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Sample records for survey united states

  1. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  2. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  3. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  4. National survey of neonatal transport teams in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Kristine A; Trautman, Michael; Price-Douglas, Webra; Smith, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal transport in the United States is a complex process; however, little is known about the neonatal transport team (NTT) workforce. The purpose of this national study was to describe the US NTT workforce. An exploratory, descriptive design that used a Web-based survey questionnaire was used. We identified 398 NTTs, and 345 (86.7%) were enrolled. One survey was completed per team. Ten NTTs did not complete the survey (response rate: 84.2%). Of the 335 completed surveys, 229 (68.4%) were from unit-based teams and 106 (31.6%) were from dedicated teams. Twenty-six different NTT compositions were used. All except 1 (n = 334) had a registered nurse or a neonatal nurse practitioner as a team member. A registered nurse-respiratory therapist team composition was the most common for unit-based (40.2%) and dedicated (44.3%) teams. Dedicated teams used rotor and fixed-wing modes of travel more frequently, transported further distances, and had higher transport volumes than unit-based teams. The median transport volumes reported suggest that as many as 68 797 critically ill neonates are transported each year. There is wide variation in many aspects of neonatal transport, including orientation, determination of readiness for independent transport, use of protocols to guide transport care, and quality assurance activities. These results will be useful for (1) evaluating existing transport services, (2) guiding necessary changes in training or services, and (3) aiding programs that seek to develop a neonatal transport program.

  5. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, fiscal year 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    It is not very often that a single event is so overwhelming that it changes public perceptions of natural hazards for generations. Perhaps for the U.S. Geological Survey, the explosive volcanic activity of Mount St. Helens began such a change. After 101 years of careful science of the Earth's past and meticulous observations and assessments of the present, predictive earth science was in full public view. However vague and faint the glimpse of the future made possible by earth science, it was enough. Warnings were issued, thousands of lives were saved, and the age of real-time geology began. The Survey's basic mission has not changed, but the power of our analytical tools has increased by several orders of magnitude. The Survey's efforts to understand Earth processes and hydrologic principles continued with the collection, during fiscal year 1980, of valuable new data on the geologic origin and framework, seismicity, and mineral and energy resources of the United States. The Survey is also responsible for classification of the leasable minerals on Federal lands and the regulation of mineral exploration and development activities on Federal and Indian lands. As the principal earth science fact-gathering agency, the Survey provides information for sound decisionmaking by government and private industry. Industry uses the Survey's information in exploring for energy and minerals and improving their efforts to make development of energy and minerals compatible with environmental protection standards. Government uses the Survey's information in conducting leasing operations on public lands, in regulating the safe design and siting of nuclear plants, and in establishing guidelines for determining and locating areas that are subject to geologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The Yearbook reports a broad range of the Survey's accomplishments during the past fiscal year and provides an overview of future directions. Many of the topics

  6. 76 FR 58420 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 806 RIN 0691-AA80 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce... 2012 BE-12, ] Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. Benchmark surveys are...

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Public Land Survey System of the United States 201011 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  8. 76 FR 79054 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 806 RIN 0691-AA80 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce... Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. The BE-12 survey is conducted every five years; the prior...

  9. History of forest survey sampling designs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. E. Frayer; George M. Furnival

    2000-01-01

    Extensive forest inventories of forested lands in the United States were begun in the early part of the 20th century, but widespread, frequent use was not common until after WWII. Throughout the development of inventory techniques and their application to assess the status of the nation's forests, most of the work has been done by the USDA Forest Service through...

  10. The United States Strategic Bombing Surveys, (European War) (Pacific War)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    stage of full adolescence , a stage marked by rapid development in planes, armament, equipment, tactics and concepts of strategic employment, and by an...military cliques of Japan exerted a progressively tighter control over the foreign and domestic affairs of the nation . These cliques included groups...the disruption of the more basic elements of Japan’s social , economic, and political fabric . Certain of the United States commanders and the

  11. National Survey of Interscholastic Sport Sponsorship in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID PIERCE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to cuts in educational funding in the United States, interscholastic athletic administrators have turned to corporate sponsorship to fund athletic departments. While the academic literature in sport management has extensively covered corporate sponsorship at the intercollegiate and professional level, the purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence, nature, and importance of sponsorship to high school athletics in the United States. This paper identified factors that predicted the use of sponsorship, the amount of revenue generated from sponsorship, who is responsible for selling sponsorship, motivators behind not soliciting sponsorship, and the extent to which fundraising and participation fees are utilized to supplement athletic department budgets. The most common form of alternative revenue generation is fund raising (87% of schools followed by, sponsorship (57% and participation fees (34%. One-third of schools reported using sponsorship in response to budget cuts, and over one-fourth solicited sponsorship to prevent charging participation fees. Results also indicated that while the majority of high school athletic departments solicited corporate sponsorship, administrators were cautious in the so-licitation of sponsorship as evidenced by the small dollar amounts involved and overall impact on the budget, reliance on game program advertisements and facility signage to activate sponsorships, and a lack of outsourcing to sport marketing firms to sell the sponsorships. There is clearly room for growth in the interscholastic sport sponsorship market.

  12. United States Geological Survey discharge data from five example gages on intermittent streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are mean daily discharge data at United States Geological Survey gages. Once column provides the date (mm/dd/yyyy) and the other column provides the mean...

  13. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... supported an ongoing forecasting program for patent application filings that includes the use of... using the survey as part of a comprehensive approach to forecasting, the USPTO is also using this tool... increased with expanding technological innovations. However, newly emerging technologies, evolving business...

  14. 77 FR 11565 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: United States Geological... Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP)--EDMAP and STATEMAP. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act... Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 807, Reston...

  15. State of Adult Trainee Inflammatory Bowel Disease Education in the United States: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin L.; Ha, Christina; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Rieder, Florian; Bewtra, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fundamentals of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) education begin during gastroenterology (GI) fellowship training. We performed a survey of GI fellowship program directors (PD) and trainees with the aim to further examine the current state of IBD training in the United States. Materials and Methods A 15-question PD survey and 19-question trainee survey was performed using an online platform. Results Surveys were completed by 43/161 (27%) PDs and 160 trainees. All trainee years were equally represented. A significant proportion of trainees was unsure or felt their inpatient (32%) or outpatient (43%) training was inadequate. Only 28% of trainees were satisfied with their current level of IBD exposure during training. Fewer than half the trainees reported comfort in the management of pouch or stoma issues, the pregnant IBD patient, or post-operative management. The proportion of PDs viewing a competency as essential for trainee education strongly correlated with trainee comfort in that area (Pearson’s rho = 0.793, pdidactics was the only variable independently associated with satisfaction with current level of training (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9–9.0). Conclusions Over one-third of participating GI trainees did not feel “confident” or “mostly comfortable” with their level of IBD training, with varying comfort regarding different competencies in IBD management. These findings suggest that specific areas of IBD training may require additional focus during training and can provide the basis for the development of an IBD core competency curriculum. PMID:27306068

  16. Pediatric dermatology training survey of United States dermatology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Mazza, Joni M; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Variability exists in pediatric dermatology education for dermatology residents. We sought to formally assess the pediatric dermatology curriculum and experience in a dermatology residency program. Three unique surveys were developed for dermatology residents, residency program directors, and pediatric dermatology fellowship program directors. The surveys consisted of questions pertaining to residency program characteristics. Sixty-three graduating third-year residents, 51 residency program directors, and 18 pediatric dermatology fellowship program directors responded. Residents in programs with one or more full-time pediatric dermatologist were more likely to feel very competent treating children and were more likely to be somewhat or extremely satisfied with their pediatric curriculums than residents in programs with no full-time pediatric dermatologist (50.0% vs 5.9%, p = 0.002, and 85.3% vs 52.9%, p dermatology fellowships were much more likely to report being extremely satisfied than residents in programs without a pediatric dermatology fellowship (83.3% vs 21.2%; p dermatology residency programs to continue to strengthen their pediatric dermatology curriculums, especially through the recruitment of full-time pediatric dermatologists. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®: a survey of characteristics and practice patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Nelsen, Nicole L; Geletta, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Feldenkrais Method® teachers help students improve function and quality of life through verbally and manually guided lessons. The reasons people seek Feldenkrais® lessons are poorly understood. Similarly, little is known about practice characteristics and patterns. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted an extensive survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®. Methods We invited all Feldenkrais Teachers to participate in this survey delivered in web-based o...

  18. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of reserve growth outside of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of potential additions to oil and gas reserves for the United States by reserve growth in discovered accumulations. These volumes were derived by using a new methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation. This methodology was used to assess reserve growth in individual accumulations (reservoirs, groups of reservoirs, or fields). Selected, large, well-studied, conventional accumulations in the United States that are estimated to contribute most to reserve growth were assessed using analysis of geology and engineering practices. Potential additions to oil and gas reserves for large, discovered, conventional accumulations outside of the United States due to reserve growth were assessed using the U.S. accumulations as analogs. Potential oil and gas volumes were assumed to be added to proven plus probable reserves.

  19. Teaching Macroeconomics after the Crisis: A Survey among Undergraduate Instructors in Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Manfred; Griesbach, Björn; Jung, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession raised questions of what and how macroeconomists teach at academic institutions around the globe, and what changes in the macroeconomics curriculum should be made. The authors conducted a survey of undergraduate macroeconomics instructors affiliated with colleges and universities in Europe and the United States at the end of…

  20. Review of survey articles regarding medication therapy management (MTM) services/programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, Abiola O; Rascati, Karen L

    2012-08-01

    To provide a summary of published survey articles regarding the provision of medication therapy management (MTM) services in the United States. A literature search was conducted to identify original articles on MTM-related surveys conducted in the United States, involving community and outpatient pharmacists, physicians, patients, or pharmacy students and published by the primary researchers who conducted the study. Search engines used included PubMed, Medline, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA). If MTM was in the keyword list, mesh heading, title, or abstract, the article was reviewed. References from these articles were searched to determine whether other relevant articles were available. A total of 405 articles were initially reviewed; however, only 32 articles met the study requirements. Of the 32 articles, 17 surveyed community/outpatient pharmacists, 3 surveyed pharmacy students, 4 surveyed physicians, and 8 surveyed patients. The survey periods varied across the different studies, with the earliest survey conducted in 2004 and the most recent survey conducted in 2009. The surveys were conducted via the telephone, US mail, interoffice mail, e-mails, Internet/Web sites, hand-delivered questionnaires, and focus groups. Despite the identified barriers to the provision of MTM services, pharmacists reportedly found it professionally rewarding to provide these services. Pharmacists claimed to have adequate clinical knowledge, experience, and access to information required to provide MTM services. Pharmacy students were of the opinion that the provision of MTM services was important to the advancement of the pharmacy profession and in providing patients with a higher level of care. Physicians supported having pharmacists adjust patients’ drug therapy and educate patients on general drug information but not in selecting patients’ drug therapy. Finally, patients suggested that alternative ways need to be explored in describing and marketing MTM

  1. Infection Prevention Practices in Japan, Thailand, and the United States: Results From National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Sarah L; Greene, M Todd; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Sakamoto, Fumie; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Sakihama, Tomoko; Fowler, Karen E; Ratz, David; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-05-15

    Numerous evidence-based practices for preventing device-associated infections are available, yet the extent to which these practices are regularly used in acute care hospitals across different countries has not been compared, to our knowledge. Data from hospital surveys conducted in Japan, the United States, and Thailand in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively, were evaluated to determine the use of recommended practices to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The outcomes were the percentage of hospitals reporting regular use (a score of 4 or 5 on a scale from 1 [never use] to 5 [always use]) of each practice across countries and identified hospital characteristics associated with the use of selected practices in each country. Survey response rates were 71% in Japan and the United States and 87% in Thailand. A majority of hospitals in Japan (76.6%), Thailand (63.2%), and the United States (97.8%) used maximum barrier precautions for preventing CLABSI and semirecumbent positioning to prevent VAP (66.2% for Japan, 86.7% for Thailand, and 98.7% for the United States). Nearly all hospitals (>90%) in Thailand and the United States reported monitoring CLABSI, VAP, and CAUTI rates, whereas in Japan only CLABSI rates were monitored by a majority of hospitals. Regular use of CAUTI prevention practices was variable across the 3 countries, with only a few practices adopted by >50% of hospitals. A majority of hospitals in Japan, Thailand, and the United States have adopted certain practices to prevent CLABSI and VAP. Opportunities for targeting prevention activities and reducing device-associated infection risk in hospitals exist across all 3 countries.

  2. Pediatric perioperative education current practices: a national survey of children's hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Maura; Beauchesne, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Identifying existing practices is a first step in the creation of developmentally and culturally effective teaching materials for children and families. This national survey queried two groups to explore current pediatric perioperative education practices: 81 nurses from a perioperative pediatric specialty association and 30 administrators representing leading children's hospitals within the United States. The aim was to improve perioperative care through the design of educational materials from the child's perspective.

  3. A survey of Registered Dietitians’ concern and actions regarding climate change in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irana W. Hawkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary choices are a viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While Registered Dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change amongst Registered Dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all Registered Dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data was gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p=0.002 and vegan dietitians (p=0.007 were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change amongst dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered Dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice.

  4. Lumbar Traction for Managing Low Back Pain: A Survey of Physical Therapists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Timothy J; Hollman, John H

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To examine how many physical therapists use traction, the patients for whom traction is used, the preferred delivery modes/parameters of traction, the supplemental interventions used with traction, and whether professional characteristics influence traction usage. Several systematic reviews and clinical guidelines have questioned the effectiveness of traction for managing low back pain, yet some patients may benefit from lumbar traction. While traction usage among physical therapists in other countries has been described, usage among physical therapists in the United States has not been examined. We surveyed a random sample of 4000 Orthopaedic Section members of the American Physical Therapy Association. Associations among respondents' professional characteristics and survey responses were explored with chi-square analyses (α = .05). The response rate was 25.5% (n = 1001), and 76.6% (n = 767) of respondents reported using traction. Most (58.4%) of the respondents used traction for patients with signs of nerve root compression, though many (31.4%) did not. Common delivery modes included manual methods (68.3%) and mechanical tables (44.9%), most often supplemental to other interventions (eg, stabilization exercises, postural education). Levels of professional preparation (doctoral/masters level versus bachelors/certificate level) were associated with many variables, as was attainment of an orthopaedic specialist certification. Most of the orthopaedic physical therapists in the United States who responded to our survey reported that they used lumbar traction, though not necessarily consistent with proposed criteria that identify patients most likely to benefit from traction. They used various traction delivery modes/parameters and used traction within comprehensive plans of care incorporating multiple interventions. Professional characteristics (education levels and clinical specialist credentialing) were associated with traction usage.

  5. Survey of current trends in postgraduate musculoskeletal ultrasound education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Netanel S; Goldberg-Stein, Shlomit; Thornhill, Beverly A; Koenigsberg, Mordecai

    2016-04-01

    To determine current trends in postgraduate musculoskeletal ultrasound education across various medical specialties in the United States. A survey regarding musculoskeletal ultrasound education was sent to all program directors for diagnostic radiology and physical medicine rehabilitation residency programs, as well as adult rheumatology and sports medicine fellowship programs in the United States. The survey, sent in July 2015, queried the presence of formal musculoskeletal ultrasound training, the components of such training and case volume for trainees. Response rates were 23, 25, 28 and 33% for physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology, rheumatology and sports medicine programs, respectively. Among respondents, musculoskeletal ultrasound training was present in 65% of radiology programs, 88% of sports medicine programs, 90% of rheumatology programs, and 100% of physical medicine and rehabilitation programs. Most programs utilized didactic lectures, followed by hands-on scanning. The majority of programs without current training intend to implement such training within 5 years, although radiology programs reported the lowest likelihood of this happening. Most program directors believed that musculoskeletal ultrasound education is important for their trainees, and is of greater importance than it was 10 years ago. Case volume was lowest for radiology trainees and highest for sports medicine trainees. Among respondents, the majority of diagnostic radiology programs offer musculoskeletal ultrasound training. However, this experience is even more widespread in other medical specialties, and hands-on training and experience tend to be greater in other specialties than in radiology.

  6. Workforce Survey of Pediatric Interfacility Transport Systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanem, Justinn; Triscari, David; Chan, Melina; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    The interfacility transport of pediatric patients requires a highly skilled and well-trained workforce, of which little is known. The primary study purpose was to characterize the current state of pediatric interfacility transport in the United States including, but not limited to, which team models predominate, what team configurations are used, team training standards, and the use of quality assurance metrics. A descriptive and qualitative Web-based survey questionnaire was developed. Potential participants were identified, and 1 survey was completed per team. In total, 179 teams with pediatric transport capabilities were identified, and 111 responses were recorded (response rate, 62%), of which dedicated teams comprised 77% and unit-based teams comprised 16%. Over 98% reported using a registered nurse as a team member, in comparison to 66% for respiratory therapists and 42% for paramedics. Less than 5% reported utilizing an associate level provider or physician for pediatric transports. The most common team composition was a registered nurse-respiratory therapist combination (30%). Over 55% of the respondents reported performing less than 500 pediatric transports per year. Quality assurance activities were performed by 96% of the respondents. The team composition and training for interfacility transport of pediatric patients is a complex and not well-characterized process; furthermore, the varying organizational models, team composition, and training requirements for teams have not been previously reported. These results will aid in the future development of team standards for pediatric transport and help guide further improvements in this field.

  7. Current trends in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners: report of a United States national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Gina M; Sabbah, Wael; Sedgley, Christine M; Whitten, Brian

    2014-05-01

    In the United States almost 70% of root canal treatment (RCT) is performed by general dentists (GPs), yet little is known about their treatment protocols. A paper survey was mailed to 2000 United States GPs with questions about the types of endodontic cases treated, routine treatment protocols, use of newer technologies, and endodontic continuing education (CE). Completed surveys were returned by 479 respondents (24%). GPs who perform RCT (84%) reported providing anterior (99%), bicuspid (95%), and molar (62%) RCT and retreatment (18%). Rubber dam was used always (60%), usually (16%), sometimes (13%), and never (11%). Newer technologies used by GPs included digital radiography (72%), magnification (80%), electronic apex locator (70%), and nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (74%). Compared with GPs with >20 years of experience, those in practice for ≤10 years were more likely to use rubber dam (P magnification (P 20 years were more likely to perform retreatments (P 5 hours of CE were more likely to use rotary instrumentation (P 20 years. More experienced GPs were more likely to take on complicated cases than those with fewer years of practice. There was no association between hours of CE and compliance with rubber dam usage. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of United States Army Reserve (USAR) Troop Program Unit (TPU) Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-15

    m POSH (Prevention of Sexual m Harassment) 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 - 44. If your unit were to go on an Annual Taiting of dreater than two weeks (in...having an equal opportunity for promotion due to racial discrimination 0 0 .01 0 0 0 m Not having an equal opportunity for promotion due to sexual ... harrassment 𔃺 0 OQ 0 Q 0 m NOT APPLICABLE m 53. For each of the following promotion requirements, VERYDIFFICULT m please indicate how easy or difficult it

  9. Neonatal circumcision in severe haemophilia: a survey of paediatric haematologists at United States Hemophilia Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, S; Sharathkumar, A; Rodriguez, V; Chitlur, M; Valentino, L; Boggio, L; Gill, J

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal circumcision in patients with severe haemophilia has not been well studied. We performed a survey of paediatric haematologists from Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC) across the United States to better understand the attitudes toward and management of neonatal circumcision in haemophilia patients. Response rate to our survey was 40% (n = 64/159). Thirty-eight percent of respondents (n = 24) said that they would allow this procedure in the newborn period but in many cases this was against medical advice. The most reported concern regarding neonatal circumcision in haemophilia patients was the risk of development of an inhibitor (n = 25; 39%) followed by the concern for bleeding (n = 22; 34%) and issues related to vascular access in the neonate (n = 11; 17%). All respondents recommended at least one preprocedure dose of factor replacement. Twenty-two percent (n = 14) of respondents did not use more than one dose of factor replacement but 32% (n = 21) used 1-2 postoperative doses. The remainder of paediatric haematologists surveyed recommended between 3-5 (16%; n = 10) and 6-10 (3%, n = 2) additional days postoperatively. There was wide variation in both techniques of circumcision as well as adjuvant haemostatic agents used. Only 22% of respondents said that they had an established protocol for management of circumcision in the newborn haemophilia patient. These survey results highlight the need for evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal management of circumcision in neonates with severe haemophilia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A preliminary survey of the practice patterns of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A

    2010-04-01

    The Feldenkrais Method(R) of somatic education purports to guide people of varying ages and abilities to improve function. Many people choose this method to aid with recovery from injury, manage chronic conditions, or enhance performance even though limited research supporting its safety and effectiveness exists to guide decisions about use and referral. Very little information about practitioner characteristics and practice patterns is publicly available to assist researchers in the design of appropriate safety and effectiveness studies. The purpose of this study was to obtain an initial overview of the characteristics of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM. Of 1300 certified Feldenkrais practitioners at the time of the study, there were 1193 practitioners with email accounts who were sent invitations to complete a web-based survey. The survey inquired about practice locations, additional credentials, service patterns and workloads during the previous 3 months. Response rate and descriptive statistics were calculated. The survey had a 32.3% (385/1193) response rate. The top states in which responders practiced were California (n = 92) and New York (n = 44). Most responders did not hold other credentials as traditional health care providers or as complementary and alternative medicine providers. Among those who did, the most common credentials were physical therapist (n = 83) and massage therapist (n = 38). Just over a third of traditional health care providers only provided Feldenkrais lessons, compared to 59.3% of complementary and alternative providers. On average, responders saw 7.6 +/- 8.1 (median = 5) clients per week for individual lessons, 8.4 +/- 11.5 (median = 5) clients per week for group lessons, and 2.9 +/- 3.9 (median = 2) new clients per month for individual lessons. This preliminary survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioners indicated that most practiced in the west and northeast, did not hold additional

  11. A preliminary survey of the practice patterns of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan Patricia A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Feldenkrais Method® of somatic education purports to guide people of varying ages and abilities to improve function. Many people choose this method to aid with recovery from injury, manage chronic conditions, or enhance performance even though limited research supporting its safety and effectiveness exists to guide decisions about use and referral. Very little information about practitioner characteristics and practice patterns is publicly available to assist researchers in the design of appropriate safety and effectiveness studies. The purpose of this study was to obtain an initial overview of the characteristics of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM. Methods Of 1300 certified Feldenkrais® practitioners at the time of the study, there were 1193 practitioners with email accounts who were sent invitations to complete a web-based survey. The survey inquired about practice locations, additional credentials, service patterns and workloads during the previous 3 months. Response rate and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results The survey had a 32.3% (385/1193 response rate. The top states in which responders practiced were California (n = 92 and New York (n = 44. Most responders did not hold other credentials as traditional health care providers or as complementary and alternative medicine providers. Among those who did, the most common credentials were physical therapist (n = 83 and massage therapist (n = 38. Just over a third of traditional health care providers only provided Feldenkrais lessons, compared to 59.3% of complementary and alternative providers. On average, responders saw 7.6 ± 8.1 (median = 5 clients per week for individual lessons, 8.4 ± 11.5 (median = 5 clients per week for group lessons, and 2.9 ± 3.9 (median = 2 new clients per month for individual lessons. Conclusions This preliminary survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioners indicated that most

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of Integrating Information and Communication Technologies into Literacy Instruction: A National Survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This research explores literacy teachers' perceptions of integrating information communication technologies (ICTs) into literacy instruction. To this end, a national survey of 1,441 literacy teachers in the United States was conducted. The survey provided data concerning the types and levels of reported availability and use of ICTs, beliefs about…

  13. Telemedicine use among burn centers in the United States: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brennen; Faraklas, Iris; Theurer, Lou; Cochran, Amalia; Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Telemedicine has been increasingly used in a host of settings for over 20 years. Burns are well suited for evaluation by either synchronous ("interactive") video or asynchronous digital ("store and forward") imagery, but little information is available about telemedicine use in burn care. The authors surveyed U.S. burn center directors to assess their current use of, and interest in, telemedicine in clinical burn treatment. With Institutional Review Board approval, a web-based survey (surveymonkey.com) was created and sent to directors of 126 burn centers in the United States. Questions measured the use of telemedicine by burn centers and burn directors' attitudes toward telemedicine. Surveys were returned from 50 centers (40%). Directors of 42 units (84%) reported using telemedicine; 37 use it routinely. Interactive video communication was used by 18 centers, store and forward by 38 centers, and remote access to patient data by home computer or personal digital assistant in 41 centers. Uses included remote evaluation of acute burns for consultation, for help in determining the need for transfer, or for remote clinic follow-up. Users identified some problems with current telemedicine usage, including Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act/compliance, licensure, and billing/collection issues. Importantly, 40 respondents (80%) indicated that they would like programming on telemedicine to be available at American Burn Association's annual meetings. Use of telemedicine is fairly widespread among U.S. burn centers, with volume and type of usage varying widely. Significant interest in learning more about telemedicine suggests strongly that telemedicine should be included in the annual program at the American Burn Association.

  14. Mandated School Mathematics Testing in the United States: A Survey of State Mathematics Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This report contains information gathered in the second of a series from the National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education regarding effects of mandated testing. The purpose of the study was to determine for each state: (1) whether mathematics testing was mandated at the state level; (2) the processes of test selection or…

  15. Rice consumption in the United States: recent evidence from food consumption surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres-Marquez, S Patricia; Jensen, Helen H; Upton, Julie

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about rice consumption, related food intake patterns, and the nutritional contribution that rice provides in the diets of Americans. To provide information about rice consumption in the United States and the diets of rice consumers. Data come from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-1996) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2002). Respondents report 24-hour recall dietary intakes. The amount of rice available in foods is estimated using the Food Commodity Intake Database. Consumers are classified based on the amount of rice they consume in foods. The analysis includes information from adult individuals: 9,318 from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 4,744 from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weighted percentages and mean values show the food and nutrient intake amounts. Logistic regression analysis is used to examine relationships among economic, social, and demographic factors that affect rice consumption. Rice is consumed by a significant portion of the US adult population. Compared with others who did not consume rice, rice consumers consumed a smaller share of energy per day from fat and saturated fat; more iron and potassium; and more dietary fiber, meat, vegetables, and grains. Race/ethnicity and education are determinants of the probability of consuming rice, and more so than low-income status. Rice consumers choose a diet that includes more vegetables, a smaller share of energy from fat and saturated fat, more dietary fiber and more iron than those who do not consume rice; the differences have remained relatively stable over the last decade. Accounting for race/ethnicity and income levels is important for better understanding of factors that affect food choices and for effective design of dietary interventions.

  16. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  17. Youth risk behavior surveillance. National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Kinchen, S A; Ross, J G; Gowda, V R; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-01-01

    Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this survey, the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative high schools nationwide was unknown. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors the following six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The national Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the YRBSS; it was conducted in 1998 to measure priority health-risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. The 1998 ALT-YRBS used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 in the United States who attend alternative high schools. The school response rate was 81.0%, and the student response rate was 81.9%, resulting in an overall response rate of 66.3%. This report summarizes results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS. The reporting period is February-May 1998. In the United States, 73.6% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years results from only four causes--motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS demonstrate that many students at alternative high schools engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes

  18. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Kinchen, S A; Ross, J G; Gowda, V R; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    1999-10-29

    Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this survey, the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative high schools nationwide was unknown. February-May 1998. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors the following six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The national Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the YRBSS; it was conducted in 1998 to measure priority health-risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. The 1998 ALT-YRBS used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 in the United States who attend alternative high schools. The school response rate was 81.0%, and the student response rate was 81.9%, resulting in an overall response rate of 66.3%. This report summarizes results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS. In the United States, 73.6% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years results from only four causes--motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS demonstrate that many students at alternative high schools engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes. During the 30 days

  19. The Landscape of Predoctoral Endodontic Education in the United States and Canada: Results of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansey, Karl; Beck, Lynn G; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2015-08-01

    Few recent surveys have examined the contemporary landscape of predoctoral endodontic education in the United States and Canada, but anecdotal reports suggest that current dental students have difficulty obtaining adequate clinical endodontic experiences. The aims of this study were to quantify the clinical endodontic experiences of current U.S. and Canadian dental students, to explore the issues surrounding their clinical endodontic competence, and to ask more broadly if current graduating dentists are competent to perform endodontic procedures. In August 2014, a hyperlink to a web-based survey with 27 questions was emailed to the 67 predoctoral endodontic directors of U.S. and Canadian dental schools using a list provided by the American Association of Endodontists. Out of these 67 possible participants, 40 responded, for a response rate of 60%. The findings were varied. The average 2014 graduate completed 5.9 (± 2.4) root canal treatments on live patients, and 69% of the respondents voiced concern regarding a shortage of patient experiences. A majority (59%) of the respondents reported thinking that the supply of endodontic patients has decreased and that students have an inadequate supply of endodontic patients. This study found that a clear majority of predoctoral endodontics directors perceived a shortage of patient experiences for their students although, in reality, the number of completed clinical cases appeared to be unchanged since 1975. In addition, 36% of the respondents reported feeling that their 2014 graduates were not competent to perform molar endodontic treatment in their practices.

  20. A descriptive survey of management and operations at selected sports medicine centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, D

    1996-11-01

    No uniform guidelines for operations or accreditation standards for sports medicine center were available and, at the time of this study, little information on the management and operation of sports medicine centers was available in the literature. The purpose of the study was to determine the management structure and function of selected sports medicine centers in the United States. Questionnaires were mailed to 200 randomly selected centers throughout the United State from a directory of sports medicine centers published in Physician and Sportsmedicine (1992) to gather descriptive information on eight areas, including 1) general background, 2) staffing, 3) services, facilities, and equipment, 4) billing, collections, and revenue, 5) clientele, caseloads, and referrals, 6) ownership and financing, 7) school and club outreach contracts, and 8) marketing strategies and future trends. A total of 71 surveys (35.5%) were returned in the allotted time frame. Data were analyzed using ranges, means, medians, modes, and percentages. Results yielded several conclusions about sports medicine centers. Nearly all (93%) of the centers employed physical therapists; physical therapists were clinical directors at 70.2% of centers; orthopaedists were most often medical directors; rehabilitation was the most frequently offered service (93%); physical therapy produced the highest revenue; sports injuries accounted for a mean 34.5% of patients, who were mostly recreational or high school athletes between 13-60 years of age; primary shareholders were most often physical therapists or physicians; most were involved in outreach services for schools; marketing strategies primarily involved communication with referral sources; and managed care was identified most frequently as a trend affecting the future of sports medicine centers. Findings identified common aspects of sports medicine centers and may assist in establishing guidelines for operations or accreditation of sports medicine

  1. A national survey of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D E; Emmons, C A; Wallenstein, S; Quill, T; Morrison, R S; Cassel, C K

    1998-04-23

    Although there have been many studies of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States, national data are lacking. In 1996, we mailed questionnaires to a stratified probability sample of 3102 physicians in the 10 specialties in which doctors are most likely to receive requests from patients for assistance with suicide or euthanasia. We weighted the results to obtain nationally representative data. We received 1902 completed questionnaires (response rate, 61 percent). Eleven percent of the physicians said that under current legal constraints, there were circumstances in which they would be willing to hasten a patient's death by prescribing medication, and 7 percent said that they would provide a lethal injection; 36 percent and 24 percent, respectively, said that they would do so if it were legal. Since entering practice, 18.3 percent of the physicians (unweighted number, 320) reported having received a request from a patient for assistance with suicide and 11.1 percent (unweighted number, 196) had received a request for a lethal injection. Sixteen percent of the physicians receiving such requests (unweighted number, 42), or 3.3 percent of the entire sample, reported that they had written at least one prescription to be used to hasten death, and 4.7 percent (unweighted number, 59), said that they had administered at least one lethal injection. A substantial proportion of physicians in the United States report that they receive requests for physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, and about 7 percent of those who responded to our survey have complied with such requests at least once.

  2. The state of implantable pain therapies in the United States: a nationwide survey of academic teaching programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciullo, G J; Rose, R J; Lunt, P G; Whalen, P K; Ross, E

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this questionnaire survey was to provide an overview of anesthesiology pain fellowship programs in the United States with regard to implantation of spinal cord stimulators (SCS) and opioid infusion devices. Of the 95 programs solicited, 80% responded to questions pertaining to the prevalence of use and technical considerations of implantation. Of the responding programs, 87% report implanting SCS, and 84% report implanting neuraxial infusion pumps. All programs perform a stimulation or infusion trial before implantation, although the duration varied from a trial in the operating room at the time of implantation to 25 days. Of the programs, 83% implant cylindrical leads, and 17% implant flat leads via laminectomy for their nonrevision SCS implants. Morphine, bupivacaine, hydromorphone, and baclofen are the most commonly used drugs and are used in implanted pumps by >50% of respondents. The question of industry-sponsored pain fellow education in implantable techniques is addressed. Of the pain teaching programs in the United States, 80% responded to a questionnaire eliciting information about the implantation of spinal cord-stimulating and opioid infusion devices. The range and diversity of responses imply a lack of agreement about implantation techniques, drugs, and protocols.

  3. Dentist-patient communication techniques used in the United States: the results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Horowitz, Alice M; Podschun, Gary

    2011-05-01

    The authors conducted a national survey to determine the communication techniques that dentists use routinely and variations in their use. American Dental Association Survey Center staff members mailed an 86-item questionnaire to a random sample of 6,300 U.S. dentists in private practice. Participants reported routine use ("most of the time" or "always") during a typical week of 18 communication techniques, of which seven are basic techniques. The authors used analysis of variance and ordinary least squares regression models to test the association of communication, provider and practice characteristics with the number of techniques. Dentists routinely use an average of 7.1 of the 18 techniques and 3.1 of the seven basic techniques. Two-thirds or more of dentists used four of the techniques (hand out printed materials, speak slowly, use models or radiographs to explain, use simple language). Less than one-fourth of dentists used any of the techniques in the teach-back method or patient-friendly practice domains. A dentist's age, race/ethnicity, education outside the United States and area of dentistry affected use. Health literacy variables (awareness, education in communication, practice-level change, outcome expectancy) and lack of time were associated with the number of techniques used. Routine use of all of the communication techniques is low among dentists, including some techniques thought to be most effective with patients with low literacy skills. Professional education is needed to improve knowledge about communication techniques and to ensure that they are used effectively. A firm foundation for these efforts requires the development, evaluation and dissemination of communication guidelines for dental care professionals.

  4. Microbiological survey of commercial tattoo and permanent makeup inks available in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, S; Kim, S-J; Kweon, O; Howard, P C; Moon, M S; Sadrieh, N K; Cerniglia, C E

    2018-02-01

    Tattooing and use of permanent makeup (PMU) has dramatically increased over the last decade, with a concomitant increase in ink-related infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether microorganisms are present, and if so, the number and their identification, in the commercial tattoo and PMU inks available in the United States. We surveyed 85 unopened tattoo and PMU inks, purchased from 13 companies. We incubated 100 μL of ink samples on trypticase soy agar plates for bacterial growth, 7H10 Middlebrook medium for mycobacterial growth, and Sabouraud dextrose medium for fungal growth. In total, 42 inks were contaminated with microorganisms (49%). Thirty-three inks were contaminated with bacteria, 2 inks with fungi, and 7 inks had both bacterial and fungal growth. Mycobacteria were not detected in any of the examined tattoo and PMU inks. In 26 inks, microbial concentrations ranged between 10 1 -10 3 CFU ml -1 , but higher counts (>10 3 CFU ml -1 ) were recorded in 16 inks. We identified 83 bacteria by their 16S rDNA sequences, including 20 genera and 49 species. Strains of Bacillus spp. (53%) were dominant, followed by Lysinibacillus fusiformis (7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%). Thirty-four (41%) possibly clinically relevant strains were identified, including P. aeruginosa, Dermacoccus barathri and Roseomonas mucosa, some of which have been previously reported to be associated with human skin infections. The results indicate that commercial tattoo and PMU inks on the US market surveyed in this study contain a wide range of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria. Microbial contaminants in tattoo and PMU inks are an emerging safety concern for public health. This study provides evidence that microbial contamination of tattoo and PMU inks available in the US is more common than previously thought and highlights the importance of monitoring these products for potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  5. A survey of delivery room resuscitation practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Tina A; Rich, Wade; Finer, Neil N

    2006-02-01

    To determine current resuscitation practices of neonatologists in the United States. A 15-question survey was developed and mailed to neonatal directors in May 2004. Of the total of 797 surveys mailed, 84 were returned undeliverable or unanswered and 450 were returned completed (63% response rate). Respondents were mainly (70%) from level III NICUs. Most programs resuscitate newborns in the delivery room (83%), rather than in a separate room. The number and background of individuals attending deliveries vary greatly, with 31% of programs having inflating bags are most commonly used (51%), followed by self-inflating bags (40%) and T-piece resuscitators (14%). Pulse oximeters are used during resuscitation by 52% of programs, and 23% of respondents indicated that there was a useful signal within 1 minute after application. Blenders are available for 42% of programs, of which 77% use pure oxygen for the initial resuscitation and 68% use oximeters to alter the fraction of inspired oxygen. Thirty-two percent of programs use carbon dioxide detectors to confirm intubation, 48% routinely and 43% when there is difficulty confirming intubation. Preterm infants are wrapped with plastic wrap to prevent heat loss in 29% of programs, of which 77% dry the infant before wrap application. A majority of programs (76%) attempt to provide continuous positive airway pressure or positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) during resuscitation, most commonly with a flow-inflating bag (58%), followed by a self-inflating bag with PEEP valve (19%) and T-piece resuscitator (16%). A level of 5 cm H2O is used by 55% of programs. Substantial variations exist in neonatal resuscitation practices, some of which are not addressed in standard guidelines. Future guidelines should include recommendations regarding the use of blenders, oximeters, continuous positive airway pressure/PEEP, and plastic wrap during resuscitation.

