Sample records for survey water supply

  1. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook. (United States)


    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  2. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the cooperative snow survey and water supply forecast program, NRCS: (a) Establishes, maintains, and operates manual...

  3. A survey of the community water supply of some communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The study was carried out in 14 rural and semiurban communities in Rivers State, south-south Nigeria, using a descriptive cross-sectional study design. Data was collected using key informant interviews, field observations and focus group discussions. An inventory of the community water supply facilities in the ...

  4. Wetland and water supply (United States)

    Baker, John Augustus


    The Geological Survey has received numerous inquiries about the effects of proposed changes in the wetland environment. The nature of the inquiries suggests a general confusion in the public mind as to wetland values and an increasing concern by the public with the need for facts as a basis for sound decisions when public action is required. Perhaps the largest gap in our knowledge is in regard to the role played by the wetland in the natural water scheme. Specialists in such fields as agriculture and conservation have studied the wetland in relation to its special uses and values for farming and as a habitat for fish and wildlife. However, except as studied incidentally by these specialists, the role of the wetland with respect to water has been largely neglected. This facet of the wetland problem is of direct concern to the Geological Survey. We commonly speak of water in terms of its place in the hydrologic environment---as, for example, surface water or ground water. These terms imply that water can be neatly pigeonholed. With respect to the wetland environment nothing can be further from the truth. In fact, one objective of this discussion is to demonstrate that for the wetland environment surface water, ground water, and soil water cannot be separated realistically, but are closely interrelated and must be studied together. It should be noted that this statement holds true for the hydrologic environment in general, and that the wetland environment is by no means unique in this respect. Our second and principal objective is to identify some of the problems that must be studied in order to clarify the role of the wetland in relation to water supply. We have chosen to approach these objectives by briefly describing one area for which we have some information, and by using this example to point out some of the problems that need study. First, however, let us define what we, as geohydrologists, mean by wetland and briefly consider wetland classifications. For our

  5. Food and water supply (United States)

    Popov, I. G.


    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  6. A survey of the community water supply of some communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    the membrane filtration technique, with Escherichia coli as. 15 the indicator organism . Ten women from various ends of the community that used each of the functional water facilities were interviewed in each of the study communities. They were interviewed to ascertain the quantity of water collected per capita, per day.

  7. Supply Chain Simulation : A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.


    This paper provides a survey of simulation in supply chain management.It reviews four types of simulation, namely spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discreteevent simulation, and business games.Which simulation type should be applied, depends on the type of managerial question to be answered

  8. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS) (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  9. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin


    the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish......Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  10. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): A database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  11. Potable water supply (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.


    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  12. Water Supplies: Microbiological Analysis (United States)

    Producing high-quality drinking water that is free of harmful microorganisms and maintaining its purity through distribution systems are essential for public health. Drinking water quality standards and guidelines for microbial contaminants vary within and among countries but typ...

  13. A survey of domestic wells and pit latrines in rural settlements of Mali: Implications of on-site sanitation on the quality of water supplies. (United States)

    Martínez-Santos, P; Martín-Loeches, M; García-Castro, N; Solera, D; Díaz-Alcaide, S; Montero, E; García-Rincón, J


    On-site sanitation is generally advocated as a means to eradicate the health hazards associated with open defecation. While this has provided a welcome upgrade to the livelihoods of millions of people in low-income countries, improved sanitation facilities are increasingly becoming a threat to domestic groundwater-based supplies. Within this context, a survey of pit latrines, domestic wells and improved water sources was carried out in a large rural village of southern Mali. All households were surveyed for water, sanitation and hygiene habits. Domestic wells and improved water sources were georeferenced and sampled for water quality (pH, electric conductivity, temperature, turbidity, total dissolved solids, thermotolerant coliforms, chloride and nitrate) and groundwater level, while all latrines were inspected and georeferenced. A GIS database was then used to evaluate the proportion of water points within the influence area of latrines, as well as to underpin multiple regression models to establish the determinants for fecal contamination in drinking supplies. Moreover, an appraisal of domestic water treatment practices was carried out. This revealed that nearly two-thirds of the population uses bleach to purify drinking supplies, but also that domestic-scale treatment as currently implemented by the population is far from effective. It is thus concluded that existing habits could be enhanced as a means to make water supplies safer. Furthermore, population, well and latrine density were all identified as statistically significant predictors for fecal pollution at different spatial scales. These findings are policy-relevant in the context of groundwater-dependent human settlements, since many countries in the developing world currently pursue the objective of eliminating open defecation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  15. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  16. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless when...

  17. Urban community perception towards intermittent water supply system. (United States)

    Joshi, M W; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S


    While evaluating intermittent and continuous water supply systems, consumers opinion survey was undertaken for critical appraisal of both modes of operation. With the help of a pre-designed set of questions relating to various aspects of water supply and the opinion of consumers regarding degree of service, a house to house survey was conducted in the study area of Ghaziabad and Jaipur. The consumer opinion survey clearly indicated a satisfactory degree of service wherever adequate quantity of water was made available irrespective of the mode of water supply. Number of complaints regarding quality of water supplied, timings of supply, low pressures and breakdowns in supply were reported during intermittent water supply. Every family stored water for drinking and other uses. Most of the families discard drinking water once the fresh water supply is resumed next day. Discarded drinking water is usually used in kitchen for washing and gardening. Storage for other purposes depends on economic status and availability of other sources like open dug well in the house. While most of the respondents had no complaints on water tariff, all of them were in favour of continuous water supply.

  18. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at a...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home, a...

  20. Water Utility Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply (United States)

    Reviews roles and responsibilities among various levels of government regarding emergency water supplies and seeks to encourage collaboration and partnership regarding emergency water supply planning.

  1. Water supply and management concepts (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere


    If I had to cite one fact about water in the United States which would be not only the most important but also the most informative, the one I would choose would k this: Over 50 percent of all the water presently being used in the United States is used by industry, and nearly all of that is used for cooling.The large amount of attention recently being given to water shortage and the expected rapid increase in demand for water is probably to some extent clouded because there are certain simple facts about water availability and water use which, though readily available, are not generally either known or understood.Probably most people react to information in the public press about present and possible future water shortages with the thought that it is going to be more difficult in the future to supply the ordinary household with water for drinking, washing, and tbe culinary arts. As a matter of fact that may be true to some extent, but it is not the salient aspect.

  2. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D; Loose, V


    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  3. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over a...

  4. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State health...

  5. Geographical inequalities in use of improved drinking water supply and sanitation across Sub-Saharan Africa: mapping and spatial analysis of cross-sectional survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Pullan


    Full Text Available Understanding geographic inequalities in coverage of drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS will help track progress towards universal coverage of water and sanitation by identifying marginalized populations, thus helping to control a large number of infectious diseases. This paper uses household survey data to develop comprehensive maps of WSS coverage at high spatial resolution for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Analysis is extended to investigate geographic heterogeneity and relative geographic inequality within countries.Cluster-level data on household reported use of improved drinking-water supply, sanitation, and open defecation were abstracted from 138 national surveys undertaken from 1991-2012 in 41 countries. Spatially explicit logistic regression models were developed and fitted within a Bayesian framework, and used to predict coverage at the second administrative level (admin2, e.g., district across SSA for 2012. Results reveal substantial geographical inequalities in predicted use of water and sanitation that exceed urban-rural disparities. The average range in coverage seen between admin2 within countries was 55% for improved drinking water, 54% for use of improved sanitation, and 59% for dependence upon open defecation. There was also some evidence that countries with higher levels of inequality relative to coverage in use of an improved drinking-water source also experienced higher levels of inequality in use of improved sanitation (rural populations r = 0.47, p = 0.002; urban populations r = 0.39, p = 0.01. Results are limited by the quantity of WSS data available, which varies considerably by country, and by the reliability and utility of available indicators.This study identifies important geographic inequalities in use of WSS previously hidden within national statistics, confirming the necessity for targeted policies and metrics that reach the most marginalized populations. The presented maps and analysis approach

  6. Geographical inequalities in use of improved drinking water supply and sanitation across Sub-Saharan Africa: mapping and spatial analysis of cross-sectional survey data. (United States)

    Pullan, Rachel L; Freeman, Matthew C; Gething, Peter W; Brooker, Simon J


    Understanding geographic inequalities in coverage of drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS) will help track progress towards universal coverage of water and sanitation by identifying marginalized populations, thus helping to control a large number of infectious diseases. This paper uses household survey data to develop comprehensive maps of WSS coverage at high spatial resolution for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Analysis is extended to investigate geographic heterogeneity and relative geographic inequality within countries. Cluster-level data on household reported use of improved drinking-water supply, sanitation, and open defecation were abstracted from 138 national surveys undertaken from 1991-2012 in 41 countries. Spatially explicit logistic regression models were developed and fitted within a Bayesian framework, and used to predict coverage at the second administrative level (admin2, e.g., district) across SSA for 2012. Results reveal substantial geographical inequalities in predicted use of water and sanitation that exceed urban-rural disparities. The average range in coverage seen between admin2 within countries was 55% for improved drinking water, 54% for use of improved sanitation, and 59% for dependence upon open defecation. There was also some evidence that countries with higher levels of inequality relative to coverage in use of an improved drinking-water source also experienced higher levels of inequality in use of improved sanitation (rural populations r = 0.47, p = 0.002; urban populations r = 0.39, p = 0.01). Results are limited by the quantity of WSS data available, which varies considerably by country, and by the reliability and utility of available indicators. This study identifies important geographic inequalities in use of WSS previously hidden within national statistics, confirming the necessity for targeted policies and metrics that reach the most marginalized populations. The presented maps and analysis approach can provide a

  7. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With proper...

  8. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.6 Application for water supply forecast service. Requests for obtaining water supply forecasts or...

  9. Organization and scaling in water supply networks (United States)

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.


    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  10. Water supply from wetlands in Tanzania


    Mihayo, J.M.


    This paper gives a brief discussion on water supply from wetlands in Tanzania. The majordrainage basins in Tanzania are described and the status and role of the Division of WaterResearch in the monitoring of water resources and data collection from wetlands and watersources are highlighted. The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle, and the utilisation ofwetlands as water supply sources are discussed. The need for conservation and protection ofwetlands and other water sources is outlined.

  11. A Survey of the Community Water Supply of some rural Riverine Communities in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria: Health implications and literature search for suitable interventions. (United States)

    Ordinioha, B


    BACKGROUND: Water is a fundamental human need. This is the basis for target 10, goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals which sets to reduce the proportion of people without access to safe water by half by 2015. This study assessed the access to safe water supply in 22 riverine communities in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study was carried out using a descriptive cross-sectional study design, with the data collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, field observations and focused group discussions. The questionnaire was administered to female heads of household, and used to collect information on the main source of drinking water, the time it took for the round trip to the main water sources, and methods used for the treatment of water of suspicious quality. An inventory of all the community water facilities in the communities was also taken, and information collected on the functionality of the facilities, and how they were constructed, operated and maintained. A sample of the water from each of the facilities was also collected in a sterile container for microbiological analysis. RESULTS: A total of 456 questionnaires were administered and retrieved. The most common source of drinking water was surface water (37.9%), and most (61.2%) of the water drawers spent less than 15 minutes to complete the round trip to the water sources. There were an average of 17 community water supply facilities, but only 23.8% of the facilities were functional during the study. Most of the functional facilities were being managed by community members. More than two third (67.9%) of the samples tested were found to contain significant numbers of Escherichia coli. CONCLUSION: The communities had easy access to water supply, but most of the facilities were either contaminated or nonfunctional. The management of the facilities by members of the communities, and the promotion of point-of-use purification systems are hereby

  12. The Issue Of Water Resources Diversification In Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Janusz


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the methodology for determining the diversification degree of water resources in Collective Water Supply Systems (CWSS. Knowing the number of water supply sub-systems and their share in the total supply of water for CWSS, it is possible to calculate the dimensionless Pielou ratio. The paper presents the calculation of the diversification rate for 26 CWSS in Poland. The presented methodology makes it possible to compare CWSS with different water requirements.

  13. A Survey of the Community Water Supply of some rural Riverine Communities in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria: Health implications and literature search for suitable interventions


    B Ordinioha


    Background : Water is a fundamental human need. This is the basis for target 10, goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals which sets to reduce the proportion of people without access to safe water by half by 2015. This study assessed the access to safe water supply in 22 riverine communities in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Materials and Method : The study was carried out using a descriptive cross-sectional study design, with the data collected using a structured interviewer-administer...

  14. Wildfire and the future of water supply. (United States)

    Bladon, Kevin D; Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Stone, Micheal


    In many parts of the world, forests provide high quality water for domestic, agricultural, industrial, and ecological needs, with water supplies in those regions inextricably linked to forest health. Wildfires have the potential to have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems and community drinking water supply through impacts on water quantity and quality. In recent decades, a combination of fuel load accumulation, climate change, extensive droughts, and increased human presence in forests have resulted in increases in area burned and wildfire severity-a trend predicted to continue. Thus, the implications of wildfire for many downstream water uses are increasingly concerning, particularly the provision of safe drinking water, which may require additional treatment infrastructure and increased operations and maintenance costs in communities downstream of impacted landscapes. A better understanding of the effects of wildfire on water is needed to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to protect globally critical water supplies originating in forested environments.

  15. Elements of Conjunctive Use Water Supply. (United States)


    surface spreading basins and supply distribution networks are used to improve the Sutilization of water resources (increased yield), to maintain an...transfer agreements Inter-agency planning Cost-benefit allocation Water use permits Facilities maintenance agreements Water markets Water...export of water for off-site use if other users of the aquifer are adversely affected. Effective water rights markets would require a distinct move

  16. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.


    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  17. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008 (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.


    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  18. Fungi, Water Supply and Biofilms. (United States)

    Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Costa, Damien; Imbert, Christine

    Even though it has been studied for many years, water-related infectious risk still exists in both care and community environments due to the possible presence of numerous microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protists. People can be exposed directly to these microorganisms either through aerosols and water, after ingestion, inhalation, skin contact and entry through mucosal membranes, or indirectly usually due to pre-treatment of some medical devices. Species belonging to genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pseudallesheria, Fusarium, Cuninghamella, Mucor and in some particular cases Candida have been isolated in water from health facilities and their presence is particularly related to the unavoidable formation of a polymicrobial biofilm in waterlines. Fungi isolation methods are based on water filtration combined with conventional microbiology cultures and/or molecular approaches; unfortunately, these are still poorly standardized. Moreover, due to inappropriate culture media and inadequate sampling volumes, the current standardized methods used for bacterial research are not suitable for fungal search. In order to prevent water-related fungal risk, health facilities have implemented measures such as ultraviolet radiation to treat the input network, continuous chemical treatment, chemical or thermal shock treatments, or microfiltration at points of use. This article aims to provide an overview of fungal colonization of water (especially in hospitals), involvement of biofilms that develop in waterlines and application of preventive strategies.

  19. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment (United States)


    CWK will be activated per the TM instructions and the proper warmup time will be allocated. The system will be operated per the TM. Any...8 4.5 Human Factors Engineering (HFE) ................................... 10 4.6 Operational Check paragraph 4.4, Safety, the noise survey in paragraph 4.5, Human Factors Engineering (HFE), and document any modifications that corrected

  20. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose


    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...

  1. Water supply and needs for West Texas (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  2. Field survey on water supply, sanitation and associated health impacts in urban poor communities--a case from Mumbai City, India. (United States)

    Kumar Karn, S; Harada, H


    A field survey was conducted on four slum, squatter and pavement dweller communities of Mumbai City, India with a total sample size of 1,070 households. Study revealed extremely low water consumption pattern averaging merely 30 l/c x d, no sewerage and safe excreta disposal facilities manifested by high occurrence of water-borne diseases. The annual diarrhoeal, typhoid and malaria cases were estimated to 614, 68 and 126 per thousand populations respectively. At point prevalence scale, at least 30% of all morbidity can be accounted for by water-related infections. In addition to the impacts of neighborhood water pollution and sanitation, such diseases were also found positively correlated with low water consumption and poverty related factors as, poor housing and family income. Analysis of variance also revealed intra-poor gradient both in living standards and health conditions on which the pavement dwellers were observed to be the greatest sufferers of all.

  3. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM


    Full Text Available , Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2006 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION Operational safety of urine diversion toilets in Durban, South Africa L M Austin, South Africa There are approximately 50 000...

  4. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.


    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  5. Developing portfolios of water supply transfers (United States)

    Characklis, Gregory W.; Kirsch, Brian R.; Ramsey, Jocelyn; Dillard, Karen E. M.; Kelley, C. T.


    Most cities rely on firm water supply capacity to meet demand, but increasing scarcity and supply costs are encouraging greater use of temporary transfers (e.g., spot leases, options). This raises questions regarding how best to coordinate the use of these transfers in meeting cost and reliability objectives. This paper combines a hydrologic-water market simulation with an optimization approach to identify portfolios of permanent rights, options, and leases that minimize the expected costs of meeting a city's annual demand with a specified reliability. Spot market prices are linked to hydrologic conditions and described by monthly lease price distributions which are used to price options via a risk-neutral approach. Monthly choices regarding when and how much water to acquire through temporary transfers are made on the basis of anticipatory decision rules related to the ratio of expected supply to expected demand. The simulation is linked with an algorithm that uses an implicit filtering search method designed for solution surfaces that exhibit high-frequency, low-amplitude noise. This simulation-optimization approach is applied to a region that currently supports an active water market, with results suggesting that temporary transfers can reduce expected water supply costs substantially, while still maintaining high reliability. Also evaluated are trade-offs between expected costs and cost variability that occur with variation in a portfolio's distribution of rights, options, and leases.

  6. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy


    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  7. Deep Water Survey Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  8. Activities in water supply and sanitation. (United States)


    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    United Nations Expert Group Meeting of strategic approaches to fresh water management (United Nations ... national, and local levels that promote both equitable access and adequate supplies (United Nations 2001); and ... must make significant achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The paper intends to ...

  10. Water Supply in the Ankobra Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that result in the release of aluminium ions into the groundwater. The acidity of groundwaters has given slightly sour taste to drinking water and has also led to the mobilization of trace metals particularly iron, manganese, aluminium and arsenic into the groundwater system. Since borehole supply is rarely treated, these trace ...

  11. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake of...

  12. U.S. Geological Survey nutrient preservation experiment; nutrient concentration data for surface-, ground-, and municipal-supply water samples and quality-assurance samples (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.


    This report is a compilation of analytical results from a study conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) in 1992 to assess the effectiveness of three field treatment protocols to stabilize nutrient concentra- tions in water samples stored for about 1 month at 4C. Field treatments tested were chilling, adjusting sample pH to less than 2 with sulfuric acid and chilling, and adding 52 milligrams of mercury (II) chloride per liter of sample and chilling. Field treatments of samples collected for determination of ammonium, nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, dissolved Kjeldahl nitrogen, orthophosphate, and dissolved phosphorus included 0.45-micrometer membrane filtration. Only total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total phosphorus were determined in unfiltered samples. Data reported here pertain to water samples collected in April and May 1992 from 15 sites within the continental United States. Also included in this report are analytical results for nutrient concentrations in synthetic reference samples that were analyzed concurrently with real samples.

  13. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.


    As of the date of this report (August 1945), the major water users in the Ypsilanti area are: (1) the city of Ypsilanti, (2) the Willow Run bomber plant, built by the Federal Government and operated by the Ford Motor Co., and (3) the war housing project of the Federal Public Housing Authority, designated in this report the Willow Run Townsite. The city, bomber plant, and townsite have required large quantities of water for domestic and industrial uses, and the necessary water supplies have been developed from wells. The Federal Works Agency had the responsibility of deciding whether the existing water facilities were adequate to meet the expected demands and determining the character of any additional public water-supply facilities that might be constructed with Federal assistance. In order to appraise the ground-water resources of the area the Federal Works Agency requested the Geological Survey to investigate the adequacy of the existing supplies and the availability of additional water. The present report is the result of the investigation, which was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey Division.The water supplies of the three major users are obtained from wells penetrating glacial and associated sands and gravels. Supplies for the city of Ypsilanti and the Willow Run bomber plant are obtained from wells in the valley of the Huron River; the supply for the Willow Run Townsite is obtained from wells penetrating glacial gravels underlying the upland northeast of the valley. The bedrock formations of the area either yield little water to wells or yield water that is too highly mineralized for most uses.The water supply for the bomber plant is obtained from three closely spaced, highly productive wells at the northern edge of the Huron River, a little more than 3 miles southeast of Ypsilanti. The water receives complete treatment in a modern treatment plant. River water also can be treated and has been used occasionally in the winter and spring

  14. Installation of potable water supply and heat supply at base of subsoil water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla Evseevna


    Full Text Available Removal of groundwater with further use of it for potable water supply and heat supply with the use of heat pump is an important problem. A new revolutionary approach to the decision of energy and water saving that provides rational accommodation of groundwater boreholes ensuring the required flow rate of water through the heat pump evaporator with simultaneously high intensity of heat exchange process is proposed. The method of calculation which allows determining the necessary depth of borehole, quantity of boreholes, in consideration of flow rate and temperature of subsoil water determining capacity of heat pump installation is worked out.

  15. Impact of Hybrid Water Supply on the Centralised Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sitzenfrei


    Full Text Available Traditional (technical concepts to ensure a reliable water supply, a safe handling of wastewater and flood protection are increasingly criticised as outdated and unsustainable. These so-called centralised urban water systems are further maladapted to upcoming challenges because of their long lifespan in combination with their short-sighted planning and design. A combination of (existing centralised and decentralised infrastructure is expected to be more reliable and sustainable. However, the impact of increasing implementation of decentralised technologies on the local technical performance in sewer or water supply networks and the interaction with the urban form has rarely been addressed in the literature. In this work, an approach which couples the UrbanBEATS model for the planning of decentralised strategies together with a water supply modelling approach is developed and applied to a demonstration case. With this novel approach, critical but also favourable areas for such implementations can be identified. For example, low density areas, which have high potential for rainwater harvesting, can result in local water quality problems in the supply network when further reducing usually low pipe velocities in these areas. On the contrary, in high demand areas (e.g., high density urban forms there is less effect of rainwater harvesting due to the limited available space. In these high density areas, water efficiency measures result in the highest savings in water volume, but do not cause significant problems in the technical performance of the potable water supply network. For a more generalised and case-independent conclusion, further analyses are performed for semi-virtual benchmark networks to answer the question of an appropriate representation of the water distribution system in a computational model for such an analysis. Inappropriate hydraulic model assumptions and characteristics were identified for the stated problem, which have more

  16. Water Quality Index Assessment of Pogradec Water- Supply, in Albania


    , P. Icka; , R. Damo


    In this paper is applied for the first time in Albania Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCME) for assessment of water quality of water supply network on Pogradec city. CCME WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess spatial and temporal changes on the quality of any water body. Calculations of the index are based on a combination of three factors: scope - the number of variables whose objectives are not met; freq...

  17. Volatile Organic Compound and Pesticide Data for Public Water-Supply Reservoirs and Wells, Texas, 1999-2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahler, B. J; Gary, M. O; Canova, M. G; Strom, Eric W; Fahlquist, Lynne; Dorsey, Michael E


    To provide data for the Texas Source-Water Assessment and Protection Program, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a synoptic survey of 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells during 1999-2001...

  18. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  19. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck...

  20. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND 58502...

  1. Survey the Current State of Quality Potable Water Clearing Supplied to the Distribution System and the Role of Water & Wastewater Company And the Distribution of Network and Improve Its Quality Case Study in Shahrood City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Molaei Tvani


    Full Text Available  Background and Purpose: Supply of high-quality water (drinking water quality, is a critical component for sustainable socioeconomic development. This study aimed to assess the current state of water quality supplied to the distribution system and importance of participating water and sewer its distribution network to improve the quality selected. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study in 1394 in both spring and summer, during a systematic search, local information on the quality (microbiological, physical and chemical drinking water distribution systems were evaluated using a questionnaire. The samples for the presence of CL, PH, TDS, sulfates, total hardness, nitrite, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, turbidity and total coliform were analyzed by standard methods and 1053 were compared with the national standard. Results: The average parameters studied a total of 303 water samples collected from amount CL, PH, TDS, sulfates, total hardness, magnesium, calcium, nitrite, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, turbidity and total coliform respectively equal Was reported 0/1 mg/L, 7/66 mg/L, 773/39 mg/L,108/15 mg/L, 287/84 mg/L, 31/59 mg/L, 50/05 mg/L, 0/02 mg/L, 19/56 mg/L, 1/08 mg/L, 80/57 mg/L, 0/6 mg/L, 24/5 MPN/100ML. The role of water and sewage company as well as the effect of the drinking water distribution network respectively physicochemical and microbiological quality of drinking water in the utility had a significant relationship (p <0/005, (p <0/0001. And significant relationship between the quality of water supplied by the technical infrastructure and health, fatigue and corrosion, leakage and pressure was high hydro Leakey (p <0/000. According to the results of the statistical test Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient also showed a strong correlation between the leak with water quality. Conclusion: The results showed that the water samples tested for microbial and physico-chemical parameters were within the range of Iran

  2. Estimated Public Supply Water Use of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study in 2005 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a 100-meter cell resolution raster of estimated use of public supply water for the southwestern United States. The dataset was generated from...

  3. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 2015 (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer; Restrepo-Osorio, Diana


    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides derivative statistics of water used by Kansas public-supply systems in 2015. Gallons per capita per day is calculated using self-reported information in the “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” and “Part C: Population, Service Connections, and Water Rates” sections of the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources' (DWR) annual municipal water use report (see appendixes at for an example of a municipal water use report form.) Percent unaccounted for water is calculated using self-reported information in “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” of the DWR’s municipal water-use report. The published statistics from the previous 4 years (2011–2014) are also shown with the 2015 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. Derivative statistics of 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 5-year averages for gallons per capita per day (gpcd) are also provided by the Kansas Water Authority's 14 regional planning areas, and the DWR regions used for analysis of per capita water use in Kansas. An overall Kansas average (yearly and 5-year average) is also calculated. Kansas state average per capita municipal water use in 2015 was 105 gpcd.

  4. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John


    softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish......Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like...... and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In the paper the analysis of water supply infrastructure in Lublin Province was presented. We analysed the length of the water supply system divided into urban and rural areas, also change of water supply system growth and the analysis of number of connections to buildings over the studied years were presented. An issue of water consumption for household purposes, for industry, agriculture and forestry, and the operational needs of the water supply network, was also discussed. We analysed the percentage of the population using the water supply system and the indicators of equipping individual cities and counties in water supply systems were shown. The paper presents the analysis of the density of the water supply system in relation to national conditions. Appointed indicator of failure rate of water supply systems in the individual districts of Lublin province has an average reliability and failure rate according to the criteria recommended in the study [7]. There was a steady increase in the water supply system and related to it increase in investments. Significant changes that occurred in the field of water supply were the result of Polish accession to the European Union. After this accession Poland had to meet certain requirements related to the functioning of environment protection infrastructure. Changes in individual parameters characterizing the water supply infrastructure fit with the national tendency.





    Complex use of resources in the regional water supply systems. Regional water supply systems have expanded the range from county to regional level. These are complex works meant to serve the customers from several counties. Viable sources of underground water have become lower in number, quality and volume, due to pollution. Also, the quality indicators of surface water have downgraded because of the pollution. This paper will analyze a typical case of regional system, the water supply system...

  7. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.


    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  8. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies’ Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociepa-Kubicka Agnieszka


    Full Text Available Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK. The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI, as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  9. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies' Management (United States)

    Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka; Wilczak, Krzysztof


    Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK). The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI), as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  10. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D. (United States)

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  11. Sustainable Water Supplies in Uppsala, Sweden? (United States)

    Eriksson, Bert


    This is a description of a transdisciplinary three-day project with upper secondary school students around ecosystem services and sustainability. Uppsala (200 000 inhabitants) gets its municipal water from wells in the esker that dominates the landscape in and around the town. This esker was formed by glacial melt water around 11 000 BP, at the end of the latest glaciation and was lifted above sea level by post-glacial land rise from 6000 BP. To keep up the water table in the esker, water from river Fyris is pumped up and infiltrated in the esker. The river is also the recipient of wastewater downstream of the town, and the river runs out into Lake Mälaren that in its turn spills out into the Baltic Sea through Stockholm. The esker and river can thus be a central topic to work around, in Biology and Geography in upper secondary school, concerning recent and future water supplies, quaternary geology, limnology and landscape history. The fieldwork is carried out during three days in a period of three subsequent weeks. 1. One day is used to examine the water quality in the river above the town, organisms, pH, levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, conductivity and turbidity. Then the direction of the water is followed, first up to the infiltration dams on the esker, and then along the esker to the wells in the town. The formation of the esker and other traces in the landscape from the latest glaciation is also studied, as well as the historical use of the esker as a road and as a source of gravel and sand. The tap water that comes from the wells is finally tested in school in the same way as in the river. 2. The second day is used to follow the wastewater from households to the sewage plant, where the staff presents the plant. The water quality is tested in the same way as above in the outlet from the plant to the river. 3. The third day consists of a limnological excursion on the lake outside the mouth of the river where plankton and other organisms are studied, as

  12. Urban renovation of the hot water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraday Oleksandr


    Full Text Available Issues related to improving the reliability of hot water supply systems are considered. Currently, centralized hot water supply systems are in an emergency condition due to the fact that the external networks are made of black pipes without anticorrosive coatings. A fundamental difference between hot water supply systems and heating systems is the nature of black metal corrosion. The purpose of this article is to conduct a research of the state of hot water supply systems and consider options for their recovery. The options suggested for restoration of hot water supply systems in cities and settlements of Ukraine are the following: complete replacement of failed networks with new pre-insulated plastic pipelines; refusal from external networks of centralized hot water supply systems and a central heat point with the installation of individual heat points in each house; decentralization of hot water supply systems by installing electric water heaters. A technical and economic comparison of these options is carried out, and the advantages and disadvantages of each option are considered. The arrangement of a set of individual heat points instead of one central point cannot be considered as the recommended method, because of the need for large additional costs for the reconstruction of heating, water supply and electricity supply systems. The most technically and economically justified method from the considered renovation methods of hot water supply systems is the complete replacement of failed steel pipelines with new nonmetallic pre-insulated structures.

