determined that in peat about 95% of gold is combined with organic matter. Forty to sixty percent of Au is contained in humic acids and the same content is in lignin. Bitumens, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances contain no more than 1% of general gold quantity in peat. The conditions of accumulation of high gold concentrations were considered. The authors suggest that Au accumulation in peat and brown coals and the connection between anomalous gold concentrations and organic matter in low-ash coals and peat can explain a biogenic-sorption mechanism of Au accumulation. The sources of formation of Au high concentration were various Au-Sb, Au-Ag Au-As-Sb deposits that are abundant in the Southern and South-Eastern peripheries of the coal basin. (author)

  4. Proximity to mosquito breeding habitat and Ross River virus risk in the Peel region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2015-02-01

    It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately

  5. Seismic reflection survey at Llancanelo region (Mendoza, Argentina) and preliminary interpretation of Neogene stratigraphic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, A.; Onnis, L.; de la Vega, M.; Tassone, A.; Violante, R. A.; Lippai, H.; López, E.; Rovere, E. I.

    2015-07-01

    A shallow multichannel seismic survey reaching depths of 700/800 m was performed for the first time in the Llancanelo Lake region (Southern Mendoza Province, Argentina), in order to depict the major Neogene sedimentary-volcanic sequences that form the final infilling of the tectonic-volcanic basin where the lake is located. The seismic survey advances on the results of previous geoelectric and electromagnetic surveys carried out at early stages of the research that reached the uppermost 80-100 m of the sequences (Quaternary), and therefore they go deeper in the subsoil. All the surveys were supported by surface and subsoil geological observations. After explaining the details of the performed seismic methodology, the obtained results are discussed, which indicate the presence of three major sedimentary units with increasing volcanic (basaltic layers) intercalations with depth, that accommodate to the geometry of the depocenter. The entire sequence encompasses most of the Neogene. This research sets the methodological basis for future, more detailed shallow seismic surveys in the region.

  6. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, T; Azhari, HA; Voon, EO; Cheung, KY; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, NM; Bold, L; Win, UM; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, JCL; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Methods: Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world’s population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Results and discussion: Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. Conclusion: As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:22970066

  7. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, T; Azhari, Ha; Voon, Eo; Cheung, Ky; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, Nm; Bold, L; Win, Um; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, Jcl; Kumara, A; Lee, Cc; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, Xc; Ng, Kh

    2012-04-01

    Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world's population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region.

  8. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  9. Marine geoscientific surveys in ports and nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Naidu, P.D.; Almeida, F.

    Bathymetric, side scan sonar and shallow seismic surveys were carried out in ports and adjacent nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea off the central west coast of India. It is observed that in the regions of rivers confluencing the sea...

  10. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Model Broadband Regional Waveforms for Crustal Structure in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Joydeep; Sheehan, Anne F.; Tiampo, Kristy; Rundle, John

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we analyze regional seismograms to obtain the crustal structure in the eastern Great Basin and western Colorado plateau. Adopting a for- ward-modeling approach, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA) based parameter search technique to constrain the one-dimensional crustal structure in these regions. The data are broadband three-component seismograms recorded at the 1994-95 IRIS PASSCAL Colorado Plateau to Great Basin experiment (CPGB) stations and supplemented by data from U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) stations in Utah and Nevada. We use the southwestern Wyoming mine collapse event (M(sub b) = 5.2) that occurred on 3 February 1995 as the seismic source. We model the regional seismograms using a four-layer crustal model with constant layer parameters. Timing of teleseismic receiver functions at CPGB stations are added as an additional constraint in the modeling. GA allows us to efficiently search the model space. A carefully chosen fitness function and a windowing scheme are added to the algorithm to prevent search stagnation. The technique is tested with synthetic data, both with and without random Gaussian noise added to it. Several separate model searches are carried out to estimate the variability of the model parameters. The average Colorado plateau crustal structure is characterized by a 40-km-thick crust with velocity increases at depths of about 10 and 25 km and a fast lower crust while the Great Basin has approximately 35- km-thick crust and a 2.9-km-thick sedimentary layer.

  11. Vertical transmission of HIV-1 in the western region of the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Maria Alves Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vertical HIV-1 transmission in the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The study analyzed the medical records of HIV-1-infected mothers and infant pairs living in the municipalities of São Paulo Regional Health Departments DRS II (Araçatuba and DRS XI (Presidente Prudente. From March 2001 to March 2006, blood samples were collected and referred to the Molecular Biology Unit of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (ALI, Presidente Prudente. HIV-1-RNA viral load was determined by bDNA assay. RESULTS: The number of births (109/217, 50.2% and vertical HIV-1 transmissions (6/109, 5.5% that occurred in DRS II was similar to births (108/217, 49.8% and vertical transmissions (7/108, 6.5% in DRS XI (p > 0.05. Although 80% (4/5 of the infected children were male in DRS II, while in DRS XI, 75% (6/8 were female, no differences between sex regarding infected and noninfected children in the regions of Araçatuba and Presidente Prudente were verified. The overall vertical HIV-1 transmission rate was 6%. No consistent reduction in the prevalence of vertical HIV-1 transmission occurred over the years. About 20% of mothers did not know the HIV-1 status of their newborns eight months after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, MTCT prevalence rates were about 70% higher than those previously determined in the State of São Paulo, with noreduction throughout the period.Furthermore, a significant number of mothers did not know the HIV-status of their newborns eight months after delivery.

  12. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nagata, Tetsuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasushi [Center of Information and Communication Technology, Hitotsubashi University, 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-8601 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro, E-mail: jungmi.kwon@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  13. A SCUBA imaging survey of ultracompact HII regions: The environments of massive star formation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, M. A.; Hatchell, J.; Walsh, A. J.; Macdonald, G. H.; Millar, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a SCUBA submillimetre (450 & 850 micron) survey of the environment of 105 IRAS point sources, selected from the Wood & Churchwell (1989a) and Kurtz, Churchwell & Wood (1994) radio ultracompact (UC) HII region surveys. We detected a total of 155 sub-mm clumps associated with the IRAS point sources and identified three distinct types of object: ultracompact cm-wave sources that are not associated with any sub-mm emission (sub-mm quiet objects), sub-mm clumps that are associated with ...

  14. Students' perceptions of their learning experiences: A repeat regional survey of healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshire, Claire; Barrett, Neil; Langan, Mark; Harris, Edwin; Wibberley, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Student experience is an international concern and recent research has focused on initiatives to improve students' learning experiences and ultimately reduce attrition levels. To determine similarities and differences between students' perceptions of their learning experiences between 2011 and 2015 in relation to campus-based learning, placement-based learning and personal circumstances. A repeat online survey in 2011 and 2015; using a questionnaire developed from thematic analysis of narrative interviews with a subsample of the target population. Nine universities in the North West of England. A total of 1080 students completed the survey in 2011 and 1983 students in 2015 from a target population of all students studying on commissioned pre-registration healthcare education programmes. An online survey was made available to all undergraduate students studying on Health Education funded programmes within the region and survey respondents were invited to give demographic information and rate their agreement to statements on four-point Likert-type responses. Responses to a repeat survey of healthcare studying in the North West of England in 2015 were strikingly similar overall to those of an original 2011 survey. Although the students were positive overall about their experiences, a number were dissatisfied with some aspects of their experiences - particularly in relation to initial support on campus and whilst studying on placement. Four years on from the original survey, despite a considerable investment in improving students' experiences across the region, there appears to be little change in students' perceptions of their learning experiences CONCLUSION: In the short-term monitoring of student experience needs to be continued; and links to attrition (potential or actual) noted and acted upon. However, given that attrition from these courses has been a long-term problem and the complexity of its resolution a recurrent finding in the literature; new ways of framing

  15. Questionnaire-based survey on the distribution and incidence of canine babesiosis in countries of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halos Lénaïg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of canine babesiosis may vary considerably from one country to another depending on the distribution of the causative parasite species and their specific vectors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in European veterinary clinics and propose an updated map of the disease distribution in Western Europe. Questionnaires were sent to companion animal veterinary clinics in Spain, France, Benelux, Germany and Austria. The annual number of babesiosis cases in 2010, the number of practitioners in the clinic and the location of the clinic were recorded. The total numbers of dogs and practitioners in each country were used for definition of the reference populations and the annual incidence of canine babesiosis was calculated by dividing the total number of reported babesiosis cases by the total number of dogs in the veterinary practices involved in the study. Data were georeferenced for distribution map construction. The overall annual incidence of clinical babesiosis amongst the investigated dog population was 0.7%, with significant variations amongst countries and regions. Three epidemiological situations were described: (i Spain, with co-existence of several species of piroplasms and patchy distribution of babesiosis, (ii France, with overall presence of babesiosis due to Babesia canis and local variations and (iii Benelux, Germany and Austria, with overall low prevalence of the disease associated with localised description related either to imported cases or to small autochthonous foci of B. canis infection.

  16. Influence of organizational context on nursing home staff burnout: A cross-sectional survey of care aides in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Stephanie A; Gruneir, Andrea; Hoben, Matthias; Squires, Janet E; Cummings, Greta G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2017-06-01

    Our study examined care aide characteristics, organizational context, and frequency of dementia-related resident responsive behaviours associated with burnout. Burnout is the experience of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Care aide burnout has implications for turnover, staff health, and quality of care. We used surveys collected from 1194 care aides from 30 urban nursing homes in three Western Canadian provinces. We used a mixed-effects regression analysis to assess care aide characteristics, dementia-related responsive behaviours, unit and facility characteristics, and organizational context predictors of care aide burnout. We measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Short Form. We found that care aides were at high risk for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, but report high professional efficacy. Statistically significant predictors of emotional exhaustion included English as a second language, medium facility size, organizational slack-staff, organizational slack-space, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of cynicism were care aide age, English as a second language, unit culture, evaluation (feedback of data), formal interactions, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of professional efficacy were unit culture and structural resources. Greater care aide job satisfaction was significantly associated with increased professional efficacy. This study suggests that individual care aide and organization features are both predictive of care aide burnout. Unlike care aide or structural characteristics of the facility elements of the organizational context are potentially modifiable, and therefore amenable to intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Audio-magnetotelluric surveys to constrain the origin of a network of narrow synclines in Eocene limestone, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabees, Elhamy A.; Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Younis, Abdellatif

    2017-12-01

    Recent work with high resolution satellite imagery has revealed a network of narrow synclines developed during the Oligocene or Miocene over tens of thousands of square kilometers in Eocene limestone of the Thebes Group in the Western Desert of Egypt. The synclines are non-tectonic, and their scale and geometry strongly resemble sag synclines in Qatar that were produced by dissolution of subsurface evaporites and resulting sag of overlying layers. Evaporite dissolution cannot explain the Egypt synclines, because subsurface evaporites of any significance have never been reported in this part of Egypt. In this study, we use audio-magnetotelluric surveys to illuminate the subsurface under the synclines in order to constrain possible models for their formation. We suspected karst dissolution at depth, and, given a modern water table depth of over 400 m, we expected that dry fracture networks and void spaces under the synclines might result in higher electrical resistivities than surrounding coherent limestone. We also anticipated a significant change from high to low resistivity at the contact between the Thebes Group and the underlying Esna Shale at depths of 400 m or more. Instead, we found localized low resistivity zones extending from about 50-100 m below the surface to depths of more than 400 m that are strongly correlated with synclines. We suggest that these localized low resistivity zones are filled with artesian groundwater that has insufficient hydraulic head to rise to the modern topographic surface and that is localized in subsurface voids and collapse breccias produced by dissolution. Sag of overlying limestone layers is a reasonable model for syncline formation but, given the Oligocene/Miocene age of the synclines, dissolution and sag would be unrelated to young groundwater processes.

  18. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with brucellosis in dogs in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Ogugua, Akwoba Joseph; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Joshua, Tunde Olu; Banuso, Morenikeji Folusho; Adedoyin, Folashade Julianah; Adesokan, Hezekiah Kehinde; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Abiola, John Olusoji; Otuh, Patricia Ihuaku; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Dale, Emma-Jane; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, there is limited information on brucellosis particularly in dogs, despite its public health implications. We undertook a sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in dogs to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors for its occurrence in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen dogs in south-western Nigeria for antibodies to Brucella sp using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and Rose Bengal test (RBT), with positive samples confirmed respectively by serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data were analyzed with STATA-12. From the 739 dog sera tested, 81 (10.96%) were positive by RSA and 94 (12.72%) by RBT; these were corroborated with SAT (4/81; 4.94%) and cELISA (1/94; 1.06%), respectively. Logistic regression identified location (OR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.02-0.09), breed (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.34-2.19), age (OR=0.10; 95% CI: 0.04-0.30) and management system (OR=8.51; 95% CI: 1.07-68.05) as risk factors for Brucella infection by RSA. However, location (OR=10.83; 95% CI: 5.48-21.39) and history of infertility (OR=2.62; 95% CI: 1.41-4.84) were identified as risk factors using RBT. Given the 10.96% to 12.72% seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded in this study, we advocate control of the disease in dogs, and public health education for those at risk of infection. Again, further studies are required to elucidate the role of dogs in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria considering the conducive human-animal interface and ecological factors responsible for the transmission of the disease.