  6. Mobile Phone Use in Psychiatry Residents in the United States: Multisite Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Shih; Torous, John; Boland, Robert; Conrad, Erich

    2017-11-01

    Mobile technology ownership in the general US population and medical professionals is increasing, leading to increased use in clinical settings. However, data on use of mobile technology by psychiatry residents remain unclear. In this study, our aim was to provide data on how psychiatric residents use mobile phones in their clinical education as well as barriers relating to technology use. An anonymous, multisite survey was given to psychiatry residents in 2 regions in the United States, including New Orleans and Boston, to understand their technology use. All participants owned mobile phones, and 79% (54/68) used them to access patient information. The majority do not use mobile phones to implement pharmacotherapy (62%, 42/68) or psychotherapy plans (90%, 61/68). The top 3 barriers to using mobile technology in clinical care were privacy concerns (56%, 38/68), lack of clinical guidance (40%, 27/68), and lack of evidence (29%, 20/68). We conclude that developing a technology curriculum and engaging in research could address these barriers to using mobile phones in clinical practice.

  7. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family history of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. PMID:22444421

  8. Preliminary Field Report of the United States Geological Survey of Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer

    1869-01-01

    SIR : In accordance with your instructions dated Washington, April 1, 1869, I have the honor to transmit my preliminary field report of the United States geological survey of Colorado and New Mexico, conducted by me, under your direction, during the past season. A portion of your instructions is as follows :  “You will proceed to the field of your labors as soon as the necessary arrangements can be made and the season will permit, and your attention will be especially directed to the geological, mineralogical and agricultural resources of the Territories herein designated; you will be required to ascertain the age, order of succession, relative position, dip, and comparative thickness of the different strata and geological formations, and examine with care all the beds, veins, and other deposits, of ores, coals, clays, marls, peat, and other mineral substances, as well as the fossil remains of the different formations; and you will also make full collections in geology, mineralogy, and paleontology, to illustrate your notes taken in the field.”

  9. Multicultural training in the United States: a survey of occupational therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elena Verdine Donoso; Muñoz, Jaime Phillip; Powell, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was designed to describe multicultural training practices in occupational therapy programs. A survey was sent to occupational therapy programs in the United States to gather information on multicultural content, skills, and teaching methods as well as diversity context and challenges. The response rate was 54%. The most frequently covered multicultural content was related to cultural background and sociopolitical factors. Multicultural skills covered most often were practice oriented and interpersonal skills. Teaching methods reported as used most often differed from the methods thought by the respondents to be most effective. Programs reported multiple challenges to multicultural training including lack of time and lack of diversity in the student body, faculty, and environment. Results suggest that educators may need to expand multicultural content and skills to prepare occupational therapy students for providing care in increasingly diverse practice settings. In addition, increased use of teaching methods that focus on exposure to diverse populations and reflection may be needed to improve the effectiveness of multicultural training in occupational therapy programs.

  10. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in Volunteer Mentoring in the United States: Analysis of a Decade of Census Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Dietz, Nathan; Rhodes, Jean E

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decade, considerable resources have been devoted to recruiting volunteer mentors and expanding mentoring programs. It is unclear whether these efforts have helped to counter the broader national trends of declining volunteer rates. The current study uses data from the Volunteering Supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS), sponsored by the U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, to explore population-level trends in mentoring over the past decade. Results suggest that mentoring rates have remained relatively stable over the past decade, but that the population of mentors has changed somewhat in terms of age, ethnicity, educational background, and region of the United States. In addition, certain sectors of the mentor population show higher rates of attrition from 1 year to the next. Findings have important implications for the development of recruitment, training, and mentor support practices within mentoring organizations, as well as policies designed to meet the needs of at-risk youth in the U.S. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  12. Family Forest Ownerships of the United States, 2013: Findings from the USDA Forest Service's National Woodland Owner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Jaketon H. Hewes; Brenton J. Dickinson; Kyle Andrejczyk; Sarah M. Butler; Marla. Markowski-Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    There are an estimated 10.7 million family forest ownerships across the United States who collectively control 36% or 290 million acres of the nation's forestland. The US Department of Agriculture Forest Service National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) provides information on the characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors of these ownerships. Between 2011 and 2013, 8,...

  13. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  14. United States Biological Survey: A compendium of its history, personalities, impacts, and conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidly, David J.; Tydeman, W. E.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2016-01-01

    In 1885, a small three-person unit was created in the U.S. Department of Agriculture to gather and analyze information on bird migrations. Originally called the Section of Economic Ornithology, over the next 55 years this unit underwent three name changes and accumulated ever-increasing responsibilities for the nation’s faunal resources. Transferred to the Department of the Interior in 1939, this agency was merged with the Bureau of Fisheries in 1940 to create the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The following account details the chronology, directorship, and growth of the U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey up to its renovation as the FWS. This account also profiles some employees of the Biological Survey.

  15. United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®: a survey of characteristics and practice patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Nelsen, Nicole L; Geletta, Simon

    2014-07-02

    Feldenkrais Method® teachers help students improve function and quality of life through verbally and manually guided lessons. The reasons people seek Feldenkrais® lessons are poorly understood. Similarly, little is known about practice characteristics and patterns. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted an extensive survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®. We invited all Feldenkrais Teachers to participate in this survey delivered in web-based or print formats. We obtained overall and question-specific response rates, descriptive statistics, chi-square tests of response bias, and performed qualitative thematic review of comments. Overall response rate was 30.5% (392/1287). Ninety percent of responders had college degrees in diverse fields; 12.5% had credentials outside health care, 36.9% held conventional health care licenses, and 23.1% had complementary and alternative medicine credentials. Mean age was 55.7 years; most teachers were women (83%). California (n = 100) and New York (n = 34) had the most teachers. Forty-five percent of teachers earned  ≤ 20% of their gross income from their practices, while 26% earned  > 80%. Most saw  Feldenkrais lessons was pain. A quarter of students self-referred, a fifth were referred by conventional health care providers, and two-thirds paid for services directly. Themes from comments included: beliefs that Feldenkrais training had important personal and professional benefits for teachers; recognition of the challenges of operating small businesses and succinctly describing the Feldenkrais Method; the variety of practice approaches; and a deep commitment to the Feldenkrais Method. Most Feldenkrais Teachers were well educated, often held additional credentials, were located in the West, were women, were older than 50 years, and had part-time practices. Most students were women, were adults, came from various referral sources, and paid directly for services. Teachers and

  16. Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project: A Survey of Childhood Hunger in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehler, Cheryl A.; And Others

    The Community Childhood Identification Project (CCHIP) is regarded as a model for measuring hunger in low-income families. This second and final CCHIP study was the result of surveys conducted at 11 sites in 9 states and the District of Columbia between 1992 and 1994. A total of 5,282 households were interviewed. Chapters in the report are as…

  17. Divorce among physicians and other healthcare professionals in the United States: analysis of census survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Dan P; Seabury, Seth A; Jena, Anupam B

    2015-02-18

    To estimate the prevalence and incidence of divorce among US physicians compared with other healthcare professionals, lawyers, and non-healthcare professionals, and to analyze factors associated with divorce among physicians. Retrospective analysis of nationally representative surveys conducted by the US census, 2008-13. United States. 48,881 physicians, 10,086 dentists, 13,883 pharmacists, 159,044 nurses, 18,920 healthcare executives, 59,284 lawyers, and 6,339,310 other non-healthcare professionals. Logistic models of divorce adjusted for age, sex, race, annual income, weekly hours worked, number of years since marriage, calendar year, and state of residence. Divorce outcomes included whether an individual had ever been divorced (divorce prevalence) or became divorced in the past year (divorce incidence). After adjustment for covariates, the probability of being ever divorced (or divorce prevalence) among physicians evaluated at the mean value of other covariates was 24.3% (95% confidence interval 23.8% to 24.8%); dentists, 25.2% (24.1% to 26.3%); pharmacists, 22.9% (22.0% to 23.8%); nurses, 33.0% (32.6% to 33.3%); healthcare executives, 30.9% (30.1% to 31.8%); lawyers, 26.9% (26.4% to 27.4%); and other non-healthcare professionals, 35.0% (34.9% to 35.1%). Similarly, physicians were less likely than those in most other occupations to divorce in the past year. In multivariable analysis among physicians, divorce prevalence was greater among women (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.63). In analyses stratified by physician sex, greater weekly work hours were associated with increased divorce prevalence only for female physicians. Divorce among physicians is less common than among non-healthcare workers and several health professions. Female physicians have a substantially higher prevalence of divorce than male physicians, which may be partly attributable to a differential effect of hours worked on divorce. © Ly et al 2015.

  18. Divorce among physicians and other healthcare professionals in the United States: analysis of census survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Dan P; Seabury, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and incidence of divorce among US physicians compared with other healthcare professionals, lawyers, and non-healthcare professionals, and to analyze factors associated with divorce among physicians. Design Retrospective analysis of nationally representative surveys conducted by the US census, 2008-13. Setting United States. Participants 48 881 physicians, 10 086 dentists, 13 883 pharmacists, 159 044 nurses, 18 920 healthcare executives, 59 284 lawyers, and 6 339 310 other non-healthcare professionals. Main outcome measures Logistic models of divorce adjusted for age, sex, race, annual income, weekly hours worked, number of years since marriage, calendar year, and state of residence. Divorce outcomes included whether an individual had ever been divorced (divorce prevalence) or became divorced in the past year (divorce incidence). Results After adjustment for covariates, the probability of being ever divorced (or divorce prevalence) among physicians evaluated at the mean value of other covariates was 24.3% (95% confidence interval 23.8% to 24.8%); dentists, 25.2% (24.1% to 26.3%); pharmacists, 22.9% (22.0% to 23.8%); nurses, 33.0% (32.6% to 33.3%); healthcare executives, 30.9% (30.1% to 31.8%); lawyers, 26.9% (26.4% to 27.4%); and other non-healthcare professionals, 35.0% (34.9% to 35.1%). Similarly, physicians were less likely than those in most other occupations to divorce in the past year. In multivariable analysis among physicians, divorce prevalence was greater among women (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.63). In analyses stratified by physician sex, greater weekly work hours were associated with increased divorce prevalence only for female physicians. Conclusions Divorce among physicians is less common than among non-healthcare workers and several health professions. Female physicians have a substantially higher prevalence of divorce than male physicians, which may be partly attributable

  19. Comparison of Health Examination Survey Methods in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, England, Scotland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Moody, Alison; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Alfaro, Tania; Frenz, Patricia; Scholes, Shaun; Gonzalez, Silvia A; Margozzini, Paula; de Oliveira, Cesar; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Alvarado, Andres; Cabrera, Sebastián; Sarmiento, Olga L; Triana, Camilo A; Barquera, Simón

    2017-09-15

    Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this study, we obtained detailed protocols of 8 nationally representative surveys from 2007-2013 from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and the United States-countries that that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data were collected on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols. We also assessed their adherence to the World Health Organization's "STEPwise Approach to Surveillance" framework for population health surveys. The surveys, which included half a million participants, were highly comparable on sampling methodology, survey questions, and anthropometric measurements. Heterogeneity was found for physical activity questionnaires and biological samples collection. The common age range included by the surveys was adults aged 18-64 years. The methods used in these surveys were similar enough to enable comparative analyses of the data across the 7 countries. This comparability is crucial in assessing and comparing national and subgroup population health, and to assisting the transfer of research and policy knowledge across countries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Medical abortion practices: a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (NAF) members

  1. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  2. A Nutritional Survey of Children in Head Start Centers in Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Marie Z.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a questionnaire in evaluating the nutritional status of Head Start children in rural, small city, and urban areas in central United States. The questionnaire, which was primarily concerned with the food preferences of the children, was filled out by the mother of each of the 154…

  3. Characteristics of Inclusive Faith Communities: A Preliminary Survey of Inclusive Practices in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Megan M.; Kane, Lydia W.; Taylor, Courtney; Francis, Susan H.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although participation in faith communities is important to many individuals with disabilities, few studies have examined differences between communities that are more (versus less) inclusive. This study investigated characteristics of faith communities in the United States related to greater inclusion. Methods: Participants were 160…

  4. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  5. A Survey on Postsecondary Korean Language Programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Students of the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs retain higher motivation in learning (Bao & Lee, 2012; Brown, 2009; Liu & Shibata, 2008; Murphy, Back, & Garrett-Rucks, 2009; Nunn, 2013, but it is uncertain to what extent the LCTL programs are equipped to provide an education that meets students’ expectations. In this study, I diagnosed various aspects of the organization and management of Korean programs in U.S. postsecondary education as an example case. I contacted 104 Korean language program coordinators in the United States and collected responses from 34 in spring 2015. I reported on issues related to faculty, course curricula, proficiency goals, recent and projected changes in the program, and the difficulties that the program coordinators faced. Further, I discussed the strengths and robustness of Korean language education in the United States, and highlighted factors that may inhibit potential improvement and constructive changes.

  6. Honoring our donors: a survey of memorial ceremonies in United States anatomy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trahern W; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Many anatomy programs that incorporate dissection of donated human bodies hold memorial ceremonies of gratitude towards body donors. The content of these ceremonies may include learners' reflections on mortality, respect, altruism, and personal growth told through various humanities modalities. The task of planning is usually student- and faculty-led with participation from other health care students. Objective information on current memorial ceremonies for body donors in anatomy programs in the United States appears to be lacking. The number of programs in the United States that currently plan these memorial ceremonies and information on trends in programs undertaking such ceremonies remain unknown. Gross anatomy program directors throughout the United States were contacted and asked to respond to a voluntary questionnaire on memorial ceremonies held at their institution. The results (response rate 68.2%) indicated that a majority of human anatomy programs (95.5%) hold memorial ceremonies. These ceremonies are, for the most part, student-driven and nondenominational or secular in nature. Participants heavily rely upon speech, music, poetry, and written essays, with a small inclusion of other humanities modalities, such as dance or visual art, to explore a variety of themes during these ceremonies. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Two Sources of Error in Data on Migration From Mexico to the United States in Mexican Household-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R; Savinar, Robin

    2015-08-01

    We examine the nature and degree of two sources of error in data on migration from Mexico to the United States in Mexican household-based surveys: (1) sampling error that results when whole households migrate and no one is left behind to report their migration; and (2) reporting errors that result when migrants are not identified by survey respondents. Using data from the first two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey, which tracked Mexican migrants to the United States from 2002 to 2005, we find that one-half of migrants from Mexico to the United States are not counted as a result of these two sources of error. Misreporting is the larger source of error, accounting for more than one-third of all migrants. Those who are not counted, especially whole-household migrants, are a unique group. Their omission results in an underestimate of female migrants, child migrants, and migrants from the Mexican border region, and an overestimate of migrants from the periphery region.

  8. Survey of crop losses in response to phytoparasitic nematodes in the United States for 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Overstreet, C; Noling, J W; Donald, P A; Becker, J O; Fortnum, B A

    1999-12-01

    Previous reports of crop losses to plant-parasitic nematodes have relied on published results of survey data based on certain commodities, including tobacco, peanuts, cotton, and soybean. Reports on crop-loss assessment by land-grant universities and many commodity groups generally are no longer available, with the exception of the University of Georgia, the Beltwide Cotton Conference, and selected groups concerned with soybean. The Society of Nematologists Extension Committee contacted extension personnel in 49 U.S. states for information on estimated crop losses caused by plant-parasitic nematodes in major crops for the year 1994. Included in this paper are survey results from 35 states on various crops including corn, cotton, soybean, peanut, wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, tobacco, numerous vegetable crops, fruit and nut crops, and golf greens. The data are reported systematically by state and include the estimated loss, hectarage of production, source of information, nematode species or taxon when available, and crop value. The major genera of phytoparasitic nematodes reported to cause crop losses were Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, and Xiphinema.

  9. Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

  10. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2017-08-01

    The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.

  11. School-based Yoga Programs in the United States: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Bethany; Ebert, Marina; Telles, Shirley; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Substantial interest has begun to emerge around the implementation of yoga interventions in schools. Researchers have found that yoga practices may enhance skills such as self-regulation and prosocial behavior, and lead to improvements in students’ performance. These researchers, therefore, have proposed that contemplative practices have the potential to play a crucial role in enhancing the quality of US public education. Objective The purpose of the present study was to provide a summary and comparison of school-based yoga programs in the United States. Design Online, listserv, and database searches were conducted to identify programs, and information was collected regarding each program’s scope of work, curriculum characteristics, teacher-certification and training requirements, implementation models, modes of operation, and geographical regions. Setting The online, listserv, and database searches took place in Boston, MA, USA, and New Haven, CT, USA. Results Thirty-six programs were identified that offer yoga in more than 940 schools across the United States, and more than 5400 instructors have been trained by these programs to offer yoga in educational settings. Despite some variability in the exact mode of implementation, training requirements, locations served, and grades covered, the majority of the programs share a common goal of teaching 4 basic elements of yoga: (1) physical postures, (2) breathing exercises, (3) relaxation techniques, and (4) mindfulness and meditation practices. The programs also teach a variety of additional educational, social-emotional, and didactic techniques to enhance students’ mental and physical health and behavior. Conclusions The fact that the present study was able to find a relatively large number of formal, school-based yoga programs currently being implemented in the United States suggests that the programs may be acceptable and feasible to implement. The results also suggest that the popularity of school

  12. Horizontal velocities in the central and eastern United States from GPS surveys during the 1987-1996 interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snay, R.A.; Strange, W.E.

    1997-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission jointly organized GPS surveys in 1987, 1990, 1993, and 1996 to search for crustal deformation in the central and eastern United States (east of longitude 108{degrees}W). We have analyzed the data of these four surveys in combination with VLBI data observed during the 1979-1995 interval and GPS data for 22 additional surveys observed during the 1990-1996 interval. These latter GPS surveys served to establish accurately positioned geodetic marks in various states. Accordingly, we have computed horizontal velocities for 64 GPS sites and 12 VLBI sites relative to a reference frame for which the interior of the North American plate is considered fixed on average. None of our derived velocities exceeds 6 mm/yr in magnitude. Moreover, the derived velocity at each GPS site is statistically zero at the 95% confidence level except for the site BOLTON in central Ohio and the site BEARTOWN in southeastern Pennsylvania. However, as statistical theory would allow approximately 5% of the 64 GPS sites to fall our zero-velocity hypothesis, we are uncertain whether or not these estimated velocities for BOLTON and BEARTOWN reflect actual motion relative to the North American plate. We also computed horizontal strain rates for the cells formed by a 1{degrees} by 1{degrees} grid spanning the central and eastern United States. Corresponding shearing rates are everywhere less than 60 nanoradians/yr in magnitude, and no shearing rate differs statistically from zero at the 95% confidence level except for a grid cell near BEARTOWN whose rate is 57 {+-} 26 nanoradians/yr. Also corresponding areal dilatation rates are everywhere less than 40 nanostrain/yr in magnitude, and no dilatation rate differs statistically from zero at the 95% confidence level.

  13. Survey of instructors teaching about antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary professional curriculum in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajt, Virginia R; Scott, H Morgan; McIntosh, W Alex; Dean, Wesley R; Vincent, Virginia C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain current teaching methods for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in veterinary professional curricula and to find out what veterinary instructors consider to be prioritized subtopics related to AMR. The sampling frame was instructors in veterinary professional programs at US colleges of veterinary medicine who provide instruction about antibiotics or AMR in the disciplines of microbiology, pharmacology, public health, epidemiology, internal medicine, surgery, or related subjects. Identified instructors were invited to participate in an online survey of current teaching methods related to subtopics of AMR. From 1,207 invitations, 306 completed surveys were available for analysis (25% response rate) with the largest number of respondents stating their contact hours about antibiotics occur in the discipline of "medicine-food animal." The median contact time suggested for AMR in the core veterinary curriculum was 3-5 hours, and for antibiotics in general, 16-20 hours. Subtopics of AMR were prioritized based on respondents' indication that they use or would use various teaching tools. The most common teaching tool for all topics was projected text (i.e., slides or PowerPoint slides) and the least common were video clips, non-course Web sites, online modules, and laboratory experiments. Recommendations for identifying the priorities of AMR content coverage and learning outcomes are made.

  14. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jonathan B; Lozier, Jeffrey; Strange, James P; Ikerd, Harold; Griswold, Terry; Cordes, Nils; Solter, Leellen; Stewart, Isaac; Cameron, Sydney A

    2015-01-01

    Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus) are pollinators of wild and economically important flowering plants. However, at least four bumble bee species have declined significantly in population abundance and geographic range relative to historic estimates, and one species is possibly extinct. While a wealth of historic data is now available for many of the North American species found to be in decline in online databases, systematic survey data of stable species is still not publically available. The availability of contemporary survey data is critically important for the future monitoring of wild bumble bee populations. Without such data, the ability to ascertain the conservation status of bumble bees in the United States will remain challenging. This paper describes USBombus, a large database that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bumble bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the United States was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affinis, B. occidentalis, B. pensylvanicus, and B. terricola. Prior to our national survey of bumble bees in the United States from 2007 to 2010, there have only been regional accounts of bumble bee abundance and richness. In addition to surveying declining bumble bees, we also collected and documented a diversity of co-occuring bumble bees. However we have not yet completely reported their distribution and diversity onto a public online platform. Now, for the first time, we report the geographic distribution of bumble bees reported to be in decline (Cameron et al. 2011), as well as bumble bees that appeared to be stable on a large geographic scale in the United States (not in decline). In this database we report a total of 17,930 adult occurrence records across 397 locations and 39 species of Bombus detected in our national survey. We summarize their abundance and distribution across the United States and

  15. The prevalence of and attitudes toward neonatal functional echocardiography use and training in the United States: a survey of neonatal intensive care unit medical directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachinger, S; Stansfield, R B; Ensing, G; Schumacher, R

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, neonatologists are increasingly performing functional echocardiography to evaluate the hemodynamic status and cardiac function in neonates. The purpose of this study was to describe the current prevalence of and attitudes toward the use and training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography in the United States. An anonymous survey was sent to United States neonatal intensive care unit medical directors. Neonatologists scored availability of echocardiography and attitudes toward the use and training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography. Response rate was 43.7% (247 of 565 surveys sent) and captured 95% of the neonatal-perinatal training programs. Nine percent of units had a functional echocardiography trained neonatologist; eight percent of the neonatal-perinatal training programs offered functional echocardiography training. There was no difference in the timely ability to obtain hemodynamic status with echocardiography in units compared by the presence of functional echocardiography trained neonatologists (mean = 3.13 vs. 2.67, p = 0.08) and fellowships (mean = 2.69 vs. 2.72, p = 0.85). Overall positive attitudes (mean = 14.6 ± 3.46) towards the training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography did not correlate with the perceived timely availability of echocardiography support (mean = 2.72 ± 1.43, r = -0.11, p = 0.1). Functional echocardiography use and training is not prevalent in the United States. There are positive attitudes toward the training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography that are independent of the presence of fellowships, neonatologists with echocardiography training, and the perceived availability of echocardiography support.

  16. Flow characteristics at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the conterminous United States.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents point locations and flow characteristics for current (as of November 20, 2001) and historical U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages in...

  17. Survey of Tsunamis Formed by Atmospheric Forcing on the East Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodise, J.; Shen, Y.; Wertman, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency sea level oscillations along the United States East Coast have been linked to atmospheric pressure disturbances observed during large storm events. These oscillations have periods similar to tsunami events generated by earthquakes and submarine landslides, but are created by moving surface pressure anomalies within storm systems such as mesoscale convective systems or mid-latitude cyclones. Meteotsunamis form as in-situ waves, directly underneath a moving surface pressure anomaly. As the pressure disturbances move off the east coast of North America and over the continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean, Proudman resonance, which is known to enhance the amplitude of the meteotsunami, may occur when the propagation speed of the pressure disturbance is equal to that of the shallow water wave speed. At the continental shelf break, some of the meteotsunami waves are reflected back towards the coast. The events we studied date from 2007 to 2014, most of which were identified using an atmospheric pressure anomaly detection method applied to atmospheric data from two National Data Buoy Center stations: Cape May, New Jersey and Newport, Rhode Island. The coastal tidal records used to observe the meteotsunami amplitudes include Montauk, New York; Atlantic City, New Jersey; and Duck, North Carolina. On average, meteotsunamis ranging from 0.1m to 1m in amplitude occurred roughly twice per month, with meteotsunamis larger than 0.4m occurring approximately 4 times per year, a rate much higher than previously reported. For each event, the amplitude of the recorded pressure disturbance was compared to the meteotsunami amplitude, while radar and bathymetry data were analyzed to observe the influence of Proudman resonance on the reflected meteotsunami waves. In-situ meteotsunami amplitudes showed a direct correlation with the amplitude of pressure disturbances. Meteotsunamis reflected off the continental shelf break were generally higher in amplitude when the average

  18. Internet and technology transfer in acute care hospitals in the United States: survey-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides the results of the survey-2000 measuring technology transfer and, specifically, Internet usage. The purpose of the survey was to measure the levels of Internet and Intranet existence and usage in acute care hospitals. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business-to-business and customers. These results are compared with responses to the same questions in survey-1997. Changes in response are noted and discussed. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals. This is the third of three articles based upon the results of the survey-2000. Readers are referred to prior articles by the author, which discuss the survey design and provide a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals. (1) Thefirst article based upon the survey results discusses technology transfer, system design approaches, user involvement, and decision-making purposes. (2)

  19. 78 FR 11140 - BE-605: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States-Transactions of U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC011 BE-605: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States--Transactions of U.S. Affiliate With Foreign Parent AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis... of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States-- Transactions of U.S. Affiliate with Foreign...

  20. Prospect- and Mine-Related Features from U.S. Geological Survey 7.5- and 15-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of a larger USGS project to develop an updated geospatial database of mines, mineral deposits and mineral regions in the United States. Mine and...

  1. The status of telestroke in the United States: a survey of currently active stroke telemedicine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gisele S; Farrell, Shawn; Shandra, Emma; Viswanathan, Anand; Schwamm, Lee H

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about adoption or success of telestroke networks outside of published or federally funded programs. Under contract to the Health Resource Services Administration, we conducted an environmental scan of telestroke programs in the United States. An analyst contacted all potential programs identified in comprehensive online searches, interviewed respondents, and collected response data about structural and functional components of currently operating telestroke programs. Among 97 potential programs contacted, 56 programs had confirmed telestroke activity, and 38 programs (68%) from 27 states participated. Hospital and community characteristics of nonparticipating programs were similar to those of participating ones. The top 3 clinical needs met by the telestroke were emergency department consultation (100%), patient triage (83.8%), and inpatient teleconsultation (46.0%). Telestroke programs were in operation a median of 2.44 years (interquartile range, 1.36-3.44 years); 94.6% used 2-way, real-time interactive video plus imaging, but only 44% used dedicated telemedicine consultation software. The mean number of spokes per hub increased significantly from 2007 to 2008 to 2009 (3.78 versus 7.60; P80% of spoke sites were rural or small hospitals. Reimbursement was absent for >40% of sites. Sites rated inability to obtain physician licensure (27.77%), lack of program funds (27.77%), and lack of reimbursement (19.44%) as the most important barriers to program growth. Telestroke is a widespread and growing practice model. Important barriers to expansion amenable to change relate to organizational, technical, and educational domains and external economic and regulatory forces.

  2. Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws in the United States: a national survey of state and local agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Farbakhsh, Kian; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Nelson, Toben F

    2015-01-01

    Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws is an important component of efforts to prevent alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities. Little is known about the use of drinking-driving enforcement strategies by state and local law enforcement agencies or whether the use of strategies differs by agency and jurisdiction characteristics. We conducted two national surveys, with state patrol agencies (n = 48) and with a sample of local law enforcement agencies (n = 1,082) selected according to state and jurisdiction population size. We examined 3 primary enforcement strategies (sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws) and tested whether use of these strategies differed by jurisdiction and agency characteristics across state and local law enforcement agencies Most state patrol agencies reported conducting sobriety checkpoints (72.9%) and saturation patrols (95.8%), whereas less than half (43.8%) reported enforcing open container laws. In contrast, a lower proportion of local law enforcement agencies reported using these alcohol-impaired driving enforcement strategies (41.5, 62.7, and 41.1%, respectively). Sobriety checkpoint enforcement was more common in states in the dry South region (vs. wet and moderate regions). Among local law enforcement agencies, agencies with a full-time alcohol enforcement officer and agencies located in areas where drinking-driving was perceived to be very common (vs. not/somewhat common) were more likely to conduct multiple types of impaired driving enforcement. Recommended enforcement strategies to detect and prevent alcohol-impaired driving are employed in some jurisdictions and underutilized in others. Future research should explore the relationship of enforcement with drinking and driving behavior and alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey probabilistic methodology for oil and gas resource appraisal of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey is described for estimating the quantity of undiscovered recoverable conventional resources of oil and gas in the United States. A judgmental probability distribution of the "quantity of resource" and its properties is determined for a geologic province or basin. From this distribution, point and interval estimates of the quantity of undiscovered resource are obtained. Distributions and their properties are established for each of the following resources: (1) oil and nonassociated gas from estimates of the probability of the resource being present and the conditional probability distribution of the quantity of resource given that the resource is present, (2) associated-dissolved gas from its corresponding oil distribution, (3) total gas, (4) oil and total gas in two or more provinces. Computer graphics routines are illustrated with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 860. ?? 1984 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  4. Integration of Ultrasound in Medical Education at United States Medical Schools: A National Survey of Directors' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vi Am; Fu, Jasmine Y; Lu, Samantha; Chiem, Alan; Fox, J Christian; Blaivas, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Despite the rise of ultrasound in medical education (USMED), multiple barriers impede the implementation of such curricula in medical schools. No studies to date have surveyed individuals who are successfully championing USMED programs. This study aimed to investigate the experiences with ultrasound integration as perceived by active USMED directors across the United States. In 2014, all allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in the United States were contacted regarding their status with ultrasound education. For schools with required point-of-care ultrasound curricula, we identified the USMED directors in charge of the ultrasound programs and sent them a 27-question survey. The survey included background information about the directors, ultrasound program details, the barriers directors faced toward implementation, and the directors' attitudes toward ultrasound education. One-hundred seventy-three medical schools were contacted, and 48 (27.7%) reported having a formal USMED curriculum. Thirty-six USMED directors responded to the survey. The average number of years of USMED curriculum integration was 2.8 years (SD, 2.9). Mandatory ultrasound curricula had most commonly been implemented into years 1 and 2 of medical school (71.4% and 62.9%, respectively). The most common barriers faced by these directors when implementing their ultrasound programs were the lack of funding for faculty/ equipment (52.9%) and lack of time in current medical curricula (50.0%). Financial commitments and the full schedules of medical schools are the current prevailing roadblocks to implementation of ultrasound education. Experiences drawn from current USMED directors in this study may be used to help programs starting their own curricula. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Overview of motorcycling in the United States: a national telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Blanar, Laura; Teoh, Eric R; Strouse, Laura M

    2011-06-01

    Motorcycle registrations have risen in recent years. Although motorcyclist crash fatalities in 2009 were 16% lower than in 2008, they were double the number of deaths in 1997. The present study examined current motorcyclists' travel patterns and views of motorcycle helmets and other safety topics. Motorcycle drivers were interviewed in a national telephone survey conducted in 2009. A weighted sample of 1,606 motorcyclists resulted from adjusting for the oversampling of those younger than 40 and those in the three states without a motorcycle helmet use law (Illinois, Iowa, New Hampshire). All analyses were based on the weighted sample, which was intended to result in a nationally representative sample of motorcyclists. About one-quarter of respondents said they did not always wear helmets. Of these respondents, 57% said a law requiring helmet use would persuade them to do so, and 27% said nothing would. Ninety-four percent of respondents in states with universal helmet laws said they always ride helmeted, compared with about half of respondents in other states. About half of all respondents favored these laws. About three-quarters said they believe helmets keep riders safer, including two-thirds of respondents who oppose universal laws and almost half of drivers who rarely/never wear helmets. Drivers ages 18-29 and drivers of sport/unclad sport, sport touring, and super sport motorcycles were more likely to always wear helmets, support universal helmet laws, and believe helmets keep riders safer. About half of respondents said antilock braking systems (ABS) enhance safety and that they would get ABS on their next motorcycle. Less than one-quarter thought an airbag would protect a motorcyclist in a crash, and even fewer would consider getting one on their next motorcycle. Forty-three percent of motorcyclists said they had crashed at least once; 62% of the most recent crashes involved no vehicles besides the motorcycle. Respondents reported riding their motorcycles

  6. A Survey of Digital Humanities Centers in the United States. CLIR Publication No. 143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorich, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the 2008 Scholarly Communications Institute (SCI 6) focused on humanities research centers, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) commissioned a survey of digital humanities centers (DHCs). The immediate goals of the survey were to identify the extent of these centers and to explore their financing,…

  7. 78 FR 5168 - BE-29: Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ..., passenger (including cruise and combination) and tanker vessels, including very large crude carriers (VLCCs... electronic reporting system at www.bea.gov/efile . Additionally, copies of the survey forms and instructions...

  8. A synoptic survey of ecosystem services from headwater catchments in the United States (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem production functions for water supply, climate regulation, and water purification were estimated for 568 headwater streams and their catchments. Water supply per unit catchment area was highest in the Northern Appalachian Mountains and lowest in the Northern Plains. C, ...

  9. A synoptic survey of ecosystem services from headwater catchments in the United States- webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem production functions for water supply, climate regulation, and water purification were estimated for 568 headwater streams and their catchments. Water supply per unit catchment area was highest in the Northern Appalachian Mountains and lowest in the Northern Plains. C, ...

  10. The American Society for Clinical Pathology's 2014 vacancy survey of medical laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edna; Ali, Asma M; Soles, Ryan M; Lewis, D Grace

    2015-09-01

    To determine the extent and distribution of workforce shortages within the nation's medical laboratories. Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. The 2014 Vacancy Survey was conducted through collaboration between American Society for Clinical Pathology's Institute of Science, Technology, and Policy in Washington, DC, and the Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment Department and Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois. Data were collected via an Internet survey that was distributed to individuals who were able to report on staffing and certifications for their laboratories. Data reveal increased overall vacancy rates since 2012 for all departments surveyed except cytology and cytogenetics. Also, results show higher anticipated retirement rates for both staff and supervisors. Overall certification rates are highest among laboratory personnel in cytogenetics, hematology/coagulation, and flow cytometry departments and lowest among phlebotomy, specimen processing, and anatomic pathology. Factors such as retirement and the improving economy are driving the need for more laboratory professionals. Recruitment of qualified laboratory professionals in the workforce and students in laboratory programs will be the key in fulfilling the higher vacancies revealed from the survey results in 2014. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  11. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; DeBono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C.; Weathers, Melinda R.; Maibach, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%), heat-related problems (75–84%), cancer (61–90%), and infectious diseases (49–62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience

  12. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  13. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  14. National Estimates of Marijuana Use and Related Indicators - National Survey on Drug Use and Health, United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Schauer, Gillian; McAfee, Tim; Grant, Althea; Lyerla, Rob

    2016-09-02

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. In 2013, 7.5% (19.8 million) of the U.S. population aged ≥12 years reported using marijuana during the preceding month. Because of certain state-level policies that have legalized marijuana for medical or recreational use, population-based data on marijuana use and other related indicators are needed to help monitor behavioral health changes in the United States. 2002-2014. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is a national- and state-level survey of a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population aged ≥12 years. NSDUH collects information about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; initiation of substance use; frequency of substance use; substance dependence and abuse; perception of substance harm risk or no risk; and other related behavioral health indicators. This report describes national trends for selected marijuana use and related indicators, including prevalence of marijuana use; initiation; perception of harm risk, approval, and attitudes; perception of availability and mode of acquisition; dependence and abuse; and perception of legal penalty for marijuana possession. In 2014, a total of 2.5 million persons aged ≥12 years had used marijuana for the first time during the preceding 12 months, an average of approximately 7,000 new users each day. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of marijuana use during the past month, past year, and daily or almost daily increased among persons aged ≥18 years, but not among those aged 12-17 years. Among persons aged ≥12 years, the prevalence of perceived great risk from smoking marijuana once or twice a week and once a month decreased and the prevalence of perceived no risk increased. The prevalence of past year marijuana dependence and abuse decreased, except among persons aged ≥26 years. Among persons aged ≥12 years, the percentage reporting that marijuana was fairly easy or very easy

  15. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  16. On the Trail of Preventing Meningococcal Disease: A Survey of Students Planning to Travel to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hsien‐Liang; Cheng, Shao‐Yi; Lee, Long‐Teng; Yao, Chien‐An; Chu, Chia‐Wei; Lu, Chia‐Wen; Chiu, Tai‐Yuan; Huang, Kuo‐Chin

    2013-01-01

    .... Because of this, students from overseas who are planning to live in college dormitories are usually required to provide proof of meningococcal immunization in the United States and other countries such as the United Kingdom. Many Taiwanese students preparing to study in the United States are required to have the vaccination, which is not a routine immun...