  13. A Study of Prediction of Daily Water Supply using ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Kyoung Hoon; Kang, Il Hwan [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Moon, Byoung Seok [Seonam Univ. Namwon (Korea)


    This study investigates the prediction of daily water supply, which is a necessary for the efficient management of water distribution system. Fuzzy neuron, namely artificial intelligence, is a neural network into which fuzzy information is inputted and then processed. In this study, daily water supply was predicted through an adaptive learning method by which a membership function and fuzzy rules were adapted for daily water supply prediction. This study was investigated methods for predicting water supply based on data about the amount of water supplied to the city of Kwangju. For variables choice, four analyses of input data were conducted: correlation analysis, autocorrelation analysis, partial autocorrelation analysis, and cross-correlation analysis. Input variables were (a) the amount of water supplied (b) the mean temperature, and (c) the population of the area supplied with water. Variables were combined in an integrated model. Data of the amount of daily water supply only was modelled and its validity was verified in the case that the meteorological office of weather forecast is not always reliable. Proposed models include accidental cases such as a suspension of water supply. The maximum error rate between the estimation of the model and the actual measurement was 18.35 % and the average error was lower than 2.36 %. The model is expected to be a real-time estimation of the operational control of water works and water/drain pipes. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California (United States)

    Wood, P.R.


    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  15. Modelling trihalomethanes formation in water supply systems. (United States)

    Di Cristo, Cristiana; Esposito, Giovanni; Leopardi, Angelo


    Chlorination is the most widely used method for disinfection of drinking water, but there are concerns about the formation of by-products, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), since the chronic exposure to them may pose risks to human health. For these reasons regulations fix maximum acceptable THMs levels throughout distribution networks, so it is very important to be able to correctly reproduce their formation. In the literature many models for predicting THMs formation have been developed, both based on empirical relationships and on kinetics involved during chlorine reactions. In this work the use of some of these models and their reliability in real situations is investigated through the application to the Aurunci-Valcanneto Water Supply System in Southern Lazio (Italy). The comparison of the performances of 18 selected literature empirical models furnishes interesting observations, indicating that the formula, developed using field data, results in being more suitable for reproducing THMs formation for the presented case study. Other considerations are also offered from the comparison with the results obtained using a simple first order kinetic model, calibrated using measured data.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are...

  17. Forecasting Water Demand and Supply of China for 2025 | Wei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a kind of renewable resources, but China is faced with a serious shortage of freshwater because of its huge population. In this paper, two models are built to make a forecast of water demand and supply of China in 2025. These two forecasting models for water demand and supply based on the algorithm of Double ...

  18. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in § 76.10-5(c...

  19. Supply chain simulation tools and techniques: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.


    The main contribution of this paper is twofold: it surveys different types of simulation for supply chain management; it discusses several methodological issues. These different types of simulation are spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discrete-event simulation and business games. Which

  20. Water Allocation and Supply Reliability in the Murrumbidgee Valley


    Jones, Randall E.; Musgrave, Warren F.; Bryant, Mike


    The objective of this study is to determine the average annual income and income variance of alternative irrigation water allocations and associated supply reliabilities in the Murrumbidgee Valley. Traditionally, water supply authorities have aimed to supply irrigators with their full allocations in all but the most severe drought years. This means that a substantial amount of water is held in storage as a reserve and in most years it is not utilised for irrigation or other, including environ...

  1. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China


    Gang Lin; Dong Jiang; Rui Duan; Jingying Fu; Mengmeng Hao


    Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP) in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES) is also highly significant for water...

  2. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.


    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is

  3. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy


    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure and paucity of fund. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.


    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  5. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.


    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  6. Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On access to water supply, only 29% had water in their premises, while 71% access water elsewhere of 30 minutes distance. The sources include borehole, protected dug wells, unprotected dug wells; while others during the wet season harvest rain water. Only 18% of the students treated their water by boiling it, adding ...

  7. Microbial quality of Jimma water supply Sofonias Kifle Tsegaye Gadisa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Microbial Quality of Jimma Water Supply. Sofonias Kifle et. al 25 made. For treated water, sample was taken only once but, for untreated water, samples were taken twice according to the guidelines for unchlorinated water. Sample collection procedures. A. Collecting sample from pipe water and protected springs. 1. The out ...

  8. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 4, 2005 ... implementation of the water supply system. This study describes the application of multicriteria decision aid for choosing the priority city to receive a water supply system, using the ELECTRE methodology. It was found that this type of methodol- ogy accommodates the decision-making in selecting a locality, ...

  9. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  10. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sound decision-making processes for investments in water supply systems need to be developed. This need arises from the problem observed in developing countries of a growing demand for water supply projects coupled with a lack of financial resources available to invest in them. A second problem is the selection of a ...

  11. Towards the commercialisation of urban water supply in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Policy for Water Supply and Sanitation of the Federal Government in Nigeria (NPWSS) strongly advocates the adoption of commercialisation and privatisation of piped urban water supply as a means of ensuring its sustainability through full cost recovery. This paper examines the economic feasibility and ...

  12. Community-based management of water supply services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mogane-Ramahotswa, B


    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of suitability of water supply is the ability of the community to manage its own scheme. Unlike in urban settlement institutional arrangements for rural water supply are rudimentary. Over the past decade...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The characteristics of equipping the Subcarpathian province cities with water supply infrastructure was made on the basis of data collected from the Provincial Office, Statistical Office, reports submitted by water companies regarding the functioning of water supply infrastructure and literature data. The indicators characterizing water supply infrastructure were determined for the years 1995-2014. In the paper the indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems were presented. Also water consumption and changes in the length of the water supply network in the cities of the Subcarpathian Province were examined. The analysis shows that the water consumption for the years 1995-2014 decreased by almost 6 m3∙year-1 per capita. The reason for such situation was the increasing price of water and the ecological awareness of the inhabitants of the Subcarpathian region. In the last year of the analysis the water supply system in urban areas of the Subcarpathian province was used by 95% of the population and, for comparison, in rural areas by 77% of the population. In the paper also changes in prices for water in the Subcarpathian region were shown, on the basis of data from the water tariffs in individual water companies. The important element of urban development is the technical infrastructure which reduces the investment costs. The determined indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems show an upward trend in the development of technical infrastructure. Based on the operational data from the water companies the failure rates in selected water supply networks were determined.

  14. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative


    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip


    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the opti...

  15. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota


    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  16. Sharing the burden of water supply protection (United States)

    Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken


    A sufficient supply of freshwater is critical to human survivability and biodiversity. Much of the recent decline in freshwater biodiversity and overall freshwater ecosystem health is attributable to land use change.

  17. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source. (United States)


    ... provide emergency supplies of clean water to any locality confronted with a source of contaminated water... interests to provide normal supplies of water. (9) State, tribal, and local governments must make full use... interests are responsible for restoration of the routine supply of clean drinking water, including...

  18. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.


    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  19. Improving Potable Water Accessibility And Sustainability Through Efficient Management Of Pipe Water Supply System


    Nakabugo, Stella Mirembe


    This paper discusses how to improve potable water accessibility and sustainability through efficient management of pipe water supply system a case study of Uganda, Kampala region. Kampala the capital city of Uganda still faces a challenge to access clean potable water. Water supply coverage is 77.5 % showing at least 22.5 % of the total population has limited access to potable drinking water causing a gap between water supply and water demand. Hypotheses of the paper were that the city's popu...

  20. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  1. Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reveals that public provision of water to the urban poor have been grappling with huge demands for water resulted from poor water infrastructure, high operation costs, mismanagement, illegal connections, poor urban planning and limited investment in water supply services just to mention few. These bottlenecks ...

  2. Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply. (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L


    Supplying piped water intermittently is a common practice throughout the world that increases the risk of microbial contamination through multiple mechanisms. Converting an intermittent supply to a continuous supply has the potential to improve the quality of water delivered to consumers. To understand the effects of this upgrade on water quality, we tested samples from reservoirs, consumer taps, and drinking water provided by households (e.g. from storage containers) from an intermittent and continuous supply in Hubli-Dharwad, India, over one year. Water samples were tested for total coliform, Escherichia coli, turbidity, free chlorine, and combined chlorine. While water quality was similar at service reservoirs supplying the continuous and intermittent sections of the network, indicator bacteria were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in samples from taps supplied intermittently compared to those supplied continuously (p water supply tap samples positive for E. coli. In samples from both continuously and intermittently supplied taps, higher concentrations of total coliform were measured after rainfall events. While source water quality declined slightly during the rainy season, only tap water from intermittent supply had significantly more indicator bacteria throughout the rainy season compared to the dry season. Drinking water samples provided by households in both continuous and intermittent supplies had higher concentrations of indicator bacteria than samples collected directly from taps. Most households with continuous supply continued to store water for drinking, resulting in re-contamination, which may reduce the benefits to water quality of converting to continuous supply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009 (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.


    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  4. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11 (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.


    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  5. Measuring the Welfare Losses from Urban Water Supply Disruptions


    Steven Buck; Maximilian Auffhammer; Stephen Hamilton; David Sunding


    The paper evaluates welfare losses from urban water supply disruptions. The analysis incorporates important features of the water industry that may cause the initial allocation of water to be inefficient, namely that ther are a large number of retail-level water utilities, and that mosst water utilities engage in a form of average cost pricing where volumetric rates are used to finance fixed expenses. We consider a sample of 53 urban water utilities in California collectively providing servic...

  6. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami


    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  7. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply. (United States)

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F


    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  8. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.


    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  9. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen


    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual......, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community...

  10. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip


    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  11. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez


    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  12. Monitoring systems for community water supplies (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Brooks, R. R.; Jeffers, E. L.; Linton, A. T.; Poel, G. D.


    Water monitoring system includes equipment and techniques for waste water sampling sensors for determining levels of microorganisms, oxygen, chlorine, and many other important parameters. System includes data acquisition and display system that allows computation of water quality information for real time display.

  13. Groundwater as source of rural water supply in Ghana | Gyau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploitation of groundwater for water supply needs of many rural communities in Africa has been on the increase in the last decade. The emphasis or reliance on groundwater supplies for rural communities stems from the fact that groundwater sourcing is not only feasible but also the most economic source of potable ...

  14. Microbial quality of Jimma water supply Sofonias Kifle Tsegaye Gadisa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    G, 2000). Many water sources in developing countries are unhealthy because they contain harmful chemical and biological agents. It is essential to protect water supplies from pollution and to perform basic surveillance and maintenance of water and sanitation system (Cheesbrough,. 2001). WHO estimated that 80% of all.

  15. Assessment of domestic water supply situation in rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that only three percent (3%) of the people have access to clean and safe pipe-borne water while the remaining 97% relied on streams, rain water, wells and springs for their domestic uses. Only 26% of the people had water supply within their houses while 47% of the rural dwellers trek for over an hour to ...

  16. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid


    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  17. Trace elements determination in municpal water supply in Damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is the only source of drinking water for residents of Damaturu Metropolis. This is because surface water is very scarce as a result of the very low and erratic rainfall in the region. This study examines the presence of trace elements in the municipal water supplies of Damaturu Metropolis, Yobe state. The trace ...

  18. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    economic development of any nation. In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply and sanitation situation had been put in place by different administrations. Despite this, the hope of meeting the UN Millennium ...

  19. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems. (United States)

    Watters, Gregor


    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  20. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF) (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  1. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment. Change Notice 1 (United States)


    provides technical guidance and recommendations for the sanitary control and surveillance of land-based field water support. It establishes field...of Defense Helicopters, 3 February 1997. 4. TB MED 577, Sanitary Control and Surveillance of Field Water Supplies, 1 May 2010. 5. TOP 01-2-610...water quality standards, describes the process for water portability certification and water quality surveillance requirements, and provides guidance

  2. Incidence of coliphage in potable water supplies.


    el-Abagy, M M; Dutka, B J; Kamel, M; el Zanfaly, H T


    Samples of drinking water from different sources in greater Cairo, Egypt, and bottled drinking water were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, and coliphage populations. Of the 147 samples tested, 4 samples were positive for both total coliforms and coliphage, 65 samples were negative for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and coliphage, and 78 samples were positive for coliphage and negative for total coliforms and fecal coliforms. The incidence of coliphage in these potable water suppl...

  3. Official data on German water supply: 2004, 2007, 2010


    Zschille, Michael


    The Research Data Centers of the German Federal Statistical Office and the Statistical Offices of the German 'Länder' provide information on potable water supply in Germany ('Statistik der öffentlichen Wasserver- und Abwasserentsorgung', EVAS No. 32211). Together with these statistics, information on sewage collection and treatment is also available. However, the focus of this data documentation is only on the data on potable water supply. [...

  4. Water supply at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishizawa


    Full Text Available The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE has sourced domestic water for daily use from ponds, snow drifts, and icebergs on sea ice at Syowa Station since the first wintering expedition. These water sources are dependent on weather conditions and maintenance of the sources requires considerable human effort and thermal energy. For example, the maintenance of outside water tanks and pipelines requires a lot of working force of wintering members and huge thermal energy which has been obtained from waste heat of engine generators. Here, we propose seawater desalination method using a reverse osmosis membrane to provide a reliable domestic water source to Syowa Station. Such a system could meet the station's water needs without requiring a large amount of staff time or heat energy.

  5. Lesotho - Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation design of the rural water intervention proposes two separate approaches so as to ensure a “defensive evaluation” that is, so that results can...

  6. Effect of type of water supply on water quality in a developing community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina


    Full Text Available Efforts to provide water to developing communities in South Africa have resulted in various types of water supplies being used. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used. Source (communal...

  7. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.5 Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. Water supply outlook reports prepared by NRCS and its cooperators containing water supply forecasts and basic data are usually...

  8. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks


    Lieb, Anna M.; Rycroft, Chris H.; Wilkening, Jon


    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic bo...

  9. Economic Insight from Utah’s Water Efficiency Supply Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Edwards


    Full Text Available Across the western US, growing populations and urbanization along with environmental demands and a changing climate have strained water allocation mechanisms originally designed to provide water to agriculture. This paper provides a methodology, using Utah as an example, for examining the options for new water supply via conservation, interpretable by policymakers, water agencies, and water users. Findings indicate that the largest potential water savings, at the lowest cost, are in agriculture and outdoor residential water use, where more efficient applications can maintain the acreage of crops and lawns at current levels while dramatically reducing use.

  10. [Public drinking water supply and egg laying by Aedes aegypti]. (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A Monteiro; Chaves, Leonardo Suveges Moreira; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Arduíno, Marylene de Brito; Chaves, Francisco José Moreira


    To evaluate the effect of the quality of publicly supplied water in domestic water tanks on egg laying by female Aedes aegypti. Laboratory study on immature Ae. aegypti, collected from water-tanks in the municipality of Potim, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Each cage contained three types of water in which eggs could be laid: Three choice per test were simultaneously used to deposit the eggs, ovipositor (A) with water collected from a water tank in Taubaté, ovipositor (B) with distilled water (control) and ovipositor (C) water collected from a water tank in the municipality of Potim. Physiochemical parameters were analyzed. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to analyze the mean number of eggs in each water sample and the Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test was used in making comparisons. To evaluate egg laying, an ovipositional activity index was adopted. A significant difference in the number of eggs was found between the liquid solutions tested (H = 45; p water tank samples originating from deep wells (C), was statistically superior to water samples from water tanks originating from superficial wells (A) (p water (A). In all three tests, the first position was the most productive in all tested solutions. Only water sample (C) produced a positive index (0.54), i.e., attractive to egg laying. Water quality influences egg laying by Aedes aegypti. The high concentrations of ammonium nitrate in public water supplies suggest that this chemical component was responsible for attracting pregnant female Aedes aegypti to lay eggs in these environments.

  11. Managing drought risk with a computer model of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system in central New Jersey (United States)

    Dunne, Paul; Tasker, Gary


    The reservoirs and pumping stations that comprise the Raritan River Basin water-supply system and its interconnections to the Delaware-Raritan Canal water-supply system, operated by the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (NJWSA), provide potable water to central New Jersey communities. The water reserve of this combined system can easily be depleted by an extended period of below-normal precipitation. Efficient operation of the combined system is vital to meeting the water-supply needs of central New Jersey. In an effort to improve the efficiency of the system operation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NJWSA, has developed a computer model that provides a technical basis for evaluating the effects of alternative patterns of operation of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system. This fact sheet describes the model, its technical basis, and its operation.

  12. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles. (United States)

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo


    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  13. Bulawayo water supplies: Sustainable alternatives for the next decade (United States)

    Mkandla, Noel; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Sibanda, Peter

    Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe with a population of nearly one million people. It is located on the watershed of Umzingwane and Gwayi catchments. The former is part of the Limpopo basin, while the latter drains into the Zambezi basin. Bulawayo has a good potential of economic development but has been stymied by lack of sufficient water. The city currently relies on five surface sources in the Umzingwane catchment where it has to compete with evaporation. The well field from the Nyamandlovu aquifer in the Gwayi catchment, which was constructed as an emergency measure during the 1992 drought, is currently not operational. Alternative water supply sources are far and expensive. A multilinear regression model was developed to analyse and quantify the factors affecting water consumption. It was found that per capita water consumption is very low, indicating suppressed demand. Water rationing, tariffs, rainfall, population growth and gross domestic product are the main factors influencing water consumption in Bulawayo. Assuming that these factors will continue to be influential, future water consumption was projected for intensive, regular and slack water demand management. Future water consumption was then compared with the current water supply capacity in order to determine the date by which the next water supply source is required. With slack demand management, the Nyamandlovu well field should have been operational by 2003, while by the year 2007 an additional source of water is required. With intensive demand management and assuming low population growth, current capacities may suffice to satisfy the suppressed demand until the year 2015, by which time Nyamandlovu wells should be operational again. The additional water supply sources that are currently being considered for Bulawayo (namely the Zambezi water pipeline; Gwayi Shangani dam; Mtshabezi dam; Lower Tuli dam; and Glass block dam) were then compared with an alternative water source not yet

  14. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao


    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  15. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply. (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko


    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  16. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages. (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem


    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  17. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem


    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  18. Sea water magnesium fuel cell power supply (United States)

    Hahn, Robert; Mainert, Jan; Glaw, Fabian; Lang, K.-D.


    An environmentally friendly magnesium fuel cell system using seawater electrolyte and atmospheric oxygen was tested under practical considerations for use as maritime power supply. The hydrogen rate and therefore the power density of the system were increased by a factor of two by using hydrogen evolution cathodes with a gas separation membrane instead of submerged cathodes without gas separation. Commercial magnesium AZ31 rolled sheet anodes can be dissolved in seawater for hydrogen production, down to a thickness below 100 μm thickness, resulting in hydrogen generation efficiency of the anode of over 80%. A practical specific energy/energy density of the alloy of more than 1200 Wh/kg/3000 Wh/l was achieved when coupled to a fuel cell with atmospheric air breathing cathode. The performance of several AZ31 alloy anodes was tested as well as the influence of temperature, electrolyte concentration and anode - cathode separation. The excess hydrogen produced by the magnesium hydrogen evolving cell, due to the negative difference effect, is proportional to the cell current in case of the AZ31 alloys, which simplifies system control considerably. Stable long-term operation of the system was demonstrated at low pressures which can be maintained in an open-seawater-submerged hydrogen generator.

  19. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is the scope for promoting much increased groundwater use for irrigated agriculture, and how might the investment risks be reduced and sustainable outcomes ensured? • How can the demand to expand urban groundwater use, for both further supplementing municipal water-supply systems and for direct in situ water ...

  20. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.


    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  1. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantity of water collected per day in each of five rural sources was inadequate (> 6 buckets or Ca 90 litres). Besides, all the traditional sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternatives supplies. Only 4.4% of the rural water users subjected them to any further treatment such ...

  2. Calculation of Water Supply to Hydraulic Jet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Krautsou


    Full Text Available Dependence for calculation of working fluid supply to water-air ejector is proposed. The de­pendence has been derived via analysis and processing of data being obtained by experimental research of water-jet devices.

  3. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of potable water to every nock and crannies of the state must be pursed vigorously. To achieve this task in Ekiti State, the problems militating against the supply of clean water need to be tackled effectively. For this reason, the rehabilitation of existing dams provision of funds, completion of the 132 KVA ...

  4. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is essential for sustenance of life and determines the overall socio- economic development of any nation. In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply and sanitation situation had been put in place by different administrations. Despite this, the hope of meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals ...

  5. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water... (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions...

  6. Developing the Water Supply System for Travel to Mars (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance D.; Flynn, Michael T.; Kliss, Mark H.


    What water supply method should be used on a trip to Mars? Two alternate approaches are using fuel cell and stored water, as was done for short missions such as Apollo and the Space Shuttle, or recycling most of the water, as on long missions including the International Space Station (ISS). Stored water is inexpensive for brief missions but its launch mass and cost become very large for long missions. Recycling systems have much lower total mass and cost for long missions, but they have high development cost and are more expensive to operate than storage. A Mars transit mission would have an intermediate duration of about 450 days out and back. Since Mars transit is about ten times longer than a brief mission but probably less than one-tenth as long as ISS, it is not clear if stored or recycled water would be best. Recycling system design is complicated because water is used for different purposes, drinking, food preparation, washing, and flushing the urinal, and because wastewater has different forms, humidity condensate, dirty wash water, and urine and flush water. The uses have different requirements and the wastewater resources have different contaminants and processing requirements. The most cost-effective water supply system may recycle some wastewater sources and also provide safety reserve water from storage. Different water supply technologies are compared using mass, cost, reliability, and other factors.

  7. [Significance of underground waters for population water supply of oil- producing regions in the Republic of Tatarstan]. (United States)

    Ivanov, A V; Tafeeva, E A


    The paper provides the hygienic characteristics of the underground waters used for water supply of the population of oil-producing regions in the Republic of Tatarstan (RT). The most common indicators of poor-quality drinking water of centralized water-supply systems from underground sources are shown to be its high mineralization, hardness, and higher than normal hygiene levels of chlorides, sulfates, and iron. The primary reason for drinking water quality deterioration is a high (as high as 70%) wear of water mains. It is noted that industrially based sanitary-and-hygienic and nature-conservative measures to improve water supply conditions for the population are being implemented under the financial backing of OAO "Tatneft" in the oil-producing regions. Considerable development-and-survey work is under way to detect and approve underground water reserves; underground reserves of fresh water have been today industrially introduced for the water supply of the towns of Zainsk, Bugulma, Nurlat, and the industrial community of Urussu. More than 400 springs and sources have been constructed, by meeting all the sanitary-and-hygienic requirements.

  8. Best Practices for Water Conservation and Efficiency as an Alternative for Water Supply Expansion (United States)

    EPA released a document that provides water conservation and efficiency best practices for evaluating water supply projects. The document can help water utilities and federal and state governments carry out assessments of the potential for future

  9. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. S. Cullis


    Full Text Available Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing

  10. Sustainability of Ancient Water Supply Facilities in Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal M. Barghouth


    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the sustainability of ancient water supply systems in Jerusalem from the Chalcolithic period (4500–3200 B.C. until the present time. Archaeological evidences and landscape settings were applied utilizing all available and accessible literature relevant to ancient water resources management in Jerusalem. Irrigated agriculture was practiced for many centuries in this region, hence sustainable water supply facilities were erected, including well developed aqueducts, water harvesting pools and irrigation channels for water storage and landscaping purposes. To cope with seismic events, soil subsidence and water leakage, ancient water engineers and architects applied innovative construction methods for the erection of water pools, channels and aqueduct systems. Ancient water supply systems in Jerusalem are valuable treasures of past civilizations and crucial urban environmental facilities and their protection is consistent with sustainable development principles. Effective environmental assessment as a decision-making process for sustainable development can be applied to preserve threatened ancient water facilities from major development proposals and urban infrastructure projects in Jerusalem.


    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central Oklahoma aquifer, which supplies drinking water to numerous communities in central Oklahoma. Concentrations as high as 230 µg/L have been reported in some drinking water supply wells from this aquifer. The city of Norman, like most other affected cities, is actively seeking a cost-effective solution to the arsenic problem. Only six of the city’s 32 wells exceeded the old MCL of 50 µg/L. With implementation of the new MCL this year, 18 of the 32 wells exceed the allowable concentration of arsenic. Arsenic-bearing shaly sandstones appear to be the source of the arsenic. It may be possible to isolate these arsenic-bearing zones from water supply wells, enabling production of water that complies with drinking water standards. It is hypothesized that geologic mapping together with detailed hydrogeochemical investigations will yield correlations which predict high arsenic occurrence for the siting of new drinking water production wells. More data and methods to assess the specific distribution, speciation, and mode of transport of arsenic in aquifers are needed to improve our predictions for arsenic occurrence in water supply wells. Research is also needed to assess whether we can ret

  12. Efficient dynamic scarcity pricing in urban water supply (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien J.; Escriva-Bou, Alvar


    Water pricing is a key instrument for water demand management. Despite the variety of existing strategies for urban water pricing, urban water rates are often far from reflecting the real value of the resource, which increases with water scarcity. Current water rates do not bring any incentive to reduce water use in water scarcity periods, since they do not send any signal to the users of water scarcity. In California, the recent drought has spurred the implementation of drought surcharges and penalties to reduce residential water use, although it is not a common practice yet. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive calls for the implementation of new pricing policies that assure the contribution of water users to the recovery of the cost of water services (financial instrument) while providing adequate incentives for an efficient use of water (economic instrument). Not only financial costs should be recovered but also environmental and resource (opportunity) costs. A dynamic pricing policy is efficient if the prices charged correspond to the marginal economic value of water, which increases with water scarcity and is determined by the value of water for all alternative uses in the basin. Therefore, in the absence of efficient water markets, measuring the opportunity costs of scarce water can only be achieved through an integrated basin-wide hydroeconomic simulation approach. The objective of this work is to design a dynamic water rate for urban water supply accounting for the seasonal marginal value of water in the basin, related to water scarcity. The dynamic pricing policy would send to the users a signal of the economic value of the resource when water is scarce, therefore promoting more efficient water use. The water rate is also designed to simultaneously meet the expected basic requirements for water tariffs: revenue sufficiency (cost recovery) and neutrality, equity and affordability, simplicity and efficiency. A dynamic increasing block rate (IBR

  13. Supplying rural Kazakhstan with safe water and sanitation


    Tussupova, Kamshat


    Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is essential for both individual and population health as well as for quality of life and dignity. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require nations to ensure adequate water supply and sanitation for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need a much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the previous UN Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). A new massive drinking water program in Kaza...

  14. Climatic changes, flood prevention and water supply in Slovenia


    Aleš Bizjak


    The forecasts following research on climatic changes and consequences of global warming on the environment that were carried out by research institutes predict qualitative and quantitative changes in certain elements of the water cycle, such as: precipitation, soil humidity, storms and intensive weather and the sea level. The article shows possible effects of climatic change on the water cycle, floods and water supply in Slovenia

  15. Climatic changes, flood prevention and water supply in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bizjak


    Full Text Available The forecasts following research on climatic changes and consequences of global warming on the environment that were carried out by research institutes predict qualitative and quantitative changes in certain elements of the water cycle, such as: precipitation, soil humidity, storms and intensive weather and the sea level. The article shows possible effects of climatic change on the water cycle, floods and water supply in Slovenia

  16. Introduction of water footprint assessment approach to enhance water supply management in Malaysia (United States)

    Moni, Syazwan N.; Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, M. A.


    Presently, Water Footprint (WF) Approach has been used to assess the sustainability of a product's chain globally but is lacking in the services sector. Thus, this paper aims to introduce WF assessment as a technical approach to determine the sustainability of water supply management for the typical water supply treatment process (WSTP) used in Malaysia. Water supply is one of the pertinent services and most of WF accounting begins with data obtained from the water supply treatment plant. Therefore, the amount of WF will be accounted for each process of WSTP in order to determine the water utilization for the whole process according to blue, green and grey WF. Hence, the exact amount of water used in the process can be measured by applying this accounting method to assess the sustainability of water supply management in Malaysia. Therefore, the WF approach in assessing sustainability of WSTP could be implemented.

  17. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    - & stormwater harvesting as the most environmentally friendly technology followed by the cases relying on groundwater abstraction. The least favorable case is desalination of seawater. Rain- & stormwater harvesting and desalination have markedly lower environmental impacts in the use stage compared to the base...... data was extracted from the national implementation of the EU water framework directive. When incorporating the impacts of freshwater withdrawal in addition to the standard LCA the rank order is partly reversed since rain- & stormwater harvesting and desalination are significantly more preferable...... showed that the result depends upon the weighting of the sustainability categories. This study shows that when the highest weight is assigned to environment then the case of rain- & stormwater harvesting is the most sustainable followed by desalination of seawater. When the highest weight was assigned...

  18. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  19. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability Distribution of Water Resources in a Regional Water Supply System (United States)

    Liu, T.; Tung, C.; Li, M.


    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. It is important to know how climate change might effect regional water resources, however, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will effect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate. For example, the water supply of some area is from the water of river. When the storm occurred, the water can't be treated due to high density of suspended sediment in the river. Then the water supply in this area is more vulnerable to climate. This study used an integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool. A water supply system is very complex which needs dynamic modeling to determine the vulnerability distribution. This study used a system dynamics model- VENSIM connected with TaiWAP to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  20. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.


    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  1. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II


    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  2. Optimization of energy cost in water supply system (United States)

    Zimoch, Izabela; Bartkiewicz, Ewelina


    The decreasing amount of fossil fuels and deteriorating air quality forces the governments to introduce a rational energy management in all sectors of economy. At the beginning of the twenty-first century many water supply systems (WSSs) were oversized because of the reduction of water consumption, especially in industry. This resulted in high energy consumption in the pumping stations. Improving pumps operation will decrease energy consumption and also the water prices. The purpose of this paper is to present a method of energy optimization in WSSs. This paper presents an analysis of energy consumption in a selected water supply system. In this study pumps located in water treatment plants and pumping station cooperating with the tanks are analyzed. The study used hydraulic model of the WSS created in MOSKAN-W, which defines pumpś parameters such as flow, head, and efficiency. Using optimization options of calculation software several scenarios of energy costs were prepared.