  19. A mass screening survey of cystic echinococcosis by ultrasonography, Western blotting, and ELISA among university students in Manisa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimcioğlu, Ali Ahmet; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Korkmaz, Metin; Özkol, Mine; Düzgün, Fatih; Östan, Ipek; Pabuşcu, Yüksel; Dinç, Gönül; Ok, Ulgen Zeki

    2013-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in a wide geographic area, including Turkey. In the present project, a total of 4275 students from Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were screened by ultrasonography (US) and specific antibodies for CE were examined by Western blotting (WB) and ELISA in finger prick blood samples of 2034 of 4275 volunteered students. We aimed to report the apparent prevalence of CE based on different diagnostic procedures and to compare WB and ELISA with US in diagnosis of CE in a mass screening setting. Six new cases were diagnosed as CE by US during the survey. In addition to these cases, three students were also detected to have been previously operated and pathologically confirmed for hepatic CE. US revealed parenchymal changes in these cases in concordance with their operation history; so, the prevalence of CE by US was calculated as 0.21% (9/4275) (95%CI, 0.11-0.39%) among university students in Manisa. Bands were detected at 8, 28, 32, 38, 42, 47, 70 and 90kDa by WB and the cases were considered to be positive for CE when at least three of the bands were seen together. Apparent prevalence of CE by ELISA and WB were found to be 2.11% (43/2034) (95%CI, 1.57-2.83%) and 0.25% (5/2034) (95%CI, 0.10-0.57%), respectively. Of the six US positive cases, WB was positive in only one case with two cysts in the liver. All of four cases with liver involvement were positive by ELISA. The high prevalence of CE among university students in Manisa indicated that CE is a major health problem in this area of Turkey. Our results supported that WB is rather difficult and not feasible as a mass screening test and may not be effective for confirmation especially in asymptomatic cases. As a result, we recommend US to be used initially in mass screening surveys for CE followed by confirmation by ELISA for suspected cases. Further examination primarily by chest X-ray followed by computed tomography and/or magnetic

  20. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  1. National Survey of Volunteer Pharmacy Preceptors: effects of region, practice setting, and population density on responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabal, Maryann Z; Jones, Rhonda M; Walters, Ryan W; Nemire, Ruth E; Soltis, Denise A; Kahaleh, Abby A; Hritcko, Philip M; Boyle, Cynthia J; Assemi, Mitra; Turner, Paul D

    2010-06-01

    To survey volunteer pharmacy preceptors regarding experiential education and determine whether differences in responses relate to such factors as geographic region, practice setting, and population density. An online survey was sent to 4396 volunteer experiential preceptors. The survey consisted of 41 questions asking the preceptor to comment on the experiential education environment. Experiential education administrators from 9 schools of pharmacy administered the survey to their volunteer preceptors in all regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West) of the United States, in various pharmacy practice settings, and areas of differing population densities. A total of 1163 (26.5%) preceptors responded. Regionally, preceptors in the West disagreed more than those in the Midwest and the South that they had enough time to spend with students to provide a quality experience and also required compensation less often than their counterparts in the Northeast and South. Concerning practice settings, hospital preceptors accepted students from more schools, had greater increases in requests, turned away more students, and spent less time with the students compared to preceptors in other settings. Population density differences reflected that preceptors at urban sites took and turned away more students than those at rural sites. Preceptors from rural areas spent more time with students and felt they were spending enough time with their students to provide quality experiences when compared to other preceptors. The results of this national volunteer preceptor survey may assist pharmacy school leaders in understanding how location, practice type, and population density affect experiential education, preceptor time-quality issues, and site compensation so they can take necessary actions to improve quality of student practice experiences.

  2. Prevalence of Obesity in Hail Region, KSA: In a Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. We, therefore, aimed to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Methodology. Data were collected during cross-sectional survey which included 5000 Saudi selected from 30 primary health care centers (PHCs in Hail Region. Results. The overall prevalence of obesity in Hail was 63.6%. Moreover, the prevalence of males was 56.2% and the prevalence of females was 71%. Conclusion. Obesity is prevalent in the Hail Region which necessitates urgent interventions including health education.

  3. Expanding the North American Breeding Bird Survey analysis to include additional species and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) contains data for >700 bird species, but analyses often focus on a core group of ∼420 species. We analyzed data for 122 species of North American birds for which data exist in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) database but are not routinely analyzed on the BBS Summary and Analysis Website. Many of these species occur in the northern part of the continent, on routes that fall outside the core survey area presently analyzed in the United States and southern Canada. Other species not historically analyzed occur in the core survey area with very limited data but have large portions of their ranges in Mexico and south. A third group of species not historically analyzed included species thought to be poorly surveyed by the BBS, such as rare, coastal, or nocturnal species. For 56 species found primarily in regions north of the core survey area, we expanded the scope of the analysis, using data from 1993 to 2014 during which ≥3 survey routes had been sampled in 6 northern strata (Bird Conservation regions in Alaska, Yukon, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and fitting log-linear hierarchical models for an augmented BBS survey area that included both the new northern strata and the core survey area. We also applied this model to 168 species historically analyzed in the BBS that had data from these additional northern strata. For both groups of species we calculated survey-wide trends for the both core and augmented survey areas from 1993 to 2014; for species that did not occur in the newly defined strata, we computed trends from 1966 to 2014. We evaluated trend estimates in terms of established credibility criteria for BBS results, screening for imprecise trends, small samples, and low relative abundance. Inclusion of data from the northern strata permitted estimation of trend for 56 species not historically analyzed, but only 4 of these were reasonably monitored and an additional 13 were questionably monitored; 39

  4. Application of regional geochemical surveys to environmental studies; a case study from the Namaqualand copper district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfse, A. D.; Holdsworth, R.

    1994-04-01

    Data from the Geological Survey of South Africa's regional geochemical programme is discussed with particular reference to environmental and agricultural aspects. Stream sediments from the Okiep copper district, Namaqualand in South Africa show highly elevated copper values as the result of a history of mining activity in the area. The potential for contamination of forage and drinking water was investigated and no obvious clinical evidence of copper excesses was observed in the ecosystem.

  5. Prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China [2012-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ping; Tian, Yong-Quan; Hai, Yun-Ting; Zheng, Zhi-Nan; Cao, Qing-Ling

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of nosocomial infections, the distribution of nosocomial infection sites, the use of antibiotic and the situation of detected nosocomial infection pathogens in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China from 2012 to 2014, to grasp the current conditions of regional nosocomial infections in timely, for the development of infection prevention and control measures to provide a basis for effective hospital. A survey of the prevalence of nosocomial infections was conducted in target hospitals using the combination of a bedside survey and medical record review. In total, 101,907 inpatients were surveyed from 2012 to 2014. There were 1,997 cases of nosocomial infections, accounting for an average prevalence of 1.96%. The infection site was mainly the lower respiratory tract. Higher prevalence of nosocomial infections occurred in the comprehensive intensive care unit (ICU), Neurosurgery Department, and Hematology Department. The average rate of antibiotic use was 33.72%, and the average submission rate for bacterial cultures for patients who received therapeutic treatment with antibiotics was 28.26%. The most common pathogens associated with nosocomial infections were Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria, and frequently detected bacterial pathogens included Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus. The survey of the prevalence of nosocomial infections helped to identify problems in the control process of nosocomial infections and to develop targeted measures for the prevention and control of these infections accordingly.

  6. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  7. Regional and Local Trends in helium isotopes, basin and rangeprovince, western North America: Evidence for deep permeablepathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-07-15

    Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as {approx}6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent with recent and current volcanic activity. Moving away from these areas, helium isotope ratios decrease rapidly to ''background'' values of around 0.6 Ra, and then gradually decrease toward the east to low values of {approx}0.1 Ra at the eastern margin of the Basin and Range. Superimposed on this general regional trend are isolated features with elevated helium isotope ratios (0.8-2.1 Ra) compared to the local background. Spring geochemistry and local geology indicate that these ''He-spikes'' are not related to current or recent magmatic activity, suggesting that the spikes may reflect either localized zones deep mantle melting or deep permeable pathways (faults) with high vertical fluid flowrates. A detailed study of one of the He-spikes (Dixie Valley and the Stillwater Range Front Fault system), indicates that features with high 3He/4He ratios are confined to the range front normal faults characteristic of the extensional regime in the Basin and Range, suggesting that these faults are deep permeable pathways. However, not all range front fault systems transmit fluids with a mantle signature, implying that not all have deep permeable pathways.

  8. Quantifying the Driving Forces of Informal Urbanization in the Western Part of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Osman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the driving forces (DFs of informal urbanization (IU in the greater Cairo metropolitan region (GCMR using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The IU patterns in the GCMR have been extremely influenced by seven DFs: geographical characteristics, availability of life facilities, economic incentives, land demand and supply, population increase, administrative function, and development plans. This research found that these forces vary significantly in how they influence urban growth in the three study sectors, namely, the middle, north, and south areas in the western part of the GCMR. The forces with the highest influence were economic incentives in the middle sector, population increase in the north sector, and the administrative function in the south sector. Due to the lower availability of buildable land in the middle sector, the land demand and supply force had a lesser influence in this sector compared to in the north and south sectors. The development plans force had medium influence in all sectors. The geographical characteristics force had little influence in both the middle and the north sectors, but higher influence than economic incentives, availability of life facilities, and development plans in the south sector. Because of the spatial variances in life facilities organizations in the GCMR, the life facilities availability force had little effect on IU in the south sector.

  9. Genetic relationships between skarn ore deposits and magmatic activity in the Ahar region, Western Alborz, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollai Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleocene to Oligocene tectonic processes in northwest Iran resulted in extensive I-type calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatic activity in the Ahar region. Numerous skarn deposits formed in the contact between Upper Cretaceous impure carbonate rocks and Oligocene-Miocene plutonic rocks. This study presents new field observations of skarns in the western Alborz range and is based on geochemistry of igneous rocks, mineralogy of the important skarn deposits, and electron microprobe analyses of skarn minerals. These data are used to interpret the metasomatism during sequential skarn formation and the geotectonic setting of the skarn ore deposit related igneous rocks. The skarns were classified into exoskarn, endoskarn and ore skarn. Andraditic garnet is the main skarn mineral; the pyroxene belongs to the diopside-hedenbergite series. The skarnification started with pluton emplacement and metamorphism of carbonate rocks followed by prograde metasomatism and the formation of anhydrous minerals like garnet and pyroxene. The next stage resulted in retro gradation of anhydrous minerals along with the formation of oxide minerals (magnetite and hematite followed by the formation of hydrosilicate minerals like epidote, actinolite, chlorite, quartz, sericite and sulfide mineralization. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Cu, along with volatile components such as H2S and CO2 were added to the skarn system. Skarn mineralogy and geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicate an island arc or subduction-related origin of the Fe-Cu skarn deposit.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae, Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae, Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. March. (Burseraceae, as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  11. Epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskelyemen Abdelatti Elmekki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012–2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%. Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively. Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively. Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5% were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%. Few cases (2.5% were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. Conclusion: CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed.

  12. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  13. Inversions for earthquake focal mechanisms and regional stress in the Kachchh Rift Basin, western India: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. P.; Zhao, L.; Kumar, Santsoh; Mishra, Smita

    2016-03-01

    More than a decade after the 2001 MW 7.7 Bhuj earthquake in western India, aftershocks up to MW 5.0 are still continuing around the rupture zone in the Kachchh Rift Basin. Over the years, some surrounding faults in the region have been activated, and a transverse fault generated an MW 5.1 earthquake in 2012. Most of the earthquakes occur in the lower crust at depths between 15 and 35 km. We have determined focal mechanism solutions of 47 earthquakes (MW 3.2-5.1) that were recorded by a 60-station broadband network during 2007-2014 within an area of 50 km radius of the 2001 main shock. South dipping nodal planes in most of the solutions correlate well with the active faults. The earthquakes near the epicenter of the 2001 main shock primarily show reverse-faulting mechanisms. The surrounding earthquakes in the area, however, show predominantly strike-slip mechanisms. The P axes of the earthquakes mostly oriented in north-south, and the T axes in east-west. However, the orientations of the P and T axes exhibit more complexity near the source area of the main shock. Stress field inversion of the solutions yields a dominant north-south compression, which is consistent with the ambient tectonic stress field owing to the northward movement of the Indian Plate with respect to the Eurasian Plate. The geodetic measurements are in reasonable agreement with our results.