  17. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…

  18. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  19. 78 FR 14962 - BE-15: Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... to otherwise secure economic advantage, and any ownership of any real estate. Who Must Report (a..., partnership, associated group, association, estate, trust, corporation, or other organization (whether or not... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC012 BE-15: Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the...

  20. A Survey of Childhood Hunger in the United States. Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehler, Cheryl A.; And Others

    This report presents results from the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP), a research project that used survey techniques to document the extent of hunger among low-income families with at least one child under the age of 12. The report's six chapters provide: (1) an overview of the project, identifying its major components;…

  1. Prevalence and Impact of Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction: Results from the 2008 United States National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bryan K; Agrawal, Yuri; Hoffman, Howard J.; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Profound bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) causes disabling oscillopsia, chronic disequilibrium and postural instability. Our aim was to assess prevalence and functional impact of BVH in the U.S. adult population. Study Design National cross-sectional survey and corollary validation study. Setting National database Patients Adult participants in the 2008 Balance and Dizziness Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), (n=21,782). Intervention Survey-based diagnosis of BVH, all of the following: presence of visual blurring with head movement, unsteadiness, difficulty walking in darkness/unsteady surfaces and in a straight path, symptoms being at least “a big problem” and present for at least 1 year, in the absence of other neurologic conditions or eye pathology affecting vision. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of BVH, socioeconomic and quality-of-life impact of BVH, and fall risk. Results Adjusted national estimates from this survey indicate the prevalence of BVH in 2008 was 28/100,000 U.S. adults (64,046 Americans). 44% of participants with BVH reported changing their driving habits because of their symptoms, 56% reported reduced participation in social activities, and 58% reported difficulties with activities of daily living. Respondents with BVH had a 31-fold increase in the odds of falling in multivariate analyses compared to all respondents, with 25% reporting a recent fall-related injury. Conclusions BVH, as estimated by the presence of specific symptoms in a nationally representative survey, has considerable socioeconomic and quality-of-life impacts and significantly increases fall risk. These data support the need for new therapeutic strategies for BVH, including vestibular rehabilitation and implantable vestibular prostheses. PMID:23949355

  2. Results of the 2013-2015 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, Nima, E-mail: nabaviza@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Burt, Lindsay M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Mancini, Brandon R. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Morris, Zachary S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Walker, Amanda J. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Miller, Seth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Bhavsar, Shripal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Integris Cancer Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Mohindra, Pranshu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kim, Miranda B. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to survey radiation oncology chief residents to define their residency experience and readiness for independent practice. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2013 to 2014 and 2014 to 2015, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted an electronic survey of post-graduate year-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 3 months of training. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: Sixty-six chief residents completed the survey in 2013 to 2014 (53% response rate), and 69 completed the survey in 2014 to 2015 (64% response rate). Forty to 85% percent of residents reported inadequate exposure to high-dose rate and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Nearly all residents in both years (>90%) reported adequate clinical experience for the following disease sites: breast, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, head and neck, and lung. However, as few as 56% reported adequate experience in lymphoma or pediatric malignancies. More than 90% of residents had participated in retrospective research projects, with 20% conducting resident-led prospective clinical trials and 50% conducting basic science or translational projects. Most chief residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week in the clinical/hospital setting and performing fewer than 15 hours per week tasks that were considered to have little or no educational value. There was more than 80% compliance with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) work hour limits. Fifty-five percent of graduating residents intended to join an established private practice group, compared to 25% who headed for academia. Residents perceive the job market to be more competitive than previous years. Conclusions: This first update of the ARRO chief resident survey since the 2007 to 2008 academic year documents US radiation oncology residents' experiences and conditions over a 2-year period

  3. Assessing and Promoting the Wellness of United States Ophthalmology Residents: A Survey of Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Elaine M; Scott, Ingrid U; Clark, Melissa A; Greenberg, Paul B

    To report on the status of residency-based wellness initiatives in ophthalmic graduate medical education and identify strategies for promoting ophthalmology resident wellness by surveying US ophthalmology program directors (PDs). The PDs were each sent an e-mail containing a link to an anonymous online 15-question survey. The PDs also received a letter with the survey link and a $1 incentive. After 2 weeks, nonresponders received 2 weekly reminder e-mails and phone calls. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the multiple choice responses and categorize the free response answers. National survey. All 111 US ophthalmology PDs were invited to participate. Of 111 PDs, 56 (50%) responded; 14 (26%) of 53 respondents reported that their programs faced an issue involving resident depression, burnout, or suicide within the last year; 25 (45%) of 56 reported that their department had a resident wellness program. Respondents without wellness programs reported a shortage of time (19/30; 63%) and lack of training and resources (19/30; 63%) as barriers to instituting these programs. Respondents reported that the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education could better promote resident wellness by providing training resources for burnout and depression screening (35/53; 66%), resilience skills building (38/53; 72%), and wellness program development (36/53; 68%). This survey suggests that there is a substantial burden of burnout and depression among residents in ophthalmic graduate medical education and that this burden can be addressed by promoting the training of educators to recognize the signs of burnout and depression, and providing resources to develop and expand formal wellness programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. What Are We Doing? A Survey of United States Nephrology Fellowship Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Scott E; Moore, Catherine A; Monk, Rebeca D; Rizvi, Mahrukh S

    2017-03-07

    Interest in nephrology has been declining in recent years. Long work hours and a poor work/life balance may be partially responsible, and may also affect a fellowship's educational mission. We surveyed nephrology program directors using a web-based survey in order to define current clinical and educational practice patterns and identify areas for improvement. Our survey explored fellowship program demographics, fellows' workload, call structure, and education. Program directors were asked to estimate the average and maximum number of patients on each of their inpatient services, the number of patients seen by fellows in clinic, and to provide details regarding their overnight and weekend call. In addition, we asked about number of and composition of didactic conferences. Sixty-eight out of 148 program directors responded to the survey (46%). The average number of fellows per program was approximately seven. The busiest inpatient services had a mean of 21.5±5.9 patients on average and 33.8±10.7 at their maximum. The second busiest services had an average and maximum of 15.6±6.0 and 24.5±10.8 patients, respectively. Transplant-only services had fewer patients than other service compositions. A minority of services (14.5%) employed physician extenders. Fellows most commonly see patients during a single weekly continuity clinic, with a typical fellow-to-faculty ratio of 2:1. The majority of programs do not alter outpatient responsibilities during inpatient service time. Most programs (approximately 75%) divided overnight and weekend call responsibilities equally between first year and more senior fellows. Educational practices varied widely between programs. Our survey underscores the large variety in workload, practice patterns, and didactics at different institutions and provides a framework to help improve the service/education balance in nephrology fellowships. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. A survey of the current utilization of asynchronous education among emergency medicine residents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Mike; Schlein, Sarah; Doctor, Shaneen; Stroud, Susan; Dawson, Matthew; Fix, Megan

    2014-04-01

    Medical education is transitioning from traditional learning methods. Resident interest in easily accessible education materials is forcing educators to reevaluate teaching methodology. To determine emergency medicine residents' current methods of and preferences for obtaining medical knowledge, the authors created a survey and sent it to residents, at all levels of training throughout the United States, whose e-mail addresses were available via their residency's official Web site (June-December 2012). The eight-question voluntary survey asked respondents about demographics, their use of extracurricular time, and the materials they perceived as most beneficial. The authors used descriptive statistics to analyze results. Of the 401 residents who received the e-mailed survey, 226 (56.3%) completed it. Of these, 97.7% reported spending at least one hour per week engaging in extracurricular education, and 34.5% reported spending two to four hours per week (P journals (36.5%), and Google (33.8%; P educators must engage with current learners to guide appropriate use of these.

  6. Values and motivations of private forest owners in the United States: a framework based on open-ended responses in the national woodland owner survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Brett J. Butler; Stanley T. Asah

    2009-01-01

    The National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) is a recurring and comprehensive national survey of private forest landowners in the United States, and is a social complement to the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program's biologic resource inventory. An open-ended question in the NWOS explores private forest owners' motivations and values...

  7. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2009-08-07

    Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001-2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder--31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%-33.8%) and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%-35.3%). Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher levels of smoking among smokers. Further, a significant proportion of

  8. Helicopter Noise Survey for Selected Cities in the Contiguous United States,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-20

    RfRFRT MAIN, ANDREW JOSHI. DAVID COUTS. AND LESLIE HILIEN 9. Pettermlng Organization Name and Addes. 10. Work Unit Me. (TRAIS) MANDEX INC.,______________ 0...Takeoff 2 90 Approach 1 89 Approach 2 Be ALL noias data were recorded with A-frequency weighting and atow respone ties averaging. [I] Moecurment swapte

  9. A synoptic survey of ecosystem services from headwater catchments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Randall K. Kolka; Frank H. McCormick; Matthew A. Starry

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem production functions for water supply, climate regulation, and water purification were estimated for 568 headwater streams and their catchments. Results are reported for nine USA ecoregions. Headwater streams represented 74-80% of total catchment stream length. Water supply per unit catchment area was highest in the Northern Appalachian Mountains ecoregion...

  10. Report upon United States geological surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, Volume V: Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1875-01-01

    The subject of the geographical distribution and variation of our western zoölogy is one that has of late years attracted more than ordinary attention from our naturalists; and, as appropriate to the subject-matter of this volume, it is here proposed to give a brief résumé of their conclusions and generalizations, as far as they may be deemed applicable to the special natural history work of the geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian.

  11. Monitoring HIV Testing in the United States: Consequences of Methodology Changes to National Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Van Handel

    Full Text Available In 2011, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, an in-person household interview, revised the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV section of the survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, a telephone-based survey, added cellphone numbers to its sampling frame. We sought to determine how these changes might affect assessment of HIV testing trends.We used linear regression with pairwise contrasts with 2003-2013 data from NHIS and BRFSS to compare percentages of persons aged 18-64 years who reported HIV testing in landline versus cellphone-only households before and after 2011, when NHIS revised its in-person questionnaire and BRFSS added cellphone numbers to its telephone-based sample.In NHIS, the percentage of persons in cellphone-only households increased 13-fold from 2003 to 2013. The percentage ever tested for HIV was 6%-10% higher among persons in cellphone-only than landline households. The percentage ever tested for HIV increased significantly from 40.2% in 2003 to 45.0% in 2010, but was significantly lower in 2011 (40.6% and 2012 (39.7%. In BRFSS, the percentage ever tested decreased significantly from 45.9% in 2003 to 40.2% in 2010, but increased to 42.9% in 2011 and 43.5% in 2013.HIV testing estimates were lower after NHIS questionnaire changes but higher after BRFSS methodology changes. Data before and after 2011 are not comparable, complicating assessment of trends.

  12. Survey of United States Army Reserve (USAR) Troop Program Unit (TPU) soldiers. Technical Report. The Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-13

    2-8 Table 5 Stratum Codes Assigned to Strata Defined by Pay Grade and E ducational L evel... sexual harassment o o o o o o 3. For each of the following promotion requirements, please indicate how easy or difficult it is for you to meet each of them...BenefitsTraining 0 00 0 0 0 0 & 0 m POSH (Prevention of Sexual - Harassment) 0 0 𔃺 0 0 0 0 0,. 0 0 - 44. If your unit were to go on an Annual Training

  13. Attitudes of dermatologists in the southeastern United States regarding treatment of alopecia areata: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Paul W

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little evidence exists to guide treatment of alopecia areata (AA. The current practices in treatment of children compared to adults and of progressive stages of hair loss are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of southeastern United States dermatologists for the treatment of AA. Methods Dermatologists were sent anonymous questionnaires regarding their treatment practices by mail. Respondents' frequencies of treatment in children compared to adults and in patchy hair loss compared to widespread hair loss were compared with Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and Friedman tests. As a secondary source, the National Alopecia Areata Registry (NAAR database was analyzed for patients' treatment histories. Results Survey results suggested that dermatologists recommend treatment less frequently for children than adults and for more advanced hair loss. NAAR data confirmed that offering no treatment for AA is relatively common. Conclusion Dermatologists' treatment of AA is inconsistent. A stronger evidence base will provide more consistent treatment options.

  14. Attitudes of dermatologists in the southeastern United States regarding treatment of alopecia areata: a cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Little evidence exists to guide treatment of alopecia areata (AA). The current practices in treatment of children compared to adults and of progressive stages of hair loss are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of southeastern United States dermatologists for the treatment of AA. Methods Dermatologists were sent anonymous questionnaires regarding their treatment practices by mail. Respondents' frequencies of treatment in children compared to adults and in patchy hair loss compared to widespread hair loss were compared with Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and Friedman tests. As a secondary source, the National Alopecia Areata Registry (NAAR) database was analyzed for patients' treatment histories. Results Survey results suggested that dermatologists recommend treatment less frequently for children than adults and for more advanced hair loss. NAAR data confirmed that offering no treatment for AA is relatively common. Conclusion Dermatologists' treatment of AA is inconsistent. A stronger evidence base will provide more consistent treatment options. PMID:19909522

  15. Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2006-2010 national survey of family growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gladys; Copen, Casey E; Abma, Joyce C

    2011-10-01

    This report presents national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and births among males and females aged 15-19 in the United States in 2006-2010 from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). For selected indicators, data are also presented from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 NSFG, and from the 1988 and 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males, conducted by the Urban Institute. Descriptive tables of numbers and percentages are presented and discussed. Data were collected through in-person interviews of the household population of males and females aged 15-44 in the United States, between July 2006 and June 2010. Interviews were conducted with 22,682 men and women, including 4,662 teenagers (2,284 females and 2,378 males). For both the teen subsample and the total sample, the response rate was 77%. In 2006-2010, about 43% of never-married female teenagers (4.4 million), and about 42% of never-married male teenagers (4.5 million) had had sexual intercourse at least once. These levels of sexual experience have not changed significantly from 2002. Seventy-eight percent of females and 85% of males used a method of contraception at first sex according to 2006-2010 data, with the condom remaining the most popular method. Teenagers' contraceptive use has changed little since 2002, with a few exceptions: there was an increase among males in the use of condoms alone and in the use of a condom combined with a partner's hormonal contraceptive; and there was a significant increase in the percentage of female teenagers who used hormonal methods other than a birth-control pill, such as injectables and the contraceptive patch, at first sex. Six percent of female teenagers used a nonpill hormonal method at first sex.

  16. Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, national survey of family growth 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Joyce C; Martinez, Gladys M; Copen, Casey E

    2010-06-01

    This report presents national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and births among males and females 15-19 years of age in the United States in 2006-2008 from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Selected data are also presented from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 NSFGs, and from the 1988 and 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM), conducted by the Urban Institute. Descriptive tables of numbers and percents are presented and discussed. Data were collected through in-person interviews of the household population in the United States, conducted between July 2006 and December 2008. Interviews were conducted with 7,356 females-1,381 of whom were teenagers--and 6,140 males--1,386 of whom were teenagers-for a total of 2,767 teenagers. The overall response rate for the 2006-2008 NSFG was 75%. The response rate for female teenagers was 77% and for male teenagers 75%. In 2006-2008, about 42% of never-married female teenagers (4.3 million), and about 43% of never-married male teenagers (4.5 million) had had sexual intercourse at least once. These levels of sexual experience have not changed significantly from 2002, the last time the NSFG collected these data. Among never-married teenagers, 79% of females and 87% of males used a method of contraception at first sex. With a few exceptions, teenagers' use of contraceptives has changed little since 2002, and the condom remained the most commonly used method. One exception was an increase in the use of condoms and the use of a condom combined with a hormonal contraceptive (dual method use) among males. Another exception was a significant increase in the percent of female teenagers who had ever used periodic abstinence, or the "calendar rhythm" method. This method had been used by 17% of female teenagers in 2006-2008.

  17. Knowledge of binge eating disorder: a cross-sectional survey of physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supina, Dylan; Herman, Barry K; Frye, Carla B; Shillington, Alicia C

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED)--now a designated disorder in the DSM-5--is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED), affecting 2-3% of the US population. This survey of US physicians assesses how BED is diagnosed, treated and referred. Internists, family practitioners, obstetrics/gynecologist (OB/GYNs) and psychiatrists were randomly selected from a nationally-representative panel. Participants completed an online survey and reviewed case vignettes consistent with DSM-5-defined BED, then answered questions to elicit whether they would assess for psychiatric conditions including EDs. Those reporting they would screen and who correctly identified BED in vignettes received additional questions about BED diagnosis, treatment, and referral patterns. Of 278 physicians surveyed, 96% were board-certified and 87% had practiced >10 years. 23% were psychiatrists, 27% family practitioners, 31% internists and 19% OB/GYNs. 92% were 'somewhat likely' to screen for ED after reviewing DSM-5-consistent vignettes. 206 (74%) correctly identified BED. Of these, 33% and 68% reported they proactively screen eating habits for all patients and obese patients, respectively. 10% reported not screening eating habits even in the presence of ED symptoms. Fewer than half reported using DSM criteria in Diagnosing BED, and 56 (27%) did not recognize BED to be a discreet ED. Although ED awareness is improving, understanding BED as a distinct ED is lacking, which may result in low rates of screening and diagnosis. This study illustrates how taking a complete patient history (including probing BED characteristics) may be an effective first-line strategy for clinicians to facilitate optimal care for these patients.

  18. Nanotechnology and dermatology education in the United States: data from a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam; Nasir, Adnan

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline with important implications for consumers, patients, physicians and investigators. In an era when nanotechnology is being both incorporated into educational requirements for medical fields such as radiology and oncology and vigorously pursued and developed by cosmeceutical companies, dermatology is falling behind. A survey was conducted to ascertain knowledge, attitudes and perception of nanotechnology in dermatology teaching programs. To ascertain baseline knowledge, attitudes and preceptions regarding nanotechnology among dermatology trainees, dermatology investigators and dermatology faculty in US academic medical centers, an online survey was sent out to random members of the dermatology community and data analyzed (100 participants, 23% response rate). Participants responded to a questionnaire on a five-point scale ranging from strongly disagree, disagree, uncertain, agree, to strongly agree. Due to the low response rate, strongly disagree/disagree and strongly agree/agree values were combined and compared to uncertain responses. Approximately equal numbers of faculty vs. chief residents responded to the survery (52% vs. 47.75%, respectively). The majority of respondents had not previously attended any educational activity on nanotechnology (69.57%). The majority of participants agreed that more education on nanotechnology for dermatologists is needed (78.26% agreed vs. 21.74% uncertain) and that it should be incorporated into the residency training curriculum (60.87% agree vs. 13.04% disagree). Participants mostly agreed that nanotechnology research can contribute to better fundamental understanding of skin disease (78.26%), to advances in the diagnosis of skin disease (73.91%) and to therapies (78.26%). Participants mostly agreed that more research is needed (82.60%) and that this research should be funded (78.26%). Not surprisingly, respondents were uncertain with respect to issues of nanotechnology safety both

  19. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, III, Richard F.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  20. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  1. Vascularized Composite Allograft Donation and Transplantation: A Survey of Public Attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Tomich, D; Fleishman, A; Glazier, A K

    2017-10-01

    Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation has emerged as a groundbreaking surgical intervention to return identity and function following traumatic injury, congenital deformity, or disfigurement. While public attitudes toward traditional organ/tissue donation are favorable, little is known about attitudes toward VCA donation and transplantation. A survey was conducted of 1485 U.S. residents in August 2016 to assess VCA donation attitudes. Participants also completed the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale. Most respondents were willing to donate hands/forearms (67.4%) and legs (66.8%), and almost half (48.0%) were willing to donate the face. Three-quarters (74.4%) of women were willing to donate the uterus; 54.4% of men were willing to donate the penis. VCA donation willingness was more likely among whites and Hispanics (p media exposure to VCA transplantation (p = 0.003). Many who opposed VCA donation expressed concerns about psychological discomfort, mutilation, identity loss, and the reaction of others to seeing familiar body parts on a stranger. Attitudes toward VCA donation are favorable overall, despite limited exposure to VCA messaging and confusion about how VCA donation occurs. These findings may help guide the development and implementation of VCA public education campaigns. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Attitudes to in vitro meat: A survey of potential consumers in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Wilks

    Full Text Available Positivity towards meat consumption remains strong, despite evidence of negative environmental and ethical outcomes. Although awareness of these repercussions is rising, there is still public resistance to removing meat from our diets. One potential method to alleviate these effects is to produce in vitro meat: meat grown in a laboratory that does not carry the same environmental or ethical concerns. However, there is limited research examining public attitudes towards in vitro meat, thus we know little about the capacity for it be accepted by consumers. This study aimed to examine perceptions of in vitro meat and identify potential barriers that might prevent engagement. Through conducting an online survey with US participants, we identified that although most respondents were willing to try in vitro meat, only one third were definitely or probably willing to eat in vitro meat regularly or as a replacement for farmed meat. Men were more receptive to it than women, as were politically liberal respondents compared with conservative ones. Vegetarians and vegans were more likely to perceive benefits compared to farmed meat, but they were less likely to want to try it than meat eaters. The main concerns were an anticipated high price, limited taste and appeal and a concern that the product was unnatural. It is concluded that people in the USA are likely to try in vitro meat, but few believed that it would replace farmed meat in their diet.

  3. Attitudes to in vitro meat: A survey of potential consumers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Matti; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-01-01

    Positivity towards meat consumption remains strong, despite evidence of negative environmental and ethical outcomes. Although awareness of these repercussions is rising, there is still public resistance to removing meat from our diets. One potential method to alleviate these effects is to produce in vitro meat: meat grown in a laboratory that does not carry the same environmental or ethical concerns. However, there is limited research examining public attitudes towards in vitro meat, thus we know little about the capacity for it be accepted by consumers. This study aimed to examine perceptions of in vitro meat and identify potential barriers that might prevent engagement. Through conducting an online survey with US participants, we identified that although most respondents were willing to try in vitro meat, only one third were definitely or probably willing to eat in vitro meat regularly or as a replacement for farmed meat. Men were more receptive to it than women, as were politically liberal respondents compared with conservative ones. Vegetarians and vegans were more likely to perceive benefits compared to farmed meat, but they were less likely to want to try it than meat eaters. The main concerns were an anticipated high price, limited taste and appeal and a concern that the product was unnatural. It is concluded that people in the USA are likely to try in vitro meat, but few believed that it would replace farmed meat in their diet.

  4. A survey of Southeastern United States veterinarians' preferences for managing cats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jo R; Vrono, Zak; Rapoport, Gregg S; Turek, Michelle M; Creevy, Kate E

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated primary practitioners' perceptions of managing feline diabetics. Surveys distributed during local continuing education events achieved a response rate of 46% (90/195). A mean of 74% feline diabetics required chronic insulin; 26% were transient diabetics. Choice of insulin was most influenced by duration of action: human recombinant protamine zinc insulin was ranked first (42%) and glargine second (27%). Dietary management was always/usually recommended by 97% respondents, with prescription or proprietary low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets recommended in 93% responses. More recent graduates (P=0.0419), those who worked in larger practices (P=0.0315), and those who saw more transient diabetics (P=0.0288) were more likely to recommend dietary change. In-house blood glucose curves (BGCs) were the most popular method of assessing glycemic control, while at-home BGCs were least popular, although their use correlated positively with annual diabetic caseload (r=0.43, P=0.0239). Owners mishandling insulin was cited as the most common cause of poor glycemic control, while clinical signs of acromegaly were rarely recognized.

  5. Alcohol's Harm to Children: Findings from the 2015 United States National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lauren M; Nayak, Madhabika B; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the prevalence and severity of alcohol's harm to children in the US and the relationship of the harmer to the child, and to examine caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol use, and exposure to harm due to a drinking spouse/partner or other family member as risk factors for alcohol's harm to children. We report data on 764 caregivers (defined as persons with parental responsibility for at least 1 child aged ≤17 years) from the 2015 National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey, a dual-frame national sample of US adults. Overall 7.4% of caregivers reported alcohol's harm to children in the past year. Risk factors for alcohol's harm to children included the caregiver's own experience of alcohol's harm from a spouse/partner or other family member. Caregivers with a heavy drinker in the household were significantly more likely to report harm to children. A caregiver's own heavy drinking was not a significant risk factor for children in his or her care. Alcohol places a substantial burden on children in the US. Although a caregiver's own drinking can harm children, other drinkers also increase the risk of alcohol's harm to children. Screening caregivers to determine whether there is a heavy drinker in the household may help reduce alcohol's harm in the family without stigmatizing caregivers, who themselves may not be heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  7. Direct and Indirect Costs of Chronic and Episodic Migraine in the United States: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messali, Andrew; Sanderson, Joanna C; Blumenfeld, Andrew M; Goadsby, Peter J; Buse, Dawn C; Varon, Sepideh F; Stokes, Michael; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the societal direct and indirect costs of chronic and episodic migraine in the United States. Episodic and chronic migraine are distinguished by the frequency of headache-days. Chronic migraine has a greater overall impact on quality of life than does episodic migraine. Individuals with chronic migraine also use more healthcare resources (resulting in higher direct costs) and experience greater decreases in productivity (resulting in higher indirect costs) than those with episodic migraine as shown in the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study. The International Burden of Migraine Study utilized a web-based questionnaire to elicit data on several topics related to the burden of migraine illness, including health resource utilization and productivity losses. Potential survey participants were identified by Synovate Healthcare (Chicago, IL, USA) from a pool of registered panelists from various countries. The panelists were screened online to determine eligibility and to identify individuals with migraine (episodic or chronic), based on reported symptoms. Participants from the United States were divided into episodic and chronic migraine groups, based on reported headache-day per month frequency. Direct and indirect costs were estimated by applying estimated unit costs to reported headache-related productivity losses and resource use. Costs were compared between participants with episodic and chronic migraine. Mean [standard deviation] total annual cost of headache among people with chronic migraine ($8243 [$10,646]) was over three times that of episodic migraine ($2649 [$4634], P < .001). Participants with chronic migraine had significantly greater direct medical costs ($4943 [$6382]) and indirect (lost productivity) costs ($3300 [$6907]) than did participants with episodic migraine (direct, $1705 [$3591]; indirect, $943 [$2084]) (P < .001 for each). Unlike previous findings, direct medical costs

  8. Hookah use among adolescents in the United States: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrock, Stephen M; Gordon, Terry; Zelikoff, Judith T; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-02-01

    U.S. adolescents increasingly use alternative tobacco products (ATPs), including hookah. No study has previously assessed correlates of adolescent hookah use in a nationally representative sample. Cross-sectional, nationally representative data of adolescents from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) were used. Student demographics and their use of, exposure to, and beliefs about tobacco were examined as correlates of hookah use. Of adolescents nationwide, 7.3% reported ever trying hookah and 2.6% reported using hookah within the past month. Increasing age was associated with trying hookah, but not current hookah use. Sex was unassociated with hookah use. Asians were most likely to have tried hookah; Hispanics and those of another race reported greater current hookah use. Hookah use increased with perceived ease of access to and willingness to try tobacco. Students with a hookah user at home were more likely to have tried hookah and to currently use hookah. Current cigarette use was not associated with current hookah use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.8-2.1), but was associated with trying hookah (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2). Non-cigarette tobacco use was associated with trying hookah (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1-3.5) and current hookah use (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 2.7-8.7). A sizeable minority of U.S. adolescents use hookah, particularly those living with hookah users, those who use other ATPs, and those who perceive tobacco as easily accessible. Current cigarette use was not associated with current hookah use. Future studies assessing the dangers of hookah use and interventions to curb this emerging problem appear warranted.

  9. Complementary and alternative therapies in hospice: The national home and hospice care survey: United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovitz, Anita; Sengupta, Manisha; Jones, Adrienne; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D

    2011-01-19

    Objective-This report presents national estimates on the provision and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAT) in hospice. Comparisons of organizational characteristics of hospice care providers are presented by whether the provider offered CAT. Comparisons of selected characteristics of patients discharged from hospice are presented by whether they received care from a provider that offered CAT, and whether they received a CAT service. Methods-Estimates are based on data from the 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Results-In 2007, 41.8% of hospice care providers offered CAT services, had a CAT provider on staff or under contract, or both. Among hospice care providers offering CAT, over one-half offered massage (71.7%), supportive group therapy (69.0%), music therapy (62.2%), pet therapy (58.6%), or guided imagery or relaxation (52.7%). Of the hospice care providers that offered CAT, 21.5% had at least one discharged hospice patient who received CAT during hospice care. Overall, 4.9% of all discharged hospice patients received at least one CAT from the hospice care provider. Over one-half of discharged patients (56.5%) received care from a provider that offered CAT, and of those, 8.6% received at least one CAT from the hospice care provider during their stays. There were no differences in demographics, health, functional status, or admission diagnoses between patients discharged from hospice either by whether they received care from a provider that offered CAT or whether they received CAT.

  10. Survey of Technology with Possible Applications to United States Coast Guard Buoy Tenders. Volume 2. Literature Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Transportation In the Interest of Information i exchange . The United States Government assumes no liability for Its contents or use thereof. The United States...Boat, March 1983, pp 81, 121-2, (’Point Bravo, Chaleur , Liberty, & Normandy’) "Halter’s awesome ’Acadian Commander", The Work Boat, January ". 1982

  11. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  12. Drinking and driving in the United States: comparing results from the 2007 and 1996 National Roadside Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John H; Voas, Robert B; Romano, Eduardo; Yao, Jie; Berning, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) use data from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS) to determine the characteristics of weekend nighttime drivers with positive blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) on U.S. roads in 2007; (b) determine the relationship of the driving environment and trip characteristics associated with drinking drivers; and (c) compare the findings for the 2007 NRS with those for the 1996 NRS. Like the 1996 NRS, the 2007 NRS used a stratified random national roadside survey sample of the contiguous 48 states and collected nighttime data on Fridays and Saturdays between 10 p.m. and 3 a.m. Officers directed 8384 drivers into off-road parking areas where our research team asked them to participate in the survey. Of those approached, 7159 (85.4%) provided a breath test. Results revealed that 12 percent of the nighttime drivers had positive BACs, and of those, 2 percent were higher than the 0.08 BAC illegal limit in the United States. Since the 1996 NRS, we found significant reductions in the percentage of BAC-positive drivers across different demographic groups. Age was among the most significant factors associated with a weekend driver having a positive BAC. The probability that a driver would be drinking peaked in the 21- to 25-year-old age group. Male drivers were more likely than female drivers to be drinking, and Asian and Hispanic drivers were less likely than white drivers to be drinking. Drinking drivers were more likely to be driving short distances (5 or fewer miles) late at night (between 1 and 3 a.m.) and to be coming from a bar or restaurant. Finally, 26 percent of the drivers who reported that they would drive less than 5 miles on the night of the survey had positive BACs, compared to only 16 percent who indicated that they would drive between 6 and 20 miles and 10 percent who planned to drive more than 20 miles. The 2007 NRS provides another benchmark in the 4-decade record of drinking drivers on American roads and provides a

  13. Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey, 1904-1905

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Charles D.

    1905-01-01

    IntroductionRemarks on the work of the yearBranches of workThe United States Geological Survey was created in 1879 for the purpose—as its name implies—of examining and reporting on the geologic structure and mineral resources and products of the national domain. To the adequate description of geologic formations and structure cartography is essential, and Congress early recognized this fact by making appropriations for the preparation of a geologic map of the United States. The topographic base map, in order to show with sufficient precision the relations of the geologic formations and the intricacies of the structure, must have a rather large scale and present considerable detail. No such map of this country existed in 1879, and its preparation was immediately begun. The waters of the country are of vast importance, and in a broad sense may be regarded as one of its greatest mineral resources. Hence, in the evolution of the work of the Survey, and especially in view of the great importance of the subject to the irrigation interests, Congress early began making appropriations for ascertaining the amount and quality of the surface and underground waters and when, in 1902, the service for the reclamation of arid lands was organized, that work naturally was placed in the hands of the Secretary of the Interior and by him intrusted to the Director of the Survey.The three great branches of work carried on by the Geological Survey are, therefore, the geologic, the topographic, and the hydrographic, and with these, more especially the latter, is conjoined the Reclamation Service ; publication and administration constitute necessary auxiliary branches. Along these great lines the work of the Survey has progressed without essential variation for many years. The changes made have been due to normal expansion rather than to radical departure in object or plan.State cooperationDuring the last fiscal year, State cooperation, as explained in previous reports, continued

  14. Bacterial and viral pathogens in live oysters: 2007 United States market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaola, Angelo; Jones, Jessica L; Woods, Jacquelina; Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R; Krantz, Jeffrey A; Bowers, John C; Kasturi, Kuppuswamy; Byars, Robin H; Jacobs, Emily; Williams-Hill, Donna; Nabe, Khamphet

    2010-05-01

    Two samples of market oysters, primarily from retail establishments, were collected twice each month in each of nine states during 2007. Samples were shipped refrigerated overnight to five U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratories on a rotating basis and analyzed by most probable number (MPN) for total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus numbers and for the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae, Salmonella spp., norovirus (NoV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Levels of indicator organisms, including fecal coliforms (MPN), Escherichia coli (MPN), male-specific bacteriophage, and aerobic plate counts, were also determined. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels were distributed seasonally and geographically by harvest region and were similar to levels observed in a previous study conducted in 1998-1999. Levels of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were typically several logs lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels regardless of season or region. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic regions were about two logs greater than the levels observed in the Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Pathogens generally associated with fecal pollution were detected sporadically or not at all (toxigenic V. cholerae, 0%; Salmonella, 1.5%; NoV, 3.9%; HAV, 4.4%). While seasonal prevalences of NoV and HAV were generally greater in oysters harvested from December to March, the low detection frequency obscured any apparent seasonal effects. Overall, there was no relationship between the levels of indicator microorganisms and the presence of enteric viruses. These data provide a baseline that can be used to further validate risk assessment predictions, determine the effectiveness of new control measures, and compare the level of protection provided by the U.S. shellfish sanitation system to those in other countries.

  15. Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Live Oysters: 2007 United States Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaola, Angelo; Jones, Jessica L.; Woods, Jacquelina; Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R.; Krantz, Jeffrey A.; Bowers, John C.; Kasturi, Kuppuswamy; Byars, Robin H.; Jacobs, Emily; Williams-Hill, Donna; Nabe, Khamphet

    2010-01-01

    Two samples of market oysters, primarily from retail establishments, were collected twice each month in each of nine states during 2007. Samples were shipped refrigerated overnight to five U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratories on a rotating basis and analyzed by most probable number (MPN) for total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus numbers and for the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae, Salmonella spp., norovirus (NoV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Levels of indicator organisms, including fecal coliforms (MPN), Escherichia coli (MPN), male-specific bacteriophage, and aerobic plate counts, were also determined. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels were distributed seasonally and geographically by harvest region and were similar to levels observed in a previous study conducted in 1998-1999. Levels of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were typically several logs lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels regardless of season or region. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic regions were about two logs greater than the levels observed in the Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Pathogens generally associated with fecal pollution were detected sporadically or not at all (toxigenic V. cholerae, 0%; Salmonella, 1.5%; NoV, 3.9%; HAV, 4.4%). While seasonal prevalences of NoV and HAV were generally greater in oysters harvested from December to March, the low detection frequency obscured any apparent seasonal effects. Overall, there was no relationship between the levels of indicator microorganisms and the presence of enteric viruses. These data provide a baseline that can be used to further validate risk assessment predictions, determine the effectiveness of new control measures, and compare the level of protection provided by the U.S. shellfish sanitation system to those in other countries. PMID:20190085

  16. Impact of cough and common cold on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life in the United States: ACHOO Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Eccles, Ron; Blaiss, Michael S; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Although the common cold is among the most frequent ailments encountered in clinical practice, little is known about its impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. The United States Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to inform healthcare providers on patients' experience of cough/cold. This analysis focuses on the impact of cough/cold on daily activity, productivity, and absenteeism; other results are reported elsewhere. ACHOO was a 36-question online survey. US adult Internet/mobile device users (N = 3333) were recruited in October 2012. Response quotas modeled on 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample; 75% of completed surveys were randomized as the primary analysis pool. Demographics and impact of cough/cold were reported using means, frequencies, and percentages. Weighted least squares regression or weighted paired t-test were used to identify factors associated with greater impact. The analysis pool (N = 2505) included 1342 (53.6%) women and 1163 (46.4%) men (mean ages, 46.7 and 45.9 years). A majority (84.7%) had ≥1 cold in the past year. Fifty-two percent said cough/cold impacted daily life a fair amount to a lot. Productivity decreased by a mean 26.4%, and 44.5% of respondents reported work/school absenteeism (usually 1-2 days) during a cold. Overall, 93% of survey participants reported sleep difficulty (slight to extreme) during a cough/cold. Among all respondents, 57% reported cough or nasal congestion as the symptoms making sleep difficult. Higher frequency of colds, more cold symptoms, difficulty sleeping, and worse overall health status correlated with greater impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. Study limitations include the potential for recall bias given the retrospective nature of the self-reports. Furthermore, no attempt was made to distinguish treatment effects, if any, from those of the underlying cough/cold. To our knowledge, this is

  17. A survey of castration methods and associated livestock management practices performed by bovine veterinarians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradburn Ryan M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castration of male calves destined for beef production is a common management practice performed in the United States amounting to approximately 15 million procedures per year. Societal concern about the moral and ethical treatment of animals is increasing. Therefore, production agriculture is faced with the challenge of formulating animal welfare policies relating to routine management practices such as castration. To enable the livestock industry to effectively respond to these challenges there is a need for more data on management practices that are commonly used in cattle production systems. The objective of this survey was to describe castration methods, adverse events and husbandry procedures performed by U.S. veterinarians at the time of castration. Invitations to participate in the survey were sent to email addresses of 1,669 members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and 303 members of the Academy of Veterinary Consultants. Results After partially completed surveys and missing data were omitted, 189 responses were included in the analysis. Surgical castration with a scalpel followed by testicular removal by twisting (calves 90 kg was the most common method of castration used. The potential risk of injury to the operator, size of the calf, handling facilities and experience with the technique were the most important considerations used to determine the method of castration used. Swelling, stiffness and increased lying time were the most prevalent adverse events observed following castration. One in five practitioners report using an analgesic or local anesthetic at the time of castration. Approximately 90% of respondents indicated that they vaccinate and dehorn calves at the time of castration. Over half the respondents use disinfectants, prophylactic antimicrobials and tetanus toxoid to reduce complications following castration. Conclusions The results of this survey describe current methods of

  18. National Survey of State Identification Audiometry Programs and Special Educational Services for Hearing Impaired Children and Youth United States: 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Office of Demographic Studies.