  3. Predicting Trihalomethanes (THMs) in the New York City Water Supply (United States)

    Mukundan, R.; Van Dreason, R.


    Chlorine, a commonly used disinfectant in most water supply systems, can combine with organic carbon to form disinfectant byproducts including carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs). We used water quality data from 24 monitoring sites within the New York City (NYC) water supply distribution system, measured between January 2009 and April 2012, to develop site-specific empirical models for predicting total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels. Terms in the model included various combinations of the following water quality parameters: total organic carbon, pH, specific conductivity, and water temperature. Reasonable estimates of TTHM levels were achieved with overall R2 of about 0.87 and predicted values within 5 μg/L of measured values. The relative importance of factors affecting TTHM formation was estimated by ranking the model regression coefficients. Site-specific models showed improved model performance statistics compared to a single model for the entire system most likely because the single model did not consider locational differences in the water treatment process. Although never out of compliance in 2011, the TTHM levels in the water supply increased following tropical storms Irene and Lee with 45% of the samples exceeding the 80 μg/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) in October and November. This increase was explained by changes in water quality parameters, particularly by the increase in total organic carbon concentration and pH during this period.

  4. Economic Aspects of Urban Water Supply: Some Reflections on Water Conservation Policies


    Hanke, S.H.


    Water supply planning has traditionally been carried out in two steps: first, water requirements are forecast; and second, water systems are planned to meet these requirements. This traditional approach served water planners well until the 1960's. Then costs began to increase dramatically but regulators failed to allow revenues to increase as rapidly. As a result, the traditional approach to water supply planning became inadequate. To reduce costs and reduce waste, planners began to consider ...

  5. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  6. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela


    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  7. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.


    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  8. Corrosion of galvanized pipes in the hot water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexey


    Full Text Available The paper describes the problem of steel pipes corrosion in domestic hot water supply systems. A case study of abnormally high rate of corrosion of galvanized steel pipes in a hot water supply system, installed in a complex of residential and public buildings, was considered. The rapid corrosion led to premature failure of these pipelines. Onsite visual inspection, chemical analysis of the tap water with LSI/RSI calculation and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis were used during this study. The basic factors that lead to pitting corrosion were established: quality of source water (its high corrosion activity, high temperature and local increase in oxygen content near the pipe surface. A possibility of microbial corrosion was also assumed.

  9. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    because of demographic pressure, climate change and economic transformation. Two new policy ... and for direct in situ water supply, be best channelled to maximise the benefits whilst minimising the risks? ... Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, groundwater development, groundwater management, groundwater governance.

  10. Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez


    Available water supply across the contiguous 48 states was estimated as precipitation minus evapotranspiration using data for the period 1953-1994. Precipitation estimates were taken from the Parameter- Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Evapotranspiration was estimated using two models, the Advection-Aridity model and the Zhang model. The...

  11. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration. (United States)


    ... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any State or Indian tribe that has not certified completion of all coal-related reclamation under section... service area expansion of a utility or facility not necessary to address a specific abandoned mine land...

  12. Planning for water supply projects in Kolkata, India | Guha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mega cities in developing countries like Kolkata in India are often dependent on international agencies for financing its civic infrastructures like water supply network. These funding agencies would require cost benefit analysis for appraisal of the projects. Such study would demand rapid cost estimation as well as the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika


    Full Text Available The supply of safe water to all population is a basic need to improve health, quality of life and prosperity of people in the region. The paper gives an overview of low cost RWS intermediate technology experienced by UNICEF operations in developing countries.

  14. Potable water supply in owerri metropolis: a challenge to mdgs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research paper examined the readiness of the Imo State Government to deliver the MDGs by 2015 through potable water supply. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed randomly to heads of households in the residential zone, 20 at the institutional areas, 20 to traders within the commercial zone and 5 ...

  15. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  16. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4. (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  17. Public Perception of Potable Water Supply in Abeokuta South west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception of residents towards the supply of potable water to Abeokuta was assessed with the aid of questionnaire. Well-structured interviewer administered questionnaire were distributed across the city through the stratified random sampling method using the network distribution map obtained from the Ogun State ...

  18. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system


    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi


    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  19. Public water-supply systems and associated water use in Tennessee, 2005 (United States)

    Robinson, John A.; Brooks, Jaala M.


    Public water-supply systems in Tennessee provide water to for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses, and municipal services. In 2005, more than 569 public water-supply systems distributed about 920 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of non-purchased surface water and groundwater to a population of nearly 6 million in Tennessee. Surface-water sources provided 64 percent (about 591 Mgal/d) of the State's water supplies. Groundwater produced from wells and springs in Middle and East Tennessee and from wells in West Tennessee provided 36 percent (about 329 Mgal/d) of the public water supplies. Gross per capita water use for Tennessee in 2005 was about 171 gallons per day. Water withdrawals by public water-supply systems in Tennessee have increased from 250 Mgal/d in 1955 to 920 Mgal/d in 2005. Tennessee public water-supply systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. However, 34 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2000–2005, and 15 of these 34 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. The county with the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (130 Mgal/d) was Davidson County. Each of Tennessee's 95 counties was served by at least one public water-supply system in 2005. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (about 167 Mgal/d) by a single public water-supply system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served 654,267 people in Shelby County in 2005.

  20. Potable Water Emergency/Contingency Plan. Water Supply Information Paper; No. IP-31-020

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grover, Gregory


    This paper provides guidance to installations for preparing an emergency/contingency plan to effectively address potential contamination of drinking water supplies, and for providing potable water during emergencies...

  1. Isotopic Fingerprint for Phosphorus in Drinking Water Supplies. (United States)

    Gooddy, Daren C; Lapworth, Dan J; Ascott, Matthew J; Bennett, Sarah A; Heaton, Timothy H E; Surridge, Ben W J


    Phosphate dosing of drinking water supplies, coupled with leakage from distribution networks, represents a significant input of phosphorus to the environment. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)OPO4), a novel stable isotope tracer for phosphorus, offers new opportunities to understand the importance of phosphorus derived from sources such as drinking water. We report the first assessment of δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. A total of 40 samples from phosphate-dosed distribution networks were analyzed from across England and Wales. In addition, samples of the source orthophosphoric acid used for dosing were also analyzed. Two distinct isotopic signatures for drinking water were identified (average = +13.2 or +19.7‰), primarily determined by δ(18)OPO4 of the source acid (average = +12.4 or +19.7‰). Dependent upon the source acid used, drinking water δ(18)OPO4 appears isotopically distinct from a number of other phosphorus sources. Isotopic offsets from the source acid ranging from -0.9 to +2.8‰ were observed. There was little evidence that equilibrium isotope fractionation dominated within the networks, with offsets from temperature-dependent equilibrium ranging from -4.8 to +4.2‰. While partial equilibrium fractionation may have occurred, kinetic effects associated with microbial uptake of phosphorus or abiotic sorption and dissolution reactions may also contribute to δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies.

  2. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Bath, A.


    to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO2-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3...... ± 0.2 per delivered m3 for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water...... supply planning and management....

  3. An Investigation of Potable Water Supply Problems in Akinima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research design for the study is basically survey design and experimental design. The instruments used for investigation are questionnaire survey, face to face interview and observation. Experimentation was done in the laboratory to investigate physical, chemical and microbiological samples of drinking water from the ...

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Supply Reef, 2003 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 1 sites at Supply Reef in the...

  5. Concentration and size of asbestos in water supplies.


    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Pansing, M F; Twyman, J D


    A review of the results of over 1500 asbestos analyses from U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations in their drinking water over 1 x 10(6) fibers per liter. There are, however, some populations that are exposed to waterborne asbestos concentrations over 10 x 10(6) fibers per liter caused by natural erosion, mine processing wastes, waste pile erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipe, or disintegration of asbestos tile roofs...

  6. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon


    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  7. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.


    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  8. Uncertainty Categorization, Modeling, and Management for Regional Water Supply Planning (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K. M.; AlSaati, A.; Alhassan, A.


    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from growing demands, variability in supply and a changing climate. Short-term variation in water availability and demand; long-term uncertainty in climate, groundwater storage, and sectoral competition for water; and varying stakeholder perspectives on the impacts of water shortages make it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they are the result of stochastic variation or epistemic uncertainty, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are deep uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. We develop a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, sensitivity analysis for deep uncertainty and Bayesian decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. We apply this framework to two contrasting case studies - drought preparedness in Melbourne, Australia and fossil groundwater depletion in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - to assess the impacts of different types of uncertainty on infrastructure decisions. Melbourne's water supply system relies on surface water, which is impacted by natural variation in rainfall, and a market-based system for managing water rights. Our results show that small, flexible investment increases can mitigate shortage risk considerably at reduced cost. Riyadh, by contrast, relies primarily on desalination for municipal use and fossil groundwater for agriculture, and a centralized planner makes allocation decisions. Poor regional groundwater measurement makes it difficult to know when groundwater pumping will become uneconomical, resulting in epistemic uncertainty. However, collecting more data can reduce the uncertainty, suggesting the need for different uncertainty modeling and management strategies in Riyadh than in Melbourne. We will categorize the two systems and propose appropriate

  9. A Modeling Framework for Improved Agricultural Water Supply Forecasting (United States)

    Leavesley, G. H.; David, O.; Garen, D. C.; Lea, J.; Marron, J. K.; Pagano, T. C.; Perkins, T. R.; Strobel, M. L.


    The National Water and Climate Center (NWCC) of the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service is moving to augment seasonal, regression-equation based water supply forecasts with distributed-parameter, physical process models enabling daily, weekly, and seasonal forecasting using an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) methodology. This effort involves the development and implementation of a modeling framework, and associated models and tools, to provide timely forecasts for use by the agricultural community in the western United States where snowmelt is a major source of water supply. The framework selected to support this integration is the USDA Object Modeling System (OMS). OMS is a Java-based modular modeling framework for model development, testing, and deployment. It consists of a library of stand-alone science, control, and database components (modules), and a means to assemble selected components into a modeling package that is customized to the problem, data constraints, and scale of application. The framework is supported by utility modules that provide a variety of data management, land unit delineation and parameterization, sensitivity analysis, calibration, statistical analysis, and visualization capabilities. OMS uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to collaboratively work on addressing the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. A long-term goal in the development of these water-supply forecasting capabilities is the implementation of an ensemble modeling approach. This would provide forecasts using the results of multiple hydrologic models run on each basin.

  10. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina, water years 2012–13 (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.


    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2011 through September 2012 (water year 2012) and October 2012 through September 2013 (water year 2013). Major findings for this period include:Annual precipitation was approximately 2 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2012 and approximately 3 percent below the long-term mean in 2013.In water year 2012, streamflow was generally below the long-term mean during most of the period for the 10 project streamflow gaging stations. Streamflow was near or above the long-term mean at the same streamflow gaging stations during the 2013 water year.More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 17 sites—6 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-three water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality standards exist for 23 of these.All observations met State water-quality standards for pH, temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium.North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, turbidity, chlorophyll a, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at all 17 sites.Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 19 water-quality constituents relative to non-storm events.

  11. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in WondoGenet district, Southern Ethiopia to assess the water quality of rural water supply schemes in relation to the sustainability of their service delivery. 28 functional water points were selected randomly, for their assessments. The assessments included sanitary surveillance of water points and ...

  12. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama. (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L


    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered

  14. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1996. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLin, S.G.; Purtymun, W.D.; Maes, M.N.; Longmire, P.A.


    Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1996 totaled about 1,368.1 million gallons from wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi well fields. There was no water used from either the spring gallery in Water Canyon or from Guaje Reservoir during 1996. About 2.6 million gallons of water from Los Alamos Reservoir was used for lawn irrigation. The total water usage in 1996 was about 1,370.7 million gallons, or about 131 gallons per day per person living in Los Alamos County. Groundwater pumpage was up about 12.0 million gallons in 1996 compared with the pumpage in 1995. This report fulfills requirements specified in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (Groundwater Protection Management Program), which requires the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to monitor and document groundwater conditions below Pajarito Plateau and to protect the regional aquifer from contamination associated with Laboratory operations. Furthermore, this report also fulfills special conditions by providing information on hydrologic characteristics of the regional aquifer, including operating conditions of the municipal water supply system.

  15. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin


    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  16. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers


    impacts by production on long-term water supply sustainability at Los Alamos. This report summarizes production data and aquifer conditions for water production and monitor wells in the Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) area (Figure 1). Water production wells are grouped within the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields, the locations of which are shown on Figure 1. Wells from these fields supply all the potable water used for municipal and most industrial purposes in Los Alamos County (LAC), at LANL, and at Bandelier National Monument. This report has three primary objectives: (1) Provide a continuing historical record of metered well production and overall water usage; (2) Provide data to the Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL management, and Los Alamos County planners for operation of the water supply system and for long-range water resource planning; and (3) Provide water-level data from regional aquifer production wells, test wells, and monitoring wells.

  17. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar


    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  18. The Financing of Water Supply and Sewerage Services in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florentina CUCOS


    Full Text Available Water supply and sewerage services represent utilities that must be provided to all users, both the urban and the rural. The responsibility to ensure these services in terms of non-discrimination and affordability belongs to the local authorities, which in the spirit of decentralization have exclusive jurisdiction on their establishment, organization and operation. Regardless of the chosen management, the funding of water supply and sewerage services, is accomplished by means of the prices and tariffs paid by the users. Their quantum, specific to some social services, covers the costs without allowing the accumulation of consistent profit margins, which would ensure the development of the specific infrastructure from the operators' own funds. It is therefore necessary that funding for the creation and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems to be provided from other sources than the budgets of operators, such as: budgetary allocations of local public authorities, government or European funding programs. This paper is of interest because it captures just how the prices and tariffs for these services are composed, and the entire procedure for foundation, adjustment and modification that follows different rules from those of pricing in the market economy, and it provides a review of the types of programs through which the development of the specific technical-urban infrastructure and the significant increase in the number of users in the past 25 years.

  19. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich


    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  20. Prevalence of Simkania negevensis in chlorinated water from spa swimming pools and domestic supplies. (United States)

    Donati, M; Cremonini, E; Di Francesco, A; Dallolio, L; Biondi, R; Muthusamy, R; Leoni, E


    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Simkania negevensis in the chlorinated water of spa swimming pools and domestic network systems. A total of 10 and 36 samples were collected from two domestic water supplies and four spa facilities, respectively. Simkania negevensis was isolated in Acanthamoeba castellanii monolayers and detected by Gimenez staining and immunofluorescence test. Simkania negevensis DNA, extracted from the positive samples, was confirmed by a nested PCR assay followed by sequencing. Simkania negevensis was detected in 41·3% of samples (domestic water: 50%; untreated spa supply water: 25%; chlorinated spa pool water: 42·9%) from all the examined water systems in successive samplings performed in 1 year. The presence of S. negevensis was not correlated with the counts of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unlike Legionella spp., which were never isolated from the swimming-pool water samples, S. negevensis was also detected in chlorinated spa water. This investigation shows that Simkania is widespread in natural and man-made aquatic environments, which may represent possible sources of infection: in the swimming pools, in particular, the aerosol generated by the water movement could increase the risk of inhalation of infected particles. This study represents the first evidence of the presence of S. negevensis in spa pool water. Sero-epidemiological surveys on spa users could help to clarify its transmission in this environment. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial water...

  2. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis]. (United States)

    Él'piner, L I


    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE


    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  4. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosi, F.D.


    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  5. Energy and air emission effects of water supply. (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad


    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  6. Status of small water supplies in the Nordic countries: Characteristics, water quality and challenges. (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Persson, Kenneth M; Andradottir, Hrund O; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M


    Access to safe water is essential for public health and is one of the most important prerequisites for good living and safe food production. Many studies have shown that non-compliance with drinking water quality standards in small water supply systems is much higher than in large systems. Nevertheless, people served by small water supply systems have the right to the same level of health protection. Actions are therefore needed to improve the situation. The objective of the present study was to carry out a baseline analysis of the situation in the Nordic region and provide recommendations for governmental policy and actions. Data were gathered on number of water supplies, population served, compliance with regulations and waterborne disease outbreaks from various sources in the Nordic countries. The collected data showed that there are about 12500 regulated water supplies, 9400 of which serve fewer than 500 persons. The number of unregulated and poorly regulated supplies is unknown, but it can be roughly estimated that these serve 10% of the Nordic population on a permanent basis or 2.6 million people. However, this does not tell the whole story as many of the very small water supplies serve transient populations, summerhouse dwellers and tourist sites, with many more users. Non-compliance regarding microbes is much higher in the small supplies. The population weighted average fecal contamination incidence rate in the Nordic region is eleven times higher in the smaller supplies than in the large ones, 0.76% and 0.07%, respectively. Registered waterborne disease outbreaks were also more frequent in the small supplies than in the large ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Scott A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private systems will enable public health professionals to better target education and outreach activities, and to address the needs and concerns of residents in their jurisdictions. The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking water perceptions and self-described behaviours and needs of participants served by private water systems in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada. Methods In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age. Results Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed. Conclusion While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in

  8. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel


    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  9. Development and validation of a drinking water temperature model in domestic drinking water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanovic, Ljiljana; Moerman, Andreas; Hoek, van der Jan Peter; Vreeburg, Jan; Blokker, Mirjam


    Domestic drinking water supply systems (DDWSs) are the final step in the delivery of drinking water to consumers. Temperature is one of the rate-controlling parameters for many chemical and microbiological processes and is, therefore, considered as a surrogate parameter for water quality

  10. Adoption of irrigation water policies to guarantee water supply: A choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcon, F.; Tapsuwan, S.; Brouwer, R.; de Miguel, M.D.


    More efficient and sustainable use of water is increasingly becoming an urgency in drought prone parts of the world. In particular, in water scarce regions such as the Mediterranean, water supply is expected to become more uncertain because of climate change. Consequently, pro-active policy

  11. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin [Nuclear Science and Development Center, National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Weng, Pao-Shan [Radiation Protection Association ROC, Taiwan (China)


    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m{sup 3}/day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m{sup 3}. Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  12. Estimating critical water supply for debris flow initiation in Norway (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Dyrrdal, A. V.; Frauenfelder, R.; Etzelmüller, B.; Nadim, F.


    Debris flows frequently affect the Norwegian road and railway infrastructure, especially during spring and autumn. While the debris flow activity in autumn is mainly due to the occurrence of extreme rainfall events, debris flows in spring often occur during periods of rapid snow melt. Existing rainfall threshold values that indicate critical conditions for debris-flow initiation are largely based on precipitation data recorded by meteorological stations. However, during winter the measured amount of precipitation (accumulated as snow) can differ significantly from the actual amount of water that is released to the ground, which is in turn the more critical factor for debris flow initiation. In this study, the data on the actual water supply by the Norwegian Water and Energy Directorate (NVE), and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute ( were used to assess the threshold values. Compared to rainfall data, these data define the hydro-meteorological threshold conditions more accurately throughout the year - i.e. the debris flow triggering conditions due to snow accumulation in autumn and winter and snow melt in spring and summer. Three intensity-duration threshold curves were derived by analyzing the data on 502 past debris flows for water supply durations of 1 to 7 days. Normalization of the data was accomplished using the local "precipitation day normal" to account for regional differences in climate. The minimum threshold indicates the lower boundary above which debris-flow occurrence has been recorded and ranges between 6 and 63 mm/day for different locations and durations. The medium threshold (ranging between 7 and 131 mm/day) characterizes the conditions that are likely to initiate debris flows. Water supply rates exceeding the maximum threshold are regarded as a certain trigger and lie between 12 and 250 mm/day. Based on the obtained threshold curves a frequency analysis over durations of 1, 3 and 7 days for the period 1981-2010 was conducted

  13. Public supply and domestic water use in the United States, 2015 (United States)

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Maupin, Molly A.


    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Use Science Project (NWUSP), part of the USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP), has estimated water use in the United States every 5 years since 1950. This report provides an overview of total population, public-supply use, including the population that is served by public-supply systems and the domestic deliveries to those users, and self-supplied domestic water use in the United States for 2015, continuing the task of estimating water use in the United States every 5 years. In this report, estimates for the United States include the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (hereafter referred to as “states” for brevity).County-level data for total population, public-supply withdrawals and the population served by public-supply systems, and domestic withdrawals for 2015 were published in a data release in an effort to provide data to the public in a timely manner. Data in the current version (1.0) of Dieter and others (2017) contains county-level total withdrawals from groundwater and surface-water sources (both fresh and saline) for public-water supply, the deliveries from those suppliers to domestic users, and the quantities of water from groundwater and surface-water sources for self-supplied domestic users, and total population. Methods used to estimate the various data elements for the public-supply and domestic use categories at the county level are described by Bradley (2017).This Open-File Report is an interim report summarizing the data published in Dieter and others (2017) at the state and national level. This report includes discussions on the total population, totals for public-supply withdrawals and population served, total domestic withdrawals, and provides comparisons of the 2015 estimates to 2010 estimates (Maupin and others, 2014). Total domestic water use, as described in this report, represents the summation of deliveries from

  14. Well Head Protection Areas For Public Non-Community Water Supply Wells In New Jersey (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Well Head Protection Area for a Public Non-Community Water Supply Well (PNCWS) in New Jersey is a map area calculated around a Public Non-Community Water Supply...

  15. Establishing Vulnerability Map of Water Resources in Regional Water Supply System (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.


    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. To reduce the threat of water scarcity, it is important to know how climate change might affect regional water resources and where the hotspots, the vulnerability points, are. However, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will affect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate due to the lack of water treatment plants or tape water pipe system. And also, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable due to high population and high industrial product value when they expose to the same threat of water scarcity. This study aims to evaluate the spatial vulnerability distribution of water resources and propose the adaptive plan for southern region of Taiwan. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  16. Water supply pipe dimensioning using hydraulic power dissipation (United States)

    Sreemathy, J. R.; Rashmi, G.; Suribabu, C. R.


    Proper sizing of the pipe component of water distribution networks play an important role in the overall design of the any water supply system. Several approaches have been applied for the design of networks from an economical point of view. Traditional optimization techniques and population based stochastic algorithms are widely used to optimize the networks. But the use of these approaches is mostly found to be limited to the research level due to difficulties in understanding by the practicing engineers, design engineers and consulting firms. More over due to non-availability of commercial software related to the optimal design of water distribution system,it forces the practicing engineers to adopt either trial and error or experience-based design. This paper presents a simple approach based on power dissipation in each pipeline as a parameter to design the network economically, but not to the level of global minimum cost.

  17. A new concept for the water supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J


    The present state of the station Le Vengeron (the main pumping station supplying CERN with drinking water), and also to comply with the new Swiss standards impose a thorough consolidation and upgrade of this station which is shared with the Services Industriels de Genève (SIG). The total cost of the works (around 62 MCHF) would be shared proportionally to the nominal flow-rate demand which, at present, is of 2/3 for CERN and 1/3 for SIG. An alternative to the above is a complete review of CERN's water consumption, reducing our needs by half, thus allowing savings in both investment and operation. This reduction in investment cost would be diverted towards much needed consolidation works for the existing facilities within CERN. This paper also reviews the planning and possible ways for the execution of the works and the future responsibilities of operation of the water distribution systems (drinking and machine) inside CERN's sites.

  18. Ambient water quality in aquifers used for drinking-water supplies, Gem County, southwestern Idaho, 2015 (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Hopkins, Candice B.


    In recent years, the rapid population growth in Gem County, Idaho, has been similar to other counties in southwestern Idaho, increasing about 54 percent from 1990 to 2015. Because the entire population of the study area depends on groundwater for drinking water supply (either from self-supplied domestic, community, or municipal-supply wells), this population growth, along with changes in land use (including potential petroleum exploration and development), indicated to the public and local officials the need to assess the quality of groundwater used for human consumption. To this end, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gem County and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, assessed the quality of groundwater from freshwater aquifers used for domestic supply in Gem County. A total of 47 domestic or municipal wells, 1 spring, and 2 surface-water sites on the Payette River were sampled during September 8–November 19, 2015. The sampled water was analyzed for a variety of constituents, including major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, radionuclides, dissolved gasses, stable isotopes of water and methane, and either volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or pesticides.To better understand analytical results, a conceptual hydrogeologic framework was developed in which three hydrogeologic units were described: Quaternary-Tertiary deposits (QTd), Tertiary Idaho Group rocks (Tig), and Tertiary-Cretaceous igneous rocks (TKi). Water levels were measured in 30 wells during sampling, and a groundwater-level altitude map was constructed for the QTd and Tig units showing groundwater flow toward the Emmett Valley and Payette River.Analytical results indicate that groundwater in Gem County is generally of good quality. Samples collected from two wells contained water with fluoride concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L), six wells contained arsenic at

  19. Utilization of statistics based classification approach to investigate water supply profile of Turkey. (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Hayal; Boyacioglu, Hülya


    In the paper water supply profile of Turkey was examined. In this scope, the questionnaire survey conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute in 2004 to investigate annual amount of water abstracted to drinking water networks by type of resources in 81 provinces was evaluated. In the questionnaire, sources were grouped under five categories as spring, (artificial) lake, river, reservoir and well. Due to the complex and multivariate characteristics of the data sets, to replace a large collection of variables with a smaller number of factors the statistical method "factor analysis" was performed. Results revealed that, water supply systems in the country were mainly governed by groundwater sources (well and/or spring). However, in the northeastern part of the country, rivers were allocated for drinking water supply. On the other hand, reservoir dependent cities were densely located in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Southeast Anatolia Regions. This study showed that statistics based classification methods assist decision makers to extract information from multidimensional complex data sets representing environmental conditions.

  20. Flood risk assessment of fresh water supply systems (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio


    Flooding is a common hazard causing damages to people, buildings and infrastructures. Often located in low-lying areas or nearby rivers, water utilities are particularly vulnerable to flooding. Water and debris can inundate the facility, thereby damaging equipment and causing power outages. Such impacts can lead to costly repairs, disruptions of service, hazardous situations for personnel and public health advisories. While flood damage evaluation to buildings and their contents is becoming increasingly available, the quantification of impact on critical infrastructures is less common. In this work, we present the flood risk assessment of a fresh water supply system considering the hazard of a riverine flooding and exposure and vulnerability of the system components (i.e. pipes, junctions, lifting stations etc.). The evaluation of flood impact on the aqueduct network is carried out for flood scenarios with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to determine their residual functionality. Above a selected threshold, the affected elements are considered as failed. The water distribution piping system is modelled through a model based on EPANET designed so as to implement Pressure-Driven Demand (PDD), which is more appropriate when modelling water distribution networks with a high number of offline nodes. Results of piping system model affected by the flood are then compared in a QGIS environment with flood depth to identify the location of service outages and potential risk of contamination. The application to the water supply system of the city of Florence (Italy), serving approximately 385000 inhabitants through 900 km of piping is presented and discussed.

  1. California's transition from conventional snowpack measurements to a developing remote sensing capability for water supply forecasting (United States)

    Brown, A. J.; Peterson, N.


    California's Snow Survey Program and water supply forecasting procedures are described. A review is made of current activities and program direction on such matters as: the growing statewide network of automatic snow sensors; restrictions on the gathering hydrometeorological data in areas designated as wilderness; the use of satellite communications, which both provides a flexible network without mountaintop repeaters and satisfies the need for unobtrusiveness in wilderness areas; and the increasing operational use of snow covered area (SCA) obtained from satellite imagery, which, combined with water equivalent from snow sensors, provides a high correlation to the volumes and rates of snowmelt runoff. Also examined are the advantages of remote sensing; the anticipated effects of a new input of basin wide index of water equivalent, such as the obtained through microwave techniques, on future forecasting opportunities; and the future direction and goals of the California Snow Surveys Program.

  2. Karst water: An important factor for the drinking water supply in Austria (United States)

    Zötl, J. G.


    Approximately one-sixth of Austria’s land surface is karstified One-fourth of the precipitation falling in Austria lands in these karst areas, providing one-third of the population with drinking water If the projected future water needs of Austria are to be met, optimal utilization and protection of these karst water supplies is necessary To achieve these goals, community officials and civil engineers must understand the nature of karst water resources and the problems associated with their utilization At the recommendation fo the Federal Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry of the Republic of Austria, a pamphlet designed to provide this critical information has been written. The four major areas discussed in the pamphlet are definitions and descriptions of karst water flow and occurrence, discharge and physiochemical requirements for karst water supplies, requisite environmental studies of all possible sources of qualitative and/or quantitative damage to the karst water supply and engineering methods that can aid in preventing such damage, and legislative provisions necessary to protect karst water resources from water quality or quantity degradation In addition, the role of the public in karst water supply protection is discussed.

  3. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio


    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  4. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel


    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  5. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.


    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  6. 75 FR 18190 - New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On March 17, 2009, the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (New Jersey WSA) filed an application... generation of about 628 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Edward Buss, P.E., New Jersey Water Supply...

  7. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact... (United States)


    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation... and the 1958 Water Supply Act, as amended, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Omaha District, intends to prepare an integrated Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report...

  8. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: bacteriology of drinking waters. (United States)

    Opara, A A


    Several communities in Nigeria exist without regular water supplies of good quality and quantity. Despite this situation, successive governments have tended to ignore the problem. The water supplies to two rural communities 7-8 km north of Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria, were examined bacteriologically using standard indicator bacteria (coliforms and streptococci). A contiguous community supplied with treated piped water was also studied in parallel. The rural water supplied was found to be bacteriologically unsatisfactory, having failed to meet the international standards for drinking water as set by the WHO. The geometric mean bacterial counts per 100 ml of serial samples from six sources ranged from 0.12 x 10(1) to 1.57 x 10(2) for fecal coliforms (E. col) and 0.05 x 10(1) to 7.5 x 10(1) for the fecal streptococci. Fecal streptococci were particularly recovered in large numbers from one source (Ayip Asikimangfuk) at concentrations of up to 3.0 x 10(2) per 100 ml at the onset of the rains. The water supplies from the community with piped water were, in general, bacteriologically satisfactory; fecal coliforms were found only in occasional samples (0.12 x 10(1)/100 ml).