  14. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  15. Carbonaceous particles reveal that Late Holocene dust causes the dark region in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, I.G.M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Schwikowski, M.; Zapf, A.; Fahrni, S.; Wacker, L.

    2012-01-01

    A dark region in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet is caused by outcropping ice layers that contain more dust than the surrounding brighter ice. These higher amounts of dust were deposited in the accumulation zone of the ice sheet and travelled with the ice to the ablation zone.

  16. Potential use of a regional climate model in seasonal tropical cyclone activity predictions in the western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au-Yeung, Andie Y.M.; Chan, Johnny C.L. [City University of Hong Kong, Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre, School of Energy and Environment, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    This study investigates the potential use of a regional climate model in forecasting seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity. A modified version of Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) is used to examine the ability of the model to simulate TC genesis and landfalling TC tracks for the active TC season in the western North Pacific. In the model, a TC is identified as a vortex satisfying several conditions, including local maximum relative vorticity at 850 hPa with a value {>=}450 x 10{sup -6} s{sup -1}, and the temperature at 300 hPa being 1 C higher than the average temperature within 15 latitude radius from the TC center. Tracks are traced by following these found vortices. Six-month ensemble (8 members each) simulations are performed for each year from 1982 to 2001 so that the climatology of the model can be compared to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) observed best-track dataset. The 20-year ensemble experiments show that the RegCM3 can be used to simulate vortices with a wind structure and temperature profile similar to those of real TCs. The model also reproduces tracks very similar to those observed with features like genesis in the tropics, recurvature at higher latitudes and landfall/decay. The similarity of the 500-hPa geopotential height patterns between RegCM3 and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40 Year Re-analysis (ERA-40) shows that the model can simulate the subtropical high to a large extent. The simulated climatological monthly spatial distributions as well as the interannual variability of TC occurrence are also similar to the JTWC data. These results imply the possibility of producing seasonal forecasts of tropical cyclones using real-time global climate model predictions as boundary conditions for the RegCM3. (orig.)

  17. Prospect- and Mine-Related Features from U.S. Geological Survey 7.5- and 15-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of a larger USGS project to develop an updated geospatial database of mines, mineral deposits and mineral regions in the United States. Mine and...

  18. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  19. Characterizing the W40 Cluster Region with the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ka Chun; Shuping, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    W40 is a region of thermal radio continuum emission in the Aquila Rift, and is one of only a few high-mass star forming regions within 1 kpc of the Sun. We use the Galactic Plane Survey from the UKIDDS Data Release 10 in JHK to study the stellar population in a 30' x 30' field centered on the W40 star-forming region. With imaging deeper than previous surveys (down to a depth of K=18), we identify ~1500 stars with K-band excess that are likely young stars with protostellar disks (Class II-III), more than has been found in previous surveys of this region. We use the NIR photometry of ~50,000 stars to create a high resolution 0.5' optical extinction map, which is used in conjunction with nearby control fields to assess contamination by background sources. Like in previous studies, we find an embedded cluster of reddened sources centered on the handful of late-O/early-B type stars at the center of W40. We fit their spatial distribution using a 2D gaussian profile with $\\sigma$ ~ 1' (0.37 pc at a distance of 440 pc), and a central stellar density of 510 stars/pc^2. After removing foreground stars, we identify 217 total stars within $3\\sigma$ of the cluster center, of which ~100 have K-band excess indicative of Class II-III YSOs, consistent with previous work. We discuss possible background contamination as well as the spatial distribution of young stars throughout the region.

  20. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  1. Western U.S.-Canada crossborder case study : activity 2 : task D : conduct regional and local trucking case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This case study examines trucking across the western U.S.-Canada border and how it is influenced by truck size and weight (TS&W) regulations. Western border trucking differs from eastern border trucking in terms of the types of commodities being hand...

  2. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-530, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  3. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  4. The Quality of Governance and EU Regional Policy as a key determinant in the process of the integration of the Western Balkans into the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demush Bajrami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of governance and financial assistance as key determinants for successful functioning of the process of integration within the European Union (EU. Moreover, the paper develops a comparison of the Western Balkans with current EU members and the forthcoming, on the basis of the selected indicators of governance (rule of law, democracy, corruption, political stability, and effectiveness of state with the experience of the implementation of the reforms of public administration. Various surveys show that the Western Balkans, by all quality of governance indicators, especially in the rule of law, lags behind 28 (twenty eight of the current EU countries (without taking in account the Great Britain. The low level of the functioning of rule of law, combined with inadequate and unreformed public administration is potentially the biggest obstacle in the association agreement of the Western Balkans with EU, but also as challenge in achieving sustainable social and economic development. Whereas in the case of the Western Balkan countries, there is an obvious difference between proclaiming and internal reality, which is further compounded by a difficult political and economic transition, as well as in social domain - where poverty and corruption are the most worrying. The research data obtained from independent bodies - academic and research institutions, civil society and international organizations - confirm this controversial picture of the Western Balkans. Negative attitudes still prevail in Western Balkans political elites and if given the chance to political manipulation, may behave unpredictably. All this makes it obligatory to make a comparative overview, for depicting in particular the quality of governance as sine qua non for the Western Balkans countries‘ integration in EU.

  5. Landscapes with high geotouristic value and impact from the Benguela-Sumbe region (Western Angola): inventory and geological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luís V.; Segundo, Januário; Gonçalves, Alberto; Cavita, João R.; Lapão, Luís; Bandeira, Manuel; Callapez, Pedro; Meneses, Luís; Prata, Mendonça E.

    2014-05-01

    The natural beauties and wildlife of Austral Africa are worldwide known, and their related touristic and socioeconomic activities have a strong interregional impact. Angola, one of the larger countries from this region of the Southern Hemisphere, shows a high number of natural landscapes, well testified by the recent election of "7 Natural Wonders of Angola". This contest, the first one of this kind carry out in Africa, means the priority of this country in the promotion of geotourism. Despite the large diversity of landscapes, among deserts, mountains, coastal cliffs, waterfalls, and/or caves, resulting from different geomorphological contexts and age (from Archaean to Recent), the geological knowledge of the territory remains poor, through scientific documents, great part of them published before and around the 70's of last century. Based on this concern, the first goal of this work is the inventory and the geological description of several geosites with natural relevance and touristic potential from the Meso-Cenozoic coastal region of Benguela and Sumbe Provinces (Western Angola). This area, particularly materialized by the sedimentary infill of Benguela Basin, with deposits (carbonates, siliciclastics and evaporites) mainly dated from the Cretaceous, has been recently studied and researched by our team in the domains of sedimentary geology, stratigraphy, geological mapping, resources and geoheritage. On the basinal onshore stand out hundreds of outcrops with good exposure, great part of them never studied, representing and recording a large number of sedimentary units deposited on a complex tectonic setting. Besides the geological characterization of Egito-Praia, Sassa Caves and Binga waterfalls (this one located in the eastern boundary of the basin), three of the twenty seven sites proposed for the reported Angola's natural wonders contest, we present and describe several other distinctive natural sites and coastal landscapes of this region such as the cases

  6. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  7. The North Black Sea Region (the 18th-19th Centuries: A Historiographical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This historiographical survey examines studies concerned with the exploration of the north Black Sea region in the 18th-19th centuries. Studies into the subject can be divided into three major groups: 1. Pre-revolutionary studies (Russian and foreign works published prior to 1917; 2. Soviet studies (1917-1991; 3. Modern Russian studies (1991-2014. In conclusion, the authors point up that despite the diversity of studies into the history of the Caucasus and the Caucasian War, fragmentary attention has been devoted to the history of the north Black Sea region in the 18th-19th centuries. To this day, there have been no comprehensive studies into the history of Jigets, the Sadz, and other tribes, which means that the subject of the history of the north Black Sea region is still waiting for its researcher.

  8. A prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among a rural Yoruba south-western Nigerian population: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, O O; Salako, L; Sodiq, O; Shoyinka, K; Adedapo, K; Falase, A O

    2010-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that rural sub-Saharan Africa is at an early stage of epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases (NCD). Limited information exists about the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the adult Nigerian population, especially in the rural setting. The aim of this study was to assess and describe the prevalence of several cardiometabolic risk factors in the sub-Saharan adult population of a rural Yoruba community, living in south-western Nigeria. The study was a descriptive, cross-sectional, random-sample survey. Participants were visited at home by trained nurses and community health extension workers (CHEW) who administered a questionnaire, took the relevant history, carried out clinical examinations and measurements and took samples for laboratory tests. They were supervised by primary healthcare physicians serving the community. The variables recorded comprised clinical history, CVD risk factors including blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood sugar and serum lipid levels, cigarette use, and dietary habits. The participants included 2 000 healthy adults aged 18 to 64 years who had been living in the area for more than three years. The average age was 42.1 +/- 21.6, with 43.7% (873) being males and 56.3% (1127) females; 20.8% were hypertensive with BP > or = 140/90 mmHg, 42.3% of the men and 36.8% of the women had BP > or = 130/85 mmHg; 2.5% had diabetes, 1.9% had hypertriglycerideaemia, 43.1% had low HDL-C, 3.9% had general obesity, 14.7% had abdominal obesity, 3.2% were physically inactive, and 1.7% smoked cigarettes. Overall, 12.9% of the subjects were found to have at least one CVD risk factor. Using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria, 2.1% of men and 2.7% of women in the study population had at least three of the criteria, the commonest being HDL-C or = 130/85 mmHg, then waist circumference > 88 cm in women or

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of Rinorea dentata (Violaceae) used in South-Western Nigerian ethnomedicine and detection of cyclotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attah, Alfred F; Hellinger, Roland; Sonibare, Mubo A; Moody, Jones O; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan; Gruber, Christian W

    2016-02-17

    People living in the tropical rain forest of South-Western Nigeria use Rinorea dentata (P. Beauv.) Kuntze (Violaceae) in ethno-veterinary medicine to facilitate parturition. There are no evidence-based pharmacological investigations for the uterotonic activity of this plant. (i) Collection of data about the ethnopharmacological uses of R. dentata and evaluation of its uses and applications in health care; (ii) determining potential uterotonic effects in vitro, and (iii) chemical characterization of R. dentata, which is a member of the Violaceae family known to express circular cystine-knot peptides, called cyclotides. The ethnopharmacological use of R. dentata in settlement camps within the area J4 of Omo forest has been investigated by semi-structured questionnaires and open interviews. Use index analysis has been performed by seven quantitative statistical models. Respondents' claim on the beneficial ethno-veterinary application of the plant to aid parturition has been investigated in vitro by myometrial contractility organ bath assays. The bioactive plant extract was screened by chemical derivatization and mass spectrometry-based peptidomics using reversed-phase HPLC fractionation and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Based on the survey analysis, medicinal preparations of R. dentata have been used for anti-microbial and anti-malaria purpose in humans, and for aiding parturition in farm animals. The latter application was mentioned by one out of six respondents who claimed to use this plant for any medicinal purpose. The plant extract exhibited a weak uterotonic effect using organ bath studies. The plant contains cyclotides and the peptide riden A has been identified by de novo amino acid sequencing using mass spectrometry. Few dwellers around the settlement camps of the tropical forest of Omo (Nigeria) use R. dentata for various health problems in traditional veterinary and human medicine. The weak uterotonic effect of the cyclotide-rich extract is in agreement with the

  10. Can pelagic forage fish and spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) biomass in the western arm of Lake Superior be assessed with a single summer survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schreiner, D.R.; Evrard, L.M.; Balge, M.; Hrabik, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Management efforts to rehabilitate lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior have been successful and the recent increase in their numbers has led to interest in measuring biomass of pelagic prey fish species important to these predators. Lake Superior cisco Coregonus artedi currently support roe fisheries and determining the sustainability of these fisheries is an important management issue. We conducted acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of the western arm of Lake Superior during three periods: summer (July-August), October, and November 2006 to determine if a single survey can be timed to estimate biomass of both prey fish and spawning cisco. We evaluated our methods by comparing observed trawl catches of small (cisco increased substantially in November, while small bloater Coregonus hoyi biomass was lower. We compared our summer 2006 estimates of total fish biomass to the results of a summer survey in 1997 and obtained similar results. We conclude that the temporal window for obtaining biomass estimates of pelagic prey species in the western arm of Lake Superior is wide (July through October), but estimating spawning cisco abundance is best done with a November survey.