    Reported were descriptive data concerning identification audiometry (hearing screening) and special educational programs for the hearing impaired. Data were provided in tabular format for each state in the country and the District of Columbia. Hearing screening program data included extent of coverage, grade or ages covered annually, year and…

  19. Infertility service use in the United States: data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 1982-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anjani; Copen, Casey E; Stephen, Elizabeth Hervey

    2014-01-22

    This report presents nationally representative estimates and trends for infertility service use among women aged 15-44 and 25-44 in the United States in 1982-2010. While greater detail on types of infertility service is shown for women, basic data on types of infertility service use, as reported by men aged 25-44, are also presented. Data for this report come primarily from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), consisting of 22,682 interviews with men and women aged 15-44, conducted from June 2006 through June 2010. The response rate for females in the 2006-2010 NSFG was 78%, and for males was 75%. Selected trends are shown based on prior NSFG cycles. Twelve percent of women aged 15-44 in 2006-2010 (7.3 million women), or their husbands or partners, had ever used infertility services. Among women aged 25-44, 17% (6.9 million) had ever used any infertility service, a significant decrease from 20% in 1995. Thirty-eight percent of nulliparous women with current fertility problems in 2006-2010 had ever used infertility services, significantly less than 56% of such women in 1982. In all survey years, ever-use of medical help to get pregnant was highest among older and nulliparous women, non-Hispanic white women, women with current fertility problems, and women with higher levels of education and household income. The most commonly used infertility services among women aged 25-44 in 2006-2010 were advice, testing, medical help to prevent miscarriage, and ovulation drugs. Ever-use of infertility services was reported by 9.4% of men aged 25-44 in 2006-2010, similar to levels seen in 2002. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  20. Survey of Bereavement Practices of Cancer Care and Palliative Care Physicians in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Kenworthy-Heinige, Tawni; Thomas, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Physicians caring for patients with cancer frequently encounter individuals who will die as a result of their disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the frequency and nature of bereavement practices among cancer care and palliative care physicians in the Pacific Northwest United States. Secondary aims included identification of factors and barriers associated with bereavement follow-up. Methods: An institutional review board (IRB) –approved, anonymous online survey of cancer specialists and palliative care physicians in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming was performed in fall 2010. Potential participants were identified through membership in national professional organizations. Summary statistics and logistic regression methods were used to examine frequency and predictors of bereavement practices. Results: A total of 194 (22.7%) of 856 physicians participated in the online survey, with 164 (19.1%) meeting study inclusion criteria. Overall, 70% of respondents reported always or usually making a telephone call to families, sending a condolence letter, or attending a funeral service after a patient's death. The most common perceived barriers to bereavement follow-up were lack of time and uncertainty of which family member to contact. Sixty-nine percent of respondents did not feel that they had received adequate training on bereavement follow-up during postgraduate training. Conclusion: Although a significant portion of respondents engaged in some form of bereavement follow-up, the majority felt inadequately trained in these activities. Efforts to identify available resources and address bereavement activities in postgraduate training may contribute to improved multidisciplinary treatment of patients with cancer and their families. PMID:23277763

  1. Quality assurance peer review chart rounds in 2011: a survey of academic institutions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Whiton, Michal A; Symon, Zvi; Wuthrick, Evan J; Doyle, Laura; Harrison, Amy S; Dicker, Adam P

    2012-11-01

    In light of concerns regarding the quality of radiation treatment delivery, we surveyed the practice of quality assurance peer review chart rounds at American academic institutions. An anonymous web-based survey was sent to the chief resident of each institution across the United States. The response rate was 80% (57/71). The median amount of time spent per patient was 2.7 minutes (range, 0.6-14.4). The mean attendance by senior physicians and residents was 73% and 93%, respectively. A physicist was consistently present at peer review rounds in 66% of departments. There was a close association between attendance by senior physicians and departmental organization: in departments with protected time policies, good attendance was 81% vs. 31% without protected time (p = 0.001), and in departments that documented attendance, attending presence was 69% vs. 29% in departments without documentation (p institutions peer review all external beam therapy courses; however, rates were much lower for other modalities (radiosurgery 58%, brachytherapy 40%-47%). Patient history, chart documentation, and dose prescription were always peer reviewed in >75% of institutions, whereas dosimetric details (beams, wedges), isodose coverage, intensity-modulated radiation therapy constraints, and dose-volume histograms were always peer reviewed in 63%, 59%, 42%, and 50% of cases, respectively. Chart rounds led to both minor (defined as a small multileaf collimator change/repeated port film) and major (change to dose prescription or replan with dosimetry) treatment changes. Whereas at the majority of institutions changes were rare (institutions reported that minor and major changes, respectively, were made to more than 10% of cases. The implementation of peer review chart rounds seems inconsistent across American academic institutions. Brachytherapy and radiosurgical procedures are rarely reviewed. Attendance by senior physicians is variable, but it improves when scheduling clashes are

  2. Trusting Social Media as a Source of Health Information: Online Surveys Comparing the United States, Korea, and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Omori, Kikuko; Kim, Jihyun; Tenzek, Kelly E; Morey Hawkins, Jennifer; Lin, Wan-Ying; Kim, Yong-Chan; Jung, Joo-Young

    2016-03-14

    The Internet has increasingly become a popular source of health information by connecting individuals with health content, experts, and support. More and more, individuals turn to social media and Internet sites to share health information and experiences. Although online health information seeking occurs worldwide, limited empirical studies exist examining cross-cultural differences in perceptions about user-generated, experience-based information compared to expertise-based information sources. To investigate if cultural variations exist in patterns of online health information seeking, specifically in perceptions of online health information sources. It was hypothesized that Koreans and Hongkongers, compared to Americans, would be more likely to trust and use experience-based knowledge shared in social Internet sites, such as social media and online support groups. Conversely, Americans, compared to Koreans and Hongkongers, would value expertise-based knowledge prepared and approved by doctors or professional health providers more. Survey questionnaires were developed in English first and then translated into Korean and Chinese. The back-translation method ensured the standardization of questions. Surveys were administered using a standardized recruitment strategy and data collection methods. A total of 826 participants living in metropolitan areas from the United States (n=301), Korea (n=179), and Hong Kong (n=337) participated in the study. We found significant cultural differences in information processing preferences for online health information. A planned contrast test revealed that Koreans and Hongkongers showed more trust in experience-based health information sources (blogs: t451.50=11.21, Ponline support group: t455.71=9.30, Ponline health information. Further discussion is included regarding effective communication strategies in providing quality health information.

  3. Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999-2002. We included participants aged 16-49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.25-2.13, P=0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.20-2.02, P=0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10-1.90, P=0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.91-1.67, P=0.162). In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

  4. Is Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Associated with Hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R.; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999–2002. We included participants aged 16–49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Results Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.25–2.13, P = 0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.20–2.02, P = 0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.10–1.90, P = 0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.91–1.67, P = 0.162). Conclusions In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age. PMID:22768311

  5. Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. METHODS: We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999-2002. We included participants aged 16-49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. RESULTS: Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001 and hypertension (P<0.001. The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001. Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.25-2.13, P=0.001 but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.20-2.02, P=0.002. Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10-1.90, P=0.010. However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.91-1.67, P=0.162. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

  6. Contraceptive Failure in the United States: Estimates from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Aparna; Vaughan, Barbara; Kost, Kathryn; Bankole, Akinrinola; Finer, Lawrence; Singh, Susheela; Trussell, James

    2017-03-01

    Contraceptive failure rates measure a woman's probability of becoming pregnant while using a contraceptive. Information about these rates enables couples to make informed contraceptive choices. Failure rates were last estimated for 2002, and social and economic changes that have occurred since then necessitate a reestimation. To estimate failure rates for the most commonly used reversible methods in the United States, data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth were used; some 15,728 contraceptive use intervals, contributed by 6,683 women, were analyzed. Data from the Guttmacher Institute's 2008 Abortion Patient Survey were used to adjust for abortion underreporting. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the associated single-decrement probability of failure by duration of use. Failure rates were compared with those from 1995 and 2002. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (the IUD and the implant) had the lowest failure rates of all methods (1%), while condoms and withdrawal carried the highest probabilities of failure (13% and 20%, respectively). However, the failure rate for the condom had declined significantly since 1995 (from 18%), as had the failure rate for all hormonal methods combined (from 8% to 6%). The failure rate for all reversible methods combined declined from 12% in 2002 to 10% in 2006-2010. These broad-based declines in failure rates reverse a long-term pattern of minimal change. Future research should explore what lies behind these trends, as well as possibilities for further improvements. © 2017 The Authors. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Guttmacher Institute.

  7. Trends in social consequences and dependence symptoms in the United States: the National Alcohol Surveys, 1984-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midanik, L T; Greenfield, T K

    2000-01-01

    Given the decline in alcohol use in the United States since the 1980s, the purpose of this study was to assess shifts in self-reported social consequences of alcohol use (and 5 consequences subscales) and dependence symptoms from 1984 to 1995. This study used data from 3 national alcohol surveys based on household probability samples of current drinkers (adults) in 1984, 1990, and 1995; samples sizes were 1503, 1338, and 1417, respectively. Overall, few changes in prevalence of social consequences or dependence symptoms were found. Significantly lower prevalence rates of 2 consequences subscales (accidents/legal problems and work problems) were reported between 1984 and 1990, but prevalence rates did not change for any of the scales from 1990 to 1995. This stability in alcohol-related outcomes despite reductions in alcohol consumption may be a result of cultural shifts in which problem amplification occurs in "drier" historical periods. Furthermore, rates of alcohol-related problems may be approaching their lowest limit and may not be readily influenced by any additional decreases in alcohol consumption.

  8. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  9. Interpregnancy Intervals in the United States: Data From the Birth Certificate and the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E; Thoma, Marie E; Kirmeyer, Sharon

    2015-04-16

    To describe data on interpregnancy intervals (IPI), defined as the timing between a live birth and conception of a subsequent live birth, from a subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate. Because this information is available among revised jurisdictions only, the national representativeness of IPI and related patterns to the entire United States were assessed using the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Birth certificate data are based on 100% of births registered in 36 states and the District of Columbia that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate in 2011 (83% of 2011 U.S. births). The "Date of last live birth" item on the birth certificate was used to calculate months between the birth occurring in 2011 and the previous birth. These data were compared with pregnancy data from a nationally representative sample of women from the 2006-2010 NSFG. Jurisdiction-specific median IPI ranged from 25 months (Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wisconsin) to 32 months (California) using birth certificate data. Overall, the distribution of IPI from the birth certificate was similar to NSFG for IPI less than 18 months (30% and 29%), 18 to 59 months (50% and 52%), and 60 months or more (21% and 18%). Consistent patterns in IPI distribution by data source were seen by age at delivery, marital status, education, number of previous live births, and Hispanic origin and race, with the exception of differences in IPI of 60 months or more among non-Hispanic black women and women with a bachelor's degree or higher. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Roque; Hill, Andrew N; Yelk Woodruff, Rachel S; Lambert, Lauren A; Navin, Thomas R; Castro, Kenneth G; LoBue, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    for TST (1.5%; 0.9-2.6). No statistically significant decline in the overall estimated prevalence of TST positivity was detected from 1999-2000 to 2011-2012. The prevalence of TB infection, whether measured by TST or IGRA, remains lower among persons born in the United States compared with foreign-born persons.

  11. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  12. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  13. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  14. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  15. The Core Curricula of Information Systems Undergraduate Programs: A Survey of AACSB-Accredited Colleges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    The author examines the present state of information systems undergraduate programs in the United States. He reviewed 516 institutions and collected data on 234 institutions offering information systems (IS) undergraduate programs. Of seven core courses required by the IS 2010 curriculum model, four are required by more than 50% of the programs,…

  16. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about our courses and how to apply Publication Electronic cigarette fires and explosions in the United States ... unique hazard to users. 62 percent of the electronic cigarette explosion and fire incidents reviewed in this ...

  17. Hired crop worker injuries on farms in the United States: A comparison of two survey periods from the National Agricultural Workers Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonozzi, Theresa R; Layne, Larry A

    2016-05-01

    Hired crop workers in the United States are at high risk of occupational injury. Targeted surveillance is important for effective occupational safety efforts. The National Agricultural Workers Survey was utilized to collect injury data during the years 1999, 2002-2004 (period I) and 2008-2010 (period II). The overall injury rate declined between the two periods from 4.3 to 2.9/100 per full-time week-based equivalents (FTEWB ). Injury rates remained high during both periods for those with greater than 20 years farm experience (3.6 and 3.8/100 FTEWB ) and pesticide handling work (4.9 and 5.0/100 FTEWB ). Overexertion, contact with objects and equipment, and falls from height were common during both periods. Older workers comprised a greater proportion of injury cases in period II. Overexertion that leads to sprains/strains, dangerous ladder use, and pesticide use should be targeted as important risk exposures on the farm. © 2016 Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Why physicians do not initiate dual therapy as recommended by AACE guidelines: A survey of clinicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Li, Qiong; Tang, Jackson; Fan, Chun-Po Steve; Li, Zhiyi; Apecechea, Mercedes; Hegar, Ruth; Shankar, Ravi; Kurtyka, Karen M; Engel, Samuel S

    2015-06-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) recommends initiating dual therapy with antihyperglycemic agents in untreated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and HbA1c between 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) and 9.0% (75 mmol/mol). In practice physicians do not always follow guidelines. This study assessed why physicians do not prescribe dual therapy when treating eligible patients. 1235 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 290 specialists in the United States reviewed medical charts for 5995 patients whose HbA1c was between 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) and 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) at diagnosis and were being treated with metformin monotherapy. In an online survey physicians rated the relevance of 22 reasons for not initiating dual therapy using a 5-point Likert scale. Relevant reasons were compared between PCPs vs. specialists, and younger vs. older patients, using multivariate general linear regression and mixed-effect models. Four relevant reasons for not following AACE guidelines were physician-related: (1) "Metformin monotherapy is sufficient to improve glycemic control"; (2) "Monotherapy is easier to handle than dual therapy"; (3) "I believe that monotherapy and changes in lifestyle are enough for hyperglycemia control"; and (4) "I recommend monotherapy before considering dual therapy." One relevant reason was patient-related: (5) "Patient has mild hyperglycemia." Regression analysis demonstrated that PCPs rated each physician-related reason as significantly more relevant than specialists. Three physician-related reasons were significantly more relevant for younger patients than older patients. Physicians do not follow AACE guidelines due to physicians' beliefs toward therapy and the perception of mild hyperglycemia in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maximum magnitude (Mmax) in the central and eastern United States for the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey Hazard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic‐hazard assessment (PSHA) requires an estimate of Mmax, the moment magnitude M of the largest earthquake that could occur within a specified area. Sparse seismicity hinders Mmax estimation in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) and tectonically similar regions worldwide (stable continental regions [SCRs]). A new global catalog of moderate‐to‐large SCR earthquakes is analyzed with minimal assumptions about enigmatic geologic controls on SCR Mmax. An earlier observation that SCR earthquakes of M 7.0 and larger occur in young (250–23 Ma) passive continental margins and associated rifts but not in cratons is not strongly supported by the new catalog. SCR earthquakes of M 7.5 and larger are slightly more numerous and reach slightly higher M in young passive margins and rifts than in cratons. However, overall histograms of M from young margins and rifts and from cratons are statistically indistinguishable. This conclusion is robust under uncertainties inM, the locations of SCR boundaries, and which of two available global SCR catalogs is used. The conclusion stems largely from recent findings that (1) large southeast Asian earthquakes once thought to be SCR were in actively deforming crust and (2) long escarpments in cratonic Australia were formed by prehistoric faulting. The 2014 seismic‐hazard model of the U.S. Geological Survey represents CEUS Mmax as four‐point probability distributions. The distributions have weighted averages of M 7.0 in cratons and M 7.4 in passive margins and rifts. These weighted averages are consistent with Mmax estimates of other SCR PSHAs of the CEUS, southeastern Canada, Australia, and India.

  20. The transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm toolkit: survey and content validation in the United States, Mexico, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Osama; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2014-06-01

    Evidence demonstrates that medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) improves glycemic control and reduces diabetes risks and complications. Consequently, MNT is included in current clinical practice guidelines. Guideline recommendations, however, are frequently limited by their complexity, contradictions, personal and cultural rigidity, and compromised portability. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed to overcome these limitations. To facilitate tDNA uptake and usage, an instructional Patient Algorithm Therapy (PATh) toolkit was created. Content validation of tDNA-PATh is needed before widespread implementation. Healthcare providers (n=837) in Mexico (n=261), Taiwan (n=250), and the United States (n=326) were questioned about challenges implementing MNT in clinical practice and the projected utilization and impact of tDNA-PATh. To assess the international portability and applicability of tDNA-PATh, the survey was conducted in countries with distinct ethnic and cultural attributes. Potential respondents were screened for professional and practice demographics related to diabetes. The questionnaire was administered electronically after respondents were exposed to core tDNA-PATh components. Overall, 61% of respondents thought that tDNA-PATh could help overcome MNT implementation challenges, 91% indicated positive impressions, 83% believed they would adopt tDNA-PATh, and 80% thought tDNA-PATh would be fairly easy to implement. tDNA-PATh appears to be an effective culturally sensitive tool to foster MNT in clinical practice. By providing simple culturally specific instructions, tDNA-PATh may help to overcome current impediments to implementing recommended lifestyle modifications. Specific guidance provided by tDNA-PATh, together with included patient education materials, may increase healthcare provider efficiency.

  1. Infertility and impaired fecundity in the United States, 1982-2010: data from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anjani; Copen, Casey E; Stephen, Elizabeth Hervey

    2013-08-14

    This report presents nationally representative estimates and trends for infertility and impaired fecundity-two measures of fertility problems-among women aged 15-44 in the United States. Data are also presented on a measure of infertility among men aged 15-44. Data for this report come primarily from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), which consisted of 22,682 interviews with men and women aged 15-44, conducted from June 2006 through June 2010. The response rate for women in the 2006-2010 NSFG was 78%, and for men was 75%. Selected trends are shown based on prior NSFG years. The percentage of married women aged 15-44 who were infertile fell from 8.5% in 1982 (2.4 million women) to 6.0% (1.5 million) in 2006-2010. Impaired fecundity among married women aged 15-44 increased from 11% in 1982 to 15% in 2002, but decreased to 12% in 2006-2010. Among all women, 11% had impaired fecundity in 2006-2010. Both infertility and impaired fecundity remain closely associated with age for nulliparous women. Among married, nulliparous women aged 35-44, the percentage infertile declined from 44% in 1982 to 27% in 2006-2010, reflecting greater delays in childbearing over this period. Among married women in 2006-2010, non-Hispanic black women were more likely to be infertile than non-Hispanic white women. Some form of infertility (either subfertility or nonsurgical sterility) was reported by 9.4% of men aged 15-44 and 12% of men aged 25-44 in 2006-2010, similar to levels seen in 2002.

  2. Added Sugar Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Catherine E; Figueroa, Janet; Welsh, Jean A

    2018-01-09

    Despite associations of dietary added sugar with excess weight gain and chronic disease risk, intake among most Americans exceeds the recommended limits (<10% total energy). Maternal diet plays an important role in pregnancy-related outcomes, but little is known about the extent of added sugar intake during pregnancy. To assess intake and identify the top sources of added sugars in the diets of pregnant vs nonpregnant women in the United States. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2004 to 2011-2012. Four thousand one hundred seventy-nine pregnant and nonpregnant women (aged 20 to 39 years) who completed a dietary recall. Survey-weighted analyses were used to estimate means (95% CIs) in total grams and as percentage of total energy for added sugar intake by pregnancy status and by demographic subgroup and to identify leading sources of added sugar. Added sugar intake trended toward being higher in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women in absolute grams, 85.1 g (95% CI: 77.4 to 92.7) vs 76.7 g (95% CI: 73.6 to 79.9), respectively (P=0.06), but was lower among pregnant women when total energy intake was accounted for, 14.8% (95% CI: 13.8 to 15.7) vs 15.9% (95% CI: 15.2 to 16.6) of total energy, respectively (P=0.03). Among pregnant women, added sugar intake was similar among demographic subgroups. However, in multivariable regression, pregnancy status significantly modified the associations of education and income with added sugar intake, whereby less educated and lower-income women who were pregnant had lower added sugar intakes compared with those who were not pregnant, but more educated or higher-income women did not exhibit this pattern. The top five sources of added sugar for all women were sugar-sweetened beverages; cakes, cookies, and pastries; sugars and sweets; juice drinks and smoothies; and milk-based desserts. Although pregnant women had higher energy intakes, this was not attributed

  3. A Limited Survey of Dark Chocolate Bars Obtained in the United States for Undeclared Milk and Peanut Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Binaifer; Yu, Ye; Wang, Xue; Garber, Eric A E; Jackson, Lauren S

    2017-04-01

    Undeclared allergens in chocolate products have been responsible for numerous allergen-related recalls in the United States. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of undeclared milk and peanut in 88 and 78 dark chocolate bars, respectively. Concentrations of milk (as nonfat dry milk) or peanut in three samples of each chocolate product were determined with two milk- or peanut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In 75% of the chocolate bar products with a milk advisory statement, milk concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (2.5 μg/g [ppm]), with the majority having concentrations >1,000 ppm. An additional 67% of chocolate bars with a "traces of milk" statement contained 3 to 6,700 ppm of milk. Fifteen percent of chocolates labeled dairy free or lactose free and 25% labeled vegan were positive for milk, all with concentrations >1,000 ppm. Even for chocolates with no reference to milk on the label, 33% of these products contained 60 to 3,400 ppm of milk. The survey of chocolate products for peanuts revealed that 8% of products with an advisory statement contained peanut, with the highest concentration of 550 ppm. All nine chocolates bearing the peanut-free or allergen-free statement were negative for peanut, but 17% of chocolates with no label statement for peanut were positive for peanut at concentrations of 9 to 170 ppm. Evaluation of multiple lots of four chocolate products revealed that milk was consistently present or absent for the products investigated, but mixed results were obtained when multiple lots were tested for peanut. This study indicates that a large proportion of dark chocolate bars contain undeclared milk. The type of advisory statement or the absence of a milk advisory statement on products did not predict the amount or absence of milk protein. In contrast, a lower proportion of chocolates containing undeclared peanut was found. Consumers with food allergies should be cautious when purchasing dark chocolate

  4. Foodborne Illness Outbreak Investigation Training Needs: A Survey Among State Public Health Staff in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alphina; Pennell-Huth, Paula; Newman, Alexandra; Zansky, Shelley; Wiedmann, Martin

    In 2011, the Food Safety and Modernization Act established Integrated Food Safety Centers of Excellence across the United States to train, educate, and enhance the skill of foodborne illness outbreak investigation teams. To target regional training efforts, the New York Integrated Food Safety Center of Excellence (NYCoE) identified training needs in food safety and foodborne illness investigations among public heath staff in 11 states and 1 large metropolitan area in the Northeast. To identify topics so as to develop training materials relevant to food safety and foodborne disease outbreaks in order to improve and impact foodborne outbreak investigations regionally and nationally. Cross-sectional, paper-based survey conducted in January-February 2016. Eleven Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states, and 1 large metropolitan area. Foodborne illness outbreak investigators in the NYCoE region. Identification of training needs, as self-reported by participants, regarding general foodborne outbreak investigation needs and those specific to epidemiologists, environmental health specialists, and laboratorians. Topics included basic food safety/processing knowledge, communication and metrics, and training formats. Information regarding demographics, utility of the NYCoE, and certificate programs was also collected. Surveys returned from 33 respondents (from 10 states and 1 metropolitan area) identified metrics (100%), increasing use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (85%), and guidance on implementation of the Council to Improve Foodborne Outbreak Response (guidelines (89%) as the top training needs. By field, epidemiologists cited training in applying whole genome sequencing (100%), environmental health specialists cited training on the National Outbreak Reporting System (67%), and laboratorians cited training on whole genome sequencing (91%) as important. Short, online, or in-person, 1- to 2-day trainings were the preferred training formats (≥91%). Respondents wanted

  5. A Survey of Elementary and Secondary Music Educators' Professional Background, Teaching Responsibilities and Job Satisfaction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy K.; Koner, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this exploratory study was to examine the current trends of K-12 music educators in the United States regarding their (a) professional background, (b) classroom teaching responsibilities, and (c) job satisfaction. Participants included seven thousand four hundred and sixty-three (N = 7,463) currently employed music teachers who were…

  6. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard

    This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…

  7. A Transnational Survey of Mental Health Professionals in the United States and Europe on the Etiology of Infantile Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanua, Victor D.

    The paper first reviews previous studies made of the causes of schizophrenia as seen by mental health professionals in Western countries and in the Third World. The study at hand focuses on infantile autism and how it is viewed by professionals in the United States and Europe. Questionnaires addressed issues, characteristics and etiology,…

  8. Control of hypertension among adults--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Paula W; Gillespie, Cathleen D; George, Mary G; Wall, Hilary K

    2012-06-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and approximately 1 million heart attacks and 700,000 strokes occur annually. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke; the unadjusted prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years is approximately 31% (representing 68 million adults), and hypertension increases with age to approximately 70% among persons aged ≥65 years. Hypertension contributes to one out of every seven deaths in the United States, and approximately 70% of persons who have a first heart attack or stroke or who have heart failure have hypertension. In clinical trials, treatment of hypertension was associated with substantial reductions in stroke incidence (35%-40%), myocardial infarction (20%-25%), and heart failure (>50%). The estimated annual direct costs of hypertension are approximately $69.9 billion, and the estimated annual indirect costs are $23.6 billion.

  9. Length of Residence in the United States is Associated With a Higher Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Immigrants: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Commodore?Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Okosun, Ike S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Methods and Results Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010?2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length o...

  10. 78 FR 4439 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association and Larry... Northern District of Oklahoma in United States of America v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent... for chiropractic services. Copies of the Complaint, proposed Final Judgment, and Competitive Impact...

  11. History Education in the United States: A Survey of Teacher Certification and State-Based Standards and Assessments for Teachers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah Drake; Patrick, John J.

    The major goal of a study sponsored by the Organization of American Historians and the American Historical Association was to provide information about the state of history education in each of the United States, to be used constructively to appraise and improve school-based history education. This report addresses teacher certification in…

  12. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  13. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  14. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  15. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  16. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  17. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  18. Common Mental Disorders at the Time of Deportation: A Survey at the Mexico-United States Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Aguilera, Rosa M; Ramírez, Jacobo; Cerecero, Diego; Mejía, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Deportations from the Unites States (US) to Mexico increased substantially during the last decade. Considering deportation as a stressful event with potential consequences on mental health, we aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) among deported migrants; and (2) explore the association between migratory experience, social support and psychological variables, and CMD in this group. In repatriation points along the border, a probability sample of deportees responded to the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). The prevalence of CMD was 16.0% (95% CI 12.3, 20.6). There was a U-shaped association between time in the US and SRQ score. Times returned to Mexico, having a spouse in the US, number of persons in household, less social support, anxiety as a personality trait, and avoidant coping style were directly associated with SRQ score. Public health policies should address the need for mental health care among deported migrants.

  19. The comparative burden of mild, moderate and severe Fibromyalgia: results from a cross-sectional survey in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Don

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic, widespread pain, fatigue, and other symptoms; yet few studies have comprehensively assessed its humanistic burden. This observational study evaluates the impact of FM severity on patients' symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and productivity in the United States. Methods 203 FM subjects were recruited from 20 physician offices. Subjects completed a questionnaire including the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and questions about demographics, pain and other symptoms, HRQoL and productivity. FIQ total scores were used to define FM severity, with 0- Results Mean (SD age was 47.9 (10.9; 95% were female. Most (92% were prescribed medication for FM; 24% and 66% reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Mean (SD scores were: 6.3 (2.1 for pain intensity; 0.35 (0.35 for EQ-5D; 30.7 (14.2 for MAF; 57.5 (18.4 for MOS-SS Sleep Problems Index; 10.2 (4.8 for HADS anxiety and 9.4 (4.4 for HADS depression. Subjects with worse FM severity reported significantly increased pain severity, HRQoL, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression (p Conclusions FM imposes a substantial humanistic burden on patients in the United States, and leads to substantial productivity loss, despite treatment. This burden is higher among subjects with worse FM severity.

  20. Alcohol-Attributable Calories Consumed as a Result of Binge Drinking: A National Survey of Drinkers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer

    2016-06-06

    Estimate the alcohol-attributed calories associated with respondents' (a) most recent binge drinking episode, and (b) binge drinking across a thirty-day period. Examined responses to a module of the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), completed by a 10-state sample in the United States (n = 7,375), in order to estimate the alcohol-attributed calories consumed among binge drinkers. Alcohol-attributed calories were estimated by multiplying number of drinks consumed for each category (beer, wine, liquor drinks, and pre-mixed flavored drinks) collected in the BRFSS by caloric averages based on two data sources. In the past 30 days, respondents averaged 4.13 (SD = 5.84) binge drinking episodes, and consumed an average of 4.15 (SD = 3.55) beers, .67 (SD = 1.56) glasses of wine, 1.49 (SD = 2.53) shots of liquor, and .15 (SD = .79) pre-mixed flavored beverages during their most recent binge drinking episode. The average amount of alcohol-attributed calories consumed during this binge drinking episode was 991.76 (SD = 578.71), with men consuming significantly more calories than females. Dietary guidelines suggest the calories associated with alcoholic beverages should be considered as part of one's limited allotment of calories associated with solid fats and sugars, yet our results highlight alcohol as a major contributor (approximately 1,000 calories) to the proposed daily caloric needs on binge drinking days.

  1. Attitudes of radiation oncologists toward palliative and supportive care in the United States: Report on national membership survey by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Randy L; Mattes, Malcolm D; Yu, James; Thrasher, Adrienne; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Paganetti, Harald; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Koontz, Bridget; Abraham, Christopher; Balboni, Tracy

    Radiation oncologists are frequently involved in providing palliative and supportive care (PSC) for patients with advanced cancers through delivery of palliative radiation. Whether they are confident in their ability to assess and initiate treatments for pain, nonpain, and psychosocial distress is unknown. The American Society for Radiation Oncology surveyed its practicing members in the United States on self-assessment of their primary PSC skills and access to continuing medical education on PSC. We electronically surveyed 4093 practicing radiation oncologists in the United States. The survey consisted of 16-questions in 5 sections1: demographics,2 PSC training,3 domains of PSC,4 perceived barriers as a radiation oncologist to initiate advanced care planning, and5 discussion of prognosis. The survey was e-mailed to 4093 American Society for Radiation Oncology members, and 649 responses were received (response rate 16%). The majority (91%) of radiation oncologists surveyed believe PSC is an important competency for radiation oncologists. Most radiation oncologists reported that they are moderately confident in their ability to assess and manage pain and gastrointestinal symptoms, but less confident in their ability to manage anorexia, anxiety, and depression. Despite areas of decreased confidence, a large number (42%) of radiation oncologists do not receive any additional PSC education beyond their residency training. Lastly, a perceived fear of upsetting referring medical oncologists and lack of clinic time are concerns for radiation oncologists who may want to initiate goals of care/advance care planning discussions with patients and their families. Radiation oncologists are more confident in their ability to assess and manage pain than in their ability to manage depression, anxiety, anorexia, and fatigue. There is a need for increasing continuing medical educational efforts in PSC for practicing radiation oncologists, and strengthening PSC training in residency

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  3. Comparison of in situ and in vitro baiting assays for Phytophthora ramorum survey of waterways in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Oak; Jaesoon Hwang; Steven Jeffers

    2013-01-01

    In situ baiting with whole, intact leaves of Rhododendron spp. has been employed since 2006 by the National Phytophthora ramorum Early Detection survey of forests (national survey). Using this method, P. ramorum was detected for the first time in national survey waterways draining 12 infested ornamental...

  4. Geographic Information System (GIS) representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1979 (NODC Accession 0000605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay 1979 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  5. A survey of alkylphenols, bisphenols, and triclosan in personal care products from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of humans to environmental phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols is a matter of concern, due to these compounds' ubiquitous occurrence and estrogenic potencies. Little is known about the levels of environmental phenolics in personal care products (PCPs). In this study, nonylphenol, two octylphenols, eight bisphenols (BPA and its analogs), and triclosan (TCS) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in PCP samples (n = 231) collected from China and the United States (U.S.). The concentrations of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and TCS were in the ranges of China and the U.S. The estimated GM daily intakes of 4-NP, ∑OPs (sum of 4-OP and 4-t-OP), ∑BPs (sum of eight bisphenols), and TCS through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs were 0.932, 0.093, 0.072, and 0.016 μg/day, respectively, for adult Chinese women and 0.340, 0.054, 0.120, and 0.068 μg/day, respectively, for adult U.S. women. Body lotions, face creams, and liquid foundations accounted for the majority (>85 %) of the dermal exposure doses of the target phenolics.

  6. Length of Residence in the United States is Associated With a Higher Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Immigrants: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Okosun, Ike S

    2016-11-04

    Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length of residence. The outcomes were hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between length of US residence and these CMR factors.The mean (SE) age of the patients was 43 (0.12) years and half were women. Participants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to have health insurance than those with diabetic (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), and hypertensive (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32) than those residing in the United States for acculturation was associated with CMR factors. Culturally tailored public health strategies should be developed in US immigrant populations to reduce CMR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Occurrence of selected radionuclides in ground water used for drinking water in the United States; a reconnaissance survey, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Szabo, Zoltan; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Mullin, Ann H.; Barringer, Thomas H.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the American Water Works Association, and the American Water Works Service Company, completed a targeted national reconnaissance survey of selected radionuclides in public ground-water supplies. Radionuclides analyzed included radium-224 (Ra-224), radium-226 (Ra-226), radium-228 (Ra-228), polonium-210 (Po-210) and lead-210 (Pb-210).This U.S. Geological Survey reconnaissance survey focused intentionally on areas with known or suspected elevated concentrations of radium in ground water to determine if Ra-224 was also present in the areas where other isotopes of radium had previously been detected and to determine the co-occurrence characteristics of the three radium isotopes (Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228) in those areas. Ninety-nine raw-water samples (before water treatment) were collected once over a 6-month period in 1998 and 1999 from wells (94 of which are used for public drinking water) in 27 States and 8 physiographic provinces. Twenty-one of the 99 samples exceeded the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for combined radium (Ra-226 + Ra-228). Concentrations of Ra-224 were reported to exceed 1 pCi/L in 30 percent of the samples collected, with a maximum concentration of 73.6 pCi/L measured in water from a nontransient, noncommunity, public-supply well in Maryland. Radium-224 concentrations generally were higher than those of the other isotopes of radium. About 5 percent of the samples contained concentrations of Ra-224 greater than 10 pCi/L, whereas only 2 percent exceeded 10 pCi/L for either Ra-226 or Ra-228. Concentrations of Ra-226 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 33 percent of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.9 pCi/L measured in water from a public-supply well in Iowa. Concentrations of Ra-228 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 22 samples, with a maximum

  8. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  9. Summary Report for 2003-2004 Phase 1 Archaeological Survey of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In February 2004, the United States National Park Service (USNPS) recognized the significance of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Great Dismal Swamp...

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy and schizophrenia: a survey of clinical practices and views on efficacy in the United States and United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Andrew M; Ott, Brian D; Goisman, Robert M; Wainwright, Laurel D; Rabin, Rebecca J

    2010-02-01

    Research has shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia (Wykes et al. in Schizophr Bull 34(3):523-537, 2008). The majority of this research has been conducted in the United Kingdom (Beck and Rector in Am J Psychother 54:291-300, 2000) where the National Health Service recommends that CBT be delivered to all people with schizophrenia (NICE in Schizophrenia: core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in primary and secondary care (update). http://www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/CG82/NiceGuidance/pdf/English , 2009). In contrast, the corresponding American Psychiatric Association guidelines describe CBT as an adjunctive technique that "may benefit" patients (Lehman et al. in Am J Psychiatry 161:1-56, 2004, p. 35). Anecdotal evidence also suggests a difference between UK and US clinicians' use of and views on CBT with schizophrenia (Tarrier in Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: a step-by-step treatment manual. Guilford, New York, 2008). In the present study 214 clinicians in the UK and US completed an internet survey examining this apparent discrepancy. UK and US participants were equally aware that empirical research supports the efficacy of CBT with schizophrenia. However, UK participants were more likely to practice CBT, rated CBT effectiveness more highly, and were more optimistic about the chances of recovery. These findings suggest fundamental differences in the attitudes and practices of UK and US clinicians.