  9. Public water supplies in Gloucester County, New Jersey (United States)

    Hardt, William F.


    . The average per capita public water supply consumption in 1959 was approximately 75 gallons per day. This report includes a summary of the history of the present installations, groundwater conditions, quality and availability of water, and potential future yield for the 2 public water systems in Gloucester County.

  10. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009 (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten


    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  11. Does ICT influence supply chain management and performance? A review of survey-based research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xuan; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; van der Vaart, Taco


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review and classify survey-based research connecting information and communication technology (ICT), supply chain management (SCM), and supply chain (SC) performance. The review evaluates present empirical results and aims at detecting explanations for

  12. Trends in Rural Water Supply: Towards a Service Delivery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty


    The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water supply in developing countries: away from a de-facto focus on the provision of hardware for first-time access towards the proper use of installed hardware as the basis for universal access to rural water services. The outline of the main actions required to achieve this shift are becoming clearer. Chief amongst these are the professionalisation of community management and/or provision of direct support to community service providers; adoption of a wider range of service delivery models than community management alone; and addressing the sustainable financing of all costs with a particular focus on financing capital maintenance (asset management and direct support costs. This introductory paper provides an overview of these issues and a guide to the other articles, which demonstrate these points.

  13. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi


    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  14. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)


    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  15. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.


    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  16. Invisible pollution: the impact of pharmaceuticals in the water supply. (United States)

    Strauch, Kimberly A


    During the past decade, interest in the public and environmental health effects of trace levels of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the water supply has evolved. Although most pharmaceuticals are tested for human safety and efficacy prior to marketing and distribution, the potential for adverse effects in nontarget populations exposed to minute environmental medication doses has not been established. Several recent studies have demonstrated adverse effects from longstanding, low-dose exposures in both aquatic and terrestrial wildlife, although human toxicity related to trace levels of pharmaceuticals in the water supply remains unknown. This article provides a brief overview of the routes through which pharmaceuticals are introduced into the environment; a description of the effects of longstanding, low-dose exposures in aquatic and terrestrial animals, including human health effects; an update on the current regulations and solutions regarding pharmaceutical disposal practices; and a discussion of implications for reducing pharmaceuticals in the environment for occupational health nurses and other allied health professionals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis


    Full Text Available Around half of the Mekong Delta’s rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily based on semi-structured interviews in rural communes of Can Tho City. We come to the conclusion that the programme has a positive effect regarding the safer disposal of human excreta as well as surface water quality, but a marginal impact on poverty reduction as it only reaches better-off households already having access to clean water. The paper shows how the outcome of rural water supply and sanitation policies are strongly influenced by the local ecological, technological, and social settings, in particular by stakeholders’ interests. The authors challenge the assumption that water supply and sanitation should be integrated into the same policy in all circumstances. ----- Etwa die Hälfte der ländlichen Bevölkerung des Mekong-Deltas hat nicht das ganze Jahr über Zugang zu sauberem Wasser. Zusammen mit unzureichender Hygiene und mangelnder sanitärer Grundversorgung erhöht diese Situation das Krankheitsrisiko. Auf globaler Ebene sind Mikrokreditprogramme eine gefragte Strategie, um diese Probleme zu behandeln. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse eines solchen Mikrokreditprogramms für ländliche Wasser- und sanitäre Grundversorgung im Mekong-Delta in Vietnam im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie, die auf halbstrukturierten Interviews im Raum Can Tho City basiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Programm eine positive Wirkung in Bezug auf die sichere Entsorgung von Fäkalien und die Qualität des Regenwassers

  18. Hospital Impact After a Chemical Spill That Compromised the Potable Water Supply: West Virginia, January 2014. (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Del Rosario, Maria C; Thomasson, Erica; Bixler, Danae; Haddy, Loretta; Duncan, Mary Anne


    In January 2014, a chemical spill of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ethers contaminated the potable water supply of approximately 300,000 West Virginia residents. To understand the spill's impact on hospital operations, we surveyed representatives from 10 hospitals in the affected area during January 2014. We found that the spill-related loss of potable water affected many aspects of hospital patient care (eg, surgery, endoscopy, hemodialysis, and infection control of Clostridium difficile). Hospital emergency preparedness planning could be enhanced by specifying alternative sources of potable water sufficient for hemodialysis, C. difficile infection control, and hospital processing and cleaning needs (in addition to drinking water). (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:621-624).



    Arif Yurtsev; Jenkins, Glenn P.


    This paper reports on a cost-effectiveness analysis of four types of water heating systems operating in a situation where there is an unreliable water supply. These systems are electric water heating, a solar water heating system (SWHS) with electricity back-up, the SWHS with an LPG water heater, and an LPG water heater alone. It is found that in the conditions of North Cyprus, that an SWHS with an LPG heater back-up is the most cost-effective, most convenient and most environmentally friendl...

  20. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand. (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian


    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  1. Application of BIM Technology in Building Water Supply and Drainage Design (United States)

    Wei, Tianyun; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Junde


    Through the application of BIM technology, the idea of building water supply and drainage designers can be related to the model, the various influencing factors to affect water supply and drainage design can be considered more comprehensively. BIM(Building information model) technology assist in improving the design process of building water supply and drainage, promoting the building water supply and drainage planning, enriching the building water supply and drainage design method, improving the water supply and drainage system design level and building quality. Combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to analyze the advantages of BIM technology in building water supply and drainage design. Therefore, application prospects of BIM technology are very worthy of promotion.

  2. Hard water problems and soft water paths: The "supply versus demand" conundrum (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.


    Water problems are complex, interdisciplinary, and have profound effects on human and ecosystem health and well-being. And they are classic "hard" problems. Good science is necessary to solve these problems, but it is rarely sufficient. One of these hard problems is that of "perception" and "frame" - traditional water planners and managers frame freshwater as a "supply" problem, i.e., how can we access and deliver sufficient quantities of water of suitable quality, to satisfy perceived demand. In recent years, however, as water scarcity in different regions has increased due to growing populations and expanding economies, "peak water" limits (including peak renewable, non-renewable, and ecological limits) have started to constrain development of traditional "supply" options (Figure 1). That has led to new thinking about the other side of the equation: what is meant by water "demand" and can demand management tools and approaches offer a way to solve water problems. The "soft path for water" addresses this issue of water demand directly, but implementing demand-side solutions faces serious barriers. This talk will expound on the soft path approach and its potential to overcome some of the gridlock and stagnation in current water policy debates, with examples from both developed and developing countries, and different economic sectors.umulative global reservoir storage (major reservoirs) from 1900 to 2010, showing leveling off of traditional supply expansion. Data from the GRanD database.

  3. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review. (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter


    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geodetic Survey Water Level Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over one million images of National Coast & Geodetic Survey (now NOAA's National Geodetic Survey/NGS) forms captured from microfiche. Tabular forms and charts...

  5. A Holistic ICT Solution to Improve Matching between Supply and Demand over the Water Supply Distribution Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anzaldi


    Full Text Available While many water management tools exist, these systems are not usually interconnected and therefore cannot communicate between one another, preventing Integrated Water Resources Management to be fully achieved. This paper presents the solution proposed by WatERP project* where a novel solution enables better matching between water supply and demand from holistic perspective. Subsystems that control the production, management and consumption of water will be interconnected through both information architecture and intelligent infrastructure. The main outcome will consist of, a web-based Open Management Platform integrating near real-time knowledge on water supplies and demand, from sources to users, across geographic and organizational scales and supported by a knowledge base where information will be structured in water management ontology to ensure interoperability and maximize usability. WatERP will thus provide a major contribution to: 1 Improve coordination among actors, 2 Foster behavioural change, 3 Reduce water and energy consumption, 4 Optimize water accountability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  7. Organic Compounds in Clackamas River Water Used for Public Supply near Portland, Oregon, 2003-05 (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; McGhee, Gordon


    Organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including pesticides, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, personal care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. In all, 56 compounds were detected in samples collected approximately monthly during 2003-05 at the intake for the Clackamas River Water plant, one of four community water systems on the lower Clackamas River. The diversity of compounds detected suggests a variety of different sources and uses (including wastewater discharges, industrial, agricultural, domestic, and others) and different pathways to drinking-water supplies (point sources, precipitation, overland runoff, ground-water discharge, and formation during water treatment). A total of 20 organic compounds were commonly detected (in at least 20 percent of the samples) in source water and (or) finished water. Fifteen compounds were commonly detected in source water, and five of these compounds (benzene, m- and p-xylene, diuron, simazine, and chloroform) also were commonly detected in finished water. With the exception of gasoline hydrocarbons, disinfection by-products, chloromethane, and the herbicide diuron, concentrations in source and finished water were less than 0.1 microgram per liter and always less than human-health benchmarks, which are available for about 60 percent of the compounds detected. On the basis of this screening-level assessment, adverse effects to human health are assumed to be negligible (subject to limitations of available human-health benchmarks).

  8. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk


    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations over 500 μg L−1, causes death in 1 in 10 adults. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is currently confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Serbia, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are mostly lower than the European drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it is concluded that at this level health risks cannot be excluded. As consumers in European countries expect the drinking water to be of impeccable quality, it is recommended that water supply companies optimize arsenic removal to a level of <1 μg L−1, which is technically feasible.

  9. Sustainability As A Success Factor In Global Operations: A Survey Of Car Manufacturing Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Pozo


    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, environmental issues have put companies under a growing pressure to reduce their environmental impact, especially in logistics operations. As a result, green supply chains have been gaining importance on the agendas of business executives seeking to create competitive distinction. Many companies have adopted a “green attitude,” seeking ways to integrate environmental dimensions into their business. Current research seeks to define green practices in each supply chain segment, to deepen the understanding of how companies formulate their green initiatives and to analyze the logistical bases and results connected with such decisions. The methodology used was a Survey with questions were based on patterns in green initiatives in the literature, this study’s sample was three large assembly companies in the automotive segment, with industrial plants located both in the southeast region of Brazil and globally. The results show that the wave of sustainability is a result of more than just the threat of negative publicity, and it is pushing enterprises into the green zone. At the same time, economic instability with oscillating growth is forcing enterprises to concentrate on improving efficiency to compensate for unstable demand and the price volatility of commodities, including water and energy.

  10. A case study on the status of water supply for domestic purposes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic water supply is a daily necessity and key factor in human health and well being. Without water, life cannot be sustained and lack of access to adequate water supplies leads to wide spread of diseases with children bearing the greatest health burden associated with poor water quality and sanitation. The WHO ...

  11. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon (United States)


    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term...

  12. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Ma Jose, E-mail: [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Palau, Margarita [Subdireccion General de Sanidad Ambiental y Salud Laboral, Direccion General de Salud Publica y Sanidad Exterior, Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social, Madrid (Spain); Damian, Javier [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ramis, Rebeca [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Barrio, Jose Luis del [Departamento de Salud Publica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  13. An unusual outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital respiratory wards: Association with nontuberculous mycobacterial colonization of hospital water supply network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore D′Antonio


    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM infection is increasing worldwide arousing concerns that NTM infection may become a serious health challenge. We recently observed a significant increase of NTM-positive sputa samples from patients referred to respiratory disease wards of a large tertiary hospital in Rome. A survey to identify possible NTM contamination revealed a massive presence of NTM in the hospital water supply network. After decontamination procedures, NTM presence dropped both in water pipelines and sputa samples. We believe that this observation should encourage water network surveys for NTM contamination and prompt decontamination procedures should be considered to reduce this potential source of infection.

  14. Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Land, Michael; Densmore, Jill N.; Landrum, Michael T.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Macy, Jamie P.; Tillman, Fred D


    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Needles, began a study of the hydrogeology along the All-American Canal, which conveys water from the Colorado River to the Imperial Valley. The focus of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effect of lining the All-American Canal, and other management actions, on future total dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater pumped by Lower Colorado Water Supply Project wells that is delivered to the All-American Canal. The study included the compilation and evaluation of previously published hydrogeologic and geochemical information, establishment of a groundwater-elevation and groundwater-quality monitoring network, results of monitoring groundwater elevations and groundwater quality from 2009 to 2011, site-specific hydrologic investigations of the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project area, examination of groundwater salinity by depth by using time-domain electromagnetic surveys, and monitoring of groundwater-storage change by using microgravity methods. 

  15. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit. (United States)

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J


    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria in fresh water can cause serious threats to drinking water supplies. Managing cyanobacterial blooms particularly at small drinking water treatment plants is challenging. Because large amount of cyanobacteria may cause clogging in the treatment process and various cyanotoxins are hard to remove, while they may cause severe health problems. There is lack of instructions of what cyanobacteria/toxin amount should trigger what kind of actions for drinking water management except for Microcystins. This demands a Cyanobacteria Management Tool (CMT to help regulators/operators to improve cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin monitoring in surface waters for drinking water supply. This project proposes a CMT tool, including selecting proper indicators for quick cyanobacteria monitoring and verifying quick analysis methods for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin. This tool is suggested for raw water management regarding cyanobacteria monitoring in lakes, especially in boreal forest climate. In addition, it applies to regions that apply international WHO standards for water management. In Swedish context, drinking water producers which use raw water from lakes that experience cyanobacterial blooms, need to create a monitoring routine for cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin and to monitor beyond such as Anatoxins, Cylindrospermopsins and Saxitoxins. Using the proposed CMT tool will increase water safety at surface water treatment plants substantially by introducing three alerting points for actions. CMT design for each local condition should integrate adaptive monitoring program.

  17. Sectoral Vulnerabilities to Changing Water Resources: Current and Future Tradeoffs between Supply and Demand in the Conterminous U.S (United States)

    Meldrum, J.; Averyt, K.; Caldwell, P.; Sun, G.; Huber-lee, A. T.; McNulty, S.


    ., Rogers, J., and Tellinghuisen, S. 2011. Freshwater use by US power plants: electricity's thirst for a precious resource. A report of the Energy and Water in a Warming World initiative, Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists, 52 pp. Caldwell, P., Sun, G., McNulty, S., Cohen, E., and Moore Myers, J. 2011. Modeling Impacts of Environmental Change on Ecosystem Services across the Conterminous United States, in: Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Fairbanks, AK, 26-30 Sept 2011, 63-69. Kenny, J., Barber, N., Hutson, S., Linsey, K., Lovelace, J., and Maupin, M. 2009. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005. US Geological Survey Circular 1344, 52 pp. Milly, P. C. D., Dunne, K. A., and Vecchia, A. V. 2005. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate. Nature 438(7066):347-350. Sun, G., McNulty, S., Moore Myers, J., and Cohen, E. 2008. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the Southeastern United States. Journal of American Water Resources Association 44(6):1441-1457. Sun, G., Caldwell, P., Noormets, A., Cohen, E., McNulty, S., Treasure, E., Domec, J., Mu, Q., Xiao, J., John, R., and Chen, J. 2011. Upscaling key ecosystem functions across the Conterminous United States by a water-centric ecosystem model, J. Geophys. Res., 116.

  18. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.


    Water use in the United States, as measured by freshwater withdrawals in 1985, averaged 338,000 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), which is enough water to cover the 48 conterminous States to a depth of about 2.4 inches. Only 92,300 Mgal/d, or 27.3 percent of the water withdrawn, was consumptive use and thus lost to immediate further use; the remainder of the withdrawals (72.7 percent) was return flow available for reuse a number of times as the water flowed to the sea. The 1985 freshwater withdrawals were much less than the average 30 inches of precipitation that falls on the conterminous States each year; consumptive use accounted for only 7 percent of the estimated annual runoff of 1,230,000 Mgal/d. Nonetheless, as the State summaries on water supply and use clearly show, water is not always available when and where it is needed. Balancing water demands with available water supplies constitutes one of the major resource allocation issues that will face the United States in the coming decade.Of the 1985 freshwater withdrawals, 78.3 percent (265,000 Mgal/d) came from surface-water sources (streams and lakes), and 21.7 percent (73,300 Mgal/d) came from ground water. Surface water provided drinking water for about 47 percent of the Nation's total population. It was the source of 59.9 percent of the Nation's public-supply systems. For self-supplied withdrawals, surface water accounted for 1.6 percent of the domestic and commercial uses; 64.0 percent of the industrial and mining use; 99.4 percent of the thermoelectric generation withdrawals, mainly for cooling water; and 65.6 percent of the agricultural withdrawals. Eight States accounted for 43 percent of the surface-water use; California, Colorado, and Idaho used surface water primarily for irrigation, and Dlinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas used surface-water primarily for cooling condensers or reactors in thermoelectric plants.Ground water provided drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's total

  19. New evidence on the economic benefits of controlling salinity in domestic water supplies (United States)

    Ragan, Guy E.; Young, Robert A.; Makela, Carole J.


    To study the economic benefits of controlling salinity in residential water supplies, we surveyed households and appliance repair shops along the Arkansas River Basin in Colorado, where salinity ranges from 100 to 3600 mg/L. To avoid a downward bias on estimated appliance lives, we obtained and used data on both ages of in-service appliances and ages at failure of failed appliances. We adapted the accelerated testing method to model the effect of salinity on appliance lives. Dishwashers, water heaters, garbage disposers, water softeners, and evaporative coolers showed statistically significant reductions in service life with increasing salinity. In comparison with the most cited previous study, we found no statistically significant effects for some appliances; for appliances common to both studies our estimates of salinity damages are one third or less as high. These differences may originate from inclusion of in-service appliances or reduced damage due to technological improvements.

  20. MODFLOW-NWT, MODPATH, and MT3DMS models used to study of hypothetical horizontal water-supply well design for New Hampshire and surrounding regions: U.S. Geological Survey data release (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A series of three-dimensional, hypothetical, groundwater models (MODFLOW-NWT) were developed to investigate the effects of a variety of factors on the flow of...

  1. Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985 (United States)

    Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada


    INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

  2. Occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in selected water supplies, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, June 2004 (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.


    In June 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment, sampled water from 14 wastewater sources and drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for the presence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. The geographic distribution of sampling locations does not represent the distribution of drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod. The environmental presence of the analyte compounds is mostly unregulated; many of the compounds are suspected of having adverse ecological and human health effects. Of the 85 different organic analyte compounds, 43 were detected, with 13 detected in low concentrations (less than 1 microgram per liter) from drinking-water supplies thought to be affected by wastewater because of previously detected high nitrate concentrations. (Phenol and d-limonene, detected in equipment blanks at unacceptably high concentrations, are not included in counts of detections in this report.) Compounds detected in the drinking-water supplies included the solvent, tetrachloroethylene; the analgesic, acetaminophen; the antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole; and the antidepressant, carbamazapine. Nitrate nitrogen, an indicator of wastewater, was detected in water supplies in concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 8.8 milligrams per liter.

  3. Study on hydraulic characteristics of mine dust-proof water supply network (United States)

    Deng, Quanlong; Jiang, Zhongan; Han, Shuo; Fu, Enqi


    In order to study the hydraulic characteristics of mine dust-proof water supply network and obtain the change rule of water consumption and water pressure, according to the similarity principle and the fluid continuity equation and energy equation, the similarity criterion of mine dust-proof water supply network is deduced, and a similar model of dust-proof water supply network is established based on the prototype of Kailuan Group, the characteristics of hydraulic parameters in water supply network are studied experimentally. The results show that water pressure at each point is a dynamic process, and there is a negative correlation between water pressure and water consumption. With the increase of water consumption, the pressure of water points show a decreasing trend. According to the structure of the pipe network and the location of the water point, the influence degree on the pressure of each point is different.

  4. Harmful algal blooms: a case study in two mesotrophic drinking water supply reservoirs in South Carolina (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Knight, Rodney R.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Arrington, Jane M.; West, Rebecca; Westcott, John; Bradley, Paul M.


    Algal blooms can be harmful and a nuisance in a variety of aquatic ecosystems, including reservoirs and lakes. Cyanobacterial(blue-green algae) harmful algal blooms are notorious for producing both taste-and-odor compounds and potent toxins that may affect human health. Taste–and-odor episodes are aesthetic problems often caused by cyanobacterial-produced organic compounds (geosmin and methylisoborneol) and are common in reservoirs and lakes used as source water supplies. The occurrences of these taste-and-odor compounds and toxins (like microcystin) can be sporadic and vary in intensity both spatially and temporally. Recent publications by the U.S. Geological Survey address this complexity and provide protocols for cyanotoxin and taste-and-odor sampling programs. A case study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Spartanburg Water, monitored two mesotrophic reservoirs that serve as public drinking water supplies in South Carolina. Study objectives were (1) to identify spatial and temporal occurrence of the taste-and-odor compound geosmin and the cyanotoxin microcystin and (2) to assess the associated limnological conditions before, during, and after these occurrences. Temporal and spatial occurrence of geosmin and microcystin were highly variable from 2007 to 2009. The highest geosmin concentrations tended to occur in the spring. Microcystin tended to occur in the late summer and early fall, but occurrence was rare and well below World Health Organization guidelines for finished drinking water and recreational activities. No current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards are applicable to cyanotoxins in drinking or ambient water. In general, elevated geosmin and microcystin concentrations were the result of complex interactions between cyanobacterial ⬚community composition, nutrient availability, water clarity, hydraulic residence time, and stratification.

  5. Energy Costs of Urban Water Supply Systems: Evidence from India (Invited) (United States)

    Malghan, D.; Mehta, V. K.; Goswami, R.


    perform detailed, spatially explicit analysis for the city of Bangalore which is an urban agglomeration that is home to more than ten million people. Combining a distributed groundwater model with data from the public utility supplying water to the city, and a large primary household survey data (n=29000), we develop a high resolution map for the city showing the water-energy nexus for across different parts of the city. The city of Bangalore imports nearly as much surface water (from a river source hundred kilometres away and across a gradient of 500 metres) as the annual rainfall falling on the city. The leakage from the vast wast water supply network and return flows are major components of the groundwater recharge budget, and our case study helps highlight how a nuanced understanding of urban hydrology is crucial to estimating the energy costs of urban water supply.

  6. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Water Supply Appendix. (United States)


    soon for water supply if there was an extreme need for it. Water can be pumped from Audubon Lake to the McClusky Canal which flows to Lone Tree...from the well field to Grand Forks’ and East Grand Forks’ water treatment plants. Alternatively, surface canals could be used to transport the water...size to Grand Forks and East Grand Forks. 15 Midi o .t c"I- u,,-Tjo en en %0" trA .n-4 on 0% %0A.) G n % 4 n 14 0; 11-; 0C4 10 0 r-’ 0 8 - 0 1-1 1-4

  7. Water supply at heavy disaster (earthquake); Saigaiji (jishinji) no mizu jijo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S. [College of Science and Technology, Tohoku, Sendai (Japan)


    With the destructive earthquake recently visited Hanshin/Awaji Districts as a momentum, importance to secure water at an emergency has seriously been recongnized. This papaer describes the administrative actions, technical level, future problems or the like in securing water. Practically, the countermeasure taken against the disaster, the water volume required for emergency supply, the water quality by applications, the example of the administrative emergency water supply system, and the water source at the disaster are outlined. (author)

  8. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M. R.; Mazrura, S.; Zurahanim Fasha, A.; Ahmad Rohi, G.


    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems. PMID:21461348

  9. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Siti Farizwana


    Full Text Available The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and residual chlorine in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S, the treatment plant outlet (TPO, and at the nearest houses (H1 and the furthest houses (H2 from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90. The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU. Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L. Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kapansky


    Full Text Available The existing methods for assessing the energy efficiency of technological systems of water supply and water disposal are examined. The main tool of the existing methods is a settlement-and-analytical method, and, in accordance with the mentioned one, the determining of general and specific electric power consumption is based on actual consumption evaluation, evaluation of pressure and efficiency of the pump unit. However, in practical terms a lot of factors influence on those characteristics therefore affecting the resulting magnitude of energy efficiency and leading to errors in the calculation. These factors include the technical condition of the equipment and piping systems, alterations in the modes of operation of pumping units over time, a significant impact of the ambient temperature on the power consumption, amount of precipitation and the chemical composition of the effluent. As an object of management water supply and water disposal systems are considered as a totality; therefore the assessment of the energy efficiency of pipeline enterprises ought to be based on a systematic approach, whereas the existing methods are mainly based on an analysis of operating modes of individual electrical equipment, not on the whole technological system. The article describes the management system of energy efficiency of pipeline water supply and water disposal systems. The management system is based on information base of statistic data of power, hydraulic and industrial indexes of wastewater management. The original basic mathematical models of common costs and unit costs of electrical power in the water supply and water disposal systems, which are the basis for the solution of the problems of forecasting and the current state assessment of energy efficiency of enterprises, the selection of priority areas of energy efficiency and finding the ways to save energy resources, are presented.

  11. Quantitative analysis of microbial contamination in private drinking water supply systems. (United States)

    Allevi, Richard P; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Benham, Brian; Lawrence, Annie H; Ling, Erin J; Ziegler, Peter E


    Over one million households rely on private water supplies (e.g. well, spring, cistern) in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The present study tested 538 private wells and springs in 20 Virginia counties for total coliforms (TCs) and Escherichia coli along with a suite of chemical contaminants. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate potential correlations between TC contamination and chemical parameters (e.g. NO3(-), turbidity), as well as homeowner-provided survey data describing system characteristics and perceived water quality. Of the 538 samples collected, 41% (n = 221) were positive for TCs and 10% (n = 53) for E. coli. Chemical parameters were not statistically predictive of microbial contamination. Well depth, water treatment, and farm location proximate to the water supply were factors in a regression model that predicted presence/absence of TCs with 74% accuracy. Microbial and chemical source tracking techniques (Bacteroides gene Bac32F and HF183 detection via polymerase chain reaction and optical brightener detection via fluorometry) identified four samples as likely contaminated with human wastewater.

  12. Environmental awareness, consumption, and labor supply: Empirical evidence from household survey data


    Iosifidi, M


    What is the effect of environmental awareness on the households’ consumption of polluting goods and labor supply decisions? We answer this question using household survey data from the United States and measuring environmental awareness with the decision to make environmental donations. We find that environmental awareness has a negative and economically significant effect on labor supply. The respective impact on the consumption of polluting goods is also negative, but less robust in terms o...

  13. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

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    Murat Yalçıntaş


    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  14. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

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    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza


    Full Text Available Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic capacity concept, which uses soft computing tools of graph theory and cluster analysis, is developed to define sectors, also called district metered areas (DMAs, to produce an equitable water supply. Moreover, this approach helps determine the supply time for each sector, which depends on each sector’s hydraulic characteristics. This process also includes the opinions of water company experts, the individuals who are best acquainted with the intricacies of the network.

  15. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

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    Kanako Toyosada


    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  16. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA (United States)


    ... water management (rural water supply), public recreation, public fish and wildlife, and watershed...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11227] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service. ACTION: Notice...

  17. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Erika C. Cohen


    Assessment of long-term impacts of projected changes in climate, population, and land use and land cover on regional water resource is critical to the sustainable development of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to fully budget annual water availability for water supply (precipitation ) evapotranspiration + groundwater supply + return flow...

  18. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability AGENCY: Bureau... for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply projects intended to serve... helps rural communities assess their potable water needs and identify options to address those needs...

  19. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington (United States)


    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00 a.m...

  20. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska (United States)


    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that these...

  1. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska (United States)


    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions...

  2. Using an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic Model to Develop Minimum Cost Water Supply Portfolios and Manage Supply Risk (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.; Ramsey, J.


    Water scarcity has become a reality in many areas as a result of population growth, fewer available sources, and reduced tolerance for the environmental impacts of developing the new supplies that do exist. As a result, successfully managing future water supply risk will become more dependent on coordinating the use of existing resources. Toward that end, flexible supply strategies that can rapidly respond to hydrologic variability will provide communities with increasing economic advantages, particularly if the frequency of more extreme events (e.g., drought) increases due to global climate change. Markets for established commodities (e.g., oil, gas) often provide a framework for efficiently responding to changes in supply and demand. Water markets, however, have remained relatively crude, with most transactions involving permanent transfers and long regulatory processes. Recently, interest in the use of flexible short-term transfers (e.g., leases, options) has begun to motivate consideration of more sophisticated strategies for managing supply risk, strategies similar to those used in more mature markets. In this case, communities can benefit from some of the advantages that water enjoys over other commodities, in particular, the ability to accurately characterize the stochastic nature of supply and demand through hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic-economic models are developed for two different water scarce regions supporting active water markets: Edward Aquifer and Lower Rio Grande Valley. These models are used to construct portfolios of water supply transfers (e.g., permanent transfers, options, and spot leases) that minimize the cost of meeting a probabilistic reliability constraint. Real and simulated spot price distributions allow each type of transfer to be priced in a manner consistent with financial theory (e.g., Black-Scholes). Market simulations are integrated with hydrologic models such that variability in supply and demand are linked with price behavior

  3. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

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    Chaiwat Prakirake


    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  4. Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley (United States)

    Ahmad, S.


    The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona and California, and more intense water conservation efforts in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). Water and wastewater in the LVV are intrinsically related because treated wastewater effluent is returned back to Lake Mead, the drinking water source for the Valley, to get a return credit thereby augmenting Nevada's water allocation from the Colorado River. The return of treated wastewater however, is a major contributor of nutrients and other yet unregulated pollutants to Lake Mead. Parameters that influence the quantity of water include growth of permanent and transient population (i.e., tourists), indoor and outdoor water use, wastewater generation, wastewater reuse, water conservation, and return flow credits. The water quality of Lake Mead and the Colorado River is affected by the level of treatment of wastewater, urban runoff, groundwater seepage, and a few industrial inputs. We developed an integrated simulation model, using system dynamics modeling approach, to account for both water quantity and quality in the LVV. The model captures the interrelationships among many variables that influence both, water quantity and water quality. The model provides a valuable tool for understanding past, present and future pathways of water and its constituents in the LVV. The model is calibrated and validated using the available data on water quantity (flows at water and wastewater treatment facilities and return water credit flow rates) and water quality parameters (TDS and phosphorus concentrations). We used the model to explore important questions: a)What would be the effect of the water transported from

  5. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview (United States)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  6. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.