  11. Building the road to a regional zoonoses strategy: A survey of zoonoses programmes in the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody J Maxwell

    Full Text Available In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control.A fillable online questionnaire was sent to the zoonoses programme managers of the Ministries of Health (MOH and Ministries of Agriculture (MAg of 33 LAC countries from January to April of 2015. The questionnaire comprised 36 single, multiple choice and open-ended questions to inform the objectives of the survey. A descriptive exploratory analysis was completed.Fifty-four ministries (26 MOH, 25 MAg, and 3 combined responses in 31 LAC countries responded to the survey. Within the ministries, 22 (85% MOH, 5 (20% MAg, and 2 (67% combined entities indicated they had specialized zoonoses units. For endemic zoonoses, 32 of 54 ministries responded that they conduct formal prioritization exercises, most of them annually (69%. The three priority endemic zoonoses for the MOHs were leptospirosis, rabies, and brucellosis while the three priorities for the MAgs were brucellosis, rabies, and tuberculosis. Diagnosis for rabies and leptospirosis were cited as the capacities most in need of development. The most needed cross-cutting capacity was coordination between stakeholders. For emerging zoonoses, 28 ministries performed formal prioritization exercises. The top prioritization criteria were probability of introduction into the country and impact. The three

  12. Biotype characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products of private production in the western regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Kukhtyn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of foodborne diseases is a priority for the world health system. In the process of manufacturing milk and dairy products, the most important factor compromising their safety is seeding with a conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria and other microorganisms that reproduce in dairy products without changing their organoleptic properties are a particular danger. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic, conditionally pathogenic microorganism that often contaminates raw milk and dairy products. The aim of the research presented in this article was to determine the dissemination of S. aureus in milk and milk products of household production in the western regions of Ukraine, to identify the biotypes of S. aureus, production of enterotoxins and the presence of methicillin-resistant strains. S. aureus was isolated on BD Baird-Parker Agar. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined according to Meer. The determination of MRSA was carried out on the chromogenic Agar chromID MRSA ("Biomerioux", Russia. The mecA gene was determined using the LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test with LightCycler 2.0 primer (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Germany. To determine staphylococcal enterotoxins, the test system RIDASCREENSET A, B, C, D, E (R-Biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany was used. We isolated saprophyte staphylococci from milk of raw and dairy products in western regions of Ukraine in 82.7–97.4% of samples. S. aureus is much more rarely isolated from these dairy products, so it was isolated from sour cream at 62.8 ± 0.9%, from milk at 35.5 ± 1.3% and cottage cheese at 23.0 ± 1.6%. Of the most well known biotypes of S. aureus present in milk of raw and dairy products of domestic production, two ecological types were distinguished: human and cattle. In this case S. aureus var. hominis was isolated more often than in S. aureus var. bovis. This gives grounds to believe that the main source of

  13. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically.

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in Daraa-Tafilalet region (Province of Errachidia), Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddouks, Mohamed; Ajebli, Mohammed; Hebi, Morad

    2017-02-23

    We carried out an ethnobotanical survey in Tafilalet region. This region is classified by the UNESCO as a reserve of biosphere and represents an important area with important knowledge of traditional medicine, especially the use of medicinal plants for human healthcare. Furthermore, the geographic location of this region makes this site a diverse and interesting resource of herbal biodiversity. The study aimed to collect information about medicinal plants used in Tafilalet region as well as the indigenous knowledge related to the use of this natural resource in healthcare by the local population in order to preserve and protect this invaluable inheritance from loss and overlook. We aimed also to compare taxa used by the indigenous people of Tafilalet for health-care purposes in comparison with other regions of Morocco as well as neighboring countries. The total of informants interviewed in this study was 1616 (1500 were local inhabitants and 116 were herbalists). This enquiry was carried out through semi-structured and unstructured interviews and the sampling technique used was the stratified sample (9 stratums). Data obtained were analyzed calculating 6 indices: Use Value (UV), Family Use Value (FUV), Fidelity Level (FL), Rank Order Priority (ROP), Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Jaccard similarity Index (JI). 194 species belonging to 69 families were inventoried in this survey and 17 species were cited for the first time in an ethnobotanical survey in Morocco. The highest value of UV was obtained for Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV=0.24) and Liliaceae was the family frequently used by inhabitants of Tafilalet (FUV=0.106). In addition, the highest value of FL was recorded for Cistus salviifolius L. and Daphne gnidium L. with FL value of 100% for both species and Origanium vulgare L. had the highest ROP with a value of 53% while the highest value of FIC was mentioned for digestive system disorders (FIC=0.29). Concerning the level of similarity between our study

  15. Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea and the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico&solCaribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindell, James; Dewey, John F.

    1982-04-01

    A Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea (North America, South America, Africa) is proposed that is characterized by (1) definition of the North Atlantic fit by matching of marginal offsets (fracture zones) along the opposing margins, (2) a South Atlantic fit that is tighter than the BuIlard fit and that is achieved by treating Africa as two plates astride the Benue Trough and related structures during the Cretaceous, (3) complete closure of the Proto-Atlantic Ocean between North and South America, accomplished by placing the Yucatan block between the Ouachita Mountains and Venezuela, (4) a proposed Hercynian suture zone that separates zones of foreland thrusting from zones of arc-related magmatic activity; to the northwest of this suture lie the Chortis block and Mexico and most of North America, and to the southeast lie South America, the Yucatan Block, Florida and Africa, and (5) satisfaction of paleomagmatic data from North America, South America, and Africa. Beginning with the proposed reconstruction, the relative motion history of South America with respect of North America is defined by using the finite difference method. Within the framework provided by the proposed relative motion history, an evolutionary model for the development of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region is outlined in a series of 13 plate boundary reconstructions at time intervals from the Jurassic to the present. The model includes (1) formation of the Gulf of Mexico by 140 Ma, (2) Pacific provenance of the Caribbean plate through the North America-South America gap during Cretaceous time, (3) Paleocene-Early Eocene back arc spreading origin for the Yucatan Basin, whereby Cuba is the frontal arc and the Nicaragua Rise-Jamaica-Southern Hispaniola is the remnant arc, and (4) 1200 km of post-Eocene cumulative offset along both the Northern and Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zones, allowing large-scale eastward migration of the Caribbean plate with respect to the North and

  16. The Prevalence of Occult Celiac Disease among Patients with Functional Dyspepsia: A Study from the Western Region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Keshavarz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD is high in Iran, and evaluation of CD is not part of the routine screening procedure for dyspeptic patients; therefore, cases of occult CD may be missed. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occult CD among dyspeptic patients who presented at a gastroenterology clinic in the Western region of Iran. Methods. In this descriptive, cross-sectional prospective study, patients who had a history of at least 12 weeks of upper abdominal discomfort were eligible to participate in the study during a 14-month recruitment period. Patients with a clinical or paraclinical data in favor of organic causes were excluded from the study. Enrolled patients were screened for IgA antiendomysium antibody (EMA and IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG. Those who screened positive for EMA/tTG received a confirmatory diagnostic biopsy for Marsh classification of CD. Results. From 225 potential participants with dyspepsia, 55 patients were excluded due to having explainable organic causes. The study sample included 170 patients with “functional dyspepsia.” Mean age of participants was 31 years and 55.8% were female. Twelve patients (7% had positive tests (EMA/tTG, of which 10 were female (83.4%. According to Rome II criteria, all twelve patients with positive tests had “dysmotility type dyspepsia.” Based on Marsh classification, six patients were consistent with “Marsh I,” four with “Marsh II,” and two with the “Marsh III” classification. Conclusions. In this study, the prevalence of CD in dyspeptic patients was high. As a result, this study suggests that screening by serology tests (EMA/tTG is justifiable for the detection of CD among functional dyspeptic patients in the tertiary centers in our country.

  17. Altered rocks of the Onguren carbonatite complex in the Western Tansbaikal Region: Geochemistry and composition of accessory minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, V. B.; Bazarova, E. P.; Sharygin, V. V.; Karmanov, N. S.; Kanakin, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The paper discusses the mineralogy and geochemistry of altered rocks associated with calcite and dolomite-ankerite carbonatites of the Onguren dyke-vein complex in the Western Transbaikal Region. The alteration processes in the Early Proterozoic metamorphic complex and synmetamorphic granite hosting carbonatite are areal microclinization and riebeckitization; carbonates, phlogopite, apatite, and aegirine occur in the near-contact zones of the dolomite-ankerite carbonatite veins; and silicification is displayed within separated zones adjacent to the veins. In aluminosilicate rocks, microclinization was accompanied by an increasing content of K, Fe3+, Ti, Nb (up to 460 ppm), Th, Cu, and REE; Na, Ti, Fe3+, Mg, Nb (up to 1500 ppm), Zr (up to 2800 ppm), Ta, Th, Hf, and REE accumulated in the inner zone of the riebeckitization column. High contents of Ln Ce (up to 11200 ppm), U (23 ppm), Sr (up to 7000 ppm), Li (up to 400 ppm), Zn (up to 600 ppm), and Th (up to 700 ppm) are typical of apatite-phlogopite-riebeckite altered rock; silicified rock contains up to (ppm): 2000 Th, 20 U, 13000 Ln Ce, and 5000 Ba. Ilmenite and later rutile are the major Nb carriers in alkali altered rocks. These minerals contain up to 2 and 7 wt % Nb2O5, respectively. In addition, ferrocolumbite and aeschynite-(Ce) occur in microcline and riebeckite altered rocks. Fluorapatite containing up to 2.7 wt % ( Ln Ce)2O3, monazite-(Ce), cerite-(Ce), ferriallanite-(Ce), and aeschynite-(Ce) are the REE carriers in riebeckite altered rock. Bastnäsite-(Ce), rhabdophane-group minerals, and xenotime-(Y) are typical of silicified rock. Thorite, monazite-(Ce), and rhabdophane-group minerals are the Th carriers.

  18. Underpinning tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region with dynamic slab evolution from 3-D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, M. V.; Spakman, W.; Geenen, T.; van den Berg, A. P.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2014-07-01

    No consensus exists on the tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean since 35 Ma. Three disparate tectonic evolution scenarios are identified, each portraying slab rollback as the driving mechanism but with rollback starting from strongly different subduction geometries. As a critical test for the validity of each tectonic scenario we employ thermomechanical modeling of the 3-D subduction evolution. From each tectonic scenario we configure an initial condition for numerical modeling that mimics the perceived subduction geometry at 35 Ma. We seek to optimize the fit between observed and predicted slab morphology by varying the nonlinear viscoplastic rheology for mantle, slab, and continental margins. From a wide range of experiments we conclude that a tectonic scenario that starts from NW dipping subduction confined to the Balearic margin at 35 Ma is successful in predicting present-day slab morphology. The other two scenarios (initial subduction from Gibraltar to the Baleares and initial subduction under the African margin) lead to mantle structure much different from what is tomographically imaged. The preferred model predicts slab rotation by more than 180°, east-west lithosphere tearing along the north African margin and a resulting steep east dipping slab under the Gibraltar Strait. The preferred subduction model also meets the first-order temporal constraints corresponding to Mid-Miocene ( 16 Ma) thrusting of the Kabylides onto the African margin and nearly stalled subduction under the Rif-Gibraltar-Betic arc since the Tortonian ( 8 Ma). Our modeling also provides constraints on the rheological properties of the mantle and slab, and of continental margins in the region.