  11. Use of a population-based survey to determine incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses among HIV-positive persons receiving medical care in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Patrick S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of an opportunistic illness (OI in a person with HIV infection is a sentinel event, indicating opportunities for improving diagnosis of HIV infection and secondary prevention efforts. In the past, rates of OIs in the United States have been calculated in observational cohorts, which may have limited representativeness. Methods We used data from a 1998 population-based survey of persons in care for HIV infection to demonstrate the utility of population-based survey data for the calculation of OI rates, with inference to populations in care for HIV infection in three geographic areas: King County Washington, selected health districts in Louisiana, and the state of Michigan. Results The overall OI rate was 13.8 per 100 persons with HIV infection in care during 1998 (95% CI, 10.2–17.3. In 1998, an estimated 11.3% of all persons with HIV in care in these areas had at least one OI diagnosis (CI, 8.8–13.9. The most commonly diagnosed OIs were Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.8 and cytomegalovirus retinitis (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.7. OI diagnosis rates were higher in Michigan than in the other two geographic areas, and were different among patients who were white, black and of other races, but were not different by sex or history of injection drug use. Conclusion Data from population-based surveys – and, in the coming years, clinical outcomes surveillance systems in the United States – can be used to calculate OI rates with improved generalizability, and such rates should be used in the future as a meaningful indicator of clinical outcomes in persons with HIV infection in care.

  12. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011. Chapter I: erectile dysfunction among English-speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, based on validated questionnaires and applying age adjustment to the World Standard Population (WSP) by the World Health Organization. In 2010, the first report of GOSS came from the Middle East, describing an erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence rate of 47%. This report studies the prevalence rate of ED in the United States as of 2011-2012 and evaluates risk factors for ED. Prevalence of ED. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook, comprising 146 questions including the abbreviated 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. Two thousand twenty-two males participated; with a mean age was 52.38 years ± 14.5. Prevalence of ED was 37.7%, adjusted to 33.7% according to WSP, comparable across ethnic groups. The following risk factors were associated with higher risk for ED: diabetes mellitus, hypertension with and without antihypertensive treatment, coronary heart disease, obesity (defined by body mass index), difficult micturition, subjectively reported depression, interpersonal distress, subjectively reported impotence, in addition to novel factors such as subjectively reported premature ejaculation (PE) and concerns over genital size (not a smaller penis per se), low libido, and irregular coitus. Frequency of smoking and alcohol were not associated with higher prevalence of ED, although duration of smoking was. Adjusted to WSP, prevalence rate of ED in the United States of America is 33.7% in the year 2011, in contrast to the adjusted prevalence in the Middle East (47%). Most of the classical risk factors for ED play the same role in the United States and the World, including diabetes, hypertension, and aging. Concerns over genital size and PE are emerging risk factors for ED. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Technology transfer with system analysis, design, decision making, and impact (Survey-2000) in acute care hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-10-01

    This paper provides the results of the Survey-2000 measuring technology transfer for management information systems in health care. The relationships with systems approaches, user involvement, usersatisfaction, and decision-making were measured and are presented. The survey also measured the levels Internet and Intranet presents in acute care hospitals, which will be discussed in future articles. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business to business and customers. These results are compared, where appropriate, with results from survey 1997 and changes are discussed. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals. This is the first of three articles based upon the results of the Srvey-2000. Readers are referred to a prior article by the author that discusses the survey design and provides a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals.

  14. Alternative Approaches to Assessing Nonresponse Bias in Longitudinal Survey Estimates: An Application to Substance-Use Outcomes Among Young Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brady Thomas; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated alternative approaches to assessing and correcting for nonresponse bias in a longitudinal survey. We considered the changes in substance-use outcomes over a 3-year period among young adults aged 18-24 years (n = 5,199) in the United States, analyzing data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. This survey collected a variety of substance-use information from a nationally representative sample of US adults in 2 waves: 2001-2002 and 2004-2005. We first considered nonresponse rates in the second wave as a function of key substance-use outcomes in wave 1. We then evaluated 5 alternative approaches designed to correct for nonresponse bias under different attrition mechanisms, including weighting adjustments, multiple imputation, selection models, and pattern-mixture models. Nonignorable attrition in a longitudinal survey can lead to bias in estimates of change in certain health behaviors over time, and only selected procedures enable analysts to assess the sensitivity of their inferences to different assumptions about the extent of nonignorability. We compared estimates based on these 5 approaches, and we suggest a road map for assessing the risk of nonresponse bias in longitudinal studies. We conclude with directions for future research in this area given the results of our evaluations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  16. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  17. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  18. Consumers' characteristics associated with the use of mail pharmacy services in the United States: Findings from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed E; Tomaszewski, Daniel M; Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M

    The purpose of this study was to describe current users of mail pharmacy services and to evaluate factors associated with the use of mail pharmacy services. Cross-sectional online survey-based study. The data were obtained from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience, which included 26,173 adults from throughout the United States. Mail pharmacy utilization was based on participant self-report. Demographic variables included age, education, race, gender, insurance status, distance to nearest pharmacy, number of disease states, and income. Chi-square and t test analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with mail pharmacy use. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to compute the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the predictors of mail pharmacy usage. Overall, 17% of respondents reported the use of mail pharmacy services. Based on chi-square analysis, use of mail pharmacy services was significantly associated with age, education, race, and region. In addition, distance to nearest pharmacy and the report of the presence of certain disease states were significantly associated with mail pharmacy use (P association of mail pharmacy use by age, having chronic diseases, level of education, distance to nearest pharmacy, and other included variables (P associated with the use of mail pharmacies. Further research is needed to better understand patient-specific reasons for choosing mail pharmacies or community pharmacies. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability of Post-Cardiac Arrest Care Practices Among Cardiac Arrest Centers: United States and South Korean Dual Network Survey of Emergency Physician Research Principal Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppler, Patrick J; Sawyer, Kelly N; Youn, Chun Song; Choi, Seung Pill; Park, Kyu Nam; Kim, Young-Min; Reynolds, Joshua C; Gaieski, David F; Lee, Byung Kook; Oh, Joo Suk; Kim, Won Young; Moon, Hyung Jun; Abella, Benjamin S; Elmer, Jonathan; Callaway, Clifton W; Rittenberger, Jon C

    2017-03-01

    There is little consensus regarding many post-cardiac arrest care parameters. Variability in such practices could confound the results and generalizability of post-arrest care research. We sought to characterize the variability in post-cardiac arrest care practice in Korea and the United States. A 54-question survey was sent to investigators participating in one of two research groups in South Korea (Korean Hypothermia Network [KORHN]) and the United States (National Post-Arrest Research Consortium [NPARC]). Single investigators from each site were surveyed (N = 40). Participants answered questions based on local institutional protocols and practice. We calculated descriptive statistics for all variables. Forty surveys were completed during the study period with 30 having greater than 50% of questions completed (75% response rate; 24 KORHN and 6 NPARC). Most centers target either 33°C (N = 16) or vary the target based on patient characteristics (N = 13). Both bolus and continuous infusion dosing of sedation are employed. No single indication was unanimous for cardiac catheterization. Only six investigators reported having an institutional protocol for withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (WLST). US patients with poor neurological prognosis tended to have WLST with subsequent expiration (N = 5), whereas Korean patients are transferred to a secondary care facility (N = 19). Both electroencephalography modality and duration vary between institutions. Serum biomarkers are commonly employed by Korean, but not US centers. We found significant variability in post-cardiac arrest care practices among US and Korean medical centers. These practice variations must be taken into account in future studies of post-arrest care.

  20. Prevalence and trends in physical activity among older adults in the United States: A comparison across three national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; McKinnon, Robin; Graubard, Barry I; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined how many older adults (65+years) are meeting physical activity (PA) Guidelines (PAG; 150min/week of moderate-to-vigorous PA) using data from three leading national surveys (NHANES, BRFSS and NHIS). The proportion of individuals meeting aerobic PAG was determined for the most recent cycle available for each survey (NHANES 2011-12, NHIS and BRFSS 2013). We also assessed whether PAG adherence has changed over time. Predicted margins from multinomial logistic regression were computed after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and gender and sample weights. The proportion of older adults meeting PAG was 27.3% for NHANES, 35.8% for NHIS and 44.3% for BRFSS. Across all surveys, men reported higher levels of activity than women, Non-Hispanic whites reported higher levels than Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, activity declined with age and was lower in those with functional limitations, all P<0.05. The proportion of older adults meeting PAG in the NHIS survey, the only survey where PA questions remained the same over time, increased from 25.7% in 1998 to 35.8% in 2013 (P<0.01). Point-estimates for activity levels are different between surveys but they consistently identify sub-groups who are less active. Although older adults are reporting more activity over time, adherence to aerobic and strength training PAG remains low in this population and there is a need for effective interventions to prevent age-related declines in PA and address health disparities among older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Urban forests' potential to supply marketable carbon emission offsets: a survey of municipal governments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Jacek P. Siry; J. M. Bowker

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the motivation, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of U.S. cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. Based on a national survey of urban foresters, arborists, and other officials responsible for urban forest management within U.S. municipal governments, results indicate that local governments are interested in selling...

  2. Measuring job satisfaction among healthcare staff in the United States: a confirmatory factor analysis of the Satisfaction of Employees in Health Care (SEHC) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eva; Cohen, Julia; Koethe, Benjamin; Smith, Kevin; Bir, Anupa

    2017-04-01

    To validate the Satisfaction of Employees in Health Care (SEHC) survey with multidisciplinary, healthcare staff in the United States (U.S.). A cross-sectional psychometric study using confirmatory factor analysis. The original three-factor model was tested and modified using half-samples. Models were assessed using goodness-of-fit measures. Scale reliability and validity were tested with Cronbach's α coefficient and correlation of total SEHC score with two global satisfaction items, respectively. We administered a web-based survey from January to May 2015 to healthcare staff participating in initiatives aimed at delivering better care and reducing costs. The overall response rate was 38% (N = 1089), and respondents were from 86 healthcare projects. A total of 928 respondents completed the SEHC survey in full and were used in this study. Model fit of 18 SEHC items and total SEHC score. The mean SEHC score was 77.6 (SD: 19.0). A one-factor model of job satisfaction had high loadings on all items, and demonstrated adequate model fit (second half-sample RMSEA: 0.069). The scale demonstrated high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.942) and validity (r = 0.77 and 0.76, both P job satisfaction construct. The scale has adequate reliability and validity to recommend its use to assess satisfaction among multidisciplinary, U.S. healthcare staff. Our findings suggest that this survey is a good candidate for reduction to a short-form, and future research should validate this survey in other healthcare populations.

  3. Attitudes regarding perioperative care of patients with OSA: a survey study of four specialties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auckley, Dennis; Cox, Robynn; Bolden, Norman; Thornton, J Daryl

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for significant perioperative complications. This national survey study sought to determine the attitudes of physicians involved in the perioperative care of OSA patients. We modified the perioperative survey used by Turner et al. among Canadian anesthesiologists. We mailed the survey to 3,000 US physicians practicing in the following specialties (750 of each specialty): anesthesiology (A), primary care (family practice or internal medicine) (PC), sleep (SM), and general surgery (S). The survey asked questions about attitudes and practice patterns regarding OSA in the perioperative setting. Of 2,730 eligible subjects, 783 questionnaires (28.7 %) were returned. Overall, 94 % felt OSA was a risk factor for perioperative complications (no difference by specialty) and 90 % felt it was a moderate to major risk factor (A = 91 %, PC = 81 %, SM = 94 %, S = 72 %; p OSA in the perioperative setting. Despite this, only 71 % reported regularly screening for OSA preoperatively, mostly by history and physical examination (A = 89 %, PC = 52 %, SM = 88 %, S = 49 %; p OSA, 32 % would delay surgery pending a sleep study (A = 4 %, PC = 41 %, SM = 54 %, S = 27 %; p OSA patients. The majority of physicians in this survey felt OSA was a significant risk factor for perioperative complications and most reported experience with OSA patients having an adverse outcome. Perioperative management guidelines for OSA are not available at most institutions. Further work is needed to help physicians identify and intervene on patients with OSA in the perioperative setting before adverse events develop.

  4. Prevalence of serious mental illness among parents in the United States: results from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Leyla F; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie; Williams, Jason; Pemberton, Michael R; Ringeisen, Heather; Hedden, Sarra L; Bose, Jonaki

    2017-03-01

    This brief research report presents findings from a US national household survey on the number and percentage of parents with mental illness. Using combined annual data from the 2008-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, parents were defined as having children in the household from birth to 18 years. Prediction models developed in an earlier clinical study using a National Survey on Drug Use and Health subsample were used to estimate serious mental illness (SMI). A total of 2.7 million parents (3.8%) had a SMI in the past year and 12.8 million parents (18.2%) had any mental illness in the past year. Mental illness was more common among mothers than fathers and least common among Asians compared with other races. SMI was less prevalent in parents who were aged 50 years and older compared with younger age groups. The burden of mental illness in parents is high in the United States, especially among mothers. Physicians who treat parents should routinely screen for mental illness and discuss its implications for parenting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vision health disparities in the United States by race/ethnicity, education, and economic status: findings from two nationally representative surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Cotch, Mary Frances; Ryskulova, Asel; Primo, Susan A; Nair, Parvathy; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Geiss, Linda S; Barker, Lawrence E; Elliott, Amanda F; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2012-12-01

    To assess vision health disparities in the United States by race/ethnicity, education, and economic status. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples. We used national survey data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Main outcome measures included, from NHANES, age-related eye diseases (ie, age-related macular degeneration [AMD], cataract, diabetic retinopathy [DR], glaucoma) and from NHIS, eye care use (ie, eye doctor visits and cannot afford eyeglasses when needed) among those with self-reported visual impairment. The estimates were age- and sex-standardized to the 2000 US Census population. Linear trends in the estimates were assessed by weighted least squares regression. Non-Hispanic whites had a higher prevalence of AMD and cataract surgery than non-Hispanic blacks, but a lower prevalence of DR and glaucoma (all P education (ie, high school) and lower income (poverty income ratio [PIR] education (trend P = .036), and those with PIR 1.00-1.99 (trend P educational and innovative interventions among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A Survey of the Current Study and Teaching of North American Indian Languages in the United States and Canada. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanette

    This survey attempts to bring together as much information as possible on the current study and teaching of North American Indian languages in the United States and Canada. The primary source of data for this survey was a questionnaire distributed in the spring of 1973 to 61 universities and colleges in the U.S. and Canada. Other sources were…

  7. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sophia K; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non-patient group respondents (all p group respondents (all p groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non-patient group respondents (all pgroups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with patient groups among the sectors studied. This recognition could inform the development of best practices for patient-centered clinical trial design and execution. Additional research is needed to define and optimize key success factors.

  8. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia K Smith

    Full Text Available Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed.Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions.Survey respondents (n = 179 valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001. Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non-patient group respondents (all p < .05. Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01. Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non-patient group respondents (all p< .01.Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with patient groups among the

  9. Assessment of dog owner adherence to veterinarians' flea and tick prevention recommendations in the United States using a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, Robert P; Tunceli, Kaan; Zhang, Dongmu; Normile, Dorothy; Armstrong, Rob

    2017-06-06

    Adherence to a prescribed therapeutic regimen is a critical factor for achieving medication effectiveness and therefore treatment success. In the case of companion animal ectoparasite control, suboptimal owner adherence to medication recommendations is thought to be a common cause of treatment failure, and previous reports have found pet owners applying an average of 4.0-4.6 monthly flea and tick treatments per year to their dogs. This study investigated: US veterinary hospital self-reported flea and tick prevention recommendations; dog owner recollection of these recommendations; dog owner opinion on flea/tick recommendations and estimated owner flea and tick medication adherence based on veterinary hospital purchase records. Veterinarians at 24 veterinary hospitals in 4 United States regions provided their flea and tick prevention recommendations. Five hundred fifty-nine dog owners, clients of the 24 hospitals, completed a survey evaluating their recollection of the hospitals' recommendations and their opinions regarding required treatment frequency. Almost all veterinary hospitals in this study recommended 12 months of flea and tick prevention but only 62% of participating dog owners recalled this recommendation. The average owner response was that their dogs require 10.5 months of flea and tick prevention annually. Owner opinions were significantly different among U.S. regions with pet owners in the northeast U.S. believing that they needed significantly less canine flea and tick protection than pet owners in other parts of the United States. The estimated actual flea and tick prevention coverage was 6.1 months based on owner medication purchases over a 12-month period. In the United States, dog owner opinions and actions show that their flea and tick treatment adherence falls short of veterinarians' recommendations.

  10. Family Formation Processes: Assessing the Need for a New Nationally Representative Household Panel Survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    The American family has undergone rapid transformation. Careful measurement attention to family formation is important because families are at the heart of numerous decisions, roles, and responsibilities with implications for understanding the well-being of families, adults and children. This paper considers whether there is a need for a new household panel study that addresses family formation. This paper consists of a review of the recent body of population-based, American surveys and finds a considerable gap in the ability to study the implications of families for the health and well-being of Americans. Earlier panel surveys used to assess family life anchored questions around marital events, but changes in family patterns require attention to a more diverse set of family forms. The paper concludes with recommendations for a multi-purpose panel study. The key challenge is to keep to pace with complexity and changes in American family life while at the same time maintaining a parsimonious set of survey questions. PMID:26612969

  11. Embryo transfer practices in the United States: a survey of clinics registered with the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungheim, Emily S; Ryan, Ginny L; Levens, Eric D; Cunningham, Alexandra F; Macones, George A; Carson, Kenneth R; Beltsos, Angeline N; Odem, Randall R

    2010-09-01

    To gain a better understanding of factors influencing clinicians' embryo transfer practices. Cross-sectional survey. Web-based survey conducted in December 2008 of individuals practicing IVF in centers registered with the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART). None. None. Prevalence of clinicians reporting following embryo transfer guidelines recommended by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), prevalence among these clinicians to deviate from ASRM guidelines in commonly encountered clinical scenarios, and practice patterns related to single embryo transfer. Six percent of respondents reported following their own, independent guidelines for the number of embryos to transfer after IVF. Of the 94% of respondents who reported routinely following ASRM embryo transfer guidelines, 52% would deviate from these guidelines for patient request, 51% for cycles involving the transfer of frozen embryos, and 70% for patients with previously failed IVF cycles. All respondents reported routinely discussing the risks of multiple gestations associated with standard embryo transfer practices, whereas only 34% reported routinely discussing single embryo transfer with all patients. Although the majority of clinicians responding to our survey reported following ASRM embryo transfer guidelines, at least half would deviate from these guidelines in a number of different situations. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Which Point-of-Care Tests Would Be Most Beneficial to Add to Clinical Practice?: Findings From a Survey of 3 Family Medicine Clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Victoria; Alto, William; Keppel, Gina A; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Thompson, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Point-of-care tests (POCTs) are increasingly used in family medicine to facilitate screening, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and referral decisions for a variety of conditions. Point-of-care tests that clinicians believe might be beneficial to add to clinical practice and the conditions for which they would be most useful in family medicine remain poorly understood in the United States. Forty-two clinicians at 3 family medicine residency clinics completed a brief survey asking which POCTs they believed would be beneficial to add to their clinical practice and the conditions POCTs would be most useful for. We calculated frequencies of reported POCTs and conditions using descriptive statistics. Clinicians identified 34 POCTs that would be beneficial to add to family medicine, of which hemoglobin A1c, chemistry panels, and human immunodeficiency virus and gonococcal and/or chlamydia were most frequently reported and anticipated would be used weekly. Clinicians reported 30 conditions for which they considered POCTs would be useful. Diabetes mellitus, sexually transmitted infections, and respiratory tract infections were the most often reported and were identified as benefiting diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment decisions. Clinicians identified a number of POCTs they viewed as being beneficial to add to their routine clinical practice, mostly to inform diagnosis and treatment planning. Some POCTs identified are available in the United States; thus, understanding barriers to implementation of these POCTs in primary care settings is necessary to optimize adoption.

  13. HIV Testing Among Foreign-Born Men and Women in the United States: Results from a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Eduardo; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Oraka, Emeka; Bautista, Gregory; Chavez, Pollyanna

    2017-09-15

    HIV disproportionately affects the foreign-born population in the United States. This analysis describes the prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals residing in the United States. Data from a national health survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population was used to describe prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals by birth place. Multivariate logistic-regression procedures were used to determine factors associated with ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born men and women. The prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals varied by region of birth ranging from 31 to 67%. Factors related to ever-testing for HIV varied by gender. Efforts need to continue in order to improve HIV testing rates among Asian foreign-born individuals, lower educated foreign-born and foreign-born gay/bisexual men. Health care providers can play an important role by counseling new arrivals regarding the importance of testing for HIV and practicing HIV risk reduction activities.

  14. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    Geodetic surveys have evolved through the years to the use of survey-grade (centimeter level) global positioning to perpetuate and post-process vertical datum. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology to monitor natural hazards, ensure geospatial control for climate and land use change, and gather data necessary for investigative studies related to water, the environment, energy, and ecosystems. Vertical datum is fundamental to a variety of these integrated earth sciences. Essentially GNSS surveys provide a three-dimensional position x, y, and z as a function of the North American Datum of 1983 ellipsoid and the most current hybrid geoid model. A GNSS survey may be approached with post-processed positioning for static observations related to a single point or network, or involve real-time corrections to provide positioning "on-the-fly." Field equipment required to facilitate GNSS surveys range from a single receiver, with a power source for static positioning, to an additional receiver or network communicated by radio or cellular for real-time positioning. A real-time approach in its most common form may be described as a roving receiver augmented by a single-base station receiver, known as a single-base real-time (RT) survey. More efficient real-time methods involving a Real-Time Network (RTN) permit the use of only one roving receiver that is augmented to a network of fixed receivers commonly known as Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). A post-processed approach in its most common form involves static data collection at a single point. Data are most commonly post-processed through a universally accepted utility maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), known as the Online Position User Service (OPUS). More complex post-processed methods involve static observations among a network of additional receivers collecting static data at known benchmarks. Both classifications provide users

  15. Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity in the United States: data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anjani; Mosher, William D; Copen, Casey; Sionean, Catlainn

    2011-03-03

    This report presents national estimates of several measures of sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity among males and females aged 15-44 years in the United States, based on the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These data are relevant to demographic and public health concerns, including fertility and sexually transmitted infections among teenagers and adults. Data from the 2006-2008 NSFG are compared with data from the 2002 NSFG and other national surveys. Data for 2006-2008 were collected through in-person interviews with a national sample of 13,495 males and females in the household population of the United States. The measures presented in this report were collected using audio computer-assisted self interviewing (ACASI), in which the respondent enters his or her own answers into the computer without telling them to an interviewer. The overall response rate for the 2006-2008 NSFG was 75%. Sexual behaviors among males and females aged 15-44 based on the 2006-2008 NSFG were generally similar to those reported based on the 2002 NSFG. Among adults aged 25-44, about 98% of women and 97% of men ever had vaginal intercourse, 89% of women and 90% of men ever had oral sex with an opposite-sex partner, and 36% of women and 44% of men ever had anal sex with an opposite-sex partner. Twice as many women aged 25-44 (12%) reported any same-sex contact in their lifetimes compared with men (5.8%). Among teenagers aged 15-19, 7% of females and 9% of males have had oral sex with an opposite-sex partner, but no vaginal intercourse. Sexual attraction and identity correlates closely but not completely with reports of sexual behavior. Sexual behaviors, attraction, and identity vary by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, and race and Hispanic origin.

  16. Patient perspectives on Parkinson’s disease therapy in Japan and the United States: results of two patient surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattori N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nobutaka Hattori,1 Kenichi Fujimoto,2 Tomoyoshi Kondo,3 Miho Murata,4 Mark Stacy51Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2Department of Neurology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi; 3Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama; 4Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 5Division of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USABackground: Despite evidence suggesting that patient attitudes towards therapy may influence treatment outcomes, the impact of these factors on treatment for Parkinson’s disease is poorly understood. These two surveys, based in Japan and the US, investigated the attitudes of patients towards antiparkinsonian medications, the complications of these therapies, and how these differ across geographies.Methods: The US PRELUDE survey collected data from May 13 to May 20, 2003, from 300 interviews with patients with Parkinson’s disease from the National Parkinson Foundation. The Japanese survey was carried out from June to December 2008 in a stepwise manner using questionnaires (n = 3548 followed by interviews with those who had consented to participate in the questionnaire (n = 407. Both surveys assessed the attitudes of patients towards therapies for Parkinson’s disease and associated complications.Results: Dyskinesia was not a major challenge of therapy for Parkinson’s disease, and wearing-off caused greater concern in the US, while hallucinations had a greater emphasis in Japan. Patients who had previously experienced dyskinesia were less concerned about this side effect than those who had not. Although pill burden was thought to be a concern in the US, Japanese patients did not indicate that pill burden would limit their drug intake. There were also discrepancies between the perspectives and concerns of patients and those of their treating physicians.Conclusion: Recognizing patient perspectives regarding therapies for

  17. Perceptions and practices regarding women's vaginal health following radiation therapy: A survey of radiation oncologists practicing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachnic, Lisa A; Bruner, Deborah W; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Russo, Gregory A

    Vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized complication of pelvic and vaginal radiation therapy (RT). A 26-item survey assessing the signs/symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and impact of VS on women's sexual health was distributed to radiation oncologists. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests examined differences in categorical responses. A total of 233 (10.5%) participants completed the entire survey. Twelve percent, 21%, and 68% report treating gynecologic (GYN) tumors only, non-GYN pelvic tumors only, or both, respectively. Regarding risk factors, 78% believed that VS can be caused by pelvic RT alone, 91% by vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 98% by combined pelvic RT and vaginal brachytherapy. Approximately one-half of respondents felt that being postmenopausal and having a hysterectomy before radiation therapy were risk factors for VS, whereas the other half felt that these were not risk factors. All respondents agreed that VS is a clinical diagnosis. Respondents indicated that VS symptoms include dyspareunia, vaginal pain, dryness, and/or bleeding (100%, 90%, 85%, and 72%, respectively); 65% indicated all 4. The most commonly recommended treatment for VS is vaginal dilator use. Radiation oncologists who treat GYN-only versus non-GYN cancers were more likely to perform a vaginal examination, to distribute written instructions regarding vaginal dilator use (P = .002), to have vaginal bleeding reported after RT (P = .001), and to refer patients to a sexual counselor (P = .007). Most providers (73%) expressed willingness to participate in prospective research on the diagnosis and treatment of VS. This is the first large-scale survey of radiation oncologists' perceptions and practices regarding VS. There is agreement among providers regarding the signs/symptoms of VS and strategies for its prevention/treatment using vaginal dilators. Further prospective and observational research is needed. This survey shows a willingness on

  18. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  19. Messaging to Increase Public Support for Naloxone Distribution Policies in the United States: Results from a Randomized Survey Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A Bachhuber

    Full Text Available Barriers to public support for naloxone distribution include lack of knowledge, concerns about potential unintended consequences, and lack of sympathy for people at risk of overdose.A randomized survey experiment was conducted with a nationally-representative web-based survey research panel (GfK KnowledgePanel. Participants were randomly assigned to read different messages alone or in combination: 1 factual information about naloxone; 2 pre-emptive refutation of potential concerns about naloxone distribution; and 3 a sympathetic narrative about a mother whose daughter died of an opioid overdose. Participants were then asked if they support or oppose policies related to naloxone distribution. For each policy item, logistic regression models were used to test the effect of each message exposure compared with the no-exposure control group.The final sample consisted of 1,598 participants (completion rate: 72.6%. Factual information and the sympathetic narrative alone each led to higher support for training first responders to use naloxone, providing naloxone to friends and family members of people using opioids, and passing laws to protect people who administer naloxone. Participants receiving the combination of the sympathetic narrative and factual information, compared to factual information alone, were more likely to support all policies: providing naloxone to friends and family members (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.4 to 2.9], training first responders to use naloxone (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2 to 3.4], passing laws to protect people if they administer naloxone (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.04 to 2.2], and passing laws to protect people if they call for medical help for an overdose (OR: 1.7 [95% CI: 1.2 to 2.5].All messages increased public support, but combining factual information and the sympathetic narrative was most effective. Public support for naloxone distribution can be improved through education and sympathetic portrayals of the population who stands to benefit

  20. State Variations in United States Divorce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Bill

    1971-01-01

    The "frontier atmosphere" explanation of high divorce rates in western areas of the United States was partially vindicated when comparisons were made between divorce rates in states having high migration rates and lower social costs with those states having low migration rates and higher social costs. (Author/CG)

  1. Current practice trends in allergy: results of a united states survey of otolaryngologists, allergist-immunologists, and primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew W; Marple, Bradley F; Leatherman, Bryan; Mims, J Whit; Fornadley, John; Veling, Maria; Lin, Sandra Y

    2014-10-01

    Clinical practices for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease evolve over time in response to a variety of forces. The techniques used by various physician specialties are not clearly defined and may vary from published descriptions or recommendations in the literature. This work is a Web-based survey enrolling 250 U.S. physicians in the following specialties: otolaryngology (ENT), allergy-immunology (A/I), and primary care (PCP). Respondents reported that skin-prick testing is the most common diagnostic testing method, followed by in vitro specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing. ENTs were more likely to use intradermal testing compared to other specialties (p = 0.0003 vs A/I; p 60). Significant use of home immunotherapy injections (defined as >10% of immunotherapy patients) ranged from 27% to 36% of physicians, with no statistically significant difference noted based upon specialty. PCPs reported greater use of sublingual immunotherapy (PCP, 68%; A/I, 45%; otolaryngology, 35%; A/I vs PCP, p = 0.005; ENT vs PCP p allergy testing and treatment methods are employed by U.S. physicians, with some differences noted based upon specialty. Home immunotherapy continues to be employed in allergy practices, and sublingual immunotherapy is a common form of delivery, especially in primary care practices. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Curtin, G M; Swauger, J E

    2012-12-01

    Selected toxicant concentrations and other chemical measures have been determined for 43 U.S. smokeless tobacco products sold in 2006 and 2007. Products evaluated included moist snuff, dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands. Reference products available for scientific research purposes and eleven Swedish products were also evaluated and compared to the commercial products studied. Chemical endpoints determined included benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrite, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloride, water, pH and nicotine. Different toxicant profiles were observed for the products studied, with snus tobacco brands generally containing relatively low concentrations of B[a]P and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) compared to other moist snuffs. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20-30 years. The survey results summarized provide a temporal point of comparison with future data anticipated from FDA "harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products" reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Communicating Climate Change in the Agricultural Sector: Insights from Surveys and Interviews with Agricultural Advisors in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, L. S.; Carlton, S.; Dunn, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding U.S. agricultural stakeholder views about the existence of climate change and what influences these views is central to developing communication in support of adaptation and mitigation. It has been postulated in the literature that extreme weather events can shape people's climate change beliefs and adaptation attitudes. In this presentation, we use data from pre- and post-extreme event surveys and interviews to examine the effects of the 2012 Midwestern US drought on agricultural advisors' climate change beliefs, adaptation attitudes, and risk perceptions. We found that neither climate change beliefs nor attitudes toward adaptation changed significantly as a result of the drought. Risk perceptions did change, however, with advisors becoming more concerned about risks from drought and pests and less concerned about risks related to flooding and ponding. Qualitative interviews revealed that while advisors readily accept the occurrence of extreme weather as a risk, the irregularity and unpredictability of extreme events for specific localities limits day-to-day consideration in respect to prescribed management advice. Instead, advisors' attention is directed towards planning for short-term changes encompassing weather, pests, and the market, as well as planning for long-term trends related to water availability. These findings provide important insights for communicating climate change in this critical sector while illustrating the importance of social science research in planning and executing communication campaigns.

  4. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., designs, trade dress, and trade secrets; computer software, databases, and related documentation; know-how... Columbia for defendants Amcor and Rio Tinto under 28 U.S.C. 1391(d). IV. Trade and Commerce A. Background 1... Federal Trade Commission. See id. United States District Court for the District of Columbia United States...

  5. Access to Cancer Care and General Medical Care Services Among Cancer Survivors in the United States: An Analysis of 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Janet S; Virgo, Katherine S; Li, Chunyu; Chawla, Neetu; Han, Xuesong; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Ekwueme, Donatus U; McNeel, Timothy S; Rodriguez, Juan L; Yabroff, K Robin

    2016-11-01

    Cancer survivors require appropriate health care to manage their unique health needs. This study describes access to cancer care among cancer survivors in the United States and compares access to general medical care between cancer survivors and people who have no history of cancer. We assessed access to general medical care using the core 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We assessed access to cancer care using the MEPS Experiences With Cancer Survey. We used multivariable logistic regression to compare access to general medical care among 2 groups of cancer survivors (those who reported having access to all necessary cancer care [n = 1088] and those who did not [n = 70]) with self-reported access to general medical care among people who had no history of cancer (n = 22 434). Of the 1158 cancer survivors, 70 (6.0%) reported that they did not receive all necessary cancer care. Adjusted analyses found that cancer survivors who reported not receiving all necessary cancer care were also less likely to report receiving general medical care (78.0%) than cancer survivors who reported having access to necessary cancer care (87.1%) and people who had no history of cancer (87.8%). This study provides nationally representative data on the proportion of cancer survivors who have access to necessary cancer care and yields insight into factors that impede survivors' access to both cancer care and general medical care. This study is a reference for future work on access to care.

  6. Exclusive breast-feeding of newborns among married women in the United States: the National Natality Surveys of 1969 and 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Fetterly, K; Graubard, B I; Wooton, K G

    1985-11-01

    Questions about infant feeding practices after birth were included in 1969 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS). At 3-6 mo postpartum, NNS questionnaires were mailed to mothers of live infants born in wedlock, and responses were weighted to permit national estimates. Based on the NNS, the proportion of women who were exclusively breast-feeding newborns in the United States was significantly lower in 1969 (19% of white women, 9% of black women) compared with 1980 (51% of white women, 25% of black women). In 1969, the highest percentages of exclusive breast-feeding were observed among white women less than or equal to 34 yr, of parity less than or equal to 3 and greater than 7, and of higher than lower socioeconomic groups; and among black women greater than or equal to 30 yr, of parity greater than or equal to 4, and of lower than higher socioeconomic groups. Among women in both races in 1980, more primiparae than multiparae and the more highly educated were breast-feeding. More white than black women exclusively breast-fed within each birthweight and each sociodemographic characteristic in 1980; therefore, the racial differences remained across these factors. These findings are compared with results of the Ross Laboratories surveys of infant feeding.

  7. Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: a survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M; Rabin, Laura A; Spadaccini, Amanda T; Barr, William B

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of diversity variables to the clinical practice of neuropsychology, little is known about neuropsychologists' multicultural assessment practices and perspectives. The current study was the first to survey issues related to neuropsychologists' assessment of minority populations, proficiency in languages other than English, approaches to interpreting the cognitive scores of minorities, and perceived challenges associated with assessing ethnic/racial minority patients. We also surveyed respondents with regard to their own demographic backgrounds, as neuropsychologists who identify as ethnic/racial minorities are reportedly underrepresented in the field. Respondents were 512 (26% usable response rate; 54% female) doctorate-level psychologists affiliated with the International Neuropsychology Society or the National Academy of Neuropsychology who resided in the United States or Canada. Overall, results suggest that lack of appropriate norms, tests, and referral sources are perceived as the greatest challenges associated with assessment of ethnic/racial minorities, that multicultural training is not occurring for some practitioners, and that some are conducting assessments in foreign languages despite limited proficiency. In addition, ethnic/racial minorities appear to be grossly underrepresented in the field of neuropsychology. Findings are discussed in relation to the need for appropriate education and training of neuropsychologists in multicultural issues and the provision of more valid assessments for ethnic/racial minority individuals.

  8. The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Troy E; Engebretson, Jesse; O'Rourke, Michael; Piso, Zach; Whyte, Kyle; Valles, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs (IESPs) in these issues, which we refer to as "social ethics." A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this review, we developed an online survey, which we administered to faculty from 81 United States colleges and universities offering IESPs (480 surveys were completed). Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that IESPs should address values in applying science to policy and management decisions. They also agreed that programs should engage students with issues related to norms of scientific practice. Agreement was slightly less strong that IESPs should train students in skills related to managing value conflicts among different stakeholders. The primary challenges to incorporating social ethics into the curriculum were related to the lack of materials and expertise for delivery, though challenges such as ethics being marginalized in relation to environmental science content were also prominent. Challenges related to students' interest in ethics were considered less problematic. Respondents believed that social ethics are most effectively delivered when incorporated into existing courses, and they preferred case studies or problem-based learning for delivery. Student competence is generally not assessed, and respondents recognized a need for both curricular materials and assessment tools.