    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  7. Rethinking Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment: A Framework for Their Implementation in Drinking Water Supply

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    Urooj Q. Amjad


    Full Text Available The terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment are inconsistently used in implementing water supply projects. To clarify these terms we develop a framework based on Normalization Process Theory, and apply the framework to a hypothetical water supply project in schools. The resulting framework provides guidance on how these terms could be implemented and analyzed in water supply projects. We conclude that effective use of the terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment would focus on purpose, process, and perspective. This is the first known attempt to analyze the implementation of the three terms together in the context of water supply services.

  8. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse. (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J


    Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a

  9. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

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    Moysés Simone T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990. Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably.

  10. Ensuring water availability in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia: evaluation of the water supply sub-project (United States)

    Oyedotun, Temitope D. Timothy


    The need and demand for water in the world are becoming acute with the growing population. This is mostly pressing in developing countries of which Mekelle City in Northern Ethiopia is not an exception. World Bank borehole-support sub-project was aimed at addressing this challenge. The evaluation of the intervention indicates that there is a significant increase in water supply in the city because of the sub-project. However, the increase in water supply has not been able to meet up with the already established and increasing demand. Coupled with this challenge are: the limited capacity of human capital and expertise that will ensure the proper management of borehole interventions; insufficient cost recovery for proper operation and maintenance of the projects; loss of land and farmlands and lack of compensations because of the projects which affect the livelihood.

  11. Ensuring water availability in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia: evaluation of the water supply sub-project (United States)

    Oyedotun, Temitope D. Timothy


    The need and demand for water in the world are becoming acute with the growing population. This is mostly pressing in developing countries of which Mekelle City in Northern Ethiopia is not an exception. World Bank borehole-support sub-project was aimed at addressing this challenge. The evaluation of the intervention indicates that there is a significant increase in water supply in the city because of the sub-project. However, the increase in water supply has not been able to meet up with the already established and increasing demand. Coupled with this challenge are: the limited capacity of human capital and expertise that will ensure the proper management of borehole interventions; insufficient cost recovery for proper operation and maintenance of the projects; loss of land and farmlands and lack of compensations because of the projects which affect the livelihood.

  12. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation (United States)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels


    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  13. Isotopic metrics for structure, connectivity, and residence time in urban water supply systems (United States)

    Bowen, Gabriel; Kennedy, Casey; Good, Stephen; Ehleringer, James


    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas, accessing, managing, and distributing water from an often complex array of sources to provide on-demand access to safe, potable water at the point-of-use. Water managers are faced with a wide range of potential threats, ranging from climate change to infrastructure failure to supply contamination. Information on the structure of supply and conveyance systems, connectivity within these systems, and links between the point-of-use and environmental water sources are thus critical to assessing the stability of water supplies and responding efficiently and effectively to water supply threats. We report datasets documenting stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of public supply water in cities of the United States across a range of scales. The data show a wide range of spatial and temporal variability that can be attributed to a combination of regional hydroclimate and water supply characteristics. Comparisons of public supply waters with model-based estimates of the isotopic composition of regional water sources suggests that major factors reflected in the tap water data include the degree of fragmentation of natural and man-made storage and conveyance systems, inter-basinal transfer of water, evaporative losses, and the total residence time of the natural and artificial systems being exploited. Because each of these factors contributes to determining the sustainability of water supply systems and their sensitivity to environmental disturbance, we propose a set of isotope-based metrics that can be used to efficiently assess and monitor the characteristics of public-supply systems in water security assessments and in support of management, planning, and outreach activities.

  14. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.


    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  15. Assessment of the school drinking water supply and the water quality in Pingtung County, Taiwan. (United States)

    Chung, Pei-Ling; Chung, Chung-Yi; Liao, Shao-Wei; Miaw, Chang-Ling


    In this study, a questionnaire survey of school drinking water quality of 42 schools in Pingtung County was conducted according to the water sources, treatment facilities, location of school as well as different grade levels. Among them, 45% of schools used tap water as the main source of drinking water, and the schools using groundwater and surface water as drinking water source account for 29% and 26%, respectively. The schools above senior high school level in the city used tap water as drinking water more than underground water, while the schools under junior high school level in the rural area used surface water as their main source of drinking water. The surface water was normally boiled before being provided to their students. The reverse osmosis system is a commonly used water treatment equipment for those schools using tap water or underground water. Drinking fountain or boiled water unit is widely installed in schools above senior high school level. For schools under junior high school level, a pipeline is stretched across the campus. Relative test shows that the unqualified rate of microbe in water is 26.2%. All parameters for physical and chemical properties and metal content had met the domestic standards except that the turbidity of schools under junior high school level using tap water is slightly higher than the standard value.



    Tsur, Yacov


    When used in conjunction with surface water for irrigation, groundwater serves two roles: to increase water supply; and to mitigate fluctuations in the supply of water. The later is the buffer role. This paper identifies and evaluates the economic benefit associated with the buffer role of ground water. Implications for the development of groundwater resources are investigated. An estimate is given of the buffer benefit to wheat growers of the fossil water aquifer underlying the Israeli Negev...

  17. Surface wastewater in Samara and their impact on water basins as water supply sources (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Shuvalov, Mikhail; Gridneva, Marina


    The paper gives an overview of surface wastewater outlets in Samara through the rainwater sewer system into the Saratov water reservoir and the Samara river. The rainwater sewer system in Samara is designed and executed according to a separate scheme, except for the old part of the city, where surface run-off is dumped into the sewer system through siphoned drain. The rainwater system disposes of surface, drainage, industrial clean-contamined waters, emergency and technology discharges from the city’s heat supply and water supply systems. The effluent discharge is carried out by means of separate wastewater outlets into ravines or directly into the Samara river and the Saratov water reservoir without cleaning. The effluent discharge is carried out through the rainwater sewer system with 17 wastewater outlets into the Saratov water reservoir. In the Samara river, surface runoff drainage and clean-contamined water of industrial enterprises is carried out through 14 wastewater outlets. This study emphasizes the demand to arrange effluent discharge and construction of sewage treatment plants to prevent contamination of water objects by surface run-off from residential areas and industrial territories.

  18. Irrigation, risk aversion, and water right priority under water supply uncertainty (United States)

    Li, Man; Xu, Wenchao; Rosegrant, Mark W.


    This paper explores the impacts of a water right's allocative priority—as an indicator of farmers' risk-bearing ability—on land irrigation under water supply uncertainty. We develop and use an economic model to simulate farmers' land irrigation decision and associated economic returns in eastern Idaho. Results indicate that the optimal acreage of land irrigated increases with water right priority when hydroclimate risk exhibits a negatively skewed or right-truncated distribution. Simulation results suggest that prior appropriation enables senior water rights holders to allocate a higher proportion of their land to irrigation, 6 times as much as junior rights holders do, creating a gap in the annual expected net revenue reaching up to 141.4 acre-1 or 55,800 per farm between the two groups. The optimal irrigated acreage, expected net revenue, and shadow value of a water right's priority are subject to substantial changes under a changing climate in the future, where temporal variation in water supply risks significantly affects the profitability of agricultural land use under the priority-based water sharing mechanism.

  19. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  20. The survey on cores supplies in the sme in automotive remanufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Golinska-Dawson


    Full Text Available Background: Remanufacturing of automotive components is a developing sector. The majority of companies in this sector belong to the group of SMEs. The remanufacturing benefits to the circular economy concept. The used products referred as "cores" are in the remanufacturing process bring back to as good as new condition. Supply management of cores faces a number of problems, which are discussed in the literature but there is still a lack of empirical studies in this domain. Material and methods: The research methodology consists of a literature review, where research papers from the Scopus, Science Direct and Business Source Premier databases were used. On the basis of literature review the problems are identified. The pilot survey was elaborated in order to get in depth knowledge on the organization of the cores' supplies in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs.  Results: The survey was conducted among 40 SMEs in automotive remanufacturing sector. The paper presents the characteristics of the respondents and it identifies sources of the cores supplies. Authors discuss also  the main problems which appear by organization of these supplies.  Conclusions: A remanufacturing process is more complex than the respective production process. The cores' supply management is crucial for profitability of remanufacturing. This paper provides in depth view on the practical issues in the cores supply management regarding source of cores, quality problems, material matching restriction problems and high variety of cores.

  1. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads


    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  2. Methods Used to Assess the Susceptibility to Contamination of Transient, Non-Community Public Ground-Water Supplies in Indiana (United States)

    Arihood, Leslie D.; Cohen, David A.


    The Safe Water Drinking Act of 1974 as amended in 1996 gave each State the responsibility of developing a Source-Water Assessment Plan (SWAP) that is designed to protect public-water supplies from contamination. Each SWAP must include three elements: (1) a delineation of the source-water protection area, (2) an inventory of potential sources of contaminants within the area, and (3) a determination of the susceptibility of the public-water supply to contamination from the inventoried sources. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) was responsible for preparing a SWAP for all public-water supplies in Indiana, including about 2,400 small public ground-water supplies that are designated transient, non-community (TNC) supplies. In cooperation with IDEM, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled information on conditions near the TNC supplies and helped IDEM complete source-water assessments for each TNC supply. The delineation of a source-water protection area (called the assessment area) for each TNC ground-water supply was defined by IDEM as a circular area enclosed by a 300-foot radius centered at the TNC supply well. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were defined by IDEM as any of the 90 contaminants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking-water standards. Two of these, nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria, are Indiana State-regulated contaminants for TNC water supplies. IDEM representatives identified potential point and nonpoint sources of COCs within the assessment area, and computer database retrievals were used to identify potential point sources of COCs in the area outside the assessment area. Two types of methods-subjective and subjective hybrid-were used in the SWAP to determine susceptibility to contamination. Subjective methods involve decisions based upon professional judgment, prior experience, and (or) the application of a fundamental understanding of processes without the collection and

  3. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Supply: Application of the Contingent Valuation Method; Evidence from Jigjiga Town, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Kebede Hundie


    Full Text Available Water problem in developing countries like Ethiopia is twofold: low coverage levels and poor quality that require urgent attention to reduce associated health and social consequences. Understanding this fact, the government and NGOs are currently carrying out several activities to improve the coverage and quality of water supply. To this end, willingness to pay of households that are expected to be benefited from the project should be analysed. The central objective of this study is, hence, to estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP of households for better-quality water service provision and identify its determinants by using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM in Jigjiga city. We estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP for better quality of water supply service on cross-sectional survey of households in Jigjiga city taking 210 sample households randomly drawn. The highest relative WTP for improved water supply service was found in the city with the highest percentage of respondents being unsatisfied with the current water supply both in terms of quality and quantity. Response to the hypothetical scenario shown that sampled households stated that their mean WTP of 94 cents per 20 litres. The results of logit model revealed that household income, family size, water source, age of the respondent and bid value have significant effects on WTP for improved water service provision. The implication is that it is better take into account the socio-economic characteristics of the households in planning and designing water supply projects, which may serve to set rigorous demand oriented projects that can sustain the service delivery.

  4. Wireless sensor networks: A survey on monitoring water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mompoloki Pule


    Full Text Available Diseases related to poor water and sanitation conditions have over 200 million cases reported annually, causing 5–10 million deaths world-wide. Water quality monitoring has thus become essential to the supply of clean and safe water. Conventional monitoring processes involve manual collection of samples from various points in the distribution network, followed by laboratory testing and analysis. This process has proved to be ineffective since it is laborious, time consuming and lacks real-time results to promote proactive response to water contamination. Wireless sensor networks (WSN have since been considered a promising alternative to complement conventional monitoring processes. These networks are relatively affordable and allow measurements to be taken remotely, in real-time and with minimal human intervention. This work surveys the application of WSN in environmental monitoring, with particular emphasis on water quality. Various WSN based water quality monitoring methods suggested by other authors are studied and analyzed, taking into account their coverage, energy and security concerns. The work also compares and evaluates sensor node architectures proposed the various authors in terms of monitored parameters, microcontroller/microprocessor units (MCU and wireless communication standards adopted, localization, data security implementation, power supply architectures, autonomy and potential application scenarios.

  5. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thorough documentation, research and analysis of the available information was ... It has emerged that the poor operation and maintenance of water supply, treatment and ..... reliability and reduced water consumption to avoid imminent.

  6. A hydrologic-economic modeling approach for analysis of urban water supply dynamics in Chennai, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veena Srinivasan; Steven M. Gorelick; Lawrence Goulder


    .... In order to do this, we develop a hydrologic-engineering-economic model to address the complexity of urban water supply arising from consumers' dependence on multiple interconnected sources of water...

  7. [Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of drinking water of two networks supplied by surface water]. (United States)

    Pellacani, Claudia; Branchi, Elisa; Buschini, Annamaria; Furlini, Mariangela; Poli, Paola; Rossi, Carlo


    Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic load of drinking water in relationship to the source of supplies, the disinfection process, and the piping system. Two treatment/distribution networks of drinking water, the first (#1) located near the source, the second (#2) located near the mouth of a river supplying the plants. Water samples were collected before (F) and after (A) the disinfection process and in two points (R1 and R2) of the piping system. The samples, concentrated on C18, were tested for DNA damage in human leukocytes by the Comet assay and for gene conversion, reversion and mitochondrial mutability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. The approach used in this study is able to identify genotoxic compounds at low concentration and evaluate their antagonism/synergism in complex mixtures. Comet assay results show that the raw water quality depends on the sampling point, suggesting that a high input of environmental pollutants occurred during river flowing; they also show that the disinfection process can both detoxify or enhance biological activity of raw water according to its quality and that the piping systems do not affect tap water cytotoxic/genotoxic load. The yeast tests indicate the presence of some disinfection by-products effective on mitochondrial DNA. The biological assays used in this study are proven to be able to detect the presence of low concentrations of toxic/genotoxic compounds and assess the sources of their origin/production.

  8. Optimal demand reponse to water pricing policies under limited water supply in irrigation: a case study (United States)

    Grießbach, Ulkrike; Stange, Peter; Schuetze, Niels


    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with the higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local stochastic water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. These functions take into account different soil types, crops, stochastically generated climate scenarios considering different economic conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed and applied for a case study in Saxony which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies on a regional level.

  9. Remaking Waste as Water: The Governance of Recycled Effluent for Potable Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Meehan


    Full Text Available Water managers increasingly rely on the indirect potable reuse (IPR of recycled effluent to augment potable water supplies in rapidly growing cities. At the same time, the presence of waste – as abject material – clearly remains an object of concern in IPR projects, spawning debate and opposition among the public. In this article, we identify the key governance factors of IPR schemes to examine how waste disrupts and stabilises existing practices and ideologies of water resources management. Specifically, we analyse and compare four prominent IPR projects from the United States and Australia, and identify the techno-scientific, legal, and socio-economic components necessary for successful implementation of IPR projects. This analysis demonstrates that successful IPR projects are characterised by large-scale, centralised infrastructure, state and techno-scientific control, and a political economy of water marked by supply augmentation and unchecked expansion. We argue that – despite advanced treatment – recycled effluent is a parallax object: a material force that disrupts the power geometries embedded in municipal water management. Consequently, successful IPR schemes must stabilise a particular mode of water governance, one in which recycled effluent is highly regulated and heavily policed. We conclude with insights about the future role of public participation in IPR projects.

  10. Change in the southern U.S. water demand and supply over the next forty years (United States)

    Steven C. McNulty; Ge Sun; Erika C. Cohen; Jennifer A. Moore Myers


    Water shortages are often considered a problem in the western United States, where water supply is limited compared to the eastern half of the country. However, periodic water shortages are also common in the southeastern United States due to high water demand and periodic drought. Southeastern U.S. municipalities spend billions of dollars to develop water storage...

  11. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeny


    Full Text Available The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches the head losses in the inner water supply line will be significantly decreased as well as the water mains length will be decreased with material and installation saving. Based on the data the conclusions on necessity to review standard arrangement solutions of water supply systems in the reconstructed buildings were made. Recommendations on water loss reduction in the system by installation of special water saving fittings on water devices and touchless faucets.

  12. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? (United States)


    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  13. Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management support to the Atlantis water supply scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebo


    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Supply Scheme (AWSS, Western Cape, South Africa) has been in operation for about 40 years as a means to supply and augment drinking water to the town of Atlantis via managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In this study, the numerical...

  14. Fishing for improvements: managing fishing by boat on New York City water supply reservoirs and lakes (United States)

    Nicole L. Green; Jennifer A. Cairo


    In 2003, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Supply undertook a 5-year initiative to improve fishing by boat on its water supply reservoirs and controlled lakes in upstate New York. The project includes: revising administrative procedures; cleaning up boat fishing areas on reservoir shores; improving two-way communication with...

  15. Getting "boater" all the time: managing fishing by boat on New York city water supply reservoirs (United States)

    Jennifer A. Cairo


    In 2003 the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Supply undertook a five-year initiative to improve fishing by boat on its Water Supply reservoirs and controlled lakes in upstate New York. The project includes cleanup of administrative procedures and boat fishing areas on reservoir shores; improving two-way communication with anglers;...

  16. Electricity and water supply in Lokoja, Jos and Kaduna, 1900-1939 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the development of electricity and water supply in Northern Nigeria have not received much attention. However, most of the studies dealing with the theme under investigation are those undertaking by some urban historians, engineers, town planners and geographers. Even then, electricity and water supplies are ...

  17. Public health risk status of the water supply frame work at Kwame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to assess the public health risk status of the potable water supply framework at the Kwame Nkurumah Postgraduate Residence (PG) Hall, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, (UNN), Enugu State, Nigeria, and environs. Four potable water supply frame-works at the PG Hall, UNN, and exposed stagnant ...

  18. Water Supply. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-9-80. (United States)

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on water supply is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 4-hour unit is to assist the firefighter in the proper use of water supplies and the understanding of the…

  19. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population of the communities provided a basis for evolving an index that measured the levels of access to potable water supply in the study area. The use of GIS was subsequently employed to map out the study area on the basis of levels of access to potable water supply. The overall result depicts a very poor status ...

  20. The management of potable water supply : the case of Mkhwanazi Tribal Authority / Magwaza, D.W.


    Magwaza, Duduzile Witness


    This mini–dissertation addresses the management of the potable water supply in the Mkhwanazi Tribal Authority's area of jurisdiction. The main objectives of the study were to determine the organisational structures and public policies governing the potable water supply in the uMhlathuze Local Municipality with a view to establishing the factors that hinder the provision of potable water to some parts of the Mkhwanazi Tribal Area and also determine how the present potable water situation is pe...

  1. [Water requirements, water supply and thermoregulation in small ruminants in pasture-based husbandry systems]. (United States)

    Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Axt, H; Voigt, K


    Water is an essential source of life and is available to animals as free water, water content of feed, film water (e. g. dew) and metabolic water. The water requirements of small ruminants are influenced by the type of feed, climate, stage of production, type and length of the fleece or hair coat, husbandry factors and the general health of the animal. Differences in water metabolism, drinking behaviour and the efficiency of temperature regulation are further influenced by species, breed, production type, husbandry system, acclimatisation and adaptation. Small ruminants have been, and are still predominantly kept in extensive husbandry systems. They are therefore genetically and phenotypically well adapted to these conditions and possess a range of physiological and behavioural mechanisms to deal with adverse and suboptimal weather conditions. Regarding animal welfare, there is considerable debate in the discussion and assessment of what constitutes a sufficient water supply for small ruminants under different husbandry conditions, often involving differences between theoretical demands and practical experience. This publication reviews and summarises the current literature regarding water requirements, water metabolism and thermoregulatory mechanisms of small ruminants to provide the basis for an informed assessment of extensive husbandry systems in terms of compliance with animal-welfare requirements.

  2. Assessing Risk Management Capability of Public Sector Organizations Related to PPP Scheme Development for Water Supply in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangeran M.H.


    Full Text Available The success of Public Private Partnership (PPP for water supply investment is inseparable from the capability of risk management of the parties within the project. This study investigates the risk management capability of Indonesian local public sector organizations that are potentially involved in PPP schemes for water supply. A risk management maturity model based assessment tool probing the culture, process, experience, application and partnership aspects is used in the survey. The model describes risk management capability in four levels (ad-hoc, initial, competent, excellent. The survey shows that their risk management capability is still in-average at the initial stage (level 2, meaning that the adopted risk management postures are mostly supported only by unstructured, ad-hoc and non-formal processes. The result of this study can help decision makers in choosing appropriate risk management methods and tools to be used by the local public authorities for managing risks in PPP schemes.

  3. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao


    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  4. Organic compounds assessed in Chattahoochee River water used for public supply near Atlanta, Georgia, 2004-05 (United States)

    Hughes, W. Brian; Younker, Cristal L.


    An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program characterized the occurrence of 266 organic compounds in source water and finished water from the Chattahoochee River, which is the main water-supply source for the Atlanta metropolitan area. Source water is stream water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment, and finished water is water that has passed through treatment processes prior to distribution. Samples were collected approximately monthly during 2004-05 and included 15 paired source-water and finished-water samples. Samples were collected during winter-spring high flow and summer-fall low flow, but storm events were not targeted during this Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) study. Samples were analyzed for pesticides and degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, disinfection by-products, personal care and domestic-use products, and other organic compounds. Community water systems are required to monitor regulated organic compounds under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1998); however, most compounds included in this study are not regulated by Federal drinking-water standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). The Chattahoochee River study is part of an ongoing NAWQA investigation of community water systems across the United States. Additional details about the national study are given in Carter and others (2007).

  5. Monitoring of water supply connections as an element to reduce apparent losses of water? (United States)

    Gwoździej-Mazur, Joanna


    Measuring instruments are designed to measure a given physical value, to process the obtained information and forward it to the observer. They are designed to perform specific tasks in specific working conditions and meeting the envisaged requirements. The most important requirement to be met by measuring instruments, is to preserve the established metrological characteristics. The basic and most common instrument for measuring the volume of flowing water is the water meter. Selecting the right water meter in the operating conditions is not an easy issue. The problem has been further intensified by decrease of water consumption which began in the 90s of the twentieth century and continuing to the present day. As a result, there has changed the structure of water consumption in both the residential and industrial applications. In this situation, a right selection of the optimal water meter it is an important case. The article presents the results of research in the field of characteristic flows in the water supply connections in multi-family housing using modern monitoring systems. It has been presented the calculated inequality ratio of water consumption, which can be helpful when designing a plumbing systems. In addition, the structure of water consumption due to the typical flow ranges was determined.

  6. [Arsenic levels in drinking water supplies from underground sources in the community of Madrid]. (United States)

    Aragonés Sanz, N; Palacios Diez, M; Avello de Miguel, A; Gómez Rodríguez, P; Martínez Cortés, M; Rodríguez Bernabeu, M J


    In 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50 micrograms/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in Spain. These two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. In the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the Public Health Administration of the Autonomous Community of Madrid were analyzed. A water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. In a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. Seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10 micrograms/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10 micrograms/l-50 micrograms/l, and 3.7% over 50 micrograms/l. Most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10 micrograms/l are located in the same geographical area. In the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. Twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50 micrograms/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10 micrograms/l and three more than 50 micrograms/l. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. The regular water quality monitoring conducted by the Public Health Administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50 micrograms/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum

  7. Management accounting in supply chain management – literature review and survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Dobroszek


    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain management has been evolving at a rapid pace in economic practice as wellas in scientific research, mainly in the field of logistics and supply chains. It also constitutes a reference point for researchers specializing in accounting, especially in management accounting. As a result, in recent years there has been an increasing number of publications on this research in the world, including in Poland. So far, however, there is a lack of publications that would present comprehensively the aspects of management accounting in the context of supply chain management. Therefore, this article has the following research objective: identification of the degree of development of management accounting, in research and practice, for the purposes of supply chain management. As research methods were used:review of the content of scientific articles and surveys conducted among companies in Poland. The results of survey study and literature review revealed that the most frequently addressed issues in business and in theory include cost management and performance measurement using financial indicators. In the case of other issues addressed in the publications there are discrepancies between theory and business practice. In effect, this means the need to improve the communication and integration of these two dimensions in the context of implementation of management accounting tools and methods for supply chain management support. The results presented in the article could be the basis for further, in-depth research in this area.

  8. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike


    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  9. California’s Agricultural and Urban Water Supply Reliability and the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta


    Lund, Jay R.


    doi: Much of the water supplied in California for agriculture and cities is taken directly from the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta) or indirectly from surface and groundwater diversions upstream. These water supplies have great economic and social value, and considerable ecosystem effects. Long thought of as the major source of water for economic growth in California, the reliability of water supplied from the Delta is t...

  10. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    wells, bore holes and extension of the existing water pipes to neighbouring towns and villages. This programme is to be repackaged as “water for all'. The provision of safe drinking water to all nocks and crannies will reduce the incidence of water borne diseases. More funds are to be allocated to the state water corporation.

  11. Water supply in the long term: a risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Integrated water assessment studies are often confined to a study of physical aspects, considering the relation between surface and groundwater, water quantity and water quality, and between water, land and climate. The interaction between changes in the water system and socio-economic development

  12. Monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reservoir water used for drinking water supply. (United States)

    Aristizabal-Ciro, Carolina; Botero-Coy, Ana María; López, Francisco J; Peñuela, Gustavo A


    In this work, the presence of selected emerging contaminants has been investigated in two reservoirs, La Fe (LF) and Rio Grande (RG), which supply water to two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of Medellin, one of the most populated cities of Colombia. An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the sample followed by measurement by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for this purpose. Five monitoring campaigns were performed in each reservoir, collecting samples from 7 sites (LF) and 10 sites (RG) at 3 different depths of the water column. In addition, water samples entering in the DWTPs and treated water samples from these plans were also analysed for the selected compounds. Data from this work showed that parabens, UV filters and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen were commonly present in most of the reservoir samples. Thus, methyl paraben was detected in around 90% of the samples collected, while ibuprofen was found in around 60% of the samples. Water samples feeding the DWTPs also contained these two compounds, as well as benzophenone at low concentrations, which was in general agreement with the results from the reservoir samples. After treatment in the DWTPs, these three compounds were still present in the samples although at low concentrations (water are still unknown. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds via consumption of drinking water.

  13. Studying Drinking Water Quality and its Change During Transportation through Samara Water-Supply Facilities (United States)

    Kichigin, V. I.; Egorova, Y. A.; Nesterenko, O. I.


    The paper investigates changes in water physico-chemical composition and its physical indicators through ζ-potential in residential buildings in eight administrative districts of Samara. The results are processed by the methods of mathematical statistics and presented at the 0.05 level of importance. The sampling points for water in the city districts were chosen with the aid of random numbers tables. It was determined that the quality of drinking water was stable and consistent with the existing standards in Zheleznodorozhniy, Samarskiy, Leninskiy, Octyabrskiy, Kirovsliy, Sovetskiy and Promyshlenniy districts of Samara. The following indicators were taken into account: pH, colour, turbidity, alkalinity, general rigidity, content of ions Ca2 +, Mg2 +. It was also established that drinking water in Kuibyshevskiy district (with all other excellent indicators) had increased mineralization due to the natural hydrological conditions of the water inlet. Some change in the size of zeta-potential of the water was detected during its transportation through the existing water-supplying networks of the city. It was shown that the link between zeta-potential and various kinds of contamination in drinking water is underexplored and requires further detailed study.

  14. Modelling Water Supply-Billing and Collection Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya


    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  15. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, Berit; Jørgensen, C.


    ) desalinated brackish water for all uses including drinking water and 4) local reclamation of rain and grey water for use in toilets and laundry. The project has been conducted by multiple stakeholders, including the municipality, landowners, the water utility, consultants, technology providers and research......Nordhavn, a former industrial harbour area is under development into an integrated part of Copenhagen City. All infrastructures will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. Our project assesses the potential for establishing a secondary water supply to relieve...... the pressure on the primary and conventional groundwater based drinking water supply. Four alternative water resources for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3...

  16. Sustainable energy development and water supply security in Kamojang Geothermal Field: The Energy-Water Nexus (United States)

    Sofyan, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.


    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam have been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of water were injected into the reservoir system. The injected water come from condensed water, local river and ground water. Sustainable production in the geothermal energy development is the ability of the production system applied to sustain the stable production level over long times and to manage the mass balance between production, injection and natural recharge in the geothermal reservoir during exploitation. Mass balance in the reservoir system can be monitored by using time lapse gravity monitoring. Mass variation of hydrodynamic in the reservoir of KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production. Large amount of fresh water is needed for sustainable geothermal energy production, while the domestic water supply need is also increased. Natural recharge, about 50% of injected water, cooling system, drilling and other production activities in KGF spend large amounts of fresh water. Water consumption for local people around KGF is about 1.46 MT/year. The water volume around KGF of total runoff is the range between dry season 0.07 MT/month and rainy season 4.4 MT/month. The water demands for sustainable geothermal production of KGF and for local people's consumption will increase in the future. Integrated planning between the energy and water sectors in KGF

  17. Organic Compounds in Truckee River Water Used for Public Supply near Reno, Nevada, 2002-05 (United States)

    Thomas, Karen A.


    Organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including, in part, pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal care and domestic-use products, and refrigerants and propellants. Of 258 compounds measured, 28 were detected in at least 1 source water sample collected approximately monthly during 2002-05 at the intake of the Chalk Bluff Treatment Plant, on the Truckee River upstream of Reno, Nevada. The diversity of compounds detected indicate various sources and uses (including wastewater discharge, industrial, agricultural, domestic, and others) and different pathways (including point sources from treated wastewater outfalls upstream of the sampling location, overland runoff, and groundwater discharge) to drinking-water supply intakes. Three compounds were detected in more than 20 percent of the source-water intake samples at low concentrations (less than 0.1 microgram per liter), including caffeine, p-cresol (a wood preservative), and toluene (a gasoline hydrocarbon). Sixteen of the 28 compounds detected in source water also were detected in finished water (after treatment, but prior to distribution; 2004-05). Additionally, two disinfection by-products not detected in source water, bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane, were detected in all finished water samples. Two detected compounds, cholesterol and 3-beta-coprostanol, are among five naturally occurring biochemicals analyzed in this study. Concentrations for all detected compounds in source and finished water generally were less than 0.1 microgram per liter and always less than human-health benchmarks, which are available for about one-half of the compounds. Seven compounds (toluene, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromodichloromethane, bisphenol A, cholesterol, and 3-beta-coprostanol) were measured at concentrations greater than 0.1 microgram per liter. On the basis of this screening-level assessment, adverse effects to human health are

  18. The need for a standard approach to assessing the functionality of rural community water supplies (United States)

    Bonsor, Helen; MacDonald, Alan; Casey, Vincent; Carter, Richard; Wilson, Paul


    The Sustainable Development Goals have set an agenda for transformational change in water access, aiming for secure household connections globally. Despite this goal, communal groundwater supplies are likely to remain the main source of improved water supplies for many rural areas in Africa and South Asia for decades to come. Understanding the poor functionality of existing communal supplies remains, therefore, a priority. A critical first step is to establish a sector-wide definition of borehole supply functionality and a standard method of its assessment.