  19. Ant-nest ichnofossils in honeycomb calcretes, Neogene Ogallala Formation, High Plains region of western Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Platt, B.F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Thomasson, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two new ant-nest trace fossils are described from calcic sandy paleosols of the Neogene Ogallala Formation in western Kansas. The ichnofossils are preserved within and below calcrete beds weathering in positive relief as carbonate-filled casts or as cavities in negative relief. Daimoniobarax ichnogenus nov. is established for burrow systems composed of vertically tiered, horizontally oriented pancake-shaped chambers connected by predominantly vertical and cylindrical shafts ~. 0.8. cm in diameter. Ichnospecies of Daimoniobarax are differentiated based on differences in the plan view outline of chambers, shaft orientation, and junctions between chambers and shafts.Daimoniobarax nephroides ichnospecies nov. is composed of an ~. 24-76. cm long vertical sequence of distinctly lobed chambers (~. 2-20. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) arranged along sinuous to helical shafts. Chamber shape in plan view ranges from small teardrops to larger kidney- and U-shaped forms. Shafts intersect at chamber edges such that chambers appear to bud from the central shafts. Daimoniobarax nephroides is most similar to the nests of extant seed-harvester ants of the New World genus Pogonomyrmex. Such ants are specialized granivores and prefer sandy soils in arid to semi-arid grassland and desert regions.Daimoniobarax tschinkeli ichnospecies nov. is ~. 30-80. cm in vertical extent. Chambers (~. 2-30. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) are circular to elongate or pseudopodial in plan view. Vertical shafts are straight to slightly sinuous and intersect most often toward the center of the chambers. The generalized architecture of D. tschinkeli is similar to that of the nests or nest portions of several extant ant genera, though it does not closely resemble any known modern nest.Ant ichnofossils provide valuable information on hidden biodiversity, paleohydrologic regimes, paleopedogenic processes, and paleoclimate during the time of nest occupation. Depth-related changes in chamber size and vertical spacing

  20. Analysis of macronutrients intake and body mass index in preschool children in the western region of the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đermanović Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Childhood obesity is currently considered to be one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues in industrialized countries and some developing countries, including the Republic of Srpska. Objective. Our objective was to determine macronutrients intake in collective diet of preschool children and to estimate the rate of obesity in this population. Methods. Samples of food intended for preschool children diet were collected in a preschool facility in the western region of the Republic of Srpska. In daily portions, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and mineral matter were determined using standard methods. The body mass index was determined on the basis of anthropometric measurements. Results. An average daily meal contained 17.5 g of fats, 19.1 g of proteins and 101.5 g of carbohydrates. The energy value was 676 Kcal. The analysis of the data from the menu showed that the number of consumed servings of fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk and dairy products was less than one portion per day. However, the amount of consumed meat and meat products exceeded one portion per day. Out of the total number of children, 10.0% were undernourished, 16.7% were overweight and 13.3% were obese. Conclusion. Daily portions in the preschool facility are not in accordance with the recommended dietary allowance for energy and carbohydrates intake, and the composition of meals is inadequate. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to expose young children to a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and to balance food intake with the requirements.

  1. Analysis of Macronutrients Intake and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children in the Western Region of the Republic of Srpska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djermanović, Mirjana; Miletić, Ivanka; Pavlović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is currently considered to be one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues in industrialized countries and some developing countries, including the Republic of Srpska. Our objective was to determine macronutrients intake in collective diet of preschool children and to estimate the rate of obesity in this population. Samples of food intended for preschool children diet were collected in a preschool facility in the western region of the Republic of Srpska. In daily portions, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and mineral matter were determined using standard methods. The body mass index was determined on the basis of anthropometric measurements. RESULTS An average daily meal contained 17.5 g of fats, 19.1 g of proteins and 101.5 g of carbohydrates. The energy value was 676 Kcal. The analysis of the data from the menu showed that the number of consumed servings of fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk and dairy products was less than one portion per day. However, the amount of consumed meat and meat products exceeded one portion per day. Out of the total number of children, 10.0% were undernourished, 16.7% were overweight and 13.3% were obese. Daily portions in the preschool facility are not in accordance with the recommended dietary allowance for energy and carbohydrates intake, and the composition of meals is inadequate. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to expose young children to a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and to balance food intake with the requirements.

  2. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  3. Quality maternal and newborn care to ensure a healthy start for every newborn in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, H; Sobel, H

    2014-09-01

    In the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, the high rates of births attended by skilled health personnel (SHP) do not equal access to quality maternal or newborn care. 'A healthy start for every newborn' for 23 million annual births in the region means that SHP and newborn care providers give quality intrapartum, postpartum and newborn care. WHO and the UNICEF Regional Action Plan for Healthy Newborn Infants provide a platform for countries to scale-up Early Essential Newborn Care (EENC). The plan emphasises the creation of an enabling environment for the practice of EENC; thereby, preventing 50,000 newborn deaths annually. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  5. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  6. Maternal depression and child development: Evidence from São Paulo’s Western Region Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Brentani

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children’s early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children’s development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Method: Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798 mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré’ region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015. Maternal mental health was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Mothers were classified as “possibly depressed” if their EPDS score was between 10 and 13 and as “likely depressed” if their EPDS score was > 13. The child outcomes analyzed were height, weight, and overall development as assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ. Height and weight were age-normalized using WHO growth standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ 2. Adjusted and unadjusted linear regression models were used to assess the associations between Edinburgh scores and child outcomes. Results: No association was found between maternal depression variables and children’s height, weight, stunting, and obesity. Positive associations were found between possible depression and ASQ (delta = 0.33; 95CI 0.11-0.54; p-value<0.01; no associations were found between likely depression and any of the outcomes analyzed. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that symptoms of maternal depression are not associated with delays in child development in the study setting analyzed. Further research will be needed to understand this lack of association: while it is possible that caregivers’ mental health did not affect caregiving behavior, it is possible that the effect of maternal depression can vary according to timing, persistence, and intensity. It is also possible that

  7. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Hudiburg, T.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980-2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC). For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m-2 yr-1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996-2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr-1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6). The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr-1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha) fire. These results highlight

  8. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshi Mainen J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%, bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%, malaria (14 plants; 28.6%, gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%, gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%, hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%, viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%, chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%, diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%, cancer (2 plants; 4.1%, inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism, HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%. Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0% of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system

  9. Virological evaluation of avian influenza virus persistence in natural and anthropic ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, summer 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP avian influenza viruses (AIVs, congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems.In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118 tested virus isolation (VI-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5% were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%. Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative.We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches to virus molecular evolution and phylogenesis, will be

  10. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbabazi Pamela K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33 plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies. Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species followed by roots (13 species while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further

  11. Virological Evaluation of Avian Influenza Virus Persistence in Natural and Anthropic Ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, Summer 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Maria A.; Delogu, Mauro; Sivay, Mariya; Sharshov, Kirill; Yurlov, Alexander; Cotti, Claudia; Shestopalov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs), congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118) tested virus isolation (VI)-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5%) were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%). Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative. Conclusion/Significance We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches

  12. A linguistically informed autosomal STR survey of human populations residing in the greater Himalayan region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirsa Kraaijenbrink

    Full Text Available The greater Himalayan region demarcates two of the most prominent linguistic phyla in Asia: Tibeto-Burman and Indo-European. Previous genetic surveys, mainly using Y-chromosome polymorphisms and/or mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms suggested a substantially reduced geneflow between populations belonging to these two phyla. These studies, however, have mainly focussed on populations residing far to the north and/or south of this mountain range, and have not been able to study geneflow patterns within the greater Himalayan region itself. We now report a detailed, linguistically informed, genetic survey of Tibeto-Burman and Indo-European speakers from the Himalayan countries Nepal and Bhutan based on autosomal microsatellite markers and compare these populations with surrounding regions. The genetic differentiation between populations within the Himalayas seems to be much higher than between populations in the neighbouring countries. We also observe a remarkable genetic differentiation between the Tibeto-Burman speaking populations on the one hand and Indo-European speaking populations on the other, suggesting that language and geography have played an equally large role in defining the genetic composition of present-day populations within the Himalayas.

  13. Wildlife survey protocols for wind energy projects : dealing with regional and national issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Entremont, M.; Ebner, D. [Jacques Whitford AXYS Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Wildlife surveys in Canada vary according to jurisdictional influences, regional species, and the location of potential wind power projects. This presentation discussed environmental assessment (EA) approaches to wind energy used by Jacques Whitford, a Canadian environmental engineering consultancy firm. EA legislation in Canada has both federal and provincial components. Environmental impacts that must be considered by wind power proponents include mortality risk; habitat availability; effects on breeding and migration; and risks to other wildlife. Measuring the effects of wind energy projects on wildlife is often difficult. Baseline surveys are used to support environmental assessments. Constraints analysis is used to assist with project siting and planning as well as to provide information needed for decision-making. Issues identified in the scoping phases of environmental assessments are then used to assess the amount of information needed. It was concluded that national and regional reviews can be used to build a knowledge base of regional ecosystems, as federal wildlife protocol requirements are applied differently across the country. Best practice and environmental assessment strategies for each province in Canada were included, and wildlife protocols were reviewed. tabs., figs.

  14. Foreign students as a resource of skilled workforce in the region (on materials of sociological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinskaya Eteri, D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical revolution leads to permanent changes in the structure of social production. As a consequence, in employment increased the demand for specialists in a specific profile, depending on the development of science and industry at this stage. Russian post-industrial economy is impossible without a sufficient number of qualified professionals required by the economy. One of the effective ways to ensure country qualified professionals is foreign graduates who have received after graduation the opportunity to stay and work in the labor market of the host country. The paper presents results of sociological survey of international students in the Southern Federal University. The objectives of the survey was to determine the migration attractiveness of the Rostov region, conditions of adaptation and integration of foreign students, as well as identifying the prospects of their involvement in the regional labour market after receiving education. On the basis of generalization of the results in the paper drawn conclusions, given recommendations for improving conditions to attract of foreign students at the regional level.

  15. Regional anaesthesia practice for total knee arthroplasty: French national survey - 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, H; Bondàr, A; Jochum, D; Fuzier, R; Paqueron, X; Ripart, J; Choquet, O; Belbachir, A; Fletcher, D; Estèbe, J-P

    2010-06-01

    Improved pain management techniques and rehabilitation programs have significantly modified outcome for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of the survey was to describe the French practice patterns in regional anaesthesia for TKA. Twenty-item questionnaires were distributed to units with significant orthopaedic activity across France. The content referred to the type of orthopaedic activity; anaesthetic and analgesic management; preoperative patient information; technical aspects describing regional anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Response rate was 54%. Combined general anaesthesia and perineural catheter was the most frequently used anaesthetic technique. Most of respondents used multimodal analgesia (including femoral nerve catheter by 80%). Written hygiene protocols were rarely available. Sterile gowns were seldom worn. Among antiseptic agents, povidone iodine was most often used. Sedative agents were systematically used by 36% of respondents. Ropivacaine was the preferred local anaesthetic agent. Finally, adjuvants were rarely used. In most cases (58%) the femoral block was performed before induction of general anaesthesia. The catheter was commonly threaded to a length between 5 and 8 cm. The correct position of the catheter tip was verified clinically by majority of respondents. Local anaesthetics were administered by continuous infusion, continuous infusion plus boluses and boluses alone in 44, 36 and 8% of cases. Catheter duration was 48 and 72 h in 45 and 33% of the units and was independent of pain scores. This national survey showed practices in accordance with recent guidelines as well as persistent challenges in regional anaesthesia for TKA. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. From Study to Work: Methodological Challenges of a Graduate Destination Survey in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Jacques; Kraak, Andre; Favish, Judy; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2014-01-01

    Current literature proposes several strategies for improving response rates to student evaluation surveys. Graduate destination surveys pose the difficulty of tracing graduates years later when their contact details may have changed. This article discusses the methodology of one such a survey to maximise response rates. Compiling a sample frame…

  17. High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaihayo, John; Akib, Surat; Mughusu, Ezekiel; Abaasa, Andrew

    2010-08-04

    In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A populationbased HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT) records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7) but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3) (χ(2) =0.76, P=0.38). Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (Ppoverty (9.7%), ignorance (9.5%)), rape (4.7%), drug abuse (3.6%) and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc.) (6.2%). Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm that HIV prevalence is still high in this community. In order to prevent new infections, the factors mentioned above need to be addressed, and we recommend that education aimed at

  18. High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rubaihayo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A population-based HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7 but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3 (c2=0.76, P=0.38. Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05. Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%, followed by prostitution (13.6%, alcoholism (10.1%, carelessness (10.1%, poverty (9.7%, ignorance (9.5%, rape (4.7%, drug abuse (3.6% and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc. (6.2%. Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm

  19. Coastal flooding impact evaluation using an INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model for Varna region, Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya; Valchev, Nikolay; Prodanov, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The study presents evaluation and comparative analysis of storm induced flooding impacts on different coastal receptors at a scale of Varna region using INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model. The model was developed within the FP7 RISC-KIT project, as a part of Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) consisting of two phases. CRAF Phase 1 is a screening process that evaluates coastal risk at a regional scale by means of coastal indices approach, which helps to identify potentially vulnerable coastal sectors: hot spots (HS). CRAF Phase 2 has the objective to assess and rank identified hotspots by detailed risk analysis done by jointly performing a hazard assessment and an impact evaluation on different categories (population, businesses, ecosystems, transport and utilities) using INDRA model at a regional level. Basically, the model assess the shock of events by estimating the impact on directly exposed to flooding hazard receptors of different vulnerability, as well as the potential ripple effects during an event in order to assess the "indirect" impacts, which occur outside the hazard area and/or continue after the event for all considered categories. The potential impacts are expressed in terms of uniform "Impact Indicators", which independently score the indirect impacts of these categories assessing disruption and recovery of the receptors. The ultimate hotspot ranking is obtained through the use of a Multi Criteria analysis (MCA) incorporated in the model, considering preferences of stakeholders. The case study area - Varna regional coast - is located on the western Black Sea, Bulgaria. The coastline, with a length of about 70 km, stretches from cape Ekrene to cape St. Atanas and includes Varna Bay. After application of CRAF Phase 1 three hotspots were selected for further analysis: Kabakum beach (HS1), Varna Central beach plus Port wall (HS2) and Artificial Island (HS3). For first two hotspots beaches and associated infrastructure are the assets

  20. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  1. Environmental Health assessment 200 Days after Earthquake-Affected Region in East Azerbaijan Earthquake, North-Western of Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihossein Zeinalzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of health status and explore the challenges of health problems that threaten human life following disasters and major earthquakes providing windows of opportunities for health care providers in future planning of disasters. The main purpose of this report was to survey the environmental sanitation statues after 200 days of the affected populations in earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, northwestern of Iran, 2012. The survey was carried out in earthquake zones 200 days after the occurrence of the earthquake. A single stage cluster sampling from among 95 villages damaged in the earthquake of 2012 East Azerbaijan of three towns Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris were selected. The data were collected with questionnaire, site visits and evaluation of water and sanitation. In a twin Earthquake, East Azerbaijan province that 399 villages of Ahar, Varzeghan, Heris, Tabriz and Kaleibar cities were affected and 356 (89.2 % villages were destroyed between 30-100%.  Evaluation of water and sanitation infrastructure after 200 days, shown that only half of these villages consumed healthy water with high coverage and adequate. Half of the villages in 200 days after the earthquake were covered safe drinking water (treated drinking water. The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of the affected area was assessed in randomly collected 146 samples from this region and ten (6.8% reported as unsuitable. Solid waste management facilities in residents have not been acceptable that affect public health. Solid waste disposal was done by district residents (cooperation rural residents 68.4%, 36.8% and 76.3% in Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris, respectively. Overall, the impact of infectious and communicable diseases after Earthquake was reported 42.1% (16 villages in the Varzeghan. The lack of geographical view with a focus in mountainous and rural areas, partial support and dispersion of earthquake-stricken people in affected villages and lack of participatory need

  2. The Passenger Satisfaction Survey in the Regional Integrated Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Valaskova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

  3. Fourth annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2007: logistics for regional growth and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ittmann1_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 110551 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ittmann1_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 2007 Logistics for regional... freight, based on the average carrying capacities of counted truck types. A synoptic overview of logistics practices and the health and maturity of the South African industry and supply chains: Integration of existing surveys from a supply chain...

  4. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E Khalafalla

    Full Text Available A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%, Toxascaris leonina (5%, Dipylidium caninum (5%, Capillaria spp. (3%, Taenia taeniformis (22% and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%, four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%, Sarcocyst spp. (1%, Isospora spp. (2% and Giardia spp. (2% and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2% and mites eggs (13%. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.

  5. A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2011-01-01

    A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

  6. Moment Tensor Inversion of Earthquakes in Bartın and Surrounding Cities of Western Black Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, focal mechanism of earthquakes in Bartın and sorroundings are analysed to determine the deformation and stress regime of the Western Black Sea region. The records of the earthquakes are obtained from the broadband seismic stations operated by Boğaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute National Earthquake Monitoring Center. In total 13 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) ranging between 3.5 and 4.8 are used. The source parameters are calculated by CMT (Centroid Moment Tensor) inversion method.The results of this study show that 04.07.1972 M4.1 Saraydüzü-Bartın, 24.07.2013 M3.8 Amasra-Bartın, 24.11.2013 M4.8 Ulumescit-Bolu and 09.08.2008 M4.0 Karadeniz earthquakes indicate the presence of NE-SW directed reverse faulting mechanisms, in addition 28.01.2004 M3.6 Devrek-Zonguldak, 04.10.2005 M3.5 Yenice-Karabük, 12.11.2008 M4.1 Ericek-Bolu, 12.11.2008 M3.8 Aşağıkuzören-Bolu, 20.04.2006 M4.1 Amasra-Bartın, 04.09.2014 M4.0 Kayadibi-Bartın and 20.09.2014 M4.1 Bafra-Samsun earthquakes indicate the presence of NE-SW directed reverse oblique faulting mechanisms around the region. 16.08.2010 M3.9 Kozlu-Bolu, 13.05.2011 M3.9 Kızılağıl-Bolu, 20.12.2009 M3.9 Eskipazar-Karabük, 22.11.2009 M4.5 Daday-Kastamonu and 21.07.2013 M4.2 İhsangazi-Kastamonu earthquakes indicate right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanism. 03.9.1968 Bartın earthquake is the strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake to occur along the Black Sea margin in the Northwestern Turkey. The focal mechanism solution of Bartın earthquake has been a controversial topic. The primary aim of this study is to shed light on these discussions. The focal mechanism solutions given by Kudo (1983) and Jackson and McKenzie (1984) state strike-slip faulting with reverse component, Şengör et al. (1983) state pure strike-slip faulting, on the other hand the solutions given by Alptekin et al. (1987) states that Bartın earthquake has pure reverse faulting

  7. A SCUBA imaging survey of ultracompact HII regions. The environments of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. A.; Hatchell, J.; Walsh, A. J.; MacDonald, G. H.; Millar, T. J.

    2006-07-01

    We present a SCUBA submillimetre (450 and 850 μm) survey of the environment of 105 IRAS point sources, selected from the Wood & Churchwell (1989a) and Kurtz et al. (1994) radio ultracompact (UC) Hii region surveys. We detected a total of 155 sub-mm clumps associated with the IRAS point sources and identified three distinct types of object: ultracompact cm-wave sources that are not associated with any sub-mm emission (sub-mm quiet objects), sub-mm clumps that are associated with ultracompact cm-wave sources (radio-loud clumps); and sub-mm clumps that are not associated with any known ultracompact cm-wave sources (radio-quiet clumps). 90% of the sample of IRAS point sources were found to be associated with strong sub-mm emission. We consider the sub-mm colours, morphologies and distance-scaled fluxes of the sample of sub-mm clumps and show that the sub-mm quiet objects are unlikely to represent embedded UC Hii regions unless they are located at large heliocentric distances. Many of the 2.5 arcmin SCUBA fields contain more than one sub-mm clump, with an average number of companions (the companion clump fraction) of 0.90. The clumps are more strongly clustered than other candidate HMPOs and the mean clump surface density exhibits a broken power-law distribution with a break at 3 pc. We demonstrate that the sub-mm and cm-wave fluxes of the majority of radio-loud clumps are in excellent agreement with the standard model of ultracompact Hii regions. We speculate on the nature of the radio-quiet sub-mm clumps and, whilst we do not yet have sufficient data to conclude that they are in a pre-UC Hii region phase, we argue that their characteristics are suggestive of such a stage.

  8. Survey on medical records and EHR in Asia-Pacific region: languages, purposes, IDs and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Croll, P; Li, B; Wong, C P; Gogia, S; Faud, A; Kwak, Y-S; Chu, S; Marcelo, A; Chow, Y-H; Paoin, W; Li, Y-C

    2011-01-01

    To clarify health record background information in the Asia-Pacific region, for planning and evaluation of medical information systems. The survey was carried out in the summer of 2009. Of the 14 APAMI (Asia-Pacific Association for Medical Informatics) delegates 12 responded which were Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan. English is used for records and education in Australia, Hong Kong, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Most of the countries/regions are British Commonwealth. Nine out of 12 delegates responded that the second purpose of medical records was for the billing of medical services. Seven out of nine responders to this question answered that the second purpose of EHR (Electronic Health Records) was healthcare cost cutting. In Singapore, a versatile resident ID is used which can be applied to a variety of uses. Seven other regions have resident IDs which are used for a varying range of purposes. Regarding healthcare ID, resident ID is simply used as healthcare ID in Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand. In most cases, disclosure of medical data with patient's name identified is allowed only for the purpose of disease control within a legal framework and for disclosure to the patient and referred doctors. Secondary use of medical information with the patient's identification anonymized is usually allowed in particular cases for specific purposes. This survey on the health record background information has yielded the above mentioned results. This information contributes to the planning and evaluation of medical information systems in the Asia-Pacific region.

  9. Salton Trough regional deformation estimated from combined trilateration and survey-mode GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Agnew, D.C.; Johnson, H.O.

    2003-01-01

    The Salton Trough in southeastern California, United States, has one of the highest seismicity and deformation rates in southern California, including 20 earthquakes M 6 or larger since 1892. From 1972 through 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured a 41-station trilateration network in this region. We remeasured 37 of the USGS baselines using survey-mode Global Positioning System methods from 1995 through 1999. We estimate the Salton Trough deformation field over a nearly 30-year period through combined analysis of baseline length time series from these two datasets. Our primary result is that strain accumulation has been steady over our observation span, at a resolution of about 0.05 ??strain/yr at 95% confidence, with no evidence for significant long-term strain transients despite the occurrence of seven large regional earthquakes during our observation period. Similar to earlier studies, we find that the regional strain field is consistent with 0.5 ?? 0.03 ??strain/yr total engineering shear strain along an axis oriented 311.6?? ?? 23?? east of north, approximately parallel to the strike of the major regional faults, the San Andreas and San Jacinto (all uncertainties in the text and tables are standard deviations unless otherwise noted). We also find that (1) the shear strain rate near the San Jacinto fault is at least as high as it is near the San Andreas fault, (2) the areal dilatation near the southeastern Salton Sea is significant, and (3) one station near the southeastern Salton Sea moved anomalously during the period 1987.95-1995.11.

  10. Food habits of the stone marten Martes foina in "La Mandria" Regional Park (Piedmont Region, North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina was studied by the analysis of 215 scats gathered during 1990 and 1991 in "La Mandria" Regional Park (north-western Italy. The results were expressed as percentage frequency of occurrence [F% = (number of occurrences of each food/number of scats x 100] and relative percentage of frequency [Fr% = (number of occurrences of each food/total number of prey items x 100]. Mammals were the predominant food category in each season (annual mean in Fr% = 60.5 and were mainly represented by rodents (Fr% = 44.8 and lagomorphs (Fr% = 15.4. Myoxus glis was the most preyed species (Fr% = 15.7 and its use was higher in autumn than in other seasons. Vegetables, mainly Rosaceae and Vitis vinifera fruits, were an important food resource in summer (Fr% = 41.1 and in autumn (Fr% = 17.2. Birds integrated the stone marten's diet mainly in winter (Fr% = 22.6, while insects were scarcely consumed throughout the year (Fr% = 4.3. Riassunto Alimentazione della faina Martes foina nel Parco regionale "La Mandria" (Torino - La dieta della faina (Martes foina è stata studiata analizzando 215 feci raccolte negli anni 1990-91 nel Parco Regionale "La Mandria" (Italia nord occidentale. I risultati ottenuti sono stati espressi come frequenza percentuale [F% = (numero di presenze di una componente alimentare/numero delle feci esaminate x 100] e frequenza relativa percentuale [Fr% = (numero di presenze di una componente alimentare/numero totale di componenti alimentari rinvenute x 100]. I mammiferi, rappresentati soprattutto da roditori (Fr% = 44,8 e lagomorfi (Fr% = 15,4, sono risultati la categoria alimentare più importante in ogni stagione (media annuale della Fr% = 60,5. Myoxus glis è risultata la specie più predata con un consumo più elevato in autunno rispetto alle altre stagioni. I vegetali, rappresentati soprattutto

  11. Floristic Provinces of Sagebrush and Associated Shrub-steppe Habitats in Western North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Boundary for floristic regions used for the conservation assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and sagebrush habitat conducted by the Western Association of Fish and...