  9. A Survey of N′-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Jeffrey R.; Lovejoy, Katherine S.; Walters, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64–12.0 µg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 µg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%. PMID:27192054

  10. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  11. Prevalence of Glaucoma in the United States: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priya; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in the US population based on optic nerve head photography, to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma awareness, and to identify demographic and ocular risk factors for being unaware of having glaucoma. Methods The study included 5746 men and women 40 years of age and older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008. Each participant had 45° photographs of the macula and optic disc of both eyes. Fundus photographs were first graded by a reading center, and those with a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) ≥ 0.6 were regraded by three glaucoma specialists to determine the presence or absence of glaucoma. Analyses were performed using NHANES weights to account for the complex multistage probability sampling design. Results The estimated overall prevalence of glaucoma in the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population 40 years of age and older was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%–2.6%). Glaucoma affected 2.9 million individuals, including 1.4 million women; 1.5 million men; 2.3 million people 60 years of age and older; and 0.9 million blacks, Mexican Americans, and people of other races. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and others. Over half of participants with glaucoma were unaware that they had the disease. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma based on optic nerve fundus photography assessment in the general US population 40 years of age and older was 2.1%. Approximately half of glaucoma cases were previously undiagnosed. Studies to determine whether and how to identify undiagnosed glaucoma are an important next step. PMID:27168366

  12. Diet and nutrition in psoriasis: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A; Ma, C; Kanada, K N; Armstrong, A W

    2014-03-01

    There is limited research examining the association between psoriasis, dietary intake and nutritional status in the general U.S. population. This study aimed to compare levels of vitamins and carotenoids as well as intake of protein, fats, sugar, carbohydrates and total calories between individuals with and without psoriasis. We used data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the U.S. Demographic information, physical examination, serum laboratory values and questionnaires on past medical history and dietary intake were used to determine the relationship between psoriasis and nutritional status and diet. The cohort consisted of 6260 participants who provided responses to their psoriasis status. Prior psoriasis diagnosis was reported in 156 (2.49%) of the respondents. Based on multivariate regression analysis, psoriasis was significantly associated with increased vitamin A level (OR: 1.01; CI: 1.00-1.02; P = 0.03), increased α-carotene level (OR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.04; P = 0.01), lower sugar intake (OR: 0.998; CI: 0.996-1; P = 0.04), increased body mass index (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.07; P = 0.0003) and arthritis (OR: 2.31; CI: 1.37-3.90; P = 0.002). Non-Hispanic black (OR: 0.56; CI: 0.34-0.96; P = 0.03) and Hispanic race (OR: 0.37; CI: 0.19-0.75; P = 0.005) were inversely associated with a diagnosis of psoriasis compared with non-Hispanic white race. Psoriasis is significantly associated with elevated serum levels of vitamin A and α-carotene and reduced intake of sugar. Longitudinal monitoring of nutritional status in psoriasis patients is necessary to determine the effect of nutrition on psoriasis progression and the modifying role of treatments. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Race and health profiles in the United States: an examination of the social gradient through the 2009 CHIS adult survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A B; Moser, R; Chou, W-Y

    2014-12-01

    To examine the role of the social gradient on multiple health outcomes and behaviors. It was predicted that higher levels of SES, measured by educational attainment and family income, would be associated with positive health behaviors (i.e., smoking, drinking, physical activity, and diet) and health status (i.e., limited physical activity due to chronic condition, blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, BMI, and perceived health condition). The study also examined the differential effects of the social gradient in health among different racial/ethnic groups (i.e., non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Asian, Hispanics, and American Indians). Cross-sectional study. The data were from the adult 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine trends found between SES and health conditions and health behaviors. Polynomial trends were examined for all linear and logistic models to test for the possible effects (linear, quadratic, and cubic) of the social gradient on health behaviors and outcomes stratified by race/ethnicity. Findings indicated that, in general, Whites had more favorable health profiles in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups with the exception of Asians who were likely to be as healthy as or healthier than Whites. Predicted marginals indicated that Asians in the upper two strata of social class display the healthiest outcomes of health status among all other racial/ethnic groups. Also, the social gradient was differentially associated with health outcomes across race/ethnicity groups. While the social gradient was most consistently observed for Whites, education did not have the same protective effect on health among Blacks and American Indians. Also, compared to other minority groups, Hispanics and Asians were more likely to display curvilinear trends of the social gradient: an initial increase from low SES to mid-level SES was associated with worse health outcomes and

  14. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  15. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Land Surface Forms of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated land surface form classes for the contiguous United States. These land surface form classes were created as part of...

  16. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Isobioclimates of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated and mapped isobioclimate classes for the contiguous United States. These isobioclimate classes were created as part...

  17. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  18. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  20. Nonstandard Employment in the Nonmetropolitan United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Diane K.; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the prevalence of nonstandard employment in the nonmetropolitan United States using the Current Population Survey Supplement on Contingent Work (1999 and 2001). We find that nonstandard work is more prevalent in nonmetropolitan than in central city or suburban areas. Logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic and work…

  1. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  2. Crafts-Artists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, J. George; And Others

    Following a preliminary study of crafts membership organizations in the United States, a survey was conducted of members of these organizations in order to determine their number, kind, media of work, personal characteristics, and geographic location. A sample of 5,146 craftspersons who were members of these organizations was mailed a…

  3. Influence of Information and Communication Technologies on the Resilience and Coping of Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in the United States and Canada (Project #Queery): Mixed Methods Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Shelley L; McInroy, Lauren B; D'Souza, Sandra A; Austin, Ashley; McCready, Lance T; Eaton, Andrew D; Shade, Leslie R; Wagaman, M Alex

    2017-09-28

    Sexual and gender minority youth are a population in peril, exemplified by their disproportionate risk of negative experiences and outcomes. Sexual and gender minority youth may be particularly active users of information and communication technologies (ICTs), and it is important to identify the potential contributions of ICTs to their resilience and well-being. Our aim was to (1) investigate the use of ICTs by sexual and gender minority youth, (2) identify the ways that ICTs influence the resilience and coping of sexual and gender minority youth, focusing on promotion of well-being through self-guided support-seeking (particularly using mobile devices), (3) develop a contextually relevant theoretical conceptualization of resilience incorporating minority stress and ecological approaches, (4) generate best practices and materials that are accessible to multiple interested groups, and (5) identify whether video narratives are a viable alternative to collect qualitative responses in Web-based surveys for youth. Mixed methods, cross-sectional data (N=6309) were collected via a Web-based survey from across the United States and Canada from March-July 2016. The sample was generated using a multipronged, targeted recruitment approach using Web-based strategies and consists of self-identified English-speaking sexual and gender minority youth aged 14-29 with technological literacy sufficient to complete the Web-based survey. The survey was divided into eight sections: (1) essential demographics, (2) ICT usage, (3) health and mental health, (4) coping and resilience, (5) sexual and gender minority youth identities and engagement, (6) fandom communities, (7) nonessential demographics, and (8) a video submission (optional, n=108). The option of a 3-5 minute video submission represents a new research innovation in Web-based survey research. Data collection is complete (N=6309), and analyses are ongoing. Proposed analyses include (1) structural equation modeling of quantitative

  4. Caffeine intake and its association with urinary incontinence in United States men: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicole J; Vaughan, Camille P; Johnson, Theodore M; Goode, Patricia S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Redden, David T; Markland, Alayne D

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies in women have revealed an association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence, although evidence among men is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence in United States men. Data were used from male NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys) 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 participants. Urinary incontinence was defined using a standard questionnaire with Incontinence Severity Index scores 3 or greater categorized as moderate to severe. Structured dietary recall was used to determine caffeine consumption (mg per day), water intake (gm per day) and total dietary moisture (gm per day). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between caffeine intake at or above the 75th and 90th percentiles and moderate to severe urinary incontinence, controlling for potential confounders, urinary incontinence risk factors and prostate conditions in men age 40 years or older. Of the 5,297 men 3,960 (75%) were 20 years old or older with complete data. Among these men the prevalence of any urinary incontinence was 12.9% and moderate to severe urinary incontinence was 4.4%. Mean caffeine intake was 169 mg per day. Caffeine intake at the upper 75th percentile (234 mg or more daily) and 90th percentile (392 mg or more per day) was significantly associated with having moderate to severe urinary incontinence (1.72, 95% 1.18-2.49 and 2.08, 95% 1.15-3.77, respectively). In addition, after adjusting for prostate conditions, the effect size for the association between caffeine intake and moderate to severe urinary incontinence remained. Caffeine consumption equivalent to approximately 2 cups of coffee daily (250 mg) is significantly associated with moderate to severe urinary incontinence in United States men. Our findings support the further study of caffeine modification in men with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association

  5. Chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation for children in the United States: an analysis of data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetan, Harrison; Evans, Marion Willard; Hawk, Cheryl; Walker, Clark

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe use of chiropractic and/or osteopathic manipulation by children in the United States along with the specific health conditions for which they sought care. The study was a secondary data analysis of the National Health Interview Survey 2007, Child Alternative Medicine file as well as the Child Core Sample. National population estimates were generated for reported use of chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation (C/OM) by children for specific health conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated from binary logistic regression models that assessed the likelihood that children of specific characteristics would use this therapy. National estimates indicated that 2.3 million children (2.3%) in the United States had used C/OM in 2007. C/OM was the most common complementary and alternative medicine procedure. Children aged 12-18 years were more likely to have seen these providers than were younger age groups (OR=3.4 [95% CI, 2.1-5.5]). Homeopathy (1.2%), massage (1.0), and naturopathy (0.3%) were the next most common procedures. The most common complaints were back and neck pain. Other conditions for which children were seen included other musculoskeletal conditions, sinusitis, allergies, and nonmigraine headaches. Racial categories did not differ significantly regarding use of manipulation, but those children with both mother and father in the household were more likely to have used this form of care (OR=1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.6]). C/OM is primarily used for back and neck pain, which is increasing in prevalence in children. Teens are more likely to use it than are younger children.

  6. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  7. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  8. Survey of United States Army Reserve (USAR) Troop Program Unit (TPU) soldiers 1989. Tabulation of Questionnaire Responses: Cross-Sectional Sample: Officers and Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    TRNG:PREVENT SEXUAL HARASSMT 201 Q43B1 Q43B 1 A.T. TRNG:COMMON TASKS TRAINING 202 Q43B2 Q43B2 A.T. TRNG:PREPARATION FOR THE -QT 203 Q43B3 Q43B3 A.T...TRNG:PREVENT SEXUAL HARASSMT 219 Q43C Q43C DID NOT ATTEND 1988 ANNUAL TRAINING 220 Q44 Q44 EXTRA DRILL PREP FOR A.T. > 2 WEEKS 221 Q45A Q45A UNIT ARRIVAL...C Ca) -C) ix (() 0 0 c z705 c L to -10C)0 ’ a)- -C-c L a* 0 (N 17 C1 O 0 u ( a a) Z’ uLO E (5 n J ’N 0m a EL >(a (’ 0w 0) ID, aco -a (V fj I r- MCNI

  9. Medical toxicologists' practice patterns regarding drug-induced QT prolongation in overdose patients: a survey in the United States of America, Europe, and Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othong, Rittirak; Devlin, John J; Kazzi, Ziad N

    2015-05-01

    To describe practice patterns of medical toxicologists in the United States of America (USA), Europe, and Asia Pacific Region regarding management of drug induced QT prolongation and torsades de pointes in overdose. A survey was developed to assess current practice patterns and consistency with guidelines published by the American Heart Association (AHA), American College of Cardiology (ACC), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC). It was reviewed by our department research committee and the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT). The ACMT, European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists, and Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology electronically disseminated the survey to their physician members in the USA, Europe and Asia Pacific Region. The overall response rate was 37% (229/617) (36% USA; 32% Europe; 52% Asia Pacific Region). Twelve toxicologists from Asia Pacific Region and Europe used the QT nomogram (Australia-5, New Zealand-1, United Kingdom-1) or QT alone (France-1, Russia-1, Romania-1, Germany-1, Philippines-1), in lieu of the corrected QT (QTc) to determine risks of developing torsades de pointes. Because only those who used QTc could proceed through the remainder of the survey, only 217 could do so. Approximately half of the respondents (52%) did not calculate QTc manually and based decisions on the electrocardiogram machines automated measurement. For those who corrected the QT interval themselves, the most common formula used was Bazett's (40%). There is great variation in the QTc value considered prolonged. Most responders considered QTc greater than 450 ms in men (28%) and 460 ms in women (25%) to be prolonged. Interestingly, approximately 15% of participants did not consider the QTc prolonged until it exceeded 500 ms in both men and women. Given an overdose scenario of a male patient with a QTc of 560 ms, heart rate of 90 beats/minute, 59% would not recommend administering intravenous magnesium sulfate. Forty

  10. Usage Patterns of Stop Smoking Medications in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: Findings from the 2006–2008 International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hammond

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varenicline is a new prescription stop smoking medication (SSM that has been available in the United States since August 1, 2006, in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries since December 5, 2006, in Canada since April 12, 2007, and in Australia since January 1, 2008. There are few population-based studies that have examined use rates of varenicline and other stop smoking medications. We report data from the ITC Four Country survey conducted with smokers in the US, UK, Canada, and Australia who reported an attempt to quit smoking in past year in the 2006 survey (n = 4,022 participants, 2007 (n = 3,790 participants, and 2008 surveys (n = 2,735 participants Respondents reported use of various stop smoking medications to quit smoking at each survey wave, along with demographic and smoker characteristics. The self-reported use of any stop smoking medication has increased significantly over the 3 year period in all 4 countries, with the sharpest increase occurring in the United States. Varenicline has become the second most used stop smoking medication, behind NRT, in all 4 countries since being introduced. Between 2006 and 2008, varenicline use rates increased from 0.4% to 21.7% in the US, 0.0% to 14.8% in Canada, 0.0% to 14.5% in Australia, and 0.0% to 4.4% in the UK. In contrast, use of NRT and bupropion remained constant in each country. Males and non-whites were significantly less likely to report using any SSM, while more educated smokers were significantly more likely to use any SSM, including varenicline. Our findings suggest that the introduction of varenicline led to an increase in the number of smokers who used evidence-based treatment during their quit attempts, rather than simply gaining market share at the expense of other medications. From a public health perspective, messages regarding increased success rates among medication users and the relative safety of stop smoking medications should be disseminated widely so as to

  11. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization--national intimate partner and sexual violence survey, United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J; Smith, Sharon G; Basile, Kathleen C; Walters, Mikel L; Chen, Jieru; Merrick, Melissa T

    2014-09-05

    Sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are public health problems known to have a negative impact on millions of persons in the United States each year, not only by way of immediate harm but also through negative long-term health impacts. Before implementation of the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) in 2010, the most recent detailed national data on the public health burden from these forms of violence were obtained from the National Violence against Women Survey conducted during 1995-1996. This report examines sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization using data from 2011. The report describes the overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization; racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; how types of perpetrators vary by violence type; and the age at which victimization typically begins. For intimate partner violence, the report also examines a range of negative impacts experienced as a result of victimization, including the need for services. January-December, 2011. NISVS is a national random-digit-dial telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized English- and Spanish-speaking U.S. population aged ≥18 years. NISVS gathers data on experiences of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence among adult women and men in the United States by using a dual-frame sampling strategy that includes both landline and cellular telephones. The survey was conducted in 50 states and the District of Columbia; in 2011, the second year of NISVS data collection, 12,727 interviews were completed, and 1,428 interviews were partially completed. In the United States, an estimated 19.3% of women and 1.7% of men have been raped during their lifetimes; an estimated 1.6% of women reported that they were raped in the 12 months preceding the survey. The case count for men reporting rape in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable

  13. (SUPERSEDED) 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States (SUPERSEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was...

  14. Reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among young women following HPV vaccine introduction in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2003-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan; Lin, Carol; Dunne, Eileen F; Steinau, Martin; McQuillan, Geraldine; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was introduced into the routine immunization schedule in the United States in late 2006 for females aged 11 or 12 years, with catch-up vaccination recommended for those aged 13-26 years...

  15. Results of the 2012-2013 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Job Search and Career Planning Survey of Graduating Residents in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdm9007@nyp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Zeidan, Youssef H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Tung, Kaity [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the timeline used by postgraduate year (PGY)-5 radiation oncology residents during the job application process and the factors most important to them when deciding on a first job. Methods and Materials: In 2012 and 2013, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide electronic survey of PGY-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 2 months of their training. Descriptive statistics are reported. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Surveys were completed by 180 of 314 residents contacted. The median time to start networking for the purpose of employment was January PGY-4; to start contacting practices, complete and upload a curriculum vitae to a job search website, and use the American Society of Radiation Oncology Career Center was June PGY-4; to obtain letters of recommendation was July PGY-5; to start interviewing was August PGY-5; to finish interviewing was December PGY-5; and to accept a contract was January PGY-5. Those applying for a community position began interviewing at an earlier average time than did those applying for an academic position (P=.04). The most important factors to residents when they evaluated job offers included (in order from most to least important) a collegial environment, geographic location, emphasis on best patient care, quality of support staff and facility, and multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Factors that were rated significantly different between subgroups based on the type of position applied for included adequate mentoring, dedicated research time, access to clinical trials, amount of time it takes to become a partner, geographic location, size of group, starting salary, and amount of vacation and days off. Conclusions: The residents' perspective on the job application process over 2 years is documented to provide a resource for current and future residents and employers to use.

  16. Results of the 2005-2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States: Clinical Training and Resident Working Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: gondi@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bernard, Johnny Ray [Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Jabbari, Siavash [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Amorim Bernstein, Karen L. de [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Dad, Luqman K. [SUNY Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Li, Linna [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Poppe, Matthew M. [University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Hospital (United States); Strauss, Jonathan B. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Chollet, Casey T. [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To document clinical training and resident working conditions reported by chief residents during their residency. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to assess changes in clinical training and resident working conditions over time. Results: Surveys were completed by representatives from 55 programs (response rate, 71.4%) in 2005 to 2006, 60 programs (75.9%) in 2006 to 2007, and 74 programs (93.7%) in 2007 to 2008. Nearly all chief residents reported receiving adequate clinical experience in commonly treated disease sites, such as breast and genitourinary malignancies; and commonly performed procedures, such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical experience in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy increased over time (p < 0.001), whereas clinical experience in endovascular brachytherapy (p <0.001) decreased over time. The distribution of gynecologic and prostate brachytherapy cases remained stable, while clinical case load in breast brachytherapy increased (p = 0.006). A small but significant percentage of residents reported receiving inadequate clinical experience in pediatrics, seeing 10 or fewer pediatric cases during the course of residency. Procedures involving higher capital costs, such as particle beam therapy and intraoperative radiotherapy, and infrequent clinical use, such as head and neck brachytherapy, were limited to a minority of institutions. Most residency programs associated with at least one satellite facility have incorporated resident rotations into their clinical training, and the majority of residents at these programs find them valuable experiences. The majority of residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week on required clinical duties

  17. Results of the 2005 to 2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology surveys of chief residents in the United States: didactics and research experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Vinai; Bernard, Johnny Ray; Jabbari, Siavash; Keam, Jennifer; de Amorim Bernstein, Karen L; Dad, Luqman K; Li, Linna; Poppe, Matthew M; Strauss, Jonathan B; Chollet, Casey T

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the didactics and research experience reported by chief residents during their residency training. During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistic was used to assess for changes in didactics and research experience over time. During the years surveyed, an increasing percentage of programs offered curriculum-based didactics in clinical oncology (P=0.042), with a similar trend of borderline significance observed in biostatistics (P = 0.056). Each year, the majority of programs offered >40 hours of curriculum-based training in clinical oncology and physics, >20 hours in radiobiology, and 10 hours or fewer in biostatistics. 11% to 13% of residents reported having no full-time equivalent radiation biologists affiliated with their training program. Less than 64% of programs incorporated mock oral boards into their training. An increasing percentage of programs evaluated residents in a "360 degree" manner, with a trend to significance (P=0.073). Over 80% of programs required resident participation in research activities and allocated dedicated elective research time, typically 4 months or longer. Though the vast majority of programs make clinical research activities available to interested residents, borderline significance (P = 0.051) was observed for a decreasing percentage of such programs during the years analyzed. Trends in didactics and research experience over three years are documented to allow residents and program directors to assess their residency training.

  18. Cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population in the United States: cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdodo, Rennatus; Frazier, Emma L; Dube, Shanta R; Mattson, Christine L; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brooks, John T; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-03-03

    The negative health effects of cigarette smoking and HIV infection are synergistic. To compare the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smoking cessation between adults with HIV receiving medical care and adults in the general population. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. United States. 4217 adults with HIV who participated in the Medical Monitoring Project and 27 731 U.S. adults who participated in the National Health Interview Survey in 2009. The main exposure was cigarette smoking. The outcome measures were weighted prevalence of cigarette smoking and quit ratio (ratio of former smokers to the sum of former and current smokers). Of the estimated 419 945 adults with HIV receiving medical care, 42.4% (95% CI, 39.7% to 45.1%) were current cigarette smokers, 20.3% (CI, 18.6% to 22.1%) were former smokers, and 37.3% (CI, 34.9% to 39.6%) had never smoked. Compared with the U.S. adult population, in which an estimated 20.6% of adults smoked cigarettes in 2009, adults with HIV were nearly twice as likely to smoke (adjusted prevalence difference, 17.0 percentage points [CI, 14.0 to 20.1 percentage points]) but were less likely to quit smoking (quit ratio, 32.4% vs. 51.7%). Among adults with HIV, factors independently associated with greater smoking prevalence were older age, non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black race, lower educational level, poverty, homelessness, incarceration, substance use, binge alcohol use, depression, and not achieving a suppressed HIV viral load. Cross-sectional design with some generalizability limitations. Adults with HIV were more likely to smoke and less likely to quit smoking than the general adult population. Tobacco screening and cessation strategies are important considerations as part of routine HIV care.

  19. Biomarkers of exposure to molybdenum and other metals in relation to testosterone among men from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Meeker, John D

    2015-01-01

    To examine the potential associations between biomarkers of metal exposure and serum testosterone in men of reproductive age in the general US population. Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Not applicable. Men recruited in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Metal concentrations measured in whole blood, urine, and/or serum samples collected from 484 men. Serum T concentration. Concentrations of the metals were detected in 69%-100% of the samples. In adjusted analyses where metals were modeled as a continuous variable, we found significant inverse associations between urinary molybdenum and serum copper and serum T, whereas there were significant positive associations between blood lead and cadmium and serum T. When metals were categorized into quartiles, analyses for serum copper and blood lead and cadmium produced significant associations in the same direction as the continuous measures. A suggestive inverse association was observed between quartiles of urinary molybdenum and serum T, but the association was statistically significant when molybdenum was categorized into quintiles. Significant positive associations were also observed for quartiles of blood Se and serum Zn and serum T. These findings add to the limited human evidence that exposure to molybdenum and other metals is associated with altered T in men, which may have important implications for male health. More research is needed to confirm the findings of our study. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie V. Caruso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, and lead (Pb in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320. The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA and R.J. Reynolds (RJR brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001, PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001, and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006. For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02. Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10. Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

  1. Trends in clinical management of women with von Willebrand disease: a survey of 75 women enrolled in haemophilia treatment centres in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtava, A; Crudder, S; Dilley, A; Lally, C; Evatt, B

    2004-03-01

    To assess the management of women with von Willebrand disease( vWD) in an Heamophilia Treatment Center (HTC) setting. A total of 75 women with vWd who were registered in HTCs in the United States participated in this study. A telephone interview elicited information about symptoms pertaining to bleeding disorders, diagnostic issues, referral patterns, treatment modalities before and after the enrollment in the HTC, HTC services provided, and satisfaction with care in the HTC. Menorrhagia was the most commonly reported symptom (84%). The average time from the first symptom until clinician recognition was 16 years (range 0-39). In HTC, DDAVP was the most commonly used drug (31%). Of the 75 women, 71 reported a strong positive opinion and satisfaction about their care in the HTCs. Women with VWD were typically diagnosed with the condition well into adulthood, in spite of the fact that majority of them experienced several bleeding symptoms beginning in early childhood. In general an HTC setting is appropriate for management of women with bleeding disorders. Diagnosis, treatment and education provided in the HTCs were viewed positively by those surveyed.

  2. Immigration and generational trends in body mass index and obesity in the United States: results of the National Latino and Asian American Survey, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lisa M; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Alegría, Margarita; Krieger, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    We examined patterns of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among a nationally representative sample of first-, second-, and third-generation Latinos and Asian Americans to reveal associations with nativity or country of origin. We used data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (2002-2003) to generate nationally representative estimates of mean BMI and obesity prevalence and explored changes in the distribution of BMI by generational status. Analyses tested the association between generational status and BMI and examined whether this association varied by ethnicity, education, or gender. We found substantial heterogeneity in BMI and obesity by country of origin and an increase in BMI in later generations among most subgroups. The data suggest different patterns for Latinos and Asian Americans in the nature and degree of distributional changes in BMI with generational status in the United States. Generational status is associated with increased BMI and obesity among Latinos and Asian Americans. Aggregate estimates not accounting for nativity and country of origin may mask significant heterogeneity in the prevalence of obesity and patterns of distributional change, with implications for prevention strategies.

  3. Perceptions of Food Advertising and Association With Consumption of Energy-Dense Nutrient-Poor Foods Among Adolescents in the United States: Results From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chan L; Serrano, Katrina J; Yaroch, Amy L; Nebeling, Linda; Oh, April

    2017-08-01

    The advertising and marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and drink has been cited as one contributor to unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. The present study examines perceptions about and trust in food advertising and their association with consumption of EDNP foods and drinks among adolescents in the United States. Data (n = 1,384) come from the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Survey. One way ANOVAs were conducted to assess differences between population subgroups in advertising perceptions. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the associations between perceptions toward and trust in food advertising and consumption of EDNP foods and drinks, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results show that there are significant differences between racial/ethnic groups on advertising perceptions (F = 16.32, p = food advertising increase among adolescents, there is an associated increase in daily frequency of consumption of EDNP foods and drinks (β = 0.10, p food advertising, the higher the reported daily frequency of EDNP food and drink consumption (β = 0.08, p = .01). Targeting perceptions about food advertising may be a worthy intervention strategy to reduce the impact of food marketing and the consumption of heavily advertised EDNP foods and drinks among adolescents.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  5. Geographic variation in stroke risk in the United States. Region, urbanization, and hypertension in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obisesan, T O; Vargas, C M; Gillum, R F

    2000-01-01

    In the United States, stroke mortality is higher in the south than in other regions. Hypertension is the main risk factor for stroke among older adults; however, few studies have examined group-specific regional and urbanization differences in hypertension prevalence. Data from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988 to 1994, were analyzed to calculate the prevalence of hypertension (systolic >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic >90 mm Hg and/or taking antihypertensive medication) by region and urbanization for age (40 to 59 and 60 to 79 years), sex, and ethnic subgroups. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the association of hypertension with region and urbanization. With age and urbanization kept constant, southern residence was associated with hypertension among middle-aged non-Hispanic white men (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.90; Purbanization (P=0.01), with a higher prevalence in the south only for nonmetropolitan residents (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.56; Purbanization or region in the other subgroups. Southern residence was associated with increased hypertension prevalence among middle-aged non-Hispanic white men, non-Hispanic black men and women, and older non-Hispanic white men.

  6. Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  7. Survey report: moose surveys in lower Chignik Unit, May 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Subsistence Board requested that moose surveys be flown in the area of the lower Chignik Unit proposed for closure to non-qualified moose hunters by the...

  8. Comparison of Health and Health Risk Factors Between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults and Heterosexual Adults in the United States: Results From the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Przedworski, Julia; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies identified disparities in health and health risk factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults, but prior investigations have been confined to samples not representative of the US adult population or have been limited in size or geographic scope. For the first time in its long history, the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey included a question on sexual orientation, providing health information on sexual minorities from one of the nation's leading health surveys. To compare health and health risk factors between LGB adults and heterosexual adults in the United States. Data from the nationally representative 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey were used to compare health outcomes among lesbian (n = 525), gay (n = 624), and bisexual (n = 515) adults who were 18 years or older and their heterosexual peers (n = 67 150) using logistic regression. Self-rated health, functional status, chronic conditions, psychological distress, alcohol consumption, and cigarette use. The study cohort comprised 68 814 participants. Their mean (SD) age was 46.8 (11.8) years, and 51.8% (38 063 of 68 814) were female. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, gay men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% CI, 1.55-5.14), heavy drinking (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.08-3.58), and moderate smoking (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.39-2.81) than heterosexual men; bisexual men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (OR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.77-12.52), heavy drinking (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.22-8.16), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.08-4.10) than heterosexual men; lesbian women were more likely to report moderate psychological distress (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76), poor or fair health (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.24-2.95), multiple chronic conditions (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.22), heavy drinking (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.54-4.50), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36-3.88) than

  9. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Orientation Among Adults Aged 18-44 in the United States: Data From the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E; Chandra, Anjani; Febo-Vazquez, Isaedmarie

    2016-01-07

    This report provides national estimates of sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among women and men aged 18-44 in the United States, based on the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Data for the 2011-2013 NSFG were collected through in-person interviews with 10,416 women and men aged 15-44 in the household population in the United States. In this report, data are shown only for 9,175 adults aged 18-44. The data presented in this report were primarily collected using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing, in which the respondent enters his or her answers into the computer without telling them to an interviewer. The overall response rate for the 2011-2013 NSFG was 72.8%. Regarding opposite-sex sexual behavior, 94.2% of women and 92.0% of men aged 18-44 had ever had vaginal intercourse; 86.2% of women and 87.4% of men had ever had oral sex; and 35.9% of women and 42.3% of men had ever had anal sex. Almost three times as many women (17.4%) reported any same-sex contact in their lifetime compared with men (6.2%) aged 18-44. Feelings of attraction "only to the opposite sex" were more common for men (92.1%) compared with women (81.0%) aged 18-44. Among those aged 18-44, 92.3% of women and 95.1% of men said they were "heterosexual or straight"; 1.3% of women and 1.9% of men said they were "homosexual, gay, or lesbian"; 5.5% of women and 2.0% of men said they were bisexual; and 0.9% of women and 1.0% of men said "don't know" or "refused" (i.e., "did not report") on sexual orientation. Sexual attraction and sexual orientation correlate closely but not completely with reports of sexual behavior. Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation vary by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. PLSS Townships and Sections, The PLSS vector data provides value added, vector representations of the United States Public Land Survey System for Louisiana as depicted on the USGS 1:24,000 DRGs., Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2004. The PLSS vector data provides value added, vector representations of the United States Public Land Survey...

  11. Organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions across the United States: development and testing of a novel survey instrument for assessing coalition functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W; Saunders, Ruth P; Blair, Steven N

    2015-06-01

    Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. The study was carried out in three phases: (a) developing a draft survey, (b) assessing the content validity of the draft survey, and (c) assessing the underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity of the survey. A cross-sectional design was employed. In Phase 1, a team of experts in survey development produced a draft survey. In Phase 2, the content validity of the draft survey was evaluated by a panel of individuals with expertise in physical activity coalitions. In Phase 3, the survey was administered to 120 individuals on local-, state-, and national-level physical activity coalitions. Responses were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the survey's underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity. Phases 1 and 2yielded a survey instrument with demonstrated content validity. Phase 3 yielded a three-factor model with three subscales: Strategic Alignment, Organizational Alignment, and Providing Input. Each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument developed here demonstrated sound psychometric properties and provides new insight into organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This instrument may be an important tool in developing a more complete picture of coalition functioning in physical activity coalitions specifically and health-based coalitions overall. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Using benchmarking techniques and the 2011 maternity practices infant nutrition and care (mPINC) survey to improve performance among peer groups across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger A; Dee, Deborah; Umer, Amna; Perrine, Cria G; Shealy, Katherine R; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-02-01

    A substantial proportion of US maternity care facilities engage in practices that are not evidence-based and that interfere with breastfeeding. The CDC Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) showed significant variation in maternity practices among US states. The purpose of this article is to use benchmarking techniques to identify states within relevant peer groups that were top performers on mPINC survey indicators related to breastfeeding support. We used 11 indicators of breastfeeding-related maternity care from the 2011 mPINC survey and benchmarking techniques to organize and compare hospital-based maternity practices across the 50 states and Washington, DC. We created peer categories for benchmarking first by region (grouping states by West, Midwest, South, and Northeast) and then by size (grouping states by the number of maternity facilities and dividing each region into approximately equal halves based on the number of facilities). Thirty-four states had scores high enough to serve as benchmarks, and 32 states had scores low enough to reflect the lowest score gap from the benchmark on at least 1 indicator. No state served as the benchmark on more than 5 indicators and no state was furthest from the benchmark on more than 7 indicators. The small peer group benchmarks in the South, West, and Midwest were better than the large peer group benchmarks on 91%, 82%, and 36% of the indicators, respectively. In the West large, the Midwest large, the Midwest small, and the South large peer groups, 4-6 benchmarks showed that less than 50% of hospitals have ideal practice in all states. The evaluation presents benchmarks for peer group state comparisons that provide potential and feasible targets for improvement.

  13. Using Benchmarking Techniques and the 2011 Maternity Practices Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) Survey to Improve Performance among Peer Groups across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger A.; Dee, Deborah; Umer, Amna; Perrine, Cria G.; Shealy, Katherine R.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A substantial proportion of US maternity care facilities engage in practices that are not evidence-based and that interfere with breastfeeding. The CDC Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) showed significant variation in maternity practices among US states. Objective The purpose of this article is to use benchmarking techniques to identify states within relevant peer groups that were top performers on mPINC survey indicators related to breastfeeding support. Methods We used 11 indicators of breastfeeding-related maternity care from the 2011 mPINC survey and benchmarking techniques to organize and compare hospital-based maternity practices across the 50 states and Washington, DC. We created peer categories for benchmarking first by region (grouping states by West, Midwest, South, and Northeast) and then by size (grouping states by the number of maternity facilities and dividing each region into approximately equal halves based on the number of facilities). Results Thirty-four states had scores high enough to serve as benchmarks, and 32 states had scores low enough to reflect the lowest score gap from the benchmark on at least 1 indicator. No state served as the benchmark on more than 5 indicators and no state was furthest from the benchmark on more than 7 indicators. The small peer group benchmarks in the South, West, and Midwest were better than the large peer group benchmarks on 91%, 82%, and 36% of the indicators, respectively. In the West large, the Midwest large, the Midwest small, and the South large peer groups, 4–6 benchmarks showed that less than 50% of hospitals have ideal practice in all states. Conclusion The evaluation presents benchmarks for peer group state comparisons that provide potential and feasible targets for improvement. PMID:24394963

  14. National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2013-02-01

    The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred.

  15. Dentists' self-perceived role in offering tobacco cessation services: results from a nationally representative survey, United States, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat-Khah, Deanna P; McNeely, Jennifer; Pereyra, Margaret R; Parish, Carrigan; Pollack, Harold A; Ostroff, Jamie; Metsch, Lisa; Shelley, Donna R

    2014-11-06

    Dental visits represent an opportunity to identify and help patients quit smoking, yet dental settings remain an untapped venue for treatment of tobacco dependence. The purpose of this analysis was to assess factors that may influence patterns of tobacco-use-related practice among a national sample of dental providers. We surveyed a representative sample of general dentists practicing in the United States (N = 1,802). Multivariable analysis was used to assess correlates of adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines and to analyze factors that influence providers' willingness to offer tobacco cessation assistance if reimbursed for this service. More than 90% of dental providers reported that they routinely ask patients about tobacco use, 76% counsel patients, and 45% routinely offer cessation assistance, defined as referring patients for cessation counseling, providing a cessation prescription, or both. Results from multivariable analysis indicated that cessation assistance was associated with having a practice with 1 or more hygienists, having a chart system that includes a tobacco use question, having received training on treating tobacco dependence, and having positive attitudes toward treating tobacco use. Providers who did not offer assistance but who reported that they would change their practice patterns if sufficiently reimbursed were more likely to be in a group practice, treat patients insured through Medicaid, and have positive attitudes toward treating tobacco dependence. Findings indicate the potential benefit of increasing training opportunities and promoting system changes to increase involvement of dental providers in conducting tobacco use treatment. Reimbursement models should be tested to assess the effect on dental provider practice patterns.

  16. Correlates of Never Testing for HIV Among Non-Hispanic Black Men in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Oraka, Emeka; Abara, Winston E; Wafula, Edith; Turo, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that persons between 15 and 64 years get tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at least once in their lifetime and persons with HIV risk factors get tested more frequently. There is limited research examining factors associated with never testing for HIV among non-Hispanic Black men in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of never testing for HIV, reasons for never testing for HIV, and correlates of never testing for HIV. We analyzed 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth data and restricted analyses to male respondents aged 15-44 years who self-identified as being non-Hispanic Black. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) assessing the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and never testing for HIV. An estimated 31.2 % of non-Hispanic Black males aged 15-44 years have never been tested for HIV. Non-Hispanic Black men aged 15-17 years (APR 4.45; 95 % CI 2.88-6.87) or 18-24 years (APR 1.94; 95 % CI 1.21-3.13), who did not visit a doctor or healthcare provider (APR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.10-1.86), or did not report any sexual risk behaviors in the past 12 months (APR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.34-2.51) were more likely to never test for HIV compared to their respective counterparts. Continued expansion of HIV testing initiatives and prevention programs that focus on non-Hispanic Black men is critical to addressing HIV-related health disparities and the public health burden of HIV in this population.