  19. About economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system (United States)

    Rotov, P. V.; Sivukhin, A. A.; Zhukov, D. A.; Zhukova, A. V.


    The assessment of the power efficiency realized in the current of heat supply system of technology of regulation of loading of the hot water supply system, considering unevenness consumption of hot water is executed. For the purpose of definition the applicability boundary of realized technology comparative analysis of indicators of the effectiveness of its work within the possible range of the parameters of regulations. Developed a software application “The calculation of the total economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system when you change of the parameters of regulations”, which allows on the basis of multivariate calculations analyses of their results, to choose the optimum mode of operation heat supply system and to assess the effectiveness of load regulation in the hot water supply system.

  20. Open / Unipede 1995 survey on uranium and enrichment requirements and supplies in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes the current global situation with respect to uranium and enrichment supply and demand in Europe, as well as future prospects, based upon a survey conducted in mid-1995 by Unipede and Open among their member companies. The nuclear fuel cycle committees of Unipede and Open maintain an interest in all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle from uranium procurement up to final disposal of radioactive waste. Regarding the front-end of the fuel cycle, the work within those committees currently concentrates of uranium and enrichment supply and demand in Europe, including the recycling of uranium and of plutonium recovered from reprocessing. For the past fifteen years, the nuclear fuel cycle committees of Unipede and Open have jointly conducted an annual survey among their members about uranium and enrichment requirements and supplies. The 1995 survey involved all nuclear electric utilities in Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Exclusively electric utilities are surveyed, i.e. excluding national procurement organizations, traders, brokers, financial institutions, etc. The data obtained from the individual utilities in the same format, are aggregated and form the basis of the report. The quality of these data is guaranteed by the fact that the respondents are generally those people who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the nuclear fuel cycle in their company.

  1. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Immerzeel, W.; Droogers, P.


    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply–demand imbalances in

  2. Flow Down! Can managing forests help maintain water supplies in the face of climate change? (United States)

    Stephanie Laseter; Chelcy Miniat; James Vose


    Climate change can have a direct and indirect impacts on water resources. Direct impacts of climate change can be seen by the presence of more extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include things like heat waves and droughts. Droughts have a direct impact on water and water supply. The indirect impacts of climate change on water resources relate to temperature...

  3. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development. (United States)

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  4. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply... (United States)


    ... impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included...

  5. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.


    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  6. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can the water supply for the... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? (a) The water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system required under § 149.420 or...

  7. Predicted pH at the domestic and public supply drinking water depths, Central Valley, California (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.


    This scientific investigations map is a product of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project modeling and mapping team. The prediction grids depicted in this map are of continuous pH and are intended to provide an understanding of groundwater-quality conditions at the domestic and public supply drinking water zones in the groundwater of the Central Valley of California. The chemical quality of groundwater and the fate of many contaminants is often influenced by pH in all aquifers. These grids are of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to pH. In this work, the median well depth categorized as domestic supply was 30 meters below land surface, and the median well depth categorized as public supply is 100 meters below land surface. Prediction grids were created using prediction modeling methods, specifically boosted regression trees (BRT) with a Gaussian error distribution within a statistical learning framework within the computing framework of R ( The statistical learning framework seeks to maximize the predictive performance of machine learning methods through model tuning by cross validation. The response variable was measured pH from 1,337 wells and was compiled from two sources: USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database (all data are publicly available from the USGS: and the California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database (water quality data are publicly available from the SWRCB: Only wells with measured pH and well depth data were selected, and for wells with multiple records, only the most recent sample in the period 1993–2014 was used. A total of 1,003 wells (training dataset) were used to train the BRT

  8. Impact of climate change to carrying capacity of water supply system in Taiwan (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Tung, Ching-Pin; Yu, Pao-Shan; Li, Ming-Hsu


    The carrying capacity of water supply in the water resources system is neither just the quantity of the river discharge nor the summation of storage of the reservoirs. To estimate it reasonably, it must be considered with both demand side and supply side which includes the systematic combination of hydrology, climate, reservoirs, weirs, water treatment plants… etc. To analyze and approach the carrying capacity of water supply system, this study used system dynamics model to establish the water resources system in Gaoping river basin which is located in southern area of Taiwan. The impact of climatic change to water supply system was estimated with the output of 5 GCMS running with SRES scenarios and integrated with several models such as weather generation, HBV hydrological process model and system dynamics model - VENSIM. The drought index, deficit percent day (%-day), was adopted to analyze the risk of water shortage of the water resources system in Gaoping river basin under present condition and climatic change condition. The water supply system in Gaoping river basin is under two threats in the future. One is the expanded water demand, and another is climatic change. Climatic change would cause more stream flow in wet season and less stream flow in dry season. Most results from the simulation of different scenarios indicated that the carrying capacity will decrease down and the water shortage will rise up under expanding water demand and changing stream flow caused by climatic change.

  9. The management of potable water supply in Mogwase Township, Moses Kotane Local Municipality / Daniel Kagiso Mosime


    Mosime, Daniel Kagiso


    The continuous population growth and the notable development of the mining industry have resulted in challenges for potable water supply in South Africa. The ever-increasing number of people migrating to urban areas has resulted in the demand of potable water supply in South Africa. Water is regarded as a human basic right which is promulgated by the recent amendment of the potable water service provisioning Water Services Act 108 of 1997 and the National Water Act 36 of 1998. The afore-menti...

  10. Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

  11. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha


    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  12. The quality of water in small community supplies of Kingolwira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality is an important aspect in human health, as the majority of infectious diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in population are water related. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in Kingolwira, Morogoro Rural District, Tanzania. Water was collected from different sites in the village ...

  13. trace element determination in municipal water supply of Damaturu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Groundwater is the only source of drinking water for residents of Damaturu Metropolis. This is because surface water is ... examination of water and wastewater from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The result of the ... Key words: Contamination, Trace elements, Toxic, underground water. INTRODUCTION.

  14. Consumer's Perception of the Quality of Municipal Water Supplies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major alternative sources of water were from boreholes, wells and groundwater. All respondents also agreed on some levels of contamination and pollution of these alternative sources of water. The respondents indicated that they have suffered one form of water-borne disease or another due to poor quality water ...

  15. Pennsylvania Village to Get Safe, Reliable Water Supply (United States)

    A Pennsylvania village whose unfiltered, contaminated water source made it the top violator of federal and state drinking water laws will be connected to a public water system in 2015 with $2.2 million from EPA’s Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

  16. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Hellegers, Petra; Immerzeel, Walter; Droogers, Peter


    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia in 2040-2050 under dry, average and wet climate change projections and to show on the basis of the marginal cost and marginal value of water the optimum mix of supply-side and demand-side adjustments to address the imbalance. A hydrological model has been used to estimate the water supply-demand imbalance. Water supply and demand curves have been used to explore for which (marginal value of) water usage the marginal cost of supply-enhancement becomes too expensive. The results indicate that in the future in all cases, except in Iran under the wet climate projection, the quantity of water demanded has to be reduced considerably to address the imbalance, which is indeed what is currently happening already.

  17. Synthesis of public water supply use in the United States: Spatio-temporal patterns and socio-economic controls (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, A.; Sabo, J. L.; Larson, K. L.; Seo, S. B.; Sinha, T.; Bhowmik, R.; Vidal, A. Ruhi; Kunkel, K.; Mahinthakumar, G.; Berglund, E. Z.; Kominoski, J.


    Recent U.S. Geological Survey water-use report suggests that increasing water-use efficiency could mitigate the supply-and-demand imbalance arising from changing climate and growing population. However, this rich data have neither analyzed to understand the underlying patterns, nor have been investigated to identify the factors contributing to this increased efficiency. A national-scale synthesis of public supply withdrawals ("withdrawals") reveals a strong North-south gradient in public supply water use with the increasing population in the South contributing to increased withdrawal. Contrastingly, a reverse South-north gradient exists in per capita withdrawals ("efficiency"), with northern states consistently improving the efficiency, while the southern states' efficiency declined. Our analyses of spatial patterns of per capita withdrawals further demonstrate that urban counties exhibit improved efficiency over rural counties. Improved efficiency is also demonstrated over high-income and well-educated counties. Given the potential implications of the findings in developing long-term water conservation measures (i.e., increasing block rates), we argue the need for frequent updates, perhaps monthly to annual, of water-use data for identifying effective strategies that control the water-use efficiency in various geographic settings under a changing climate.

  18. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, B.; Jørgensen, C.


    brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been......Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields....... A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondarywater supply in the area...

  19. Normalization of water flow rate for external fire fighting of the buildings in settlements with zone water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgievich


    Full Text Available In the article the requirements for fire safety assurance are justified for the objects, in which water is supplied with account for serial and parallel area zoning. In the process of zoning the district is segregated into such parts, for which head rate in any point of selection of water from network will not exceed 6 bar. In the current regulatory rules the requirements for the calculation of the costs of water points are stated, as well as in case of extinguishing fires at the sites with water-supply systems zones. It is recommended to analyze each zone of the system of water-supply separately, without interrelation with the common water feeders, water consumers and services of fire extinguishing. Such an approach to assign water discharge for fire extinguishing results in the decrease of fire safety of an object, deforms calculation technique of outside systems of water-supply of the similar-type objects located in different parts of the terrain. Taking the number of fires and water consumption for fire suppression by the number of residents in each zone, we thus underestimate the capacity of the pipeline system. It is offered to make changes in Norms and Standards in force on fire safety of settlements. The recommendations on regulation of the number of fires and water flow for fire fighting in residential objects with zoned systems of water-supply are formulated.

  20. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris


    In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

  1. Dual water supply system as a way to better resources utilization. The case of Paris.


    Seidl, Martin; Trinh, Claire,; Imbert, Dominique; Hubert, Gilles


    International audience; Dual water supply system can be used to optimize and diversify the water resources utilization. In the case of Paris the non drinking water network can be used to combine several resources like leakage water, river water and reclaimed water. The article propose, to re-evaluate for the city Paris for the existing uses, the actual distribution using mass flow analysis and potential energy considerations.

  2. A Data Mining Approach to Modelling of Water Supply Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babovic, V.; Drecourt, J.; Keijzer, M.


    supply assets are mainly situated underground, and therefore not visible and under the influence of various highly unpredictable forces. This paper proposes the use of advanced data mining methods in order to determine the risks of pipe bursts. For example, analysis of the database of already occurred...

  3. PFAS - A threat for groundwater and drinking water supply in Sweden? (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Banzhaf, Stefan; Ahlkrona, Malva; Arnheimer, Berit; Barthel, Roland; Bergvall, Martin; Blomquist, Niklas; Jacks, Gunnar; Jansson, Cecilia; Lissel, Patrik; Marklund, Lars; Olofsson, Bo; Persson, Kenneth M.; Sjöström, Jan; Sparrenbom, Charlotte


    , namely, A Non-Toxic Environment, Flourishing Lakes and Streams and Good-Quality Groundwater. Although the survey of PFAS in our groundwater supplies will take time, it is feasible. Much research in the field of hydrogeology and geochemistry remains before a viable and cost-effective groundwater remediation method can be operational. Until then, it is essential that measures are taken to identify the present distribution and magnitude of PFAS in groundwater and prevents its further spread in our most important aquifers. Afzelius, H. et al., 2014. Vågar vi dricka kranvattnet? (Do we dare drinking tap water?), Svenska Dagbladet. Bergman, Å., Hansson, S.O., Hellsten, E., 2014. En miljöskandal av historiska mått (An environmental scandal of historic proportions), Svenska Dagbladet. Lewis, J. et al., 2014. Kartlägg det förorenade dricksvattnet (Survey the contaminated drinking water), Svenska Dagbladet. OECD, 2002. Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and its Salt.

  4. Water Wells Monitoring Using SCADA System for Water Supply Network, Case Study: Water Treatment Plant Urseni, Timis County, Romania (United States)

    Adrian-Lucian, Cococeanu; Ioana-Alina, Cretan; Ivona, Cojocinescu Mihaela; Teodor Eugen, Man; Narcis, Pelea George


    The water supply system in Timisoara Municipality is insured with about 25-30 % of the water demand from wells. The underground water headed to the water treatment plant in order to ensure equal distribution and pressure to consumers. The treatment plants used are Urseni and Ronaţ, near Timisoara, in Timis County. In Timisoara groundwater represents an alternative source for water supply and complementary to the surface water source. The present paper presents a case study with proposal and solutions for rehabilitation /equipment /modernization/ automation of water drilling in order to ensure that the entire system can be monitored and controlled remotely through SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The data collected from the field are designed for online efficiency monitoring regarding the energy consumption and water flow intake, performance indicators such as specific energy consumption KW/m3 and also in order to create a hydraulically system of the operating area to track the behavior of aquifers in time regarding the quality and quantity aspects.


    Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Yoji; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masuda, Takanori

    Social infrastructures are aging and population is decreasing in Japan. The aged social infrastructures should be renewed. At the same time, they are required to be moved into new framework suitable for population decreased societies. Furthermore, they have to continue to supply sufficient services even during transition term that renewal projects are carried out. Authors propose sustainable soft landing management of infrastructures and it is tried to apply to water supply pipe replacement in this study. Methodology to replace aged pipes not only aiming for the new water supply network which suits for population decreased condition but also ensuring supply service and feasibility while the project is carried out was developed. It is applied for a model water supply network and discussions were carried out.

  6. Experimental Application of an Advanced Separation Process for NOM Removal from Surface Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Callegari


    Full Text Available Natural organic matter (NOM in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives, and progressively more restrictive standards for drinking water, however, call for the investigation of advanced, more efficient, and cost-effective water treatment processes. This paper contains a brief overview on the state-of-the-art methods for NOM removal from supply waters, and describes the experimental application of an advanced technology, tested and validated at the pilot scale on the water supply source of a town in Poland. The process allowed significant removal of natural organic matter (about 50% as Dissolved Organic Carbon and turbidity (from 50% to 90%, however, these results requested significant additions of powdered activated carbon. The key to success of this type of process is a correct setup with the identification of optimal types and dosages of reagents. Based on the results of the tests conducted it is foreseeable that this technology could be used onsite, not only for removal of NOM, but also of other hard-to-tackle pollutants potentially contained in the freshwater supply and not presently considered.

  7. Large-Scale Water Resources Management within the Framework of GLOWA-Danube - Part B: The Water Supply Model (United States)

    Nickel, D.; Barthel, R.; Schmid, C.; Braun, J.


    The research project GLOWA-Danube, financed by the German Federal Government, investigates long-term changes in the water cycle of the Upper Danube river basin in light of global climatic change. Its concrete aim is to build a fully integrated decision support tool that combines the competence of eleven different institutes in domains covering all major aspects governing the water cycle - from the formation of clouds to groundwater flow patterns to the behaviour of the water consumer. The research group "Water Supply" at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (IWS), Universitaet Stuttgart, has the central task of creating an agent-based model of the water supply sector. The Water Supply model will act as a link between the various physical models determining water quality and availability on the one hand and the actors models determining water demand on the other, which together form the tool DANUBIA. Ultimately, with the help of scenario testing, the water supply model will indicate the ability of the water supply system in the Upper Danube catchment to adapt to changing boundary conditions using different management approaches. The specific aim of the Water Supply model is the creation of a model which is not only able to simulate the present day system of water extraction, treatment and distribution but also its development and change with time. As most changes to the system are brought about by decisions made by relevant actors in the field of water management or their behaviour (in response to political and economic boundary conditions, changes in water demand or water quality, advances in technology etc.), the use of agent-based modelling was chosen, whereby an agent is seen as a computer system (in our case representing a human or group of humans) which is aware of its environment, has defined objectives and is able to act independently in order to meet these objectives. Whereas agent-based modelling has received much attention over the past decades, the use

  8. Coastal upwelling supplies oxygen-depleted water to the Columbia River estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Curtis Roegner

    Full Text Available Low dissolved oxygen (DO is a common feature of many estuarine and shallow-water environments, and is often attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment from terrestrial-fluvial pathways. However, recent events in the U.S. Pacific Northwest have highlighted that wind-forced upwelling can cause naturally occurring low DO water to move onto the continental shelf, leading to mortalities of benthic fish and invertebrates. Coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest are strongly linked to ocean forcings, and here we report observations on the spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen concentration in the Columbia River estuary. Hydrographic measurements were made from transect (spatial survey or anchor station (temporal survey deployments over a variety of wind stresses and tidal states during the upwelling seasons of 2006 through 2008. During this period, biologically stressful levels of dissolved oxygen were observed to enter the Columbia River estuary from oceanic sources, with minimum values close to the hypoxic threshold of 2.0 mg L(-1. Riverine water was consistently normoxic. Upwelling wind stress controlled the timing and magnitude of low DO events, while tidal-modulated estuarine circulation patterns influenced the spatial extent and duration of exposure to low DO water. Strong upwelling during neap tides produced the largest impact on the estuary. The observed oxygen concentrations likely had deleterious behavioral and physiological consequences for migrating juvenile salmon and benthic crabs. Based on a wind-forced supply mechanism, low DO events are probably common to the Columbia River and other regional estuaries and if conditions on the shelf deteriorate further, as observations and models predict, Pacific Northwest estuarine habitats could experience a decrease in environmental quality.

  9. Thirsty Cities: Urban Environments and Water Supply in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many cities in Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing a water crisis as sources become exhausted or degraded. Urbanization, deteriorating infrastructures with a lack of funds for repairs, and inadequate polices are conspiring to cause water shortages.

  10. Engineering and Design: Trace Organic Compounds in Potable Water Supplies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This letter provides basic information pertaining to the occurrence, detection, and treatment of trace organic compounds that may be found in drinking water and existing and proposed drinking water...

  11. Analysis of (unsustainability of the current water: Supply strategy in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokmanović Petar B.


    Full Text Available Planned construction of more than 30 dams, lake-reservoirs and regional water-supply systems, are the basis of long-term water-supply strategy of the Republic of Serbia. The strategy was adopted in the 1970s and some experiences so far indicate the necessity of revision and rationalization, because of the following: - Quantity and effects of realized works are far lower than planned. The main reasons is the lack of finance as well as some systemic weaknesses shown in the processes of construction and management of the water systems. - Forecasted demographic growth as well as water consumption rates, dating back to 1970s-80s, are significantly oversized. -Global and domestic experiences in the field of construction and management of artificial lake- reservoirs indicate numerous techno-economic and environmental risks and negative consequences. - So far results of hydrogeological researches and groundwater capturing in Serbia show that this resource is a very good basis for municipal water-supply in the most part of the territory. - Water pipe lines are, on average, in very poor condition. Water supply deficits are recorded frequently because of enormous losses in distribution. The rationalization means an approach suited to the real water-supply need as well as to the financial and organizational capabilities. Orientation to the available groundwater resources is the basic guideline. One of the priorities is repairing of water pipe networks. This approach allows: - Much faster solving of water-supply problems - Big financial savings in the construction of dams, reservoirs, regional pipelines, raw water treatment plants as well as in the space adaptation and maintenance of regional water-supply systems.

  12. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Linkov, Igor


    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  13. Implementations of Riga city water supply system founded on groundwater sources (United States)

    Lāce, I.; Krauklis, K.; Spalviņš, A.; Laicāns, J.


    Drinking water for Riga city is provided by the groundwater well field complex “Baltezers, Zakumuiza, Rembergi” and by the Daugava river as a surface water source. Presently (2016), the both sources jointly supply 122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water. It seems reasonable to use in future only groundwater, because river water is of low quality and its treatment is expensive. The research on this possibility was done by scientists of Riga Technical university as the task drawn up by the company “Aqua-Brambis”. It was required to evaluate several scenario of the groundwater supply for Riga city. By means of hydrogeological modelling, it was found out that groundwater well fields could provide 120-122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water for the Riga city and it is possible further not to use water of the Daugava river. However, in order to provide more extensive use of groundwater sources, existing water distribution network shall be adapted to the change of the water sources and supply directions within the network. Safety of water supply shall be ensured. The publication may be of interest for specialists dealing with problems of water supply for large towns.

  14. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.


    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  15. Microbial deterioration of stored water for users supplied by stand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two forms of water service delivery in peri-urban settlements in the eThekwini municipal region are communal stand-pipes and household ground-tanks. Water from these sources requires storage prior to use. Previous studies have shown that water quality tends to deteriorate during storage. This study was conducted ...

  16. Domestic Water Supply, Sanitation and Health in Rural Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Chi-square analysis shows a significant association between water sources and guinea worm and diarrhea. Skin diseases were however found to be associated with inadequate water for personal hygiene. The research notes that adequate provision of potable water and safe disposal of excreta and other waste are ...

  17. Challenges in setting up a potable water supply system in a United Nations peacekeeping mission: the South Sudan experience. (United States)

    Hazra, Aniruddha


    A United Nations peacekeeping contingent was deployed in the conflict affected areas of South Sudan with inadequate environmental sanitation, lack of clean drinking water and a heightened risk of water-borne diseases. In the immediate post-deployment phase, the contingent-owned water purification system was pressed into service. However, laboratory analyses of processed water revealed its unsuitability for human consumption. A systematic, sanitary survey was conducted to identify the shortcomings in the water supply system's ability to provide potable water. Under field conditions, the 'H2S method' was used to detect faecal contamination of drinking water. The raw water from the only available source, the White Nile River, was highly turbid and contaminated by intestinal and other pathogens due to an unprotected watershed. Water sterilizing powder was not readily available in the local area to replenish the existing stocks that had deteriorated during the long transit period from the troop contributing country. The water pipelines that had been laid along the ground, under water-logged conditions, were prone to microbial recontamination due to leakages in the network. The critical evaluation of the water supply system and necessary modifications in the purification process, based upon locally available options, yielded safe drinking water. Provision of safe drinking water in the mission area requires an in-depth analysis of prevailing conditions and appropriate planning in the pre-deployment phase. The chemicals for water purification should be procured through UN sources via a 'letter of assist' request from the troop contributor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply. (United States)

    Tsushima, Shohji; Teranishi, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Kousuke; Hirai, Shuichiro


    To better understand the operation of a new fuel cell design, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell operation with and without a supply of liquid water. The supply of liquid water to the membrane improved the cell performance by increasing the water content in the membrane and thus reducing the electrical resistance of the membrane. The study also showed that MRI is a promising method to investigate the distribution of water in the membrane of a fuel cell under operating conditions.

  19. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006... (United States)


    ... the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the requirements in this rule... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.58 Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with...

  20. Water Management and Supply in a Mining Community – A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    against the water demand vis-a-vis the current population growth. Also the condition of the equipment for pumping water both from the reservoir for treatment and after treatment to the storage tanks from where water is supplied to customers were considered together with the capacity of the treatment plant and the booster ...

  1. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most instances water conservation and water-demand management and the development of local surface and groundwater resources are the most feasible options to meet any current or projected future water-supply shortfalls. Any intervention must be combined with a skills-development programme at the operational ...

  2. Prevalence of Virulent Escherichia coli Belonging B1 Phylogroup in Municipal Water Supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdous, Jannataul; Rashid, Ridwan Bin; Tulsiani, Suhella

    isolated from drinking water in Arichpur, a low income area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The distribution of the phylogroups and virulence genes were investigated in 200 isolates among them 110 isolates were from municipal water supply system and 90 were from household drinking water. Gene profile of virulence...

  3. Single effect green house type solar still for portable water supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Single Effect Symmetrical Green House Type Solar Still which can be used as a model for the supply of portable water in rural communities was constructed from locally available materials. Water quality profile tests performed on a brackish water sample before and after purification in the still indicate that the Total ...

  4. Drought and Water Supply. Implications of the Massachusetts Experience for Municipal Planning. (United States)

    Russell, Clifford S.; And Others

    This book uses the 1962-66 Massachusetts drought data as a base of information to build a planning model of water resources that is of interest to students and professionals involved with water management. Using a demand-supply ratio to measure the relative inadequacy of a given water system, the authors then project demand into the drought period…

  5. Presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae in the water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan (United States)

    Yousuf, Farzana Abubakar; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed


    ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5%) was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population. PMID:28591260

  6. Presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae in the water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Abubakar Yousuf

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5% was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population.

  7. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.


    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  8. Geography in the Social Studies: High School Simulation on Water Supply (United States)

    Dunn, James M.


    This is a ready-to-use simulation that has high school students portraying all of the key players that decide how water from the Colorado River will be allocated. Students act as judges, lobbyists, news analysts, and even protesters during a mock water conference. Water supply is promised beyond nature's delivery, so the problem is real and will…

  9. Metabolic modelling to support long term strategic decisions on water supply systems (United States)

    Ciriello, Valentina; Felisa, Giada; Lauriola, Ilaria; Pomanti, Flavio; Di Federico, Vittorio


    Water resources are essential for the economic development and sustenance of anthropic activities belonging to the civil, agricultural and industrial sectors. Nevertheless, availability of water resources is not uniformly distributed in space and time. Moreover, the increasing water demand, mainly due to population growth and expansion of agricultural crops, may cause increasing water stress conditions, if combined with the effects of climate change. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to improve the resilience of water supply systems both in terms of infrastructures and environmental compliance. Metabolic modelling approaches represent a flexible tool able to provide support to decision making in the long term, based on sustainability criteria. These approaches mimic the water supply network through a set of material and energy fluxes that interact and influence each other. By analyzing these fluxes, a suite of key performance indicators is evaluated in order to identify which kind of interventions may be applied to increase the sustainability of the system. Here, we adopt these concepts to analyze the water supply network of Reggio-Emilia (Italy) which is supported by water withdrawals from both surface water and groundwater bodies. We analyze different scenarios, including possible reduction of water withdrawals from one of the different sources as a consequence of a decrease in water availability under present and future scenarios. On these basis, we identify preventive strategies for a dynamic management of the water supply system.

  10. Washoe County : Regional water supply and quality study : Phase II final report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major goal of this study was to help structure a solution to the fragmented responsibilities for conservation, resource management, water supply, wastewater,...

  11. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mens, M. J. P; Gilroy, K; Williams, D


    .... These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as a key decision criterion...

  12. Modular Porous Plate Sublimator /MPPS/ requires only water supply for coolant (United States)

    Rathbun, R. J.


    Modular porous plate sublimators, provided for each location where heat must be dissipated, conserve the battery power of a space vehicle by eliminating the coolant pump. The sublimator requires only a water supply for coolant.

  13. Understanding the performance of water supply systems during mild to extreme droughts


    Anderton, S.; Ledbetter, R.; Prudhomme, C.


    This project assessed the performance of different types of public water supply systems in England and Wales in a range of droughts, including those that are more severe than the worst droughts in the historical record.

  14. Sustainable urban water supply in south India: Desalination, efficiency improvement, or rainwater harvesting?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veena Srinivasan; Steven M. Gorelick; Lawrence Goulder


    ...; no Indian city provides 24/7 water supply. Current approaches to addressing the problem have been utility centric, overlooking the significance of decentralized activities by consumers, groundwater extraction via private wells, and aquifer...

  15. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van


    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed

  16. Potable Water Supply Feasibility Study for Summit Station, Greenland (United States)


    station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Final comprehensive environmental evaluation report. British Antarctic Survey. 2007. Proposed construction...Troll in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica to a permanent station. 2010. Examples: Princess Elisabeth Antarctica Station

  17. [Water access and storage: survey in a peri-urban area of Abidjan in 2010]. (United States)

    Sackou Kouakou, Julie Ghislaine; Oga, Serge; Claon, Stéphane; Bama, Martial; Mbrah Koua, Dominique; Houénou, Yveline; Kouadio, Luc Kouakou


    A health survey on access to water and a chemical and bacteriological analysis were conducted between May and October 2010 on 200 tanks of drinking water in 669 households in a peri-urban area of Abidjan. The results show that 70% of the population used piped water and that 64% of the population used approximately 20 litres of water per person per day. The study found that households that used alternative sources of water spent more than those that used piped water (p water. The survey showed that 81% of the samples contained coliforms and 42.5% contained Escherichia coli. The presence of bacteria can be explained by the large quantities of water stored in open containers (i.e. containers without lids). Basic water supply combined with health education and safe water storage containers are needed.

  18. Determinants of willingness to pay for improved water supply services in rural Kazakhstan (United States)

    Tussupova, Kamshat


    The UN Sustainable development goals declare to provide water, sanitation and hygiene for all. The supply of affordable and safe water is a global priority and there is thus a requirement for a safe drinking water management and management of excreta disposal and wastewater. The current paper assesses the determinants of consumers' willingness to connect and pay (WTP) for the piped water in rural Kazakhstan. The results show that local villagers use water from different sources and at least three quarters of the respondents are willing to connect and use water from the piped water supply. The general defined determinants for WTP should be carefully considered among the different water users. Perceived water quality is a variable that is relevant for all water users. Other variables such as perceived reliability and the time-spent to collect water from the source, in-household treatment of water, and income perception are also significant but differently correlated with the WTP among different water users. Although, piped water is considered to be a safe system if properly managed, still some water users are reluctant to pay for the system and are satisfied with their current water supply and sanitation services. In this case, a proper management for the drinking water and wastewater and safe management of the excreta disposal should be supplied. It is recommended to include local water userś opinion as regard the willingness to connect and pay for the piped water system. The findings are of particular importance for policy-makers, water managers, engineers, and public health specialists.