  12. External quality assessment for arbovirus diagnostics in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, 2013–2016: improving laboratory quality over the years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yazid Abdad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA programme for arbovirus diagnostics. By 2016, it had grown into a global programme with participation of 96 laboratories worldwide, including 25 laboratories from 19 countries, territories and areas in the Region. The test performance of the 25 laboratories in the Region in 2016 was high with 23 (92% reporting correct results in all specimens for dengue and chikungunya viruses. For Zika virus, 18 (72% of the 25 laboratories reported correct results in all specimens, while seven (28% demonstrated at least one error. When comparing iterations of this EQA programme in the Region between 2013 and 2016, the number of participating laboratories increased from 18 to 25. The first round only included dengue virus, while the latest round additionally included chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses. Proficiency for molecular detection of dengue virus remained high (83–94% over the four-year period. The observed proficiency for arbovirus diagnostics between 2013 and 2016 is an indicator of laboratory quality improvement in the Region.

  13. Occurrence and genetic variability of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes ticks from different regions of Western Siberia, Russia and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, Sergey E; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Babkin, Igor V; Livanova, Natalia N; Livanov, Stanislav G; Panov, Victor V; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Tantsev, Alexey K; Taranenko, Dmitrii E; Tikunova, Nina V

    2017-01-01

    Kemerovo virus (KEMV), a member of the Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and can cause aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Recently, this virus was observed in certain provinces of European part of Russia, Ural, and Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the occurrence and genetic diversity of KEMV in Western Siberia remain poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of KEMV in Ixodes ticks from Western Siberia. A total of 1958 Ixodes persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi ticks and their hybrids from Novosibirsk and Omsk provinces, Altai Republic (Russia) and East Kazakhstan province (Kazakhstan) were analyzed for the presence of KEMV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA. It was observed that the KEMV distribution area in Western Siberia was wider than originally thought and included Northern and Northeastern Altai in addition to the Omsk and Novosibirsk provinces. For the first time, this virus was found in Kazakhstan. The occurrence of KEMV was statistically lower than TBEV in most locations in Western Siberia. KEMV was found both in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks and in their hybrids. Notably, KEMV variants observed in the 2010s were genetically different from those isolated in the 1960s, which indicated the ongoing process of evolution of the Kemerovo virus group. Moreover, the possibility of reassortment for KEMV was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Accounting practitioners perception over the impact of IFRS implementation on the performance of entities in the construction sector from the western region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Oana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper, we want to identify the correlations between the benefits and costs of adopting IFRS standards in construction entities in the Western Region of Romania and their performance, using the Pearson correlation coefficient, which measures and describes the direction, degree and form of the association between two variables, thus obtaining high, reasonable, weak and very weak links between the benefits / costs and the performance of the entity.

  15. The XMM-SERVS Survey: first results in the 5 deg^2 XMM-LSS region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Ting; Brandt, William; Luo, Bin; X-SERVS team

    2018-01-01

    We present an X-ray source catalog obtained with XMM-Newton in the XMM-LSS region as part of the X-SERVS survey (XMM-SERVS-LSS), which aims to expand the parameter space of current X-ray surveys with medium-deep X-ray observations in multiple large fields with superb multiwavelength coverage. Within the 5 deg$^2$ XMM-SERVS-LSS field, we combine the 1.3 Ms XMM observations allocated at XMM AO-15 with archival data, and identified 5218 X-ray sources of which 2400 are new sources. We reach $1.2\\times10^{-15}$ erg s$^{-1} cm$^{-1}$ for 50\\% of the area, which is comparable to the XMM-COSMOS survey but with 2.5 times more sources. We also present multiwavelength identifications, basic photometric properties, and spectroscopic redshifts obtained from the literature. These data, combined with the existing data from COSMOS, will enable a wide range of science on AGN evolution, including studying SMBH growth across the full range of cosmic environments and minimizing cosmic variance.

  16. Estimation of Vegetation Cover Using Digital Photography in a Regional Survey of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Salas-Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The methods for measuring vegetation cover in Mexican forest surveys are subjective and imprecise. The objectives of this research were to compare the sampling designs used to measure the vegetation cover and estimate the over and understory cover in different land uses, using digital photography. The study was carried out in 754 circular sampling sites in central Mexico. Four spatial sampling designs were evaluated in three spatial distribution patterns of the trees. The sampling designs with photographic captures in diagonal form had lower values of mean absolute error (MAE < 0.12 and less variation in random and grouped patterns. The Carbon and Biomass Sampling Plot (CBSP design was chosen due to its smaller error in the different spatial tree patterns. The image processing was performed using threshold segmentation techniques and was automated through an application developed in the Python language. The two proposed methods to estimate vegetation cover through digital photographs were robust and replicable in all sampling plots with different land uses and different illumination conditions. The automation of the process avoided human estimation errors and ensured the reproducibility of the results. This method is working for regional surveys and could be used in national surveys due to its functionality.

  17. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a survey on forces, conditions and jurisdictional control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, M.; Francke, A.L.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Dijk, L. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: The number of Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries where nurses are legally allowed to prescribe medicines is growing. As the prescribing of medicines has traditionally been the task of the medical profession, nurse prescribing is changing the relationship between the medical and

  18. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a survey on forces, conditions and jurisdictional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, M.; Francke, A.L.; Groenewegen, P.P.; van Dijk, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The number of Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries where nurses are legally allowed to prescribe medicines is growing. As the prescribing of medicines has traditionally been the task of the medical profession, nurse prescribing is changing the relationship between the medical and

  19. Three decades of BGR airborne geophysical surveys over the polar regions - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has been conducting geological polar research since 1979. A few years later BGR engaged in airborne geophysical projects. Investigation of the lithosphere of the continent and the continental margins was one of the key issues for BGR. Right from the beginning geophysical research was closely associated with the geological activities. The GANOVEX (German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition) program combined geological research with geophysical (mainly airborne) investigations. This proved to be a fruitful approach to many of the open questions regarding the tectonic development of the Ross Sea region. Aeromagnetic surveys evolved into a powerful tool for identifying geological structures and following them underneath the ice covered areas - not accessible to direct geological investigations. To achieve this aim it was essential to lay out these surveys with a relatively closely spaced line separation on the expense of covering large areas at the same time. Nevertheless, over many years of continues research areas of more than a just regional extent could be covered. This was, however, only possible through international collaboration. During the first years, working in the Ross Sea area, the cooperation with the US and Italian programs played a significant role, especially the GITARA (German-Italian Aeromagnetic Research in Antarctica) program has to be mentioned. GEOMAUD (Geoscientific Expedition to Dronning Maud Land) and the German-Australian joint venture PCMEGA (Prince Charles Mountains Expedition of Germany & Australia) expanded research activities to the East Antarctic shield area. In the International Polar Year (IPY), BGR played a leading role in the international project AGAP (Antarctica's GAmburtsev Province) as part of the main topic "Venture into Unknown Regions". AGAP was jointly conducted by the USA, Great Britain, Australia, China and Germany. While in the Ross Sea area even

  20. The CHESS spectral survey of star forming regions : Peering into the protostellar shock L1157-B1. II. Shock dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codella, C.; Lefloch, B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Caux, E.; Lorenzani, A.; Viti, S.; Hily-Blant, P.; Parise, B.; Maret, S.; Nisini, B.; Caselli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Pagani, L.; Benedettini, M.; Boogert, A.; Gueth, F.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Pacheco, S.; Salez, M.; Schuster, K.; Bacmann, A.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G.; Bottinelli, S.; Castets, A.; Comito, C.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Dominik, C.; Demyk, K.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, Th.; Herbst, E.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Langer, W.; Lis, D.; Lord, S.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Saraceno, P.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, X.; van der Tak, F.; van der Wiel, M.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Borys, C.; Delorme, Y.; Kramer, C.; Larsson, B.; Mehdi, I.; Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J.; Pardo, J. R.; Bachiller, R.; De lange, G.; Lai, R.; Maiwald, F. W.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Siegel, P.; Wunsch, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results of the unbiased survey of the L1157-B1 bow shock, obtained with HIFI in the framework of the key program Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions (CHESS). The L1157 outflow is driven by a low-mass Class 0 protostar and is considered the prototype of the so-called

  1. Regional Crustal Structures and Their Relationship to the Distribution of Ore Deposits in the Western United States, Based on Magnetic and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Berger, B.; Jachens, R.C.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Upgraded gravity and magnetic databases and associated filtered-anomaly maps of western United States define regional crustal fractures or faults that may have guided the emplacement of plutonic rocks and large metallic ore deposits. Fractures, igneous intrusions, and hydrothermal circulation tend to be localized along boundaries of crustal blocks, with geophysical expressions that are enhanced here by wavelength filtering. In particular, we explore the utility of regional gravity and magnetic data to aid in understanding the distribution of large Mesozoic and Cenozoic ore deposits, primarily epithermal and porphyry precious and base metal deposits and sediment-hosted gold deposits in the western United States cordillera. On the broadest scale, most ore deposits lie within areas characterized by low magnetic properties. The Mesozoic Mother Lodge gold belt displays characteristic geophysical signatures (regional gravity high, regional low-to-moderate background magnetic field anomaly, and long curvilinear magnetic highs) that might serve as an exploration guide. Geophysical lineaments characterize the Idaho-Montana porphyry belt and the La Caridad-Mineral Park belt (from northern Mexico to western Arizona) and thus indicate a deep-seated control for these mineral belts. Large metal accumulations represented by the giant Bingham porphyry copper and the Butte polymetallic vein and porphyry copper systems lie at intersections of several geophysical lineaments. At a more local scale, geophysical data define deep-rooted faults and magmatic zones that correspond to patterns of epithermal precious metal deposits in western and northern Nevada. Of particular interest is an interpreted dense crustal block with a shape that resembles the elliptical deposit pattern partly formed by the Carlin trend and the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral belt. We support previous studies, which on a local scale, conclude that structural elements work together to localize mineral deposits within

  2. Tectonic controls on the Yamanlar volcano and Yuntdağı volcanic region, western Turkey: Implications for an incremental deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür

    2014-03-01

    Over the past ten years, it has been proposed that the western part of the Menderes Massif was strongly structurally-controlled by the İzmir-Balıkesir transfer zone (İBTZ). Yamanlar volcano is a key area for understanding the deformation of Miocene volcanoes in western Turkey because of its progressive extensional tectonics. Structural analysis provides that this volcano has undergone the incremental tectonic controls in western Turkey since Early Miocene. The volcano experienced deformation and erosional processes associated with activity of intense tectonic regime that resulted in the dissection of the southern flank of the volcano mostly by NE-SW-striking oblique and strike-slip faults together with cross-cutting faults during and after Miocene period. The orientation of volcanic domes, dykes and intrusive bodies indicates successive and reactive tectonic phases that caused incremental complex movements of numerous fault blocks during the destruction area of the Yamanlar volcano.

  3. Tobacco sales in pharmacies: a survey of attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of pharmacists employed in student experiential and other worksites in Western New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Danielle M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacies are venues in which patients seek out products and professional advice in order to improve overall health. However, many pharmacies in the United States continue to sell tobacco products, which are widely known to cause detrimental health effects. This conflict presents a challenge to pharmacists, who are becoming increasingly more involved in patient health promotion activities. This study sought to assess Western New York (WNY area pharmacists’ opinions about the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies, and pharmacists’ opinions on their role in patient smoking cessation. Methods Participants responded to two parallel surveys; a web-based survey was completed by 148 university-affiliated pharmacist preceptors via a list based sample, and a mail-based survey was completed by the supervising pharmacist in 120 area pharmacies via a list-based sample. The combined response rate for both surveys was 31%. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to determine any significant differences between the preceptor and supervising pharmacist survey groups. Results Over 75% of respondents support legislation banning the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. Over 86% of respondents would prefer to work in a pharmacy that does not sell tobacco products. Differences between preceptor and supervising pharmacist groups were observed. Action regarding counseling patients was uncommon among both groups. Conclusions Pharmacists support initiatives that increase their role in cessation counseling and initiatives that restrict the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. These data could have important implications for communities and pharmacy practice.