  17. Probability and predictors of first treatment contact for anxiety disorders in the United States: analysis of data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iza, Miren; Olfson, Mark; Vermes, Donna; Hoffer, Marcela; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Despite the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and the demonstrated efficacy of their treatment, most individuals with anxiety disorders never utilize mental health services. To identify predictors of treatment-seeking for DSM-IV anxiety disorders from a range of sociodemographic factors and comorbid mental disorders. Survival analysis with time-varying covariates was performed using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Face-to-face interviews conducted in the United States. 34,653 respondents, aged 18 years and older, from the 2004-2005 Wave 2 NESARC. The cumulative probability of treatment-seeking (assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version, Wave 2 version) across the anxiety disorders in 1 year, 10 years, and lifetime and the median delay to the first treatment contact. Most individuals with panic disorder sought treatment within the same year of disorder onset, whereas the median delays to first treatment contact for generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and social anxiety disorder were 1 year, 13 years, and 16 years, respectively. Several personality disorders and earlier age at anxiety disorder onset decreased the probability of treatment contact. By contrast, younger cohort membership, a recent change in marital status, treatment for a psychiatric disorder other than substance use disorder, and comorbid anxiety disorders increased the lifetime probability of treatment contact. Treatment-seeking rates for most anxiety disorders are low, are associated with long delays, and sometimes are hindered by co-occurrence of other psychopathology. These patterns highlight the complex interplay of personal characteristics, individual psychopathology, and social variables in the treatment-seeking process. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America: Findings from the joint Canada/United States survey of health, 2002–03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Lu-May

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientifically rigorous general population-based studies comparing chiropractic with primary-care medical patients within and between countries have not been published. The objective of this study is to compare care seekers of doctors of chiropractic (DCs and general practitioners (GPs in the United States and Canada on a comprehensive set of sociodemographic, quality of life, and health-related variables. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health (JCUSH, 2002–03, a random sample of adults in Canada (N = 3505 and the U.S. (N = 5183. Respondents were categorized according to their pattern of health-care use in the past year. Distributions, percentages, and estimates (adjusted odds ratios weighted to reflect the complex survey design were produced. Results Nearly 80% of respondents sought care from GPs; 12% sought DC care. Compared with GP only patients, DC patients in both countries tend to be under 65 and white, with arthritis and disabling back or neck pain. U.S. DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be obese and to lack a regular doctor; Canadian DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be college educated, to have higher incomes, and dissatisfied with MD care. Compared with seekers of both GP and DC care, DC only patients in both countries have fewer chronic conditions, take fewer drugs, and have no regular doctor. U.S. DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be uninsured and dissatisfied with health care; Canadian DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be under 45, male, less educated, smokers, and not obese, without disabling back or neck pain, on fewer drugs, and lacking a regular doctor. Conclusion Chiropractic and GP patients are dissimilar in both Canada and the U.S., with key differences between countries and between DC patients who do and do not seek care from GPs. Such variation has broad and potentially far-reaching health policy and

  19. Natural mineral water of the United States: Section in Fourteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1892-1893: Part 2 - Accompanying papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peale, A.C.

    1894-01-01

    Aside from the geological interest attached to the subject of mineral waters the facts that within the limits of the United States there are between 8,000 and 10,000 mineral springs, and that the waters from nearly 300 are annually placed upon the market to the extent of over 21,000,000 gallons, at a valuation of nearly \\$5,000,000, show plainly that the subject is also one of considerable economic importance. That this importance is an increasing one is evident when a comparison of these figures is made with the figures for 1883, the first year they were compiled. The production then was 7,529,423 gallons, with a valuation of \\$1,119,603, and the total number of springs known to be utilized for commercial purposes was only 189.

  20. Accreditation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Accreditation is a process of external quality review created and used by higher education to scrutinize colleges, universities, and programs for quality assurance and quality improvement. Accreditation in the United States is more than a hundred years old, emerging from concerns to protect public health and safety and to serve the public…

  1. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  2. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  3. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  4. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  5. A review of the potential effects of climate change on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Western United States and a new tool for surveying sudden aspen decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Lyn Morelli; Susan C. Carr

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a literature review of the effects of climate on the distribution and growth of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the Western United States. Based on our review, we summarize models of historical climate determinants of contemporary aspen distribution. Most quantitative climate-based models linked aspen presence and growth...

  6. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Linda H; Sermeus, Walter; Van den Heede, Koen; Sloane, Douglas M; Busse, Reinhard; McKee, Martin; Bruyneel, Luk; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Griffiths, Peter; Moreno-Casbas, Maria Teresa; Tishelman, Carol; Scott, Anne; Brzostek, Tomasz; Kinnunen, Juha; Schwendimann, Rene; Heinen, Maud; Zikos, Dimitris; Sjetne, Ingeborg Strømseng; Smith, Herbert L; Kutney-Lee, Ann

    2012-03-20

    To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. Nurses were surveyed in general acute care hospitals (488 in 12 European countries; 617 in the United States); patients were surveyed in 210 European hospitals and 430 US hospitals. 33 659 nurses and 11 318 patients in Europe; 27 509 nurses and more than 120 000 patients in the US. Nurse outcomes (hospital staffing, work environments, burnout, dissatisfaction, intention to leave job in the next year, patient safety, quality of care), patient outcomes (satisfaction overall and with nursing care, willingness to recommend hospitals). The percentage of nurses reporting poor or fair quality of patient care varied substantially by country (from 11% (Ireland) to 47% (Greece)), as did rates for nurses who gave their hospital a poor or failing safety grade (4% (Switzerland) to 18% (Poland)). We found high rates of nurse burnout (10% (Netherlands) to 78% (Greece)), job dissatisfaction (11% (Netherlands) to 56% (Greece)), and intention to leave (14% (US) to 49% (Finland, Greece)). Patients' high ratings of their hospitals also varied considerably (35% (Spain) to 61% (Finland, Ireland)), as did rates of patients willing to recommend their hospital (53% (Greece) to 78% (Switzerland)). Improved work environments and reduced ratios of patients to nurses were associated with increased care quality and patient satisfaction. In European hospitals, after adjusting for hospital and nurse characteristics, nurses with better work environments were half as likely to report poor or fair care quality (adjusted odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.61) and give their hospitals poor or failing grades on patient safety (0.50, 0.44 to 0.56). Each additional patient per nurse increased the odds of nurses reporting poor or fair

  7. Going the Distance: Online Education in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    "Going the Distance: Online Education in the United States, 2011" is the ninth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group. Data collection is conducted in partnership with the College Board. This year's study, like those for…

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - State Boundaries of the United States 200506 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  9. 1:2,000,000-scale state boundaries of the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage is of the state boundaries of the conterminous United States. It was derived from the Digital Line Graph (DLG) files representing the 1:2,000,000-scale...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  11. Branding Asklepios and the Traditional and Variant Serpent Symbol Display Among Health Professional Schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Claus; Martelon, MaryKate

    2016-05-25

    History supports the staff and single serpent, the asklepian, as the symbol of healing and medicine, yet its confusion with the caduceus (a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it) persists. No population-based information on serpent symbol use exists. To determine the prevalence of asklepian and caduceus display among Internet images of medical and health professional schools' emblems, and to compare asklepian and caduceus display between medical and health professional schools, examining the effects of school longevity and geographic location on symbol display. This cross-sectional survey examined Internet websites and Google Images associated with medical and other health professional schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada from 2013 to 2015. The primary outcome was display of a traditional or variant asklepian or caduceus among current and past emblems in Google Images. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the comparison of medical versus other health professional schools were calculated by logistic regression. Differences among schools' longevity were assessed with Student's t-tests and linear regression. Among images of current and past emblems of 482 schools-159 medical schools and 323 health professional schools-107 (22.2%) emblems displayed only the traditional, and 205 (42.5%) any, asklepian. Adjusting for geographic region and longevity, medical schools were 59% less likely than health professional schools to display the traditional asklepian (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.71, P=.001), and were 7.7 times more likely than health professional schools to display the traditional caduceus. Medical schools were 8% less likely than health professional schools to display any asklepian (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62-1.38, P=.70), and were 3.3 times more likely than health professional schools to display any caduceus. Schools' preference of the asklepian over the caduceus confirmed historical origins. Less asklepian and more caduceus display by

  12. Branding Asklepios and the Traditional and Variant Serpent Symbol Display Among Health Professional Schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background History supports the staff and single serpent, the asklepian, as the symbol of healing and medicine, yet its confusion with the caduceus (a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it) persists. No population-based information on serpent symbol use exists. Objective To determine the prevalence of asklepian and caduceus display among Internet images of medical and health professional schools’ emblems, and to compare asklepian and caduceus display between medical and health professional schools, examining the effects of school longevity and geographic location on symbol display. Methods This cross-sectional survey examined Internet websites and Google Images associated with medical and other health professional schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada from 2013 to 2015. The primary outcome was display of a traditional or variant asklepian or caduceus among current and past emblems in Google Images. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the comparison of medical versus other health professional schools were calculated by logistic regression. Differences among schools' longevity were assessed with Student's t-tests and linear regression. Results Among images of current and past emblems of 482 schools—159 medical schools and 323 health professional schools—107 (22.2%) emblems displayed only the traditional, and 205 (42.5%) any, asklepian. Adjusting for geographic region and longevity, medical schools were 59% less likely than health professional schools to display the traditional asklepian (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.71, P=.001), and were 7.7 times more likely than health professional schools to display the traditional caduceus. Medical schools were 8% less likely than health professional schools to display any asklepian (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62-1.38, P=.70), and were 3.3 times more likely than health professional schools to display any caduceus. Conclusions Schools’ preference of the asklepian over the caduceus confirmed

  13. Brand Name and Generic Proton Pump Inhibitor Prescriptions in the United States: Insights from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Gawron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI are one of the most commonly prescribed medication classes with similar efficacy between brand name and generic PPI formulations. Aims. We determined demographic, clinical, and practice characteristics associated with brand name PPI prescriptions at ambulatory care visits in the United States. Methods. Observational cross sectional analysis using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS of all adult (≥18 yrs of age ambulatory care visits from 2006 to 2010. PPI prescriptions were identified by using the drug entry code as brand name only or generic available formulations. Descriptive statistics were reported in terms of unweighted patient visits and proportions of encounters with brand name PPI prescriptions. Global chi-square tests were used to compare visits with brand name PPI prescriptions versus generic PPI prescriptions for each measure. Poisson regression was used to determine the incidence rate ratio (IRR for generic versus brand PPI prescribing. Results. A PPI was prescribed at 269.7 million adult ambulatory visits, based on 9,677 unweighted visits, of which 53% were brand name only prescriptions. In 2006, 76.0% of all PPI prescriptions had a brand name only formulation compared to 31.6% of PPI prescriptions in 2010. Visits by patients aged 25–44 years had the greatest proportion of brand name PPI formulations (57.9%. Academic medical centers and physician-owned practices had the greatest proportion of visits with brand name PPI prescriptions (58.9% and 55.6% of visits with a PPI prescription, resp.. There were no significant differences in terms of median income, patient insurance type, or metropolitan status when comparing the proportion of visits with brand name versus generic PPI prescriptions. Poisson regression results showed that practice ownership type was most strongly associated with the likelihood of receiving a brand name PPI over the entire study period. Compared to

  14. Relationship Between Frequent Recreational Cannabis (Marijuana and Hashish) Use and Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Jaffer A; Ahluwalia, Kavita P; Papapanou, Panos N

    2017-03-01

    Recreational use of cannabis, following its legalization in some countries, poses emergent oral and periodontal health concerns. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between frequent recreational cannabis (FRC) (marijuana and hashish) use and periodontitis prevalence among adults in the United States. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Primary outcome (periodontitis) was defined using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology classification as well as continuous measurements of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (AL). Exposure of interest was self-reported cannabis use, defined as "FRC use" versus "non-FRC use." Bivariate and multivariable regression models were performed using the entire analytical sample (model 1) as well as those who had never used tobacco (never-users) (model 2). Of 1,938 participants with available cannabis use data and essential covariates, 26.8% were FRC users. Mean number of sites per participant with PD ≥4, ≥6, and ≥8 mm and AL ≥3, ≥5, and ≥8 mm was significantly higher among FRC users than among non-FRC users (mean difference in number of PD sites: 6.9, 5.6, and 5.6; P <0.05; mean difference in number of AL sites: 12.7, 7.6, and 5.6; P <0.05). Average AL was higher among FRC users than among non-FRC users (1.8 versus 1.6 mm; P = 0.004). Bivariate analysis revealed positive (harmful) association between FRC use and severe periodontitis in the entire sample (odds ratio [OR]: 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.002) as well as in never-smokers (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.5; P = 0.01). This association was retained in multivariable models adjusted for demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income level), alcohol and tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and past periodontal treatment (model 1: adjusted OR [aOR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9; P = 0.07; model 2: aOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1

  15. Food sources of energy and nutrients among children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E

    2013-01-22

    Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy - milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein - milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars - soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars - soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber - fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat - cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol - eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D - milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium - milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium - milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium - salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children's diets.

  16. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor L. Fulgoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332 in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%; protein — milk (13.2% and poultry (12.8%; total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5% and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%; total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2% and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%; added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7% and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%; dietary fiber — fruit (10.4% and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%; total fat — cheese (9.3% and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3% and milk (13.3%; cholesterol — eggs (24.2% and poultry (13.2%; vitamin D — milk (60.4% and milk drinks (8.3%; calcium — milk (33.2% and cheese (19.4%; potassium — milk (18.8% and fruit juice (8.0%; and sodium — salt (18.5% and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%. Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient

  17. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-02-09

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.

  18. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG. This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973 and adults (n = 24,809. Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1 g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01 oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02 oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02 oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%, grain mixtures (16.3%, other foods (15.8% and fruits (11.3%. For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%, other foods (14.3%, grain mixtures (12.0% and fruits (11.1%. Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC (31%, yeast breads/rolls (21% and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%. The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%, RTEC (23% and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%. Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S. population.

  19. Sterilization in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  20. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the nation's inventory of protected areas, including public open space and voluntarily provided,...

  1. United States Tornado Touchdown Points 1950-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows tornado touchdown points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, from 1950 to 2004. Statistical data were obtained from...

  2. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  3. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  4. United States Mortality Database, 1988-1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains mortality information for United States Health Service Areas (805 groups of counties). Included are mortality rates by sex and race (white...

  5. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  6. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  7. Elevation in the Western United States (90 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  8. Elevation in the Western United States (180 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  9. Streams and Waterbodies of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows areal and linear water features of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The original file was produced by joining the...

  10. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1990-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1990-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  11. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  12. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  13. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  14. Base-flow index grid for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological...

  15. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  16. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  17. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  18. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  19. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  20. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2000-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2000-2004. Parameter-elevation...

  1. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1990-1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1990-1994. Parameter-elevation...

  2. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1995-1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1995-1999. Parameter-elevation...

  3. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2005-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2005-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  4. Seismic Hazard Map for the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  5. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  6. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  7. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  8. Electronic-cigarette use by individuals in treatment for substance abuse: A survey of 24 treatment centers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gubner, Noah R.; Andrews, K. Blakely; Mohammad-Zadeh, Ana; Lisha, Nadra E.; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence and reasons for using electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) was examined among patients enrolled in 24 substance abuse treatment centers in the United States (N=1,113). Prevalence of e-cigarette use was assessed for the full sample. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify characteristics associated with e-cigarette use among current cigarette smokers (the majority of e-cigarette users). Overall 55.5% of the sample reported lifetime use of e-ciga...

  9. Substance Use and Dependence among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders and Asian Ethnic Groups in the United States: Contrasting Multiple- and Single-Race Prevalence Rates from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Wang, Cynthia; Price, Rumi Kato

    2010-01-01

    The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiian(NH), Other Pacific Islander(OPI) and Asians on a national level. Utilizing the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we compared multiple-race NH/OPI/Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with single-race individuals within respective Asian ethnic subgroups and Caucasians for prevalence of alcohol/drug ...

  10. [The remittances in U.S. dollars that Mexican migrants send home from the United States (a study based on data from the Survey of Migration in the Northern Frontier Region of Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Vasquez, R

    1998-01-01

    The difficulties in obtaining reliable data on remittances to Mexico by Mexican immigrants in the United States are first outlined. An analysis of such remittances is then attempted using data from a recent survey, the Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte. Data from this survey are used to analyze several aspects of remittances "such as the direct determination of the amount of the remittances and the identification of the immigrants that send them according to their social and demographic features, and the location of Mexican zones where the remittances arrive, [and] the variations in the amount and frequency of the remittances among the different groups of immigrants." (EXCERPT)

  11. Associations of Topics of Discussion on Twitter With Survey Measures of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors Related to Zika: Probabilistic Study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadloo, Mohsen; Winneg, Kenneth; Chan, Man-Pui Sally; Hall Jamieson, Kathleen; Albarracin, Dolores

    2018-02-09

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus around the world led to increased discussions about this issue on social media platforms such as Twitter. These discussions may provide useful information about attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of the population regarding issues that are important for public policy. We sought to identify the associations of the topics of discussions on Twitter and survey measures of Zika-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, not solely based upon the volume of such discussions but by analyzing the content of conversations using probabilistic techniques. Using probabilistic topic modeling with US county and week as the unit of analysis, we analyzed the content of Twitter online communications to identify topics related to the reported attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors captured in a national representative survey (N=33,193) of the US adult population over 33 weeks. Our analyses revealed topics related to "congress funding for Zika," "microcephaly," "Zika-related travel discussions," "insect repellent," "blood transfusion technology," and "Zika in Miami" were associated with our survey measures of attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors observed over the period of the study. Our results demonstrated that it is possible to uncover topics of discussions from Twitter communications that are associated with the Zika-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of populations over time. Social media data can be used as a complementary source of information alongside traditional data sources to gauge the patterns of attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in a population.

  12. Political Science Journals in Comparative Perspective: Evaluating Scholarly Journals in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, James C.; Giles, Micheal W.; Blais, Andre; McLean, Iain

    2009-01-01

    In this article we report the results from a new survey of political scientists regarding their evaluations of journals in the political science discipline. Unlike previous research that has focused on data from the United States, we conducted an Internet survey of political scientists in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. We…

  13. Patient survey (ICH-CAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State averages for ICH-CAHPS Survey measures. The ICH-CAHPS Survey is a national, standardized survey of in-center hemodialysis patients about their experiences with...

  14. Survey of quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: I. Incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    considered lame. In contrast, 44.7% of dairy cows and 26.1% of dairy bulls were lame. Ocular neoplasia (cancer eye) was observed in only 0.6% of beef cows, 0.3% of beef bulls, 0.3% of dairy cows, and 0.0% of dairy bulls. However, among animals with ocular neoplasia, it was cancerous in 34.4% of beef bulls, 48.0% of dairy cows, and 73.3% of beef cows. In conclusion, numerous quality defects are present in market beef and dairy cattle selling at auction in the Western United States, which could influence their value at auction.

  15. An Evaluation of Selected Extraordinary Floods in the United States Reported by the U.S. Geological Survey and Implications for Future Advancement of Flood Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, John E.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty flood peak discharges determine the envelope curve of maximum floods documented in the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. These floods occurred from 1927 to 1978 and are extraordinary not just in their magnitude, but in their hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics. The reliability of the computed discharge of these extraordinary floods was reviewed and evaluated using current (2007) best practices. Of the 30 flood peak discharges investigated, only 7 were measured at daily streamflow-gaging stations that existed when the flood occurred, and 23 were measured at miscellaneous (ungaged) sites. Methods used to measure these 30 extraordinary flood peak discharges consisted of 21 slope-area measurements, 2 direct current-meter measurements, 1 culvert measurement, 1 rating-curve extension, and 1 interpolation and rating-curve extension. The remaining four peak discharges were measured using combinations of culvert, slope-area, flow-over-road, and contracted-opening measurements. The method of peak discharge determination for one flood is unknown. Changes to peak discharge or rating are recommended for 20 of the 30 flood peak discharges that were evaluated. Nine floods retained published peak discharges, but their ratings were downgraded. For two floods, both peak discharge and rating were corrected and revised. Peak discharges for five floods that are subject to significant uncertainty due to complex field and hydraulic conditions, were re-rated as estimates. This study resulted in 5 of the 30 peak discharges having revised values greater than about 10 percent different from the original published values. Peak discharges were smaller for three floods (North Fork Hubbard Creek, Texas; El Rancho Arroyo, New Mexico; South Fork Wailua River, Hawaii), and two peak discharges were revised upward (Lahontan Reservoir tributary, Nevada; Bronco Creek, Arizona). Two peak discharges were indeterminate because they were concluded to have been debris flows with peak

  16. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    of webcams . Today there is a much greater chance that someone working in the corporate sector is working or keeping up to date with their office...all American adults had high-speed Internet connections at home in the United States. In March 2005, that number was only 30 percent.47 Many new...Project’s combined January-March tracking survey of 4,402 adults ; 1,265 were home broadband users. 2006 data comes from the Pew Internet Project’s February

  17. Intensive care unit family satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S M; So, H M; Fok, S K; Li, S C; Ng, C P; Lui, W K; Heyland, D K; Yan, W W

    2015-10-01

    To examine the level of family satisfaction in a local intensive care unit and its performance in comparison with international standards, and to determine the factors independently associated with higher family satisfaction. Questionnaire survey. A medical-surgical adult intensive care unit in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Adult family members of patients admitted to the intensive care unit for 48 hours or more between 15 June 2012 and 31 January 2014, and who had visited the patient at least once during their stay. Of the 961 eligible families, 736 questionnaires were returned (response rate, 76.6%). The mean (± standard deviation) total satisfaction score, and subscores on satisfaction with overall intensive care unit care and with decision-making were 78.1 ± 14.3, 78.0 ± 16.8, and 78.6 ± 13.6, respectively. When compared with a Canadian multicentre database with respective mean scores of 82.9 ± 14.8, 83.5 ± 15.4, and 82.6 ± 16.0 (Pcare were concern for patients and families, agitation management, frequency of communication by nurses, physician skill and competence, and the intensive care unit environment. A performance-importance plot identified the intensive care unit environment and agitation management as factors that required more urgent attention. This is the first intensive care unit family satisfaction survey published in Hong Kong. Although comparable with published data from other parts of the world, the results indicate room for improvement when compared with a Canadian multicentre database. Future directions should focus on improving the intensive care unit environment, agitation management, and communication with families.

  18. Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lincoln R.; Stocking, Hobart E.; Smith, Harriet B.

    1956-01-01

    Within the boundaries of the United States abnormal amounts of uranium have been found in rocks of nearly all geologic ages and lithologic types. Distribution of ore is more restricted. On the Colorado Plateau, the Morrison formation of Jurassic age yields 61.4 percent of the ore produced in the United States, and the Chinle conglomerate and Shinarump formation of Triassic age contribute 26.0 and 5.8 percent, respectively. Clastic, carbonaceous, and carbonate sedimentary rocks of Tertiary, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic ages and veins of Tertiary age are the source of the remaining 6.8 percent.

  19. Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell

    2012-06-08

    Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. September 2010-December 2011. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the 2011 national survey, 43 state surveys, and 21 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results from the 2011 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in priority health-risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. During the 30 days before the survey, 32.8% of high school students nationwide had texted or e-mailed while driving, 38.7% had drunk alcohol, and 23.1% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 32.8% of students had been in a physical fight, 20.1% had ever been bullied on school property, and 7.8% had attempted suicide. Many high school students nationwide are engaged in sexual risk behaviors associated with unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. Nearly half (47.4%) of students had ever had sexual intercourse, 33.7% had had sexual

  20. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, Shawn P

    2007-01-01

    The United States, its industries, livelihood, and economy depend on oil. The United States is the world's largest consumer of oil, with daily usage of approximately 20 million barrels. Approximately...

  1. Children's Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; Campbell, Lori Ann; Zhong, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study "British Child"…

  2. Selected data for hydrothermal-convection systems in the United States with estimated temperatures greater than or equal to 90/sup 0/C: back-up data for US Geological Survey Circular 790

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Swanson, J.R.; Mabey, D.R.

    1978-12-01

    A compilation of data used in determining the accessible resource base for identified hydrothermal convection systems greater than or equal to 90/sup 0/C in the United States are presented. Geographic, geologic, chemical, isotopic, volumetric, and bibliographic data and calculated thermal energy contents are listed for all vapor-dominated and hot-water systems with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than or equal to 90/sup 0/C and reservoir depths less than 3 km known to the authors in mid 1978. Data presented here is stored in the US Geological Survey's geothermal computer file GEOTHERM. Data for individual hydrothermal convection systems in each state are arranged geographically from north to south and west to east without regard to the type or temperature of the system. Locations of the systems and corresponding reference numbers are shown on map 1 accompanying US Geological Survey Circular 790.

  3. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  4. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  5. Multilaboratory Survey To Evaluate Salmonella Prevalence in Diarrheic and Nondiarrheic Dogs and Cats in the United States between 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimschuessel, Renate; Grabenstein, Michael; Guag, Jake; Nemser, Sarah M; Song, Kyunghee; Qiu, Junshan; Clothier, Kristin A; Byrne, Barbara A; Marks, Stanley L; Cadmus, Kyran; Pabilonia, Kristy; Sanchez, Susan; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Ensley, Steve; Frana, Timothy S; Jergens, Albert E; Chappell, Kimberly H; Thakur, Siddhartha; Byrum, Beverly; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Erdman, Matthew M; Rankin, Shelley C; Daly, Russell; Das, Seema; Ruesch, Laura; Lawhon, Sara D; Zhang, Shuping; Baszler, Timothy; Diaz-Campos, Dubraska; Hartmann, Faye; Okwumabua, Ogi

    2017-05-01

    Eleven laboratories collaborated to determine the periodic prevalence of Salmonella in a population of dogs and cats in the United States visiting veterinary clinics. Fecal samples (2,965) solicited from 11 geographically dispersed veterinary testing laboratories were collected in 36 states between January 2012 and April 2014 and tested using a harmonized method. The overall study prevalence of Salmonella in cats (3 of 542) was Salmonella -positive dogs were significantly more likely to have consumed raw food ( P = 0.01), to have consumed probiotics ( P = 0.002), or to have been given antibiotics ( P = 0.01). Rural dogs were also more likely to be Salmonella positive than urban ( P = 0.002) or suburban ( P = 0.001) dogs. In the 67 isolates, 27 unique serovars were identified, with three dogs having two serovars present. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 66 isolates revealed that only four of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Additional characterization of the 66 isolates was done using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Sequence data compared well to resistance phenotypic data and were submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This study suggests an overall decline in prevalence of Salmonella -positive dogs and cats over the last decades and identifies consumption of raw food as a major risk factor for Salmonella infection. Of note is that almost half of the Salmonella -positive animals were clinically nondiarrheic. Copyright © 2017 Reimschuessel et al.

  6. Multilaboratory Survey To Evaluate Salmonella Prevalence in Diarrheic and Nondiarrheic Dogs and Cats in the United States between 2012 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenstein, Michael; Guag, Jake; Nemser, Sarah M.; Song, Kyunghee; Qiu, Junshan; Clothier, Kristin A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Marks, Stanley L.; Cadmus, Kyran; Pabilonia, Kristy; Sanchez, Susan; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Ensley, Steve; Frana, Timothy S.; Jergens, Albert E.; Chappell, Kimberly H.; Thakur, Siddhartha; Byrum, Beverly; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Erdman, Matthew M.; Rankin, Shelley C.; Daly, Russell; Das, Seema; Ruesch, Laura; Zhang, Shuping; Baszler, Timothy; Diaz-Campos, Dubraska; Hartmann, Faye; Okwumabua, Ogi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eleven laboratories collaborated to determine the periodic prevalence of Salmonella in a population of dogs and cats in the United States visiting veterinary clinics. Fecal samples (2,965) solicited from 11 geographically dispersed veterinary testing laboratories were collected in 36 states between January 2012 and April 2014 and tested using a harmonized method. The overall study prevalence of Salmonella in cats (3 of 542) was Salmonella-positive dogs were significantly more likely to have consumed raw food (P = 0.01), to have consumed probiotics (P = 0.002), or to have been given antibiotics (P = 0.01). Rural dogs were also more likely to be Salmonella positive than urban (P = 0.002) or suburban (P = 0.001) dogs. In the 67 isolates, 27 unique serovars were identified, with three dogs having two serovars present. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 66 isolates revealed that only four of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Additional characterization of the 66 isolates was done using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Sequence data compared well to resistance phenotypic data and were submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This study suggests an overall decline in prevalence of Salmonella-positive dogs and cats over the last decades and identifies consumption of raw food as a major risk factor for Salmonella infection. Of note is that almost half of the Salmonella-positive animals were clinically nondiarrheic. PMID:28202802

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of the United States, in an Albers...

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of the Conterminous United States 200603 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  10. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States....

  11. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua D. Wright; Victoria M. Esses

    2017-01-01

    ... in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners...

  12. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of the conterminous United States, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States,...

  13. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of the United States, with relief shading...

  14. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of the United States, in an Albers Equal-Area...

  15. Barriers and Disparities in Emergency Medical Services 911 Calls for Stroke Symptoms in the United States Adult Population: 2009 BRFSS Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munseok Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study examines barriers and disparities in the intentions of American citizens, when dealing with stroke symptoms, to call 911. This study hypothesizes that low socioeconomic populations are less likely to call 911 in response to stroke recognition. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional design analyzing data from the Centers for Disease Control’s 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, collected through a telephone-based survey from 18 states and the District of Columbia. The study identified the 5 most evident stroke-warning symptoms based on those given by the American Stroke Association. We conducted appropriate weighting procedures to account for the complex survey design. Results: A total of 131,988 respondents answered the following question: “If you thought someone was having a heart attack or a stroke, what is the first thing you would do?” A majority of those who said they would call 911 were insured (85.1%, had good health (84.1%, had no stroke history (97.3%, had a primary care physician (PCP (81.4%, and had no burden of medical costs (84.9%. Those less likely to call 911 were found in the following groups: 65 years or older, men, other race, unmarried, less than or equal to high school degree, less than $25,000 family income, uninsured, no PCP, burden of medical costs, fair/poor health, previous history of strokes, or interaction between burden of medical costs and less than $50,000 family income (p<0.0001 by X2 tests. The only factors significantly associated with “would call 911” were age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and previous history of strokes. Conclusion: Barriers and disparities exist among subpopulations of different socioeconomic statuses. This study suggests that some potential stroke victims could have limited access to EMS services. Greater effort targeting certain populations is needed to motivate citizens to call 911. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:251–259].

  16. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  17. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  18. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  19. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  20. Neurocysticercosis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; White, A Clinton

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is typically considered a disease of the developing world. Nonetheless, NCC is also diagnosed in the developed world. The rise in the number of cases of NCC in developed countries, especially in the United States of America, has largely been driven by the influx of immigrants from endemic to non-endemic regions and the widespread access to neuroimaging. Cases of local transmission have also been documented particularly in the setting of a tapeworm carrier present in the household, which highlights the relevance of NCC as a public health problem in the USA. Although accurate incidence data in the USA are not available, estimates range from 0.2 to 0.6 cases per 100 000 general population and 1.5–5.8 cases per 100 000 Hispanics. We estimate that between 1320 and 5050 new cases of NCC occur every year in the USA. The number of NCC cases reported in the literature in the USA increased from 1494 prior to 2004 to 4632 after that date. Parenchymal cases remain the most commonly reported form of the disease; however, a slight increase in the percentage of extraparenchymal cases has been described in the most recent series. NCC is associated with significant morbidity resulting from hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, and seizures. Although uncommon, NCC is also a cause of premature death in the USA with a calculated annual age-adjusted mortality rate of at least 0.06 per million population. PMID:23265549

  1. Neoplasia in 125 donkeys (Equus asinus): literature review and a survey of five veterinary schools in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corrine R; Valentine, Beth A; Gordon, Emma; McDonough, Sean P; Schaffer, Paula A; Allen, Andrew L; Pesavento, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    A diagnosis of neoplasia was noted in 125 of 357 donkeys (35%) in our review of medical records from 5 veterinary schools in the United States and Canada. Equine sarcoid was the most common tumor in our study, accounting for 72% of all tumors and 82% of cutaneous tumors. Soft-tissue sarcomas were the second most common skin tumors. All other types of neoplasia were rare. Important differences in the occurrence of neoplasia in donkeys compared to horses included the rarity or absence of squamous cell carcinoma in any organ system and gray horse melanoma. Lymphosarcoma, the most common malignant tumor in horses, appears to be very rare in donkeys. We report several tumors in donkeys including melanocytoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Our data demonstrate commonalities as well as differences in neoplastic diseases of donkeys and horses. Understanding differences in carcinogenesis among these 2 closely related species can inform researchers pursuing pathogenic mechanisms of equine disease and inform veterinary diagnosticians regarding tumor prevalence. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  3. Patterns of Asexuality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Poston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG to ascertain and analyze patterns of asexuality in the United States. We endeavor to extend the earlier work of Bogaert (2004 on this topic, which focused on patterns of asexuality in Great Britain. Using a social constructionist perspective to study asexuality, we conceptualize and measure the phenomenon in several ways, according to behavior, desire, and self-identification. We use the NSFG respondent sampling weights to produce several sets of unbiased estimates of the percentages of persons in the U.S. population, aged 15-44, who are asexual; each set is based on one or more of the various definitions of asexuality. Finally, we describe some of the characteristics of the asexual population using multinomial logistic regression.

  4. The diverse values and motivations of family forest owners in the United States: An analysis of an open-ended question in the National Woodland Owner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Stanley T. Asah; Brett J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    The number of family forest owners in the USA has increased continuously in recent decades, and the fate of much of US forests lies in the hands of this diverse and dynamic group of people. The National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) is a recurring and comprehensive national survey of US private forest owners, including family forest owners. The NWOS includes an open-...

  5. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiken, L.H.; Sermeus, W.; Heede, K. Van den; Sloane, D.M.; Busse, R.; McKee, M.; Bruyneel, L.; Rafferty, A.M.; Griffiths, P.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Tishelman, C.; Scott, A.; Brzostek, T.; Kinnunen, J.; Schwendimann, R.; Heinen, M.M.; Zikos, D.; Sjetne, I.S.; Smith, H.L.; Kutney-Lee, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. DESIGN: Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. SETTING: Nurses were surveyed in

  6. Soils data for the Conterminous United States Derived from the NRCS State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base. [Original title: State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base for the Conterminous United States.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USSOILS is an Arc 7.0 coverage containing hydrology-relevant information for 10,498 map units covering the entire conterminous United States. The coverage was...

  7. Market manipulation challenges and responses in the United Kingdom, European Union and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, N.

    2017-01-01

    As a response to the financial crisis the European Union (EU), the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have increasingly focused on the phenomenon of white-collar crime as one of the major causes of the financial crisis. While recent studies have mainly surveyed weak banking regulation, weak credit regulation, inappropriate lending practices and the economic policies of nation states, this paper seeks to investigate the impact of market abuse and insider trading – under...

  8. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  9. Self-reported physical activity among middle-aged cancer survivors in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey, 2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nayak, Pratibha; Holmes, Holly M; Nguyen, Hoang T; Elting, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    ...) among cancer survivors. We examined PA adherence among 8,655 cancer survivors and 144,213 control subjects aged 45-64 years who were respondents to the 2009 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System survey...

  10. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  11. The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinghui; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Ito, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2013-10-07

    A positive patient safety culture (PSC) is one of the most critical components to improve healthcare quality and safety. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has been used to assess PSC in 31 countries. However, little is known about the impact of nurse working hours on PSC. We hypothesized that long nurse working hours would deteriorate PSC, and that the deterioration patterns would vary between countries. Moreover, the common trends observed in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan may be useful to improve PSC in other countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of long nurse working hours on PSC in Japan, the US, and Chinese Taiwan using HSOPS. The HSOPS questionnaire measures 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, with higher scores indicating a more positive PSC. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate the impact of working hours on PSC outcome measures (patient safety grade and number of events reported). Tukey's test and Cohen's d values were used to verify the relationships between nurse working hours and the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC. Nurses working ≥60 h/week in Japan and the US had a significantly lower OR for patient safety grade than those working teamwork within units' was significantly lower in the ≥60-h group than in the teamwork within units' in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan.

  12. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Final Judgment relates to a qui tam action arising from common facts, and settlements with the United... proposed Final Judgment is to settle the qui tam lawsuit. GEC Cmts at 1-2. IV. THE DEPARTMENT'S RESPONSE TO...

  13. Index Grids - QUADRANGLES_24K_USGS_IN: Boundaries of 7.5-Minute Quadrangles in Indiana, (United States Geological Survey, 1:24,000 Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — QUADRANGLES_24K_USGS_IN is a polygon shapefile defining the boundaries of the USGS 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) quadrangles which cover the state of Indiana. Dates of...