  19. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran)


    Zabihollah Yousefi; Farzad Kazemi; Reza Ali Mohammadpour5


    Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran). Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. ...

  20. Evaluating the Impact of Glacier Shrinkage on Water Supply at Volcán Chimborazo, Ecuador (United States)

    La Frenierre, J.; Mark, B. G.


    Glaciers play a critical hydrologic role in mountain watersheds worldwide, and the potential effect of persistent glacier shrinkage on water supply is justly regarded as one of the key climate change impacts that the scientific and development communities must endeavor to understand. The relationship between glaciers and water supply is particularly acute in the tropical Andes, where irrigation is often essential for the sustainability of agricultural livelihoods. In Ecuador, the glaciers of Volcán Chimborazo (6267 m.a.s.l.) are a highly-visible component of the local hydrologic system and irrigators in the communities that surround the mountain are concerned about their potential vulnerability in the face of noticeable recent glacier retreat on the mountain. Here, I present results from an integrated study that quantifies the rate of glacier retreat at Chimborazo since the mid-1980s, estimates the present-day contribution of glacier melt to total discharge in the mountain's most glacierized watershed, and assays the implications of changing hydrologic conditions on water users in the region. Methods employed include direct hydrologic and glaciologic measurements, analysis of hydrologic tracers, remote sensing techniques, and social research activities such as household surveys and focus groups. Over the past quarter-century, increased water stress has been a key driver of shifting livelihood patterns in the agrarian communities below the mountain, with persistent glacier retreat one of multiple biophysical and socio-economic forcing mechanisms. Since 1986, Chimborazo has lost 20.5% of its glacier surface area (0.8%/yr). While station records indicate patterns of climate change consistent with those reported elsewhere in the tropical Andes (temperature increase of 1.1°C/decade; no statistically-significant changes in precipitation since 1985), there is a very strong local perception that surface water sources are diminishing and that rainfall patterns are

  1. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that... (United States)


    ... entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one Indian tribe, is the approval of... Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.56 If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

  2. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko Gulch...

  3. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under... (United States)


    ... the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.12 Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? Reclamation may provide assistance with the...

  4. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two 15-megawatt...

  5. Bacterial Contamination of Drinking Water Supplies in a Modern Rural Neighborhood †


    Lamka, Karla G.; Mark W. LeChevallier; Seidler, Ramon J.


    On six occasions during a 15-month period, the private well and spring water supplies in a modern rural neighborhood of 78 households were examined for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, and standard plate count bacteria. More than one-third of the water supplies were unsatisfactory on at least one occasion as judged by standard plate counts over 103/ml and the presence of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and/or S. aureus. Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Esch...

  6. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)


    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  7. City Of Elizabeth City, N.C. Summary Report And recommendations On Water Supply And Water Treatment Facilities (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Elizabeth City has an inadequate water supply and a greatly overloaded and deteriorated treatment facility. The present treatment plant was designed for an output of...

  8. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  9. Improved Sustainability of Water Supply Options in Areas with Arsenic-Impacted Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. McBean


    Full Text Available The supply of water for rural populations in developing countries continues to present enormous problems, particularly where there is arsenic contamination in the groundwater, as exists over significant parts of Bangladesh. In response, improvements in the sustainability of water supplies are feasible through the use of a combination of water sources wherein rainwater harvesting is employed for a portion of the year. This can potentially reduce the duration of the year during which arsenic-contaminated groundwater is utilized. As demonstrated, a rainwater cistern volume of 0.5 m3 in the Jessore district area of Bangladesh can provide rainwater for periods averaging 266 days of the year, which allows groundwater at 184 µg/L arsenic to be used as a water supply for the remainder of the year. This dual supply approach provides the body burden equivalent to the interim drinking water guideline of arsenic concentration of 50 µg/L for 365 days of the year (assuming the water consumption rate is 4 L/cap/day for a family of five with a rainwater collection area of 15 m2. If the water use rate is 20 L/cap/day, the same cistern can provide water for 150 days of the year; however, although this is insufficient to supply water to meet the body burden equivalent guideline of 50 µg/L. Results are provided also for different rooftop areas, sizes of cisterns and alternative arsenic guidelines [World Health Organization (WHO and Bangladeshi]. These findings provide useful guidelines on supply options to meet sustainability targets of water supply. However, they also demonstrate that the use of cisterns cannot assist the meeting of the 10 µg/L WHO target arsenic body burden, if the arsenic contamination in the groundwater is high (e.g., at 100 µg/L.

  10. An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota


    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical review of the physical impacts of decentralized water supply systems on existing centralized water infrastructures. This paper highlights the combination of centralized and decentralized systems, which is referred to as hybrid water supply systems. The system is hypothesized to generate more sustainable and resilient urban water systems. The basic concept is to use decentralized water supply options such as rainwater tanks, storm water harvesting and localized wastewater treatment and reuse in combination with centralized systems. Currently the impact of hybrid water supply technologies on the operational performance of the downstream infrastructure and existing treatment processes is yet to be known. The paper identifies a number of significant research gaps related to interactions between centralized and decentralized urban water services. It indicates that an improved understanding of the interaction between these systems is expected to provide a better integration of hybrid systems by improved sewerage and drainage design, as well as facilitate operation and maintenance planning. The paper also highlights the need for a framework to better understand the interaction between different components of hybrid water supply systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ethem Karadirek


    Full Text Available Sustainability of water supply systems has started to become an important issue besides continuous and hygienic supply of water. Sustainable water supply systems require improvement of energy efficiency, reduction of energy and water losses in water distribution systems and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Pressure is one of the main design parameters for gravity water supply systems and water distribution networks. Therefore, pressure has to be between certain limits. An excess pressure occurs during water transmission from high elevations of water resources to low elevations. By use of break pressure tanks, water storage tanks or pressure reducing valves (PRV excess pressure is reduced and damages on transmission pipes are prevented. However, energy recovery from excess pressure is possible at this stage by using turbines. Similarly, PRVs are used at certain locations of water distribution networks to control excess water pressure and to reduce it down to optimum operational levels. Energy recovery from excess pressure is also possible at this stage although energy recovery will be low. High pressure at water supply systems causes both energy and water losses. In Turkey, allowable water pressure at water distribution networks is between 20-60 m water column but excess pressure is commonly observed. At low pressure levels, water cannot reach water subscribers and this causes customer dissatisfaction. On the other side, at high pressure levels, water losses and pipe bursts increase which causes indirect increase in energy losses. For sustainable operation of water distribution networks, it is recommended to divide the network into smaller and independent subzones (District Metered Area, DMA. By placing a flow meter and a pressure meter at the entrance of a DMA, flow rate and pressure could be monitored on-line. However, in order to monitor spatial and temporal variations of flow rate and pressure at all pipes in the network, a hydraulic

  12. Microbiological risk assessment of Agios Georgios source supplies in Northwestern Greece based on faecal coliforms determination and sanitary inspection survey. (United States)

    Giannoulis, N; Maipa, V; Konstantinou, I; Albanis, T; Dimoliatis, I


    The assessment of potential risks from microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies is of greatest concern to human health. The study involves the examination of water samples from Agios Georgios source that supplies the capitals, the major towns and several villages of Arta, Preveza and Lefkada prefectures, in Northwestern Greece. The study includes the sanitary inspection survey of the source and the microbiological examination of water samples on a monthly basis during the period February 1996-June 1999 except of Augusts (n=38). The microbiological risk assessment (MRA) approach of World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was applied to enhance the source protection. The faecal contamination of the source water was quantified using faecal coliforms (FC) as indicator bacteria. Microbiological analyses indicate that of the 38 samples analyzed the FC failure rate (positive samples) was 63.2% according to the limit set by the 98/83 directive of the European Union. The 36.8% of the source water samples was found in conformity with WHO guidelines, 42.1% of low risk, 21.1% of intermediate risk while there was not found samples of high or very high risk. Failure rates displayed a seasonal trend being greater during the winter, decreased during spring and autumn and lower during summer. This observation was explained partially by a significant positive relationship with the rainfall amount (r(Spearmann)=0.890, P=0.001). The sanitary inspection score was found 5/10 during the whole survey period that corresponds to an intermediate risk of source contamination. The color-code classification for FC contamination was found 36.8% A (blue, no risk), 42.1% B (green, low risk) and 21.1% C (yellow, intermediate risk). The previous risks were combined for the assessment of waterborne risk, which was determined as intermediate to high; therefore there is a need for high action priority. The potential remedial actions were also suggested in order to improve the source

  13. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Puhakainen, M. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T.; Ahosilta, P.; Tenhunen, J. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)


    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  14. Public law regulation of aqueducts and water supply in ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna I.


    Full Text Available This paper tackles the sources of Roman law on construction and maintenance of public aqueducts and on the regulation of water usage. They show that in ancient Rome public aqueducts served public welfare (utilitas publica because their primary purpose was to supplying the urban population with free drinking water. Given that these ancient rules also contributed to the overall health of the population by securing drinking water and water for personal hygiene, they can also be regarded a significant environmental measures. Although contemporary engineering of water supply network and technology of water purification overcame the ancient Romans, in certain aspects this ancient example deserves to be followed. First, there could be free drinking water for general use. Second, private water usage could be controlled and rationalized. This could be achieved by installing separate water meters for each apartment in residual bundling.

  15. Implications of end-user behaviour in response to deficiencies in water supply for electricity consumption - A case study of Delhi (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruchira; Kansal, Arun; Aghi, Sakshi


    Over the past two decades, urban lifestyles have changed phenomenally. One aspect of this change is the increasing use of household appliances, which, in turn, influences water and electricity consumption in urban households. It is therefore necessary to revisit water supply norms in view of these behavioural changes. Increasing use of water-related appliances by the surveyed households in Delhi, India has lowered their water consumption but increased their electricity consumption (10-16 kW h a month). Also, longer working hours away from homes have shifted water demand from homes to commercial establishments and institutions. The per-capita water requirement to meet the basic needs for health and hygiene is approximately 76-78 L a day, of which bathing claims the largest share (32%). Nearly 70% of electricity consumption of a household is spent in coping with deficiencies in water supply. Strategies adopted by end users to save water were negatively correlated with those to save electricity. Household incomes have no influence on water consumption except in the case of those living in slums, who are forced to curtail their use of water even at the cost of health and hygiene; for the rest, coping with poor water supply amounts to spending nearly 50% more on electricity, defeating the purpose of subsidised water supply.

  16. White root tips supply plants with oxygen, water and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.


    The main, most important function of roots belonging to horticultural crops is the uptake of water and nutrients. Healthy roots are essential for a healthy plant. After all, if the uptake of water and nutrients is not functioning properly, then other aspects also leave a lot to be desired

  17. Conditions for Sublimating Water Ice to Supply Ceres' Exosphere (United States)

    Landis, M. E.; Byrne, S.; Schörghofer, N.; Schmidt, B. E.; Hayne, P. O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Sykes, M. V.; Combe, J.-P.; Ermakov, A. I.; Prettyman, T.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    We explore the conditions for sublimating water ice on Ceres to explain the observed water vapor output from telescopic observations. We find that while a buried ice table cannot produce enough vapor via sublimation to explain the exosphere, exposed surface ice (given it is exposed at the right time during the Ceres day and year, and at the right location) can.

  18. Technological developments in Zimbabwe's rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of standpipe fitted with a tap. A quarter million people take their water from about 35 000 family owned "upgraded" wells, with some 55 000 people taking water from springs. All these sources are relatively safe and impose a minimal health risk. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 33(1) January-March 1999, pp. 20-25 ...

  19. Operational optimisation of water supply networks using a fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 16, 2011 ... 1 Department of Technology, Centre of Agreste Region, Federal University of Pernambuco, ... consumption of water and electricity, as well as to reduce the maintenance costs. ... the energy cost of pumping surpasses the investment costs ... consumption of water distribution network pumping systems is.

  20. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  1. Domestic Water Supply, Sanitation and Health in Rural Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases associated with water and sanitation still top the top ten causes of morbidity and mortality. A Chi-square analysis shows a significant association between water sources and ... Other diseases related to poor \\Valer. sanitation and hygiene ..... processing, marketing and commercial transportation, tourism and small-.

  2. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... faecalis and Clostridum perfringens), as safeguards against water-related infection. In perspective, further research on methods of detecting reliable indicators in addition to maintaining hygienic principles in homes, are recommended. KEY WORDS: Water Pollution, Bacterial indicators, General acceptability, Public Health ...

  3. Microbial quality of Jimma water supply | Kifle | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on drinking water quality in Jimma town was conducted from February to May 2005. Twelve water samples were collected and analyzed by different microbiological analysis. Microbiological analysis of the samples showed the presence of different microorganisms when the samples were fresh ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 23, 2006 ... collection directly from the faucet (Kent and Watson, 1978). The samples of water collected in each case described above were transferred into 2.5L kegs and they were immediately acidified at the rate of. 10ml of 11M HCI per litre of water. This is required in order to prevent adsorption of radionuclides onto ...

  5. Diagnosis of the quality of water supplied to the locality of Santa Cruz, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana R. C. Vilaça


    Full Text Available The basic sanitation comprises several services that are essential to the maintenance of people's health and well-being. The populations that have an appropriate water supply, sewage collection and treatment, proper garbage disposal, among other services, are protected from diseases and have access to a minimum comfort to live in a safe way. In spite of the importance of these services, to the extent to be characterized as “basic”, several populations, national or worldwide, suffer for the lack or the complete privation of sanitation, live without access to quality water, their waste is thrown under open air and their garbage is disposed in inappropriate sites, what causes health and environmental impacts. This work is being accomplished in a community called Santa Cruz, located in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, and aims to carry out a survey about the local sanitary reality, especially about the quality of the water supplied to the population. 100 inhabitants of that community were interviewed and answered a questionnaire. Among the results, 22% of the interviewees consume the water that comes to their homes without any type of treatment, 47% consider the supply water as being of poor quality and 7% don't own home water tanks. After the interviews, bacteriological and physicochemical water analyses were performed in fifteen samples collected in the community. The test results indicated that the collected water was out of the drinking water standards, and therefore, inappropriate for human consumption.

  6. Emergency Physicians as Good Samaritans: Survey of Frequency, Locations, Supplies and Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Burkholder, MD, MPH


    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the frequency and locations in which emergency physicians (EPs are bystanders to an accident or emergency; equally uncertain is which contents of an “emergency kit” may be useful during such events. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and locations of Good Samaritan acts by EPs and also determine which emergency kit supplies and medications were most commonly used by Good Samaritans. Methods: We conducted an electronic survey among a convenience sample of EPs in Colorado. Results: Respondents reported a median frequency of 2.0 Good Samaritan acts per five years of practice, with the most common locations being sports and entertainment events (25%, road traffic accidents (21%, and wilderness settings (19%. Of those who had acted as Good Samaritans, 86% reported that at least one supply would have been useful during the most recent event, and 66% reported at least one medication would have been useful. The most useful supplies were gloves (54%, dressings (34%, and a stethoscope (20%, while the most useful medications were oxygen (19%, intravenous fluids (17%, and epinephrine (14%. Conclusion: The majority of EPs can expect to provide Good Samaritan care during their careers and would be better prepared by carrying a kit with common supplies and medications where they are most likely to use them.

  7. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: impact on water-related diseases. (United States)

    Opara, A A


    Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects.

  8. Vulnerability of U.S. water supply to shortage: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown


    Comparison of projected future water demand and supply across the conterminous United States indicates that, due to improving efficiency in water use, expected increases in population and economic activity do not by themselves pose a serious threat of large-scale water shortages. However, climate change can increase water demand and decrease water supply to the extent...

  9. Managing Public Water Utilities: an assessment of bureaucratic and New Public Management models in the water supply and sanitation sectors in low- and middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Schwartz (Klaas)


    textabstractDespite strong encouragement of many international financing and development agencies to stimulate private sector involvement in the water supply and sanitation sector, the overwhelming majority of water supply and sanitation services are still provided by public sector organizations

  10. Water Supply Systems For Aircraft Fire And Rescue Protection (United States)


    This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the selection : of a water source and standards for the design of a distribution system to : support aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) service operations on : airports.

  11. Sustainable urban water supply in south India: Desalination, efficiency improvement, or rainwater harvesting? (United States)

    Srinivasan, Veena; Gorelick, Steven M.; Goulder, Lawrence


    Indian megacities face severe water supply problems owing to factors ranging from growing population to high municipal pipe leakage rates; no Indian city provides 24/7 water supply. Current approaches to addressing the problem have been "utility centric," overlooking the significance of decentralized activities by consumers, groundwater extraction via private wells, and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We propose a framework that makes it possible to evaluate a wider range of centralized and decentralized policies than previously considered. The framework was used to simulate water supply and demand in a simulation model of Chennai, India. Three very different policies, supply augmentation, efficiency improvement, and rainwater harvesting, were evaluated using the model. The model results showed that none of the three policies perfectly satisfied our criteria of efficiency, reliability, equity, financial viability, and revenue generation. Instead, a combination of rainwater harvesting and efficiency improvement best meets these criteria.

  12. Water supply as a constraint on transmission expansion planning in the Western interconnection (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Bailey, Michael; Zemlick, Katie M.; Moreland, Barbara D.


    Consideration of water supply in transmission expansion planning (TEP) provides a valuable means of managing impacts of thermoelectric generation on limited water resources. Toward this opportunity, thermoelectric water intensity factors and water supply availability (fresh and non-fresh sources) were incorporated into a recent TEP exercise conducted for the electric interconnection in the Western United States. The goal was to inform the placement of new thermoelectric generation so as to minimize issues related to water availability. Although freshwater availability is limited in the West, few instances across five TEP planning scenarios were encountered where water availability impacted the development of new generation. This unexpected result was related to planning decisions that favored the development of low water use generation that was geographically dispersed across the West. These planning decisions were not made because of their favorable influence on thermoelectric water demand; rather, on the basis of assumed future fuel and technology costs, policy drivers and the topology of electricity demand. Results also projected that interconnection-wide thermoelectric water consumption would increase by 31% under the business-as-usual case, while consumption would decrease by 42% under a scenario assuming a low-carbon future. Except in a few instances, new thermoelectric water consumption could be accommodated with less than 10% of the local available water supply; however, limited freshwater supplies and state-level policies could increase use of non-fresh water sources for new thermoelectric generation. Results could have been considerably different if scenarios favoring higher-intensity water use generation technology or potential impacts of climate change had been explored. Conduct of this exercise highlighted the importance of integrating water into all phases of TEP, particularly joint management of decisions that are both directly (e.g., water

  13. Combining scientific and societal challenges: a water supply case study from the Koster Islands, Sweden (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Banzhaf, Stefan


    Until now, groundwater in coastal areas has not received much attention in Sweden, neither from water authorities nor the research community. Extractable volumes from bedrock aquifers are too small for the public water supply of larger permanent settlements. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in attractive coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources during the summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. This situation is exacerbated as municipalities receive increasing applications to build summerhouses, or to convert existing ones into permanent residencies. In view of such rising demands, as well as the growing awareness of potential environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. However, the responsibility for private wells is left almost exclusively to their owners, and obligations in the water sector are distributed over a wide range of authorities which operate on local, regional, and national scales (1). Therefore, it remains unclear how to deal with and administer the related challenging questions which are of varying legal, social, economic, environmental, and hydrological natures. Here, we present intermediate results of an ongoing investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms an "in-a-nutshell" example of a coastal zone with such groundwater use. With around 300 annual permanent residents, but up to 6000 summer overnight guests in peak season, water supply, largely based on 800 private wells, is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and even the current operation is considered unsustainable, leaving the municipality to decide how to secure future supply. The municipality favors a "large scale technical solution" (either a pipeline from the mainland or a large desalination plant) while many locals prefer to keep the existing private wells. While

  14. Application of a risk management framework to a drinking water supply augmented by stormwater recharge. (United States)

    Vanderzalm, J L; Page, D W; Dillon, P J


    The Blue Lake is an important water resource for the city of Mount Gambier and the surrounding region, primarily as the drinking water supply source, but also as a tourist attraction. Mount Gambier's stormwater is discharged directly via drainage wells into the unconfined, karstic Gambier Limestone aquifer, which in turn provides the majority of recharge to Blue Lake. Discharge of urban runoff to the aquifer commenced in the 1800s as a means of stormwater management, but is now recognised as contributing to the drinking water supply in Blue Lake. Recently, guidelines for managing the risks associated with water recycling and augmenting drinking water supplies have been developed. This paper examines the organic chemical hazards associated with a stormwater to potable recycling scheme as an example of the current risk management framework.

  15. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County (United States)

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah


    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water—a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways—through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  16. Analysis of the Possible Use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Urban Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Đurin


    Full Text Available Because of the importance of water supply for the sustainability of urban areas, and due to the significant consumption of energy with prices increasing every day, an alternative solution for sustainable energy supply should be sought in the field of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. An innovative solution as presented in this paper has until now not been comprehensively analyzed. This work presents the solution with the application of a (Photovoltaic PV generator. The main technological features, in addition to the designing methodology and case study are presented in this paper. The critical period approach has been used for the first time for system sizing. The application of this sizing method provides a high reliability of the proposed system. The obtained results confirm the assumption that the PV generator is a promising energy sustainable solution for urban water supply systems. The service reservoir, which acts as water and energy storage for the proposed system, provides the basis for a sustainable solution of water and energy supply. In accordance with the proposed, the reliability of such system is high. This concept of energy supply operation does not generate any atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases, which contributes significantly to the reduction of the impacts of climate changes. The proposed solution and designing methodology are widely applicable and in accordance with the characteristics of the water supply system and climate.

  17. Mitigating Corporate Water Risk: Financial Market Tools and Supply Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Larson


    Full Text Available A decision framework for business water-risk response is proposed that considers financial instruments and supply management strategies. Based on available and emergent programmes, companies in the agricultural, commodities, and energy sectors may choose to hedge against financial risks by purchasing futures contracts or insurance products. These strategies address financial impacts such as revenue protection due to scarcity and disruption of direct operations or in the supply chain, but they do not directly serve to maintain available supplies to continue production. In contrast, companies can undertake actions in the watershed to enhance supply reliability and/or they can reduce demand to mitigate risk. Intermediate strategies such as purchasing of water rights or water trading involving financial transactions change the allocation of water but do not reduce overall watershed demand or increase water supply. The financial services industry is playing an increasingly important role, by considering how water risks impact decision making on corporate growth and market valuation, corporate creditworthiness, and bond rating. Risk assessment informed by Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measures is described, and the role of the financial services industry is characterised. A corporate decision framework is discussed in the context of water resources management strategies under complex uncertainties.

  18. In-situ tryptophan-like fluorescence: A real-time indicator of faecal contamination in drinking water supplies. (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Lapworth, D J; Marchant, B P; Nkhuwa, D C W; Pedley, S; Stuart, M E; Bell, R A; Chirwa, M; Kabika, J; Liemisa, M; Chibesa, M


    Enteric pathogens are typically inferred from the presence of surrogate indicator organisms such as thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTCs). The analysis of TTCs requires time-consuming incubation in suitable laboratories, which can limit sampling resolution, particularly during critical pollution events. Here, we demonstrate the use of in-situ fluorimeters targeting tryptophan-like compounds as a rapid, reagentless indicator of TTCs in groundwater-derived potable water supplies in Africa. A range of other common indicators of TTCs were also determined including nitrate, turbidity, and sanitary risk survey scores. Sampling was conducted during both the dry and wet seasons to investigate seasonality. Tryptophan-like fluorescence was the most effective predictor of both presence/absence and number of TTCs during both seasons. Seasonal changes in tryptophan-like fluorescence in deeper supplies suggest it is transported more efficiently through the aquifer than TTCs. Moreover, the perennial elevated concentrations in some wells suggest it is more resilient than TTCs in groundwater. Therefore tryptophan-like fluorescence could also be a better indicator of some smaller, more easily transported, and long-lived, pathogenic enteric viruses. These sensors have the potential to be included in real-time pollution alert systems for drinking water supplies throughout the world, as well as for mapping enteric pathogen risks in developing regions. Copyright © 2015 British Geological Survey (a component body of NERC). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential exposure and treatment efficiency of nanoparticles in water supplies based on wastewater reclamation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Peter; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Rygaard, Martin


    Water scarcity brings an increased focus on wastewater reclamation for drinking water supply. Meanwhile, the production volume of nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly increasing, but to date there has been little attention given to the fate of NPs in water systems based on wastewater reclamation. We have...... investigated the possible concentrations of silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in tap water for water supplies based on reclaimed wastewater. Tap water concentrations of the NPs were assessed by mass flow analyses of two typical wastewater reclamation concepts: 1) advanced...... studies are available on the removal efficiencies of NPs by advanced water treatment processes with a majority of the identified studies focusing on removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants and fate in surface waters. The NP removal efficiency of several treatment processes is unknown...

  20. Microcystins contamination of surface water supply sources in Zaria-Nigeria. (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Kwaghe, Mndepawe Jonah


    Cyanobacterial contamination of public water supply systems is a worldwide problem. The present study investigated water quality and microcystins (MCs) contamination of four public water supply systems in Zaria, Nigeria. The water bodies were eutrophic in the rainy and dry season and supported high phytoplankton biomass with chlorophyll a concentrations generally higher than 20.0 μg/L. The biomass of the predominant species (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena subcylindrica) of cyanobacteria had a significant positive correlation with particulate and dissolved MCs. Dissolved MCs concentrations were higher (>1.0 μg/L) than the maximum permissible limits for drinking water in all the water bodies in the dry season and three of them in the rainy season. These results suggest that there is the need to have a regular monitoring program for these water bodies to prevent acute and chronic health hazards associated with MCs contamination of drinking and irrigation water.

  1. Research on causes of corrosion in the municipal water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliusz Orlikowski


    Full Text Available This paper presents results of failure analysis study to characterize the corrosion damage that occurred in the water supply system in Krakow. This analysis includes: electrochemical noise, linear polarization and resistometric measurements. Water aggressiveness of four water intakes was defined using Langelier and Ryznar indices. Results from this indices did not reveal the causes of considerable corrosion losses in water systems. The corrosion rate measurements revealed that water from the one of water intakes is characterized by considerable corrosive aggression. In all studied water subsystems formation of protective layers limiting the corrosion rate was found. Overall analysis reveal the need to implement a on-line corrosion rate monitoring in the water supply system of the city of Krakow.

  2. Life-cycle energy impacts for adapting an urban water supply system to droughts. (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Lane, Joe L; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A


    In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks. Our work highlights the energy burden of alternative water supply strategies which added approximately 24% life-cycle energy use to the existing supply system (with surface water sources) in SEQ even for a current post-drought low utilisation status. Over half of this additional life-cycle energy use was from the centralised alternative supply strategies. Rainwater tanks contributed an estimated 3% to regional water supply, but added over 10% life-cycle energy use to the existing system. In the future scenario analysis, we compare the life-cycle energy use between "Normal", "Dry", "High water demand" and "Design capacity" scenarios. In the "Normal" scenario, a long-term low utilisation of the desalination system and the water recycling system has greatly reduced the energy burden of these centralised strategies to only 13%. In contrast, higher utilisation in the unlikely "Dry" and "Design capacity" scenarios add 86% and 140% to life-cycle energy use of the existing system respectively. In the "High water demand" scenario, a 20% increase in per capita water use over 20 years "consumes" more energy than is used by the four alternative strategies in the "Normal" scenario. This research provides insight for developing more realistic long-term scenarios to evaluate and compare life-cycle energy impacts of drought-adaptation infrastructure and regional decentralised water sources. Scenario building for life-cycle assessments of water supply

  3. Earthquake damage scenario simulation of a water supply system in Taipei (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Hao; Chen, Walter W.


    Taiwan is located in the Circum-Pacific Belt and at the junction of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The island is squeezed over a long period of time, so the frequency of the occurrence of earthquakes is very high. Changes of terrain due to seismic forces such as fault ruptures and surface uplifts could cause extensive damage to water pipeline networks. The 921 Ji-Ji earthquake was one of the most serious disasters in recent years in Taiwan, and it indeed resulted in the most severe damage of water supply systems. The urban water supply network is very important for municipal water management in Taiwan. If the water supply systems break down, hospitals and fire stations will not have enough water to carry out the rescue work, and the results may worsen the disasters. This study took the water supply system of the West District in Taipei City as an example. First, the metro-Taipei area was split into three hundred and twenty-seven 1 km by 1 km cells. Second, the location of a simulated earthquake was determined. Third, the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value of each cell was calculated by an empirical formula. Fourth, the Repair Rate (RR) of each cell was calculated based on its PGA value. Fifth, using the GIRAFFE software developed by Cornell University, the Monte Carlo simulation method was used to simulate the possible damage to the water supply system. And finally, the EPANET program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was applied to compute the distribution of flow volumes and water pressures of the damaged water supply system. Results of the pipeline network under different scenarios of earthquake magnitudes are shown in this study, and they provide an evaluation basis to decision makers to improve the pipeline infrastructures for fire protection after major earthquakes.

  4. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix A. Background Information & Problem Identification. (United States)


    area: the Patuxent, Patapsco, Magothy, and the Aquia Greensand Formations. All of these important water- bearing formations outcrop in the MWA and have...of a Potomac River intake and water filtration plant, Leesburg now has the capability of not only providing water f or its own use but also f or the...or approve subdivision plans unless they are in accordance with the county plans. The WSSC operates two large water filtration plants to supply its

  5. The Effect of the Social Security Earnings Test on Male Labor Supply: New Evidence from Survey and Administrative Data (United States)

    Haider, Steven J.; Loughran, David S.


    Despite numerous empirical studies, there is surprisingly little agreement about whether the Social Security earnings test affects male labor supply. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the labor supply effects of the earnings test using longitudinal administrative earnings data and more commonly used survey data. We find that…

  6. Characterization of Water Quality Changes During Storm Events: New Methods to Protect Drinking Water Supplies (United States)

    Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.