  4. An Experience of Statistical Method Application in Forest Survey at Angara River Region in 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Vashchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Report of the Angara forest economic expedition of forest economic survey in 1932 on the left bank of the Angara River has been found. The survey covered a part of Krasnoyarsk Territory and Irkutsk region, a total area of 18641.8 thousand ha. The report describes technology of forest inventory and achievements that have not previously been published. The survey was conducted by statistical method, which consisted of a sample by a continuous forest inventory enumeration of trees on sample plots (SP, arranged in an array on a particular system, followed by mathematical-statistical recalculation of the sample results to the entire survey. To do this, strip finders (sights were cut in the latitudinal direction at a distance from one another at 16 km. On the hacked sights, by every 2 km, 0.1 ha (10 × 100 m SP were established. In total 32 forest inventory sights were hacked, with total length of 9931 km, which incorporated 4817 SP. The accuracy of forest resources’ inventory characteristics determining also was investigated using smaller sample plots. For this purpose, each of the SP were cut to smaller area of 0.01 ha (10 × 10 m, where independent continuous enumeration of trees was conducted, andsample trees were cut, measured and bucked to the assortments, to explore the tree stand assortment structure. At each «sample cutting area» all the trees were felled out from 44 cm and above DBH. At half of the sample plot with 5 × 10 m size, located in the eastern end, all the trees were felled out and measured from 24 cm and above DBH. Every four «sample cutting area» in the fifth, all the trees with 12 cm and above DBH were cut down and measured. According to the results of the work, a detailed description of forest resources in the whole Angara river basin, and across 17 forest exploitation areas was completed.

  5. Geothermal Systems of the Great Basin and U.S. Geological Survey Plans for a Regional Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on current projections, the United States faces the need to increase its electrical power generating capacity by 40% (approximately 300,000 Megawatts-electrical or MWe) over the next 20 years (Energy Information Administration, EIA - Department of Energy). A critical question for the near future is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to this increasing demand for electricity. Geothermal energy constitutes one of the nation's largest sources of renewable and environmentally benign electrical power, yet the installed capacity of 2860 MWe falls far short of estimated geothermal resources. This is particularly true for the Great Basin region of the western United States, which has an installed capacity of about 500 MWe, much lower than the 7500 MWe resource estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the late 1970s. The reasons for the limited development of geothermal power are varied, but political, economic and technological developments suggest the time is ripe for a new assessment effort. Technologies for power production from geothermal systems and scientific understanding of geothermal resource occurrence have improved dramatically in recent years. The primary challenges facing geothermal resource studies are (1) understanding the thermal, chemical and mechanical processes that lead to the colocation of high temperatures and high permeabilities necessary for the formation of geothermal systems and (2) developing improved techniques for locating, characterizing and exploiting these systems. Starting in the fall of 2002, the USGS will begin work with institutions funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program to investigate the nature and extent of geothermal systems in the Great Basin and to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources.

  6. THE NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Hong, Jaesub; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Bauer, Franz; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel K.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. In the area of deepest coverage, sensitivity limits of 5 x 10(exp -14) and 4 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm in the 3-10 and 10-20 keV bands, respectively, are reached. Twenty-eight sources are firmly detected, and 10 are detected with low significance; 8 of the 38 sources are expected to be active galactic nuclei. The three brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multiwavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and a plurality of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The CV candidates in the Norma region have plasma temperatures of approx. 10-20 keV, consistent with the Galactic ridge X-ray emission spectrum but lower than the temperatures of CVs near the Galactic center. This temperature difference may indicate that the Norma region has a lower fraction of intermediate polars relative to other types of CVs compared to the Galactic center. The NuSTAR logN-logS distribution in the 10-20keV band is consistent with the distribution measured by Chandra at 2-10 keV if the average source spectrum is assumed to be a thermal model with kT approx. =15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates.

  7. Population-based prevalence survey of tuberculosis in the Tigray region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Gebretsadik; Enqueselassie, Fikre; Hailu, Elena; Mekonnen, Wondale; Teklu, Tsigemariam; Gebretsadik, Ataklti; Berhe, Rezene; Haile, Tewodros; Aseffa, Abraham

    2013-09-28

    Population based prevalence survey is an important epidemiological index to measure the burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease and monitor progress towards TB control in high burden countries like Ethiopia. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Sixteen rural and urban villages were randomly selected in a stratified multistage cluster sampling. Individuals aged 15 years and older were screened by symptom inquiry for PTB. Those individuals who were symptomatic of PTB provided two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture and molecular typing. The study covering 4,765 households screened a total of 12,175 individuals aged 15 years and above. The overall weighted prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed PTB in the Tigray region of Ethiopia was found to be 216/100,000 (95% CI: 202.08, 230.76) while the weighted prevalence of smear-positive PTB was 169/100,000 (95% CI: 155.53, 181.60). The prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed TB was higher amongst males (352/100 000; 95% CI: 339.05, 364.52) than females (162/100 000; 95% CI: 153.60, 171.17) and among rural (222/100,000; 95% CI: 212.77-231.53) as compared to urban residents (193/100,000; 95% CI: 183.39-203.59). This study found a relatively higher prevalence smear-positive PTB in the region than in a same period nationwide survey and identified a significant number of undetected PTB cases. The urgency for improved TB case detection and intensified community awareness is emphasized.

  8. A roughness-corrected index of relative bed stability for regional stream surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Philip R.; Faustini, John M.; Larsen, David P.; Shirazi, Mostafa A.

    2008-07-01

    Quantitative regional assessments of streambed sedimentation and its likely causes are hampered because field investigations typically lack the requisite sample size, measurements, or precision for sound geomorphic and statistical interpretation. We adapted an index of relative bed stability (RBS) for data calculated from a national stream survey field protocol to enable general evaluation of bed stability and anthropogenic sedimentation in synoptic ecological surveys. RBS is the ratio of bed surface geometric mean particle diameter ( Dgm) divided by estimated critical diameter ( Dcbf) at bankfull flow, based on a modified Shield's criterion for incipient motion. Application of RBS to adequately depict bed stability in complex natural streams, however, has been limited because typical calculations of RBS do not explicitly account for reductions in bed shear stress that result from channel form roughness. We modified the index (RBS *) to incorporate the reduction in bed shear stress available for sediment transport that results from the hydraulic resistance of large wood and longitudinal irregularities in channel dimensions ("form roughness"). Based on dimensional analysis, we derived an adjustment to bankfull shear stress by multiplying the bankfull hydraulic radius ( Rbf) by the one-third power of the ratio of particle-derived resistance to total hydraulic resistance ( Cp/ Ct) 1/3, where both resistances are empirically based calculations. We computed Cp using a Keulegan equation relating resistance to relative submergence of bed particles. We then derived an empirical equation to predict reach-scale hydraulic resistance Ct from thalweg mean depth, thalweg mean residual depth, and large wood volume based on field dye transit studies, in which total hydraulic resistance Ct was measured over a wide range of natural stream channel complexity, including manipulation of large wood volumes. We tested our estimates of Ct and RBS * by applying them to data from a summer

  9. Scandian Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphism of Proterozoic Basement Rocks on Fjortoft and Otroy, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carswell, D.A.; van Roermund, H.L.M.; Wiggers de Vries, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral composition data are presented for samples of exsolved and recrystallized garnet websterites within the mantle-derived peridotite bodies and of external orthopyroxene eclogite lenses directly enclosed within the gneisses on the islands of Fjørtoft and Otrøy in the Western

  10. Underpinning tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region with dynamic slab evolution from 3-D numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chertova, M. V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322943264; Spakman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074103164; Geenen, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837784; Van Den Berg, A. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073350532; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624

    No consensus exists on the tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean since ~35 Ma. Three disparate tectonic evolution scenarios are identified, each portraying slab rollback as the driving mechanism but with rollback starting from strongly different subduction geometries. As a critical test

  11. Bathymetric highs in the mid-slope region of the western continental margin of India - Structure and mode of origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Paropkari, A.L.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.; Kodagali, V.N.

    Analysis of the multi- and single beam bathymetric, seismic, magnetic and free-air gravity (ship-borne and satellite derived) data from the western continental margin of India between 12 degrees 40 minutes N and 15 degrees N had revealed...

  12. Regional projections of the likelihood of very large wildland fires under a changing climate in the contiguous Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; John T. Abatzoglou; E. Natasha Stavros; Narasimhan K. Larkin

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the climatic potential for very large wildfires (VLWF >= 50,000 ac~20,234 ha) across the western contiguous United States are projected over the 21st century using generalized linear models and downscaled climate projections for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Significant (p

  13. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C. W.; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is “at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes”, reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji’s Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. Methods We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. Results We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7–11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Conclusion Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT. PMID:28114364

  14. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Macleod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys.We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji.We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18% reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97% individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%. iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation.Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  15. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Colin; Yalen, Chelsea; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C W; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-01-01

    The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  16. Monitoring biodiversity using ecosystem assessment surveys and regional ocean models within the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, I. D.; Santora, J. A.; Field, J. C.; Hazen, E. L.; Bograd, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service has conducted an annual midwater trawl survey for juvenile rockfish and other pelagic micronekton every May and June from 1983 to the present. Although both the spatial and temporal coverage have varied over time, a "core" region has been sampled continuously for the region that extends from Monterey Bay to just north of San Francisco Bay, California. Stations are located from nearshore waters to the offshore environment, but generally within 60 km from land. The mid-water trawl targets a diverse micronekton community spanning a range of juvenile stages of fishes, adult forage fishes and various invertebrates. Here we use the historical catch data to investigate biodiversity across space and time, specifically through developing indices of richness, diversity and evenness. The interannual variability of these indices is coherent over three unique ecological regions located along the shelf, Monterey Bay submarine canyon, and offshore habitats. Spatiotemporal changes in diversity reflect different taxa such as juvenile groundfish, rockfish and forage fish, and influx of oceanic species to nearshore habitat during anomalous years. Finally, data from CTD casts and from a data-assimilative ROMS model links changes in biodiversity with changing environmental conditions. The results of this project will be used to help inform researchers in the creation of a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.

  17. Job Satisfaction of Nurses in a Regional Hospital in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Job satisfaction has become a critical issue for healthcare organizations, particularly in nursing, because of the shortage of nursing labor, the effect on patient care, and the associated costs. This study explores the factors that influence the level of job satisfaction of nurses working in one regional hospital in Oman. This study aims to measure the job satisfaction of nurses working at a regional hospital in Oman and to determine the factors that most significantly influence this satisfaction. Job satisfaction is measured using the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. In addition, the demographic characteristics of participants (age, gender, level of education, years of experience, marital status, work shift, work unit, and nationality) are obtained to assess potential correlations. A questionnaire survey was used to collect the data, and stratified random sampling was used to recruit potential participants. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 155 participants who worked at one regional hospital in Oman, with survey data analyzed using SPSS version 19. One hundred forty-three valid responses were received (response rate: 92%). The study used descriptive data analysis to address the first research question and used analysis methods such as multiregression analyses, and one-way analysis of variance to identify the relationships between the other variables. The overall mean score for satisfaction was 3.49, indicating that participants had a moderate level of job satisfaction. "Interaction with coworkers" and "extrinsic reward" earned, respectively, the highest and lowest job satisfaction ratings on the subscale of McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. The results showed that age, work shift, and nationality each had a statistically significant effect on overall job satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis indicated that 21.8% of the total variance in the dependent variables was explained by being non-Omani in nationality, indicating that

  18. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by communities of Northern Kordofan region, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mohamed Hammad Adam

    2015-12-24

    The present study provides significant ethnopharmacological information on plant species used in North Kordofan region, western Sudan. The study was undertaken with an aim to document the medicinal uses of the species known to some Northern Kordofan communities. The study was conducted between 2012 and 2013. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. Information was collected by means of semi-structured interviews with 258 informants (195 men and 63 women). In addition, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare results with previous studies from the study area and other regions of Sudan. A total of 44 plant species representing 24 families were found to be commonly used in the treatment of 73 different human health problems. The families most represented were Leguminosae (18%), Caesalpiniaceae (9%), Malvaceae (9%), Asclepiadaceae (6.8%) and Combretaceae (6.8%). The highest number of plant species are used against digestive system disorders (23 species) followed by microbial infections (21 species) and dermatology (19 species). Among all the plant parts leaves (20%), roots (19%), fruits and bark (14% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the informants. There was strong agreement among the informants as to the usages of the plants (informant consensus factor 0.63-0.93). The most important plants on the basis of use-value were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia senna, Guiera senegalensis and Tamarindus indica. This study has helped to document information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of the ICF and UV methods in the study area. Plants with high ICF and UV values should be subjected for further phytochemical and

  19. An archaeological survey of a borrow area within the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in western Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides information from an archeological survey conducted on the north section of the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The Office of Public...

  20. A far-infrared mol