    A forty-month investigation to collect microbial and water-quality measurements during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions is in its initial stages. Intense sampling during storm event periods will be used to optimize sampling and analysis strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. Of particular interest is identification of meteorological and hydrologic conditions under which sampling and analysis of surface waters for traditional microbial organisms, emerging microbial organisms and non-bacterial pathogens are critical to ensure the integrity of surface-water drinking supplies. This work is particular to the Quabbin-Ware-Wachusett reservoir system in Massachusetts, which provides unfiltered drinking water to 2.5 million people in Boston and surrounding communities. Sampling and analysis strategies will be optimized in terms of number of samples over the hydrograph, timing of sample collection (including sample initiation), constituents measured, volumes analyzed, and monetary and personnel costs. Initial water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and total and fecal coliforms. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts will also be measured at all sample sites. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. It is anticipated that the final database will consist of transport data for the above parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. Results and analyses for the first monitored storm-event will be presented.

  7. The child health implications of privatizing Africa's urban water supply. (United States)

    Kosec, Katrina


    Can private sector participation (PSP) in the piped water sector improve child health? I use child-level data from 39 African countries during 1986-2010 to show that PSP decreases diarrhea among urban-dwelling, under-five children by 2.6 percentage points, or 16% of its mean prevalence. Children from the poorest households benefit most. PSP is also associated with a 7.8 percentage point increase in school attendance of 7-17 year olds. Importantly, PSP increases usage of piped water by 9.7 percentage points, suggesting a possible causal channel explaining health improvements. To attribute causality, I exploit time-variation in the private water market share controlled by African countries' former colonizers. A placebo analysis reveals that PSP does not affect respiratory illness, nor does it affect a control group of rural children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.


    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  9. Trend of Legionella colonization in hospital water supply. (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D; Fabiani, M; Cerquetani, F; Orsi, G B


    In many nosocomial Legionella outbreaks water distribution systems are the most frequent source of infection. Considering the hospital waterline old age, an investigation on colonization by Legionella spp was carried out in order to evaluate the pipeline system weaknesses and to implement environmental preventive measures. From 2004 to 2010, overall 97 samples from the water line were collected. The samples were analyzed according to the italian Legionella spp standard methods; water temperature, pH and residual free chlorine were determined at the time of collection. X2 test, exact-test and t-test were used to compare proportions and means. Overall 28 samples (23.7%) were positive for Legionella spp, and five of them (17.9%) exceeded the threshold level >104 cfu/L. The number of positive samples varied along the years, showing a significant increasing trend (X2 for trend = 11.5; pLegionella spp by comparison to negative ones showed a lower free chlorine concentration (0.08 mg/L vs 0.15 mg/L) and a higher water temperature (46.1° vs 42.7°). Actually the percentage of positive samples decreased significantly with the increasing in free chlorine in the water (X2 for trend = 8.53; pLegionella. All hospital buildings were colonized by Legionella spp, although 80% of samples >104 cfu/L occurred in the C-building. No cases of nosocomial legionellosis were reported during the study period. Hospital water system showed a diffuse colonization by Legionella spp, although the degree of contamination reached the threshold level (>104 cfu/L) only in a small percentage of samples, showing a substantial effectiveness of the control measures applied.

  10. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions. (United States)

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E


    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area).

  11. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques. (United States)


    reviews and analyzes philosophical assumptions and logics of historically important definitions of "conservation": Aldo Leopold , "The Conservation Ethic...evaluation of conservation measures aimed at industrial water demand. 175 Leopold , L. B., and W. B. Langbein. 1960. A Primer on Water. Washington, D.C...Y., A-90 Leone, R. A., A-91 Leopold , L. B., A-91 Leplastrier, B. 3., A-54 Lin, A., A-91 Linaweaver, F. P., Jr., A-78, A-92, A-163 Liroff, S., A-75

  12. Informed community mobilization for dengue prevention in households with and without a regular water supply: Secondary analysis from the Camino Verde trial in Nicaragua. (United States)

    Cárcamo, Alvaro; Arosteguí, Jorge; Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva; Ledogar, Robert J; Andersson, Neil


    Studies in different countries have identified irregular water supply as a risk factor for dengue virus transmission. In 2013, Camino Verde, a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Managua, Nicaragua, and Mexico's Guerrero State, demonstrated impact of evidence-based community mobilisation on recent dengue infection and entomological indexes of infestation by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This secondary analysis of data from the trial impact survey asks: (1) what is the importance of regular water supply in neighbourhoods with and without the trial intervention and (2) can community interventions like Camino Verde reasonably exclude households with adequate water supply? Entomological data collected in the dry season of 2013 in intervention and control communities allow contrasts between households with regular and irregular water supplies. Indicators of entomological risk included the House Index and pupa positive household index. Generalised linear mixed models with cluster as a random effect compared households with and without regular water, and households in intervention and control communities. For the House Index, regular water supply was associated with a protection in both intervention households (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6-0.9) and control households (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.5-0.8). For the pupa positive household index, we found a similar protection from regular water supply in intervention households (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8) and control households (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.5-0.9). The Camino Verde intervention had a similar impact on House Index in households with regular water supply (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.5-1.0) and irregular water supply (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8); for the pupa positive household index, the effect of the intervention was very similar in households with regular (OR0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.8) and irregular (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9) water supply. While Aedes aegypti control efforts based on informed community mobilisation had a strong impact on households without a regular water

  13. Evaluating Water Supply Risk in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Hanjiang River Basin Based on an Integrated Optimal Water Resources Allocation Model


    Xingjun Hong; Shenglian Guo; Le Wang; Guang Yang; Dedi Liu; Haijin Guo; Jun Wang


    The rapid socio-economic development and expanding human-induced hydrological alteration have strengthened the interactions between the social and hydrologic systems. To assess regional water supply security under changing water supply and demand condition in strongly human-impacted area, an integrated water resources management model that fully incorporates water demand prediction, optimal water resources allocation and water supply risk analysis is proposed and applied in the mid-lower reac...

  14. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, T. R.


    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  15. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply. (United States)

    Hutton, Guy


    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  16. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.


    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  17. Multi-objective analysis of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in a multisource water supply system (United States)

    Vieira, João; da Conceição Cunha, Maria


    A multi-objective decision model has been developed to identify the Pareto-optimal set of management alternatives for the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater of a multisource urban water supply system. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, Borg MOEA, is used to solve the multi-objective decision model. The multiple solutions can be shown to stakeholders allowing them to choose their own solutions depending on their preferences. The multisource urban water supply system studied here is dependent on surface water and groundwater and located in the Algarve region, southernmost province of Portugal, with a typical warm Mediterranean climate. The rainfall is low, intermittent and concentrated in a short winter, followed by a long and dry period. A base population of 450 000 inhabitants and visits by more than 13 million tourists per year, mostly in summertime, turns water management critical and challenging. Previous studies on single objective optimization after aggregating multiple objectives together have already concluded that only an integrated and interannual water resources management perspective can be efficient for water resource allocation in this drought prone region. A simulation model of the multisource urban water supply system using mathematical functions to represent the water balance in the surface reservoirs, the groundwater flow in the aquifers, and the water transport in the distribution network with explicit representation of water quality is coupled with Borg MOEA. The multi-objective problem formulation includes five objectives. Two objective evaluate separately the water quantity and the water quality supplied for the urban use in a finite time horizon, one objective calculates the operating costs, and two objectives appraise the state of the two water sources - the storage in the surface reservoir and the piezometric levels in aquifer - at the end of the time horizon. The decision variables are the volume of withdrawals from

  18. Model design for predicting extreme precipitation event impacts on water quality in a water supply reservoir (United States)

    Hagemann, M.; Jeznach, L. C.; Park, M. H.; Tobiason, J. E.


    -time for the reservoir model. This approach proved useful in probing a water supply's resilience to extreme events, and to inform management responses, particularly in a region such as the American Northeast where climate change is expected to bring such events with higher frequency and intensity than have occurred in the past.

  19. Speeding up stochastic analysis of bulk water supply systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is possible to analyse the reliability of municipal storage tanks through stochastic analysis, in which the user demand, fire water demand and pipe failures are simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. While this technique could in principle be used to find the optimal size of a municipal storage tank, in practice the high ...

  20. Valuing Water Supply Service Improvements In Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to examine the determinants of the value of improved water service and to establish how much consumers are willing to pay, we use a contingent valuation method (CVM). The tobit model shows socio-economic and demographic variables such as Income of the household, sex of the respondent dummy ...

  1. Operational optimisation of water supply networks using a fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a fuzzy system to control the pressure in a water distribution network, by using valves and controlling the rotor speed of the pumping systems. The variable frequency drive tracks the minimum head of the pumping system, while the control valves have the function of eliminating the excess pressure at ...

  2. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    highlight problems for which, it would firstly be necessary to attack in the research of the improvement strategies for hygiene conditions in the populations of an urban environment. Key words: Environment, sanitation, water, diseases, Douala. INTRODUCTION ... constitutes the principal cause of the overpopulation in.

  3. Nitrate concentration in drinking water supplies in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated levels of nitrate in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. Most susceptible to nitrate toxicity are infants under six months of age and pregnant women. This study assesses the nitrate concentration of 48 randomly selected wells in an urban-slum setting in Ibadan South East Local ...

  4. Microbial deterioration of stored water for users supplied by stand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    difference in water quality between stand-pipe households that used open-top containers and those that used closed-top con- tainers. ... maintained better personal hygiene but lower container hygiene than those households consisting of children, whereas the ..... differences between source and point-of-use for total organ-.

  5. Domestic Water Supply, Sanitation and Health in Rural Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    association between water sources and guinea worm and diarrhea. Skin diseases were however found to be .... consumption, bathing and food preparation (WHO, 1993, taken from. Howard and Bartram, 2003). This implies ... personal hygiene, food hygiene, solid-waste disposal, environmental protection and excreta and ...

  6. Water supply arrangements in developing countries: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Malawi. B.U.G. Mughogho, I.B.M. Kosamu. Abstract. The provision of potable water in the cities of developing countries has been of concern for a long time. Most of the urban population, especially in unplanned settlements, relies on ...

  7. Trihalomethanes formation in Iranian water supply systems: predicting and modeling. (United States)

    Babaei, Ali Akbar; Atari, Leila; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadiangali, Kambiz; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Alavi, Nadali


    Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products discovered in drinking water and are classified as probable carcinogens. This study measures and models THMs formation at two drinking water distribution systems (WDS1 and WDS2) in Ahvaz City, Iran. The investigation was based on field-scale investigations and an intensive 36-week sampling program, from January to September 2011. The results showed total THM concentrations in the range 17.4-174.8 μg/L and 18.9-99.5 μg/L in WDS1 and WDS2, respectively. Except in a few cases, the THM concentrations in WDS1 and WDS2 were lower than the maximum contaminant level values. Using two-tailed Pearson correlation test, the water temperature, dissolved organic carbon, UV254, bromide ion (Br-), free residual chlorine, and chlorine dose were identified as the significant parameters for THMs formation in WDS2. Water temperature was the only significant parameter for THMs formation in WDS1. Based on the correlation results, a predictive model for THMs formation was developed using a multiple regression approach. A multiple linear regression model showed the best fit according to the coefficients of determination (R2) obtained for WDS1 (R2=0.47) and WDS2 (R2=0.54). Further correlation studies and analysis focusing on THMs formation are necessary to assess THMs concentration using the predictive models.


    Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. These organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. Methods of increasing the probabi...

  9. Provision of Adequate Water Supply in Benin Province: Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines the performance of the local governments in the provision of adequate sources of potable water in their different areas of jurisdiction in the Benin Province. The work covers the four Native Administration areas of Benin, Esan, Afemai and Asaba Divisions, which made up the Benin Province during ...

  10. Improvised purification methods for obtaining individual drinking water supply under war and extreme shortage conditions. (United States)

    Kozlicic, A; Hadzic, A; Bevanda, H


    Supplying an adequate amount of drinking water to a population is a complex problem that becomes an extremely difficult task in war conditions. In this paper, several simple methods for obtaining individual supplies of drinking water by filtration of atmospheric water with common household items are reported. Samples of atmospheric water (rain and snow) were collected, filtered, and analyzed for bacteriological and chemical content. The ability of commonly available household materials (newspaper, filter paper, gauze, cotton, and white cotton cloth) to filter water from the environmental sources was compared. According to chemical and biological analysis, the best results were obtained by filtering melted snow from the ground through white cotton cloth. Atmospheric water collected during war or in extreme shortage conditions can be purified with simple improvised filtering techniques and, if chlorinated, used as an emergency potable water source.

  11. Analysis and intervention plan of water resource supply and demand in North China (United States)

    Zang, Yuhang


    Firstly, this paper use Regression Analysis Prediction Method to analysis surface water, underground water and sewage treatment, so that we can predict the water supply capacity of North China in the next 15 years. After that, we test the trusting degree of this model to ensure the facticity by identifying the statistical significance of each data. Secondly, we adopt analytic hierarchy process (AHP method) to gain the factors mostly affecting sewage treatment capacity is the Chemical Oxygen Demand and ammoniac nitrogen content in sewage. So we can take measures to increase the amount of water supply in the region. Finally, we adjust the charging standard of living water and together with logistic regression, which can improve the water-saving awareness of local residents so as to effectively reduce the water consumption in the future.

  12. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Flow (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for the Spring Water Monitoring - Flow 1.02 survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This coop baseline monitoring survey has...

  13. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  14. Mathematical Modeling for Evaluation of Field Water Supply Alternatives (Arid and Semi-Arid Regions). (United States)


    EVALUATION OF FIELD WATER SUPPLY ALTERNATIVES ( Arid and Semi - Arid Regions) FINAL REPORT eJ. M. Morgan, Jr. J. R. Sculley LV. J. Ciccone* aD. K. Jamison J. W...Final Report Water Supply Alternatives 1 August 79-31 January 81 ( Arid and Semi - Arid Regions) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT...CLAUIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Whan Data Entesed) 20. (Cont’d.) ~issues pertinent to the production of water in an arid or semi - arid environment, and, finally

  15. Proposal for a Model of Co-Management for the Small Community Water Supplies in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bernal


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the conceptual evolution of Community Based Monitoring (CBM from different approaches : social capital, common pool resources and co-management or collaborative management, and presents the main co-management strategies applied to water supply at small scale: local and community driven development (LCDD and sustainable services at scale (SSS. Supported by this theoretical background, and in order to improve access to drinking water in rural communities in Colombia, the authors propose a co-management model for small and community water supplies.

  16. About opportunities of the sharing of city infrastructure centralized warmly - and water supply (United States)

    Zamaleev, M. M.; Gubin, I. V.; Sharapov, V. I.


    It is shown that joint use of engineering infrastructure of centralized heat and water supply of consumers will be the cost-efficient decision for municipal services of the city. The new technology for regulated heating of drinking water in the condenser of steam turbines of combined heat and power plant is offered. Calculation of energy efficiency from application of new technology is executed.

  17. Adapting Community-Based Water Supply in Central America to a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Central America, nearly 24,000 community-based organizations supply drinking water to rural and peri-urban residents. By delivering potable water, these organizations improve the health and welfare of millions, and play a key role in local economic development. Climate change in the region is resulting in higher ...

  18. A Potential Approach for Low Flow Selection in Water Resource Supply and Management (United States)

    Ying Ouyang


    Low flow selections are essential to water resource management, water supply planning, and watershed ecosystem restoration. In this study, a new approach, namely the frequent-low (FL) approach (or frequent-low index), was developed based on the minimum frequent-low flow or level used in minimum flows and/or levels program in northeast Florida, USA. This FL approach was...

  19. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  20. Physico-chemical characterisation of some ground water supply in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water quality assessment of some ground water supply to a school in Ilorin City was carried out over a year. The concentration of nitrates in the samples were determined using a UV - visible spectrophotometer. The wells located within the student hostels were found to be high in nitrate with concentrations ranging from ...

  1. Coordination in urban water supply networks using distributed model predictive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leirens, S.; Zamora, C.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.


    Urban water supply networks are large-scale systems that transport potable water over vast geographical areas to millions of consumers. A safe and efficient operation of these networks is crucial, as without it living in today’s cities would be impossible. To achieve an adequate operation, these

  2. Concerns in Water Supply and Pollution Control: Legal, Social, and Economic. (United States)

    Burke, D. Barlow, Jr.; And Others

    This bulletin contains three articles which focus on ground water's potential as a dependable supply source and some of the problems impeding the development of that potential. The authors' concerns are discussed from the vantage point of their areas of specialization: law, sociology, and economics. The first author states that water law abounds…

  3. Quantifying the role of forested lands in providing surface drinking water supply for Puerto Rico (United States)

    Erika Cohen; Ge Sun; Liangxia Zhang; Peter Caldwell; Suzanne Krieger


    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture published a General Technical Report (GTR-SRS-197) in 2014 that quantified the role that water originating on National Forest System lands contributed to the drinking water supply and determined what population and communities were being served in the 13 Southern States of Region 8 of the Forest Service. The...

  4. Marangoni spreading due to a localized alcohol supply on a thin water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Sanchez, J.F.; Eddi, A.C.A.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus


    Bringing two miscible fluids into contact naturally generates strong gradients in surface tension. Here, we investigate such a Marangoni-driven flow by continuously supplying isopropyl alcohol (IPA) on a film of water, using micron-sized droplets of IPA-water mixtures. These droplets create a

  5. Evaluating the electricity intensity of evolving water supply mixes: the case of California’s water network (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, Jennifer; Taptich, Michael; Kavvada, Olga; Horvath, Arpad


    Climate change is making water supply less predictable, even unreliable, in parts of the world. Urban water providers, especially in already arid areas, will need to diversify their water resources by switching to alternative sources and negotiating trading agreements to create more resilient and interdependent networks. The increasing complexity of these networks will likely require more operational electricity. The ability to document, visualize, and analyze water–energy relationships will be critical to future water planning, especially as data needed to conduct the analyses become increasingly available. We have developed a network model and decision-support tool, WESTNet, to perform these tasks. Herein, WESTNet was used to analyze a model of California’s 2010 urban water network as well as the projected system for 2020 and 2030. Results for California’s ten hydrologic regions show that the average number of water sources per utility and total electricity consumption for supplying water will increase in spite of decreasing per-capita water consumption. Electricity intensity (kWh m‑3) will increase in arid regions of the state due to shifts to alternative water sources such as indirect potable water reuse, desalination, and water transfers. In wetter, typically less populated, regions, reduced water demand for electricity-intensive supplies will decrease the electricity intensity of the water supply mix, though total electricity consumption will increase due to urban population growth. The results of this study provide a baseline for comparing current and potential innovations to California’s water system. The WESTNet tool can be applied to diverse water systems in any geographic region at a variety of scales to evaluate an array of network-dependent water–energy parameters.

  6. Storage and Non-Payment: Persistent Informalities within the Formal Water Supply of Hubli-Dharwad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Burt


    Full Text Available Urban water systems in Asia and Africa mostly provide intermittent rather than continuous water supplies; such systems compromise water quality and inconvenience the user. Starting in 2008, an upgrade to continuous (24/7 water services was provided for 10% of the twin cities of Hubli-Dharwad, India, through a process of privatisation and formalisation. The goals were to improve water quality, free consumers from collecting and storing water, and reduce non-revenue (i.e. unpaid for water. Drawing on household surveys (n = 1986 conducted in 2010-2011 in the 24/7 zones, as well as on a range of interviews, we find that, even with 'formal' 24/7 water service, most consumers continue the supposedly 'informal' practices of in-home storage and water use without payment of bills. We argue that multiple unaccounted-for factors – including a history of distrust between the consumer and the utility, seemingly small infrastructural details, resistance to higher tariffs, and valuing convenience above water quality – have kept these informal practices embedded within the formalised delivery system. Our research contributes to understanding why formalisation may only partially supplant informal practices even when the formal system is functional and reliable.

  7. Problems of Water Supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamiji Adeleye


    Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu. Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS (Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area. It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school. At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community. In this regard, Public Private Dialogue (PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved.

  8. Supply-demand 3D dynamic model in water resources evaluation: taking Lebanon as an example (United States)

    Fang, Hong; Hou, Zhimin


    In this paper, supply-demand 3D dynamic model is adopted to create a measurement of a region’s capacity to provide available water to meet the needs of its population. First of all, we draw a diagram between supply and demand. Then taking the main dynamic factors into account, we establish an index to evaluate the balance of supply and demand. The three dimension vector reflects the scarcity of industrial, agricultural and residential water. Lebanon is chosen as the object of case study, and we do quantitative analysis of its current situation. After data collecting and processing, we calculate the 3D vector in 2012, which reveals that agriculture is susceptible to water scarcity. Water resources of Lebanon are “physical rich” but “economic scarcity” according to the correlation chart and other statistical analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ALEXE


    Full Text Available The importance of technical infrastructure in territory. Case study: drinking water supply in Dângău Mare, Cluj County. Water represents an important element in life. Accessibility, water quantity and quality show the standard of living of one community. This article presents a case study, the one of water supply in Dângău Mare from Cluj County. The purpose of this analysis is to reveal the benefits of applying some measures regarding water supply in the rural area, as well as the dysfunction abilities which derive from a bad management (eg. lack of sewage system. Dângău Mare lies near the Gilău Mountains and possesses important and rich resources of surface and underground waters varying under qualitative ratio. The hydrological resources of Dângău Mare are made up of river/rivulet networks (Mireş, Blidaru, Agârbiciu, phreatic waters and natural springs. The identification and delimitation of the Dângău Mare territory represents the first stage of this study, followed by the consultation of bibliographic and cartographic sources, field surveys, to obtain the qualitative and quantitative pieces of information. The second stage consists in the analyzation and classification of information, the integrated study of phenomena and elaboration of cartographic models using GIS. At the end of this study we have made the SWOT analysis to emphasize the characteristics of favourability, the anomalies and the opportunities to improve and develop the territory of Dângău Mare from Cluj County.

  10. Future Water-Supply Scenarios, Cape May County, New Jersey, 2003-2050 (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Carleton, Glen B.; Pope, Daryll A.; Rice, Donald E.


    Stewards of the water supply in New Jersey are interested in developing a plan to supply potable and non-potable water to residents and businesses of Cape May County until at least 2050. The ideal plan would meet projected demands and minimize adverse effects on currently used sources of potable, non-potable, and ecological water supplies. This report documents past and projected potable, non-potable, and ecological water-supply demands. Past and ongoing adverse effects to production and domestic wells caused by withdrawals include saltwater intrusion and water-level declines in the freshwater aquifers. Adverse effects on the ecological water supplies caused by groundwater withdrawals include premature drying of seasonal wetlands, delayed recovery of water levels in the water-table aquifer, and reduced streamflow. To predict the effects of future actions on the water supplies, three baseline and six future scenarios were created and simulated. Baseline Scenarios 1, 2, and 3 represent withdrawals using existing wells projected until 2050. Baseline Scenario 1 represents average 1998-2003 withdrawals, and Scenario 2 represents New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) full allocation withdrawals. These withdrawals do not meet projected future water demands. Baseline Scenario 3 represents the estimated full build-out water demands. Results of simulations of the three baseline scenarios indicate that saltwater would intrude into the Cohansey aquifer as much as 7,100 feet (ft) to adversely affect production wells used by Lower Township and the Wildwoods, as well as some other near-shore domestic wells; water-level altitudes in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand would decline to -156 ft; base flow in streams would be depleted by 0 to 26 percent; and water levels in the water-table aquifer would decline as much as 0.7ft. [Specific water-level altitudes, land-surface altitudes, and present sea level when used in this report are referenced to the North American

  11. Selected Works in Water Supply, Water Conservation and Water Quality Planning. (United States)


    34Accumulation of Radionuclides in Bed Sediments of the Columbia River Between the Hanford Reactors and McNary Dam," Water Resources Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp...certain institutional functions, ef- fective forecasting would deal with each of these trends separately, extrap - olating or not as the evidence appears

  12. Engineering and Design: Trace Organic Compounds in Potable Water Supplies (United States)


    suspected carcinogens , even in minutu concentrations. These compounds may be present in finished water as a result of chlorine reacting with naturally...Table 3. Organic compounds being considered for regulation* — Aldicarb Chlordane Dalapon Diquat Endothall Glyphosate Carbofuran 1,1,2-Trichloroethane...compounds known or suspected to be carcinogenic ? Are there several more than one nants. Other types--for example, some volatile and some nonvolatile

  13. Trihalomethane formation during water disinfection in four water supplies in the Somes river basin in Romania. (United States)

    Ristoiu, Dumitru; von Gunten, Urs; Mocan, Aurel; Chira, Romeo; Siegfried, Barbara; Haydee Kovacs, Melinda; Vancea, Sidonia


    After the discovery of chloroform in drinking water, an extensive amount of work has been dedicated to the factors influencing the formation of halogenated disinfections by-products (DBPs). The disinfection practice can vary significantly from one country to another. Whereas no disinfectant is added to many water supplies in Switzerland or no disinfectant residual is maintained in the distribution system, high disinfectant doses are applied together with high residual concentrations in the distribution system in other countries such as the USA or some southern European countries and Romania. In the present study, several treatment plants in the Somes river basin in Romania were investigated with regard to chlorine practice and DBP formation (trihalomethanes (THMs)). Laboratory kinetic studies were also performed to investigate whether there is a relationship between raw water dissolved organic matter, residual chlorine, water temperature and THM formation. Drinking water samples were collected from different sampling points in the water treatment plant (WTP) from Gilau and the corresponding distribution system in Cluj-Napoca and also from Beclean, Dej and Jibou WTPs. The water samples were collected once a month from July 2006 to November 2007 and stored in 40-mL vials closed with Teflon lined screw caps. Water samples were preserved at 4 degrees C until analysis after sodium thiosulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(3)) had been added to quench residual chlorine. All samples were analysed for THMs using headspace GC-ECD between 1 and 7 days after sampling. The sample (10 mL) was filled into 20-mL headspace vials and closed with a Teflon-lined screw cap. Thereafter, the samples were equilibrated in an oven at 60 degrees C for 45 min. The headspace (1 mL) was then injected into the GC (Cyanopropylphenyl Polysiloxane column, 30 m x 53 mm, 3 microm film thickness, Thermo Finnigan, USA). The MDLs for THMs were determined from the standard deviation of eight standards at 1 microg/L. The

  14. Conditions for Sublimating Water Ice to Supply Ceres' Exosphere (United States)

    Landis, M. E.; Byrne, S.; Schörghofer, N.; Schmidt, B. E.; Hayne, P. O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Sykes, M. V.; Combe, J.-P.; Ermakov, A. I.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    Observations of a water vapor exosphere around Ceres suggest that the dwarf planet may be episodically outgassing at a rate of 6 kg s-1 from unknown sources. With data from the Dawn mission as constraints, we use a coupled thermal and vapor diffusion model to explore three different configurations of water ice (global buried pore-filling ice, global buried excess ice, and local exposed surface ice) that could be present on Ceres. We conclude that a buried ice table cannot alone explain the vapor production rates previously measured, but newly exposed surface ice, given the right conditions, can exceed that vapor production rate. Sublimation lag deposits form that bury and darken this surface ice over a large range of timescales (from <1 year to approximately hundreds of kyr) that depend on latitude and ice regolith content. Sublimating water vapor can loft regolith particles from the surface of exposed ice, possibly prolonging the visible lifespan of those areas. We find that this process is only effective for regolith grains smaller than approximately ones of microns.

  15. [Preventive measures for improvement of suitability of water from individual water supply objects in the areas ravaged by war]. (United States)

    Venus, Miroslav


    The aim of this article was to test the success of sanation of unsatisfactory individual water supply objects in the areas ravages of war. 198 individual water supply objects were consolidated in the area of Voćin, with hyperchlorination and pumping out of water, after which desinfection with chlorine preparation was carried out. Samples of drinking water taken for bacteriological analysis were analyzed on total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria and fecal streptococci by method of membranous filtration, while the number of colonies of aerobic bacteria at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C were determined on triptosis-glucosis-yeast agar. Good samples, considering the Regulations on health suitability of drinking water, were 152, or 77%. In unfit samples, which were 46, or 23%, the most common isolates were fecal streptococci, with frequency of 30%. Although public waterworks represent the best way to supply people with good drinking water, it is possible to achieve a satisfactory degree of water quality from individual water supply objects with implementation of public health activities, if we execute them periodically and professionally.

  16. Quantifying the role of National Forest system lands in providing surface drinking water supply for the Southern United States (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Corinne Muldoon; Chelcy Ford-Miniat; Erika Cohen; Suzanne Krieger; Ge Sun; Steven McNulty; Paul V. Bolstad


    Forests and water are inextricably linked, and people are dependent on forested lands to provide clean, reliable water supplies for drinking and to support local economies. These water supplies are at risk of degradation from a growing population, continued conversion of forests to other land uses, and climate change. Given the variety of threats to surface water, it...

  17. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan


    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  18. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid


    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  19. Use of the water supply system of special purpose in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available A water supply system of a special purpose is a necessary element in hot and cold shops of the industrial enterprises, office buildings and the medical centers, and also other rooms. The water supply systems of a special purpose, which give subsalty, sparkling water and water sated with oxygen, allow people to prevent, for example, strong dehydration of an organism, which is possible at big losses of water, especially in case of the people working in hot shops. Various elements of special drinking water supply system are given in the article, their main functions are described. Different types of the water folding devices pumping water to consumers, one of which is drinking fountain, are considered. Possible systems of water filtration, which can be established for quality improvement, are transferred. Among them the great role is played by membrane technologies and the return osmosis, which is widely applied now. Today there is a possibility of construction, both the centralized water supply system of a special purpose, and local. Besides, the least is a more preferable option taking into account capital expenditure for construction and operation, and also it can lead to solid resource-saving as a result of the electric energy saving going for water heating in heaters. Automatic machines of drinking water for a local water supply system of a special purpose have indisputable advantages. They are capable to carry out several functions at the same time, and also to distribute water to consumers. It allows placing all the necessary equipment, which will be well in harmony with the environment in their small and compact case, and will fit into any difficult interior of the room. Also they are very easily connected to the systems of an internal water supply system by means of a propylene tube that allows to change their sposition in space and to transfer to any place of the room with fast installation of equipment. Also the ecological effect was

  20. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014 (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.


    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.