  14. Measuring the Prevalence of Diagnosed Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the United States Using Data From the 2012-2014 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Nugent, Colleen N; Blumberg, Stephen J; Vahratian, Anjel

    This study, measuring the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), examined (1) whether a single survey question asking explicitly about diagnosed COPD is sufficient to identify US adults with COPD and (2) how this measure compares with estimating COPD prevalence using survey questions on diagnosed emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis and all 3 survey questions together. We used data from the 2012-2014 National Health Interview Survey to examine different measures of prevalence among 7211 US adults who reported a diagnosed respiratory condition (ie, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and/or COPD). We estimated a significantly higher prevalence of COPD by using a measure accounting for all 3 diagnoses (6.1%; 95% CI, 5.9%-6.3%) than by using a measure of COPD diagnosis only (3.0%; 95% CI, 2.8%-3.1%) or a measure of emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis diagnoses (4.7%; 95% CI, 4.6%-4.9%). This pattern was significant among all subgroups examined except for non-Hispanic Asian adults. The percentage difference between measures of COPD was larger among certain subgroups (adults aged 18-39, Hispanic adults, and never smokers); additional analyses showed that this difference resulted from a large proportion of adults in these subgroups reporting a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis only. With the use of self- or patient-reported health survey data such as the National Health Interview Survey, it is recommended that a measure asking respondents only about COPD diagnosis is not adequate for estimating the prevalence of COPD. Instead, a measure accounting for diagnoses of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and/or COPD may be a better measure. Additional analyses should explore the reliability and validation of survey questions related to COPD, with special attention toward questions on chronic bronchitis.

  15. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, William A; Shanklin, Shari L; Flint, Katherine H; Hawkins, Joseph; Queen, Barbara; Lowry, Richard; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Thornton, Jemekia; Lim, Connie; Yamakawa, Yoshimi; Brener, Nancy; Zaza, Stephanie

    2016-06-10

    Priority health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults. Population-based data on these behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth nationwide. September 2014-December 2015. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other priority health behaviors. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results for 118 health behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma from the 2015 national survey, 37 state surveys, and 19 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results from the 2015 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in priority health-risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. During the 30 days before the survey, 41.5% of high school students nationwide among the 61.3% who drove a car or other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey had texted or e-mailed while driving, 32.8% had drunk alcohol, and 21.7% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 15.5% had been electronically bullied, 20.2% had been bullied on school property, and 8.6% had attempted suicide. Many

  16. Contraceptive sterilization use among married men in the United States: results from the male sample of the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John E; Warner, Lee; Jamieson, Denise J; Kissin, Dmitry M; Nangia, Ajay K; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    Surgical sterilization has many advantages. Previous information on prevalence and correlates was based on surveys of women. We estimated the prevalence of vasectomy and tubal ligation of partners for male participants in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative survey of US residents aged 15-44 years. We identified factors associated with sterilizations using bivariate and multivariate techniques. The findings revealed that 13.3% of married men reported having had a vasectomy and 13.8% reported tubal sterilization in their partners. Vasectomy increased with older age and greater number of biological children, non-Hispanic white ethnicity, having ever gone to a family planning clinic. Tubal sterilization use was more likely among men who had not attended college, those of older age and those with live births. One in eight married men reported having vasectomies. Men who rely on vasectomies have a somewhat different profile than those whose partners have had tubal sterilizations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  18. International Survey in Eight Countries about Teachers and Teaching Profession: Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Libya, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistolini, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    An international team of experts from Belgium, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey and the USA employed a questionnaire to identify the deontology of teachers from infant to secondary school in eight countries. The survey was implemented between 2004 and 2007. The socio-cultural concept of "Verstehen" (understanding) as described in the work…

  19. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  20. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  1. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) - Combined: Version 1.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by U. S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program, that illustrates and describes...

  2. Mean annual solar radiation in the United States Pacific Northwest (1991-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent mean annual solar radiation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States...

  3. Landslide Incidence and Susceptibility in the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are a digital version of U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1183, Landslide Overview Map of the Conterminous United States. The map and digital...

  4. Patient-reported depression severity measured by the PHQ-9 and impact on work productivity: results from a survey of full-time employees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gagan; Roy, Anuja; Harikrishnan, Venkatesh; Yu, Shawn; Dabbous, Omar; Lawrence, Carol

    2013-03-01

    To examine the burden of depression on work productivity. Full-time employees with diagnosed depression were surveyed using the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression severity, and the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire for absenteeism and presenteeism. Of the 1051 employees with depression, 40.3% had no depressive symptoms at the time of the survey, 30.4% had mild depression, 15.8% had moderate depression, 7.8% had moderately severe depression, and 5.8% had severe depression. All levels of depression were associated with decreased work productivity. Presenteeism was positively associated with severity of depression (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, P productivity was seen at all levels of depression, and as severity increased, presenteeism and absenteeism worsened.

  5. 78 FR 58559 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Negras Brewery''), which is located in Mexico near the Texas border, and the assets and companies... States's ``prediction as to the effect of proposed remedies, its perception of the market structure, and...

  6. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  7. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  8. Major Dams of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  9. THE TEACHING OF SPANISH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEAVITT, STURGIS E.

    AA SHORT HISTORY OF THE TEACHING OF SPANISH IN THE UNITED STATES WAS REPORTED. THE ACCOUNT BEGAN WITH EVENTS FOLLOWING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION TO THE PRESENT. THE SURVEY INCLUDED A DISCUSSION OF (1) SPANISH TEACHERS, (2) SPANISH READERS, (3) LATIN AMERICA, (4) ASSOCIATIONS, AND (5) STUDENTS AND TEACHERS. THIS STUDY ENDEAVORS TO PROVIDE ADDITIONAL…

  10. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities and towns in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A city or town is a place with a recorded population,...

  11. Federal Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  12. Classes of land-surface form in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset describes classes of land-surface form in the conterminous United States. The source of the data is the map of land-surface form in the 1970...

  13. Homeschooling in the United States: 2012. NCES 2016-096

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Jeremy; Battle, Danielle; Bielick, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Since 1999, the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES), conducted by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the Institute of Education Sciences, has collected nationally representative data that can be used to estimate the number of homeschooled students in the United States. This report…

  14. Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…

  15. A Thematic Approach to Teaching United States History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    Focuses on the revisionist approach to teaching United States history at the secondary level and college level. Ten themes are offered as examples around which a meaningful survey course can be constructed. These include economic opportunity, political participation, population mobility, belief in reform, status for women, educational opportunity,…

  16. Religious Intermarriage and Socialization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisin, Alberto; Topa, Giorgio; Verdier, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of a choice-theoretic model of cultural transmission. In particular, we use data from the General Social Survey to estimate the structural parameters of a model of marriage and child socialization along religious lines in the United States. The observed intermarriage and socialization rates are consistent…

  17. Time Zones of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the time zones of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Also included are the Greenwich Mean Time offset, and areas in...

  18. Awareness of and attitudes towards infertility and its treatment: a cross-sectional survey of men in a United States primary care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gerhard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have described racial and socioeconomic disparities in the treatment of infertility. Patient factors such as attitudes and awareness may be contributing factors. Since primary care is often the setting that serves as an entry into other areas of medicine, we sought to evaluate men's attitudes and awareness of male infertility in the primary care setting. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional survey of men's attitudes toward men's health issues in 210 men from two primary care clinic waiting rooms in Atlanta, Georgia. The survey was self-administered with closed-ended question items and was approximately 20 min in length. Of the 310 men approached, 210 agreed to participate and returned completed surveys. Overall, 52% of men said they were "very" or "somewhat" familiar with infertility and 25% were familiar with treatments for infertility. Some men had heard of surgery (21% and medication (35% as treatments for male infertility. Awareness and familiarity with the condition was greater in high socioeconomic status men (i.e. college graduates or those with income >$100 k per year but did not differ by race on multivariate analysis. Attitudes toward infertility varied by race with non-Caucasian men being more likely to indicate that infertility is a serious condition, to be concerned about infertility, and to believe it decreases a man's quality-of-life. Therefore, a lack of awareness, but not negative attitudes, may contribute to previously-described disparities in the treatment of infertility.

  19. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): A database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  20. Substance use and dependence among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asian ethnic groups in the United States: contrasting multiple-race and single-race prevalence rates from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joseph T; Wang, Cynthia; Price, Rumi Kato

    2010-01-01

    The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians on a national level. Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the authors compared multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with single-race individuals within respective Asian ethnic subgroups and Caucasians for prevalence of alcohol/drug use and dependence. For multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of alcohol dependence were observed compared with both single-race Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, and Asian subgroups and single-race Caucasians; for some multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of drug dependence were also observed.

  1. Color Conterminous United States Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color conterminous United States shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of the conterminous United...

  2. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1)for the Conterminous United States: Contact Time, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average contact time, in units of days, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. Contact time, as...

  3. Grayscale Conterminous United States Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale conterminous United States shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of the conterminous United...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Cities and Towns of the United States 200402 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  5. Color Conterminous United States Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color conterminous United States shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of the conterminous United...

  6. Public Preferences Related to Radioactive Waste Management in the United States: Methodology and Response Reference Report for the 2016 Energy and Environment Survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Silva, Carol L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Gupta, Kuhika [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the questions and responses to a nationwide survey taken June 2016 to track preferences of US residents concerning the environment, energy, and radioactive waste management. A focus of the 2016 survey is public perceptions on different options for managing spent nuclear fuel, including on-site storage, interim storage, deep boreholes, general purpose geologic repositories, and geologic repositories for only defense-related waste. Highlights of the survey results include the following: (1) public attention to the 2011 accident and subsequent cleanup at the Fukushima nuclear facility continues to influence the perceived balance of risk and benefit for nuclear energy; (2) the incident at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in 2014 could influence future public support for nuclear waste management; (3) public knowledge about US nuclear waste management policies has remined higher than seen prior to the Fukushima nuclear accident and submittal of the Yucca Mountain application; (6) support for a mined disposal facility is higher than for deep borehole disposal, building one more interim storage facilities, or continued on-site storage of spent nuclear fuel; (7) support for a repository that comingles commercial and defense related waste is higher than for a repository for only defense related waste; (8) the public’s level of trust accorded to the National Academies, university scientists, and local emergency responders is the highest and the level trust accorded to advocacy organizations, public utilities, and local/national press is the lowest; and (9) the public is willing to serve on citizens panels but, in general, will only modestly engage in issues related to radioactive waste management.

  7. Associations between Food Security Status and Dietary Inflammatory Potential within Lower-Income Adults from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycles 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Berger, Lawrence M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen M

    2018-02-13

    Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630). The analysis sample is representative of noninstitutionalized US adults with an income-to-poverty ratio ≤3.00. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score, calculated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls, was the main outcome measure. Type III F tests or χ 2 tests compared population characteristics by food security status, defined using the US Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between food security status and the DII score and moderation by demographic factors. Survey weighting procedures accounted for the effects of stratification and clustering used in the NHANES study design. When accounting for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, and health status, DII score was higher at greater levels of food insecurity (P=0.0033). Those with very low food security had a 0.31 (95% CI=0.12 to 0.49) higher DII score than those with high food security. Age moderated the association between food security status and DII score (interaction P=0.0103), where the magnitude of the association between DII score and severity of food insecurity was higher for those >65 years than for younger age groups. Food security status may be associated with dietary inflammatory potential, which is hypothesized to play a role in multiple chronic health conditions. Further research is needed to determine the causal nature of this relationship and evaluate how best to implement programs designed to address health disparities within food insecure populations. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and

  8. Patient-Provider Communication and Health Outcomes Among Individuals With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the United States: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunrintemi, Victor; Spatz, Erica S; Di Capua, Paul; Salami, Joseph A; Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Warraich, Haider; Virani, Salim S; Blaha, Michael J; Blankstein, Ron; Butt, Adeel A; Borden, William B; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Ting, Henry; Krumholz, Harlan M; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-04-01

    Consumer-reported patient-provider communication (PPC) assessed by Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey in ambulatory settings is incorporated as a complementary value metric for patient-centered care of chronic conditions in pay-for-performance programs. In this study, we examine the relationship of PPC with select indicators of patient-centered care in a nationally representative US adult population with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The study population consisted of a nationally representative sample of 6810 individuals (aged ≥18 years), representing 18.3 million adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (self-reported or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition diagnosis) reporting a usual source of care in the 2010 to 2013 pooled Medical Expenditure Panel Survey cohort. Participants responded to questions from Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey that assessed PPC, and we developed a weighted PPC composite score using their responses, categorized as 1 (poor), 2 (average), and 3 (optimal). Outcomes of interest were (1) patient-reported outcomes: 12-item Short Form physical/mental health status, (2) quality of care measures: statin and ASA use, (3) healthcare resource utilization: emergency room visits and hospital stays, and (4) total annual and out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease patients reporting poor versus optimal were over 2-fold more likely to report poor outcomes; 52% and 26% more likely to report that they are not on statin and aspirin, respectively, had a significantly greater utilization of health resources (odds ratio≥2 emergency room visit, 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.81]; odds ratio≥2 hospitalization, 1.36 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.79]), as well as an estimated $1243 ($127-$2359) higher annual healthcare expenditure. This study reveals a strong relationship between PPC and patient-reported outcomes, utilization of

  9. Calcium intake in the United States from dietary and supplemental sources across adult age groups: new estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Walsh, Stephen J; Insogna, Karl L; Kenny, Anne M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2011-05-01

    Adequate lifelong calcium intake is essential in optimizing bone health. Recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were used to quantify variation in calcium intake across adult age groups and to relate age-associated changes in calcium intake with energy intake. Additional goals were to assess differences in dietary calcium intake between supplemental calcium users and nonusers and to evaluate associations between age and calcium density in the diet. This cross-sectional analysis determined calcium and energy intake for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey respondents during 2003-2006. Diet was assessed with 24-hour recall and supplement use via questionnaire. Trends in median intakes for dietary calcium, total calcium, and energy across age categories were assessed using survey analysis methods. Nutrient density was represented using calcium to energy intake ratios. The analyses included data from 9,475 adults. When compared to the 19- to 30-year age group, median dietary calcium intake was lower in the ≥81-year age group by 23% in men (Pcalcium supplement use increased (Pcalcium intake was greater than in nonusers (P=0.02). Calcium density in the diet significantly increased relative to age in men and women (Pcalcium to energy ratios were insufficient to meet target ratios inferred by adequate intake standards after age 50 years. Although supplemental calcium use and calcium density were highest in older age groups, they were not sufficient in meeting recommended levels. New approaches to increasing the frequency and level of calcium supplement use to enhance calcium density in diets may be necessary to reduce osteoporosis risk among older Americans. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tree planting in the United States - 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Moulton; G. Hernandez

    2000-01-01

    This annual report summarizes tree planting, timber stand improvement, and nursery production activities across all ownerships of forest land in the United States. It includes State-by-State and ownership breakdowns, regional totals, as well as analysis of trends in the data. It does not include tree planting in urban and community environments. As far as we know, it...

  11. Use of coolant for high-speed tooth preparation: a survey of pediatric dentistry residency program directors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupietzky, Ari; Vargas, Karen G; Waggoner, William F; Fuks, Anna B

    2010-01-01

    To determine current teaching policies regarding the use of coolant type during tooth preparation with high-speed hand-pieces in pediatric dental residency programs in the US. A 17-question survey was electronically mailed to 63 program directors with one follow-up. Multiple-choice questions asked about school and program teaching of cavity preparation with or without water coolant, including hypothetical clinical situations. Fifty-two (83%) program directors returned the survey. Fifty-two percent taught both dry and water coolant methods, 6% taught dry cutting exclusively, and 42% did not teach the dry method and always used water coolant. Dry techniques were used primarily for special needs patients with poor swallow reflexes (50%) and for young children undergoing sedation (41%). Air coolant was taught more frequently in programs in the Midwest (77%) and South (85%) vs. the Northeast (32%) and West (50%) (P<.01). Forty-four percent of combined programs and 60% of hospital programs taught water spray use exclusively, while all university programs taught the dry cutting technique (P<.01). A majority of program directors teach the use of air coolant alone for high-speed preparation of teeth. University and combined programs were more likely to teach the method compared with hospital based ones.

  12. Total blood mercury levels and depression among adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Hin H Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5-27. RESULTS: Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36-0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status. However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40 even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50-1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding.

  13. Volatile substance misuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is prevalent in the United States and associated with manifold deleterious outcomes. This review summarizes research on: (1) the prevalence of VSM in the United States and its trends since 1975, (2) population subgroups at an elevated risk for VSM, (3) key correlates of VSM, (4) psychosocial consequences of VSM, including emerging public health threats, and (5) etiological and contextual considerations of VSM use. Implications for future research and practice with volatile substance misusers in the United States are identified.

  14. 250 Years of the State Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Wechselberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first topographic survey of the Habsburg Monarchy was decreed by Maria Theresa 250 years ago, on May 13, 1764. A conference was held on the occasion of the anniversary by the Austrian State Geodetic Administration (BEV – Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen and the Institute for Military Geosciences (IMG – Institut für Militärisches Geowesen in Vienna on May 13 and 14, 2014. The conference was sort of a time travel through Austrian state surveys. Historical development and methods of the first three state surveys (18th and 19th century were presented on the first conference day. Lectures were held by representatives of Austrian scientific institutions and new countries of the Monarchy. The second conference day was dedicated to the 4th state survey (20th century and its impact on civilian and military application and economy.

  15. Partisan strength, political trust and generalized trust in the United States: An analysis of the General Social Survey, 1972-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Oser, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    The literature on political parties suggests that strong partisan identities are associated with citizens' effective interaction with the political system, and with higher levels of political trust. Traditionally, party identity therefore is seen as a mechanism that allows for political integration. Simultaneously, however, political parties have gained recent attention for their role in promoting societal polarization by reinforcing competing and even antagonistic group identities. This article uses General Social Survey data from 1972 - 2014 to investigate the relationship between partisan strength and both political and generalized trust. The findings show that increases in partisan strength are positively related to political trust, but negatively related to generalized trust. This suggests that while partisan strength is indeed an important linkage mechanism for the political system, it is also associated with a tendency toward social polarization, and this corrosive effect thus far has not gained sufficient attention in literature on party identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perception of neighborhood safety and reported childhood lifetime asthma in the United States (U.S.: a study based on a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Subramanian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have emphasized the role of psychosocial stressors as a determinant of asthma, and neighborhoods can be a potential source of such stressors. We investigated the association between parental perception of neighborhood safety and reported lifetime asthma among children.Data for the study came from the 2003-04 National Survey of Children Health (NSCH; a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of children aged 0-17 years. Demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral covariates were included in the study. Models were estimated after taking account of weighting and complex survey design. Parental report of whether the child has ever been diagnosed with asthma by a physician was used to define the outcome. Parental report of perception of neighborhood safety was the main exposure. In unadjusted models, the odds ratio (OR for reporting asthma associated with living in neighborhoods that were perceived to be sometimes or never safe was 1.36 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.21, 1.53 compared to living in neighborhoods that were perceived to be always safe. Adjusting for covariates including exposure to second hand tobacco smoke, mother's self-rated health, child's physical activity and television viewing attenuated this association (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.43. In adjusted models, the increased odds ratio for reporting asthma was also higher among those who perceived neighborhoods as being usually safe (OR 1.15 95% CI 1.06, 1.26, as compared to always safe, suggestive of a dose-response relationship, with the differentials for usually safe and never safe being statistically significant (p = 0.009.Psychosocial stressors may be important risk factors that may impact the pathogenesis of asthma and/or contribute to asthma morbidity by triggering exacerbations through neuroimmunologic mechanisms, as well as social mechanisms.

  17. The relationship between perceived role and appropriate use of peripherally inserted central catheters: A survey of vascular access nurses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Sarah L; Kuhn, Latoya; Ratz, David; Winter, Suzanne; Vaughn, Valerie M; Chopra, Vineet

    2017-06-01

    The presence and proliferation of vascular access nursing in hospital settings has been identified as a potential contributor to growing demand, and possible overuse, of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). We examined vascular access nurses' perceived role related to use of PICCs and the association with appropriateness of PICC use in hospitals. A web-based survey was administered to members of two vascular access professional organizations. Of 2762 potentially eligible respondents who accessed the link, 1698 (61%) completed the survey. This sample was further restricted to vascular access nurses who worked in a U.S. hospital (n=1147). Respondents were categorized based on perceived role: 1) an operator who inserts PICCs; 2) a consultant whose views are not valued by the care team (unvalued consultant); 3) a consultant whose views are valued by the care team (valued consultant). Facility and respondent characteristics, reported practices, leadership support and relationships with other providers were compared across groups using chi-squared tests and analysis of variance. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between perceived role and reported percentage of PICCs placed for inappropriate reasons. Among the 1147 respondents, 210 (18%) viewed themselves as operators, 683 (59%) as valued consultants, 236 (21%) as unvalued consultants, and 18 (2%) could not be categorized. A significantly higher percentage (93%) of valued consultants reported that vascular access nurses placed the majority of PICCs at their facility, compared to operators (83%) or unvalued consultants (76%) (pVascular access nurses and their perceived role as part of the healthcare team are associated with PICC use in hospitals. Strong inter-professional collaboration and respect may help ensure more appropriate use of PICCs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  19. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  20. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  1. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  2. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  3. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  4. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  5. United States Security Policy in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichols, Scott R; Wiarda, Howard J

    1993-01-01

    The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter...

  6. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  7. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  8. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  9. Burden of Cardiovascular Disease among Multi-Racial and Ethnic Populations in the United States: An Update from the National Health Interview Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to provide new evidence of health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, and to examine their associations with lifestyle-related risk factors across the U.S. multi-racial and ethnic groups. Methods: The analysis included a randomized population sample of 68,321 subjects aged ≥18 years old who participated in the U.S. 2012 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys. Hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and DM were classified according to participants’ self-report of physician diagnosis. Assessments of risk factors were measured using standard survey instruments. Associations of risk factors with hypertension, CHD, stroke and DM were analyzed using univariable and multivariable analysis methods. Results: Non-Hispanic (NH-Blacks had significantly higher odds of hypertension, stroke and DM, while NH-Asians and Hispanics had significantly lower odds of stroke and higher odds of stroke and higher odds of DM than NH-Whites (p<0.001. NH-Whites had higher odds of CHD than NH-Black, NH-Asians and Hispanics (p<0.001. Increased body weight, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity were significantly associated with increased odds of hypertension, CHD, stroke and DM (p<0.001. However, the strengths of associations between lifestyle-related factors and the study outcomes were different across racial and ethnic groups. NH-Asians with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 had the highest odds ratios (OR, 95%CI for hypertension (5.37, 4.01-7.18, CHD (2.93, 1.90-4.52 and stroke (2.23, 1.08-4.61, and had the second highest odd ratios for DM (3.78, 2.68-5.35 than NH-Whites, NH-Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion: CVD and DM disproportionately affect the U.S. multi-racial and ethnic population. Although lifestyle-related risk factors are significantly associated with increased odds of CVD and DM, the impacts of risk factors on the study outcomes are different by race and ethnicity.

  10. Child and parent perspectives on healthier side dishes and beverages in restaurant kids’ meals: results from a national survey in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor T. Shonkoff

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children frequently consume foods from restaurants; considering the quick-service sector alone, 1/3 of children eat food from these restaurants on a given day, and among these consumers, 1/3 of their daily calories come from fast food. Restaurant foods and beverages are second only to grocery store foods and beverages in their contribution to total energy intake of U.S. 4- to 11-year-olds. Shifting their restaurant consumption in healthier directions could have a positive impact on child health. In 2014 this study examined self-reported child receptivity and parent awareness of child receptivity to ordering a fruit or vegetable side dish instead of French fries; and milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda/pop with a kids’ meal when eating out. Child receptivity to side dishes was compared between 2010 and 2014. Methods An online survey was administered by Nielsen via their Harris Poll Online to a national panel of 711 parents and their 8- to 12-year-old child, as part of a larger study. Frequencies, logistic regressions, t-tests, chi-square tests, and percent agreement were used to evaluate child likelihood of ordering certain side dishes; receptivity to healthier side dish and beverage alternatives; changes in receptivity to healthier sides across years; and parent awareness. Results A majority of children said they were likely to order a meal with a vegetable (60%, fruit (78%, or French fry (93% side dish. They were receptive to receiving a fruit or vegetable (FV side dish instead of French fries (68%; or milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda (81% with their restaurant kids’ meal. Liking/taste was the most common reason for children’s feelings. Child receptivity to a FV side dish instead of French fries was high in both years and significantly higher in 2014 (t = −2.12, p = 0.034. The majority of parent and child reports of child receptivity were concordant (85%. Conclusions These national survey

  11. Child and parent perspectives on healthier side dishes and beverages in restaurant kids' meals: results from a national survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Chan, Grace; Glenn, Meaghan E; Economos, Christina D

    2017-07-25

    Children frequently consume foods from restaurants; considering the quick-service sector alone, 1/3 of children eat food from these restaurants on a given day, and among these consumers, 1/3 of their daily calories come from fast food. Restaurant foods and beverages are second only to grocery store foods and beverages in their contribution to total energy intake of U.S. 4- to 11-year-olds. Shifting their restaurant consumption in healthier directions could have a positive impact on child health. In 2014 this study examined self-reported child receptivity and parent awareness of child receptivity to ordering a fruit or vegetable side dish instead of French fries; and milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda/pop with a kids' meal when eating out. Child receptivity to side dishes was compared between 2010 and 2014. An online survey was administered by Nielsen via their Harris Poll Online to a national panel of 711 parents and their 8- to 12-year-old child, as part of a larger study. Frequencies, logistic regressions, t-tests, chi-square tests, and percent agreement were used to evaluate child likelihood of ordering certain side dishes; receptivity to healthier side dish and beverage alternatives; changes in receptivity to healthier sides across years; and parent awareness. A majority of children said they were likely to order a meal with a vegetable (60%), fruit (78%), or French fry (93%) side dish. They were receptive to receiving a fruit or vegetable (FV) side dish instead of French fries (68%); or milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda (81%) with their restaurant kids' meal. Liking/taste was the most common reason for children's feelings. Child receptivity to a FV side dish instead of French fries was high in both years and significantly higher in 2014 (t = -2.12, p = 0.034). The majority of parent and child reports of child receptivity were concordant (85%). These national survey results indicate that children are receptive to FV side dishes and

  12. Bibliographic Databases Outside of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Thomas P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight articles describe the development, content, and structure of databases outside of the United States. Features discussed include library involvement, authority control, shared cataloging services, union catalogs, thesauri, abstracts, and distribution methods. Countries and areas represented are Latin America, Australia, the United Kingdom,…

  13. FRAGMENTATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITES STATES FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indices measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes from 2....

  14. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  15. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  16. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  17. Stroke risk among menthol versus non-menthol cigarette smokers in the United States: Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landingham, Cynthia; Fuller, William; Mariano, Greg; Marano, Kristin; Curtin, Geoffrey; Sulsky, Sandra I

    2017-04-01

    Though available evidence is relatively consistent in showing no additional health effects among smokers due to menthol in cigarettes, two studies reported conflicting results for stroke risk using different subsets of NHANES data. We investigated reasons for the differences in these reports by analyzing NHANES cycles conducted between 1999 and 2012, combined and in subsets. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from three different survey logistic regression models compare risk of reported stroke diagnoses among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Depending on timeframe, about 1150 to 8000 U.S. adults (aged ≥ 20 years) who smoked on ≥ 1 of the last 30 days had complete data for cigarette type and all covariates included in each model. Results were not much affected by which covariates were included in the models, but depended strongly on the NHANES cycles included in the analysis. Using NHANES 1999-2012 data combined, AORs and 95% CIs for stroke comparing menthol with non-menthol cigarette smokers were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.37), 0.85 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.23) or 0.86 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.25). Collectively, findings illustrate the need for fully reporting research and analytical methods, especially when analyses are meant to develop evidence intended for regulatory decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex education and contraceptive use at coital debut in the United States: results from Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, Michelle M; Edelman, Alison; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Peters, Dawn; Nichols, Mark D; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    The study was conducted to characterize the relationship between formal sex education and the use and type of contraceptive method used at coital debut among female adolescents. This study employed a cross-sectional, nationally representative database (2002 National Survey of Family Growth). Contraceptive use and type used were compared among sex education groups [abstinence only (AO), birth control methods only (MO) and comprehensive (AM)]. Analyses also evaluated the association between demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral variables and sex education. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for sampling design was used to measure associations of interest. Of 1150 adolescent females aged 15-19 years, 91% reported formal sex education (AO 20.4%, MO 4.9%, AM 65.1%). The overall use of contraception at coitarche did not differ between groups. Compared to the AO and AM groups, the proportion who used a reliable method in the MO group (37%) was significantly higher (p=.03) (vs. 15.8% and 14.8%, respectively). Data from the 2002 NSFG do not support an association between type of formal sex education and contraceptive use at coitarche but do support an association between abstinence-only messaging and decreased reliable contraceptive method use at coitarche. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cognitive Function among Elderly in the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2001-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Best

    Full Text Available Recent studies report a link between common environmental exposures, such as particulate matter air pollution and tobacco smoke, and decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a selected group of chemicals present in particulate matter and tobacco smoke, and measures of cognitive performance among elderly in the general population. This cross-sectional analysis involved data from 454 individuals aged 60 years and older from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The association between PAH exposures (as measured by urinary biomarkers and cognitive function (digit symbol substitution test (DSST was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses. After adjusting for age, socio-economic status and diabetes we observed a negative association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the gold standard of PAH exposure biomarkers, and DSST score. A one percent increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene resulted in approximately a 1.8 percent poorer performance on the digit symbol substitution test. Our findings are consistent with previous publications and further suggest that PAHs, at least in part may be responsible for the adverse cognitive effects linked to tobacco smoke and particulate matter air pollution.

  20. Assessing the Burden of Diabetes Mellitus in Emergency Departments in the United States: The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Kaminski, James; McEwen, Laura N.; Wu, Xiejian; Lee, Joyce M.; Herman, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of three alternative methods to identify diabetes in patients visiting Emergency Departments (EDs), and to describe the characteristics of patients with diabetes who are not identified when the alternative methods are used. Research Design and Methods We used data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) 2009 and 2010. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of using providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications (both excluding and including biguanides) to identify diabetes compared to using the checkbox for diabetes as the gold standard. We examined the characteristics of patients whose diabetes was missed using multivariate Poisson regression models. Results The checkbox identified 5,567 ED visits by adult patients with diabetes. Compared to the checkbox, the sensitivity was 12.5% for providers’ diagnoses alone, 20.5% for providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications excluding biguanides, and 21.5% for providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications including biguanides. The specificity of all three of the alternative methods was >99%. Older patients were more likely to have diabetes not identified. Patients with self-payment, those who had glucose measured or received IV fluids in the ED, and those with more diagnosis codes and medications, were more likely to have diabetes identified. Conclusions NHAMCS's providers’ diagnosis codes and medication lists do not identify the majority of patients with diabetes visiting EDs. The newly introduced checkbox is helpful in measuring ED resource utilization by patients with diabetes. PMID:24680472

  1. Mission analysis of photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Volume II. Survey of near-term (1976--1985) civilian applications in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattin, E. J.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of this market study was to identify and evaluate potential terrestrial civilian photovoltaic applications in the U.S. which were most likely to contribute significantly to the growth of near-term (to 1985) markets. A survey was conducted which led to the identification of many potential applications for photovoltaic power. These applications were subjected to a screening process which selected about 50 application groupings with considerable promise as near-term markets for photovoltaic arrays. For 21 of these 50 promising application groups, it was possible to make quantitative market estimates that totaled 13 MW/sub pk/ in projected annual array sales in 1985. The markets associated with the remaining 29 groups could not be quantitatively evaluated because of lack of an adequate existing data base and because the primary research required in order to provide such a data base was not feasible within the resources available in the study. If the average size of the markets associated with the unquantified groups, however, is comparable to the average for the quantified cases, then the total non-military U.S. market for arrays may well exceed 25 MW/sub pk//year in 1985. Foreign and U.S. military markets should add significantly to this total. In fact, the consensus of the photovoltaic industry representatives who were contacted is that the total foreign market over the near term may be several times as large as the domestic one.

  2. Health effects of sunlight exposure in the United States. Results from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A; Johnson, M L; Haynes, S G

    1988-01-01

    The dermatologic component of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 20,637), conducted from 1971 through 1974, documented the deleterious effect of ultraviolet radiation on selected skin and eye conditions. Actinic skin damage was more frequent in white men with high as compared with low sunlight exposure, 36.7% vs 23.3%, respectively. Among white women, the corresponding figures were 34.1% vs 18.6%, respectively. Actinic damage was found more often in individuals with light eye color. Basal cell epitheliomas were found in 11.3% of white men aged 65 to 74 years who had severely actinic-damaged skin as compared with 1.0% of those with undamaged skin. Sunlight exposure was positively associated with localized hypomelanism, localized hypermelanism, seborrheic keratoses, senile lentigines, freckles, acne rosacea, spider nevi, varicose veins, venus star, dry skin, wrinkled skin, pterygia, arcus senilis, and a variety of minor oral lesions of the tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. These findings suggest that a large number of dermatologic conditions, which may in part result from overexposure to sunlight, may be preventable.

  3. The Self-Perception and Usage of Medical Apps amongst Medical Students in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Quant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mobile medical software applications (apps are used for clinical decision-making at the point of care. Objectives. To determine (1 the usage, reliability, and popularity of mobile medical apps and (2 medical students’ perceptions of app usage effect on the quality of patient-provider interaction in healthcare settings. Methods. An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to medical students. Frequency of use, type of app used, and perceptions of reliability were assessed via univariate analysis. Results. Seven hundred thirty-one medical students responded, equating to a response rate of 29%. The majority (90% of participants thought that medical apps enhance clinical knowledge, and 61% said that medical apps are as reliable as textbooks. While students thought that medical apps save time, improve the care of their patients, and improve diagnostic accuracy, 53% of participants believed that mobile device use in front of colleagues and patients makes one appear less competent. Conclusion. While medical students believe in the utility and reliability of medical apps, they were hesitant to use them out of fear of appearing less engaged. Higher levels of training correlated with a greater degree of comfort when using medical apps in front of patients.

  4. Educational outcomes associated with childhood obesity in the United States: cross-sectional results from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Felicia R; Singh, Gopal K; Brown, H Shelton; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-07-27

    Past research examining the effects of childhood obesity has largely focused on its projected effects into adulthood. However, there is emerging evidence that childhood obesity may have more immediate effects on school-related outcomes. We examine a range of educational attainment indicators to examine the possible pathway between obesity status and academic performance, while investigating the proximal effects of childhood obesity on health and utilization of health services, and whether these variables attenuate the relationship between obesity status and educational outcomes. Data for the current study come from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health, which details the impacts of childhood obesity on a range of outcomes among a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (N=45,255). Educational outcomes (school absences, school problems, repeating a grade and school engagement) were modeled by logistic regression as a function of BMI, overall health status, health care utilization, and a range of sociodemographic variables. BMI status was significantly associated with all educational outcomes (peducational outcomes. While recognizing that these are cross-sectional data, we suggest that 1) health-related and sociodemographic factors should be a focus point of intervention, and 2) a socio-structural approach including Coordinated School Health intervention is crucial to reducing childhood obesity and improving educational outcomes in this population.

  5. Mexico-United States Migration: Health Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Elena; Wallace, Steven P.; Berumen, Salvador; Castaneda, Xotichl; al., et

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of "Mexico-United States Migration: Health issues" is to present a general overview of the conditions faced by Mexican residents in the United States concerning their health care. Good health constitutes an essential asset for the integral development of an immigrant's capacities for performing labor and for social participation. Enjoying good health not only benefits the immigrants themselves and their descendents, both Mexican and American, but also has larger social...

  6. Homeland Security Lessons for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farr, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    ... world. The People's Republic of China and Singapore are the focus of this thesis in order to determine what if any homeland security policies developed by their governments could be used to better protect citizens of the United States. Several policies such as legislation, education and internal security measures were evaluated for the United States to institute. Each chosen policy is followed by a brief description of how these laws might come into being within the U.S. governmental system.

  7. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  8. Profiles of rivers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Henry

    1901-01-01

    The profiles here represented are derived from various sources and differ from one another greatly in accuracy. Many of them are drawn from the annual reports of the Chief of Engineers, U.S.A., under which are included the reports of the Mississippi and Missouri River commissions. The heights thus obtained are those of the level of water in the rivers at certain stages, and may be regarded as of great accuracy. Others have been obtained from railroad profiles, being the level of the rivers at points where the railroads touch or cross them. Still others have been taken from the atlas sheets of the United States Geological Survey and from other maps. In most such cases the points at which the contours cross the rivers upon the maps have been taken. These again differ in point of accuracy with the means adopted for the location of the contours. Where the spirit level was used in locating contours it may be assumed that the determinations are fairly good, but where the barometer was used the probable error may be of considerable magnitude. Such elevations are, however, mainly in the mountainous parts of the country, where the fall of the streams is great, and where, therefore, errors of considerable magnitude may be tolerated, as affecting but little the form of the profile.

  9. Assessment of Tobacco Habits, Attitudes, and Education Among Medical Students in the United States and Italy: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson W. Armstrong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Medical students represent a primary target for tobacco cessation training. This study assessed the prevalence of medical students’ tobacco use, attitudes, clinical skills, and tobacco-related curricula in two countries, the US and Italy, with known baseline disparities in hopes of identifying potential corrective interventions. Methods From September to December 2013, medical students enrolled at the University of Bologna and at Brown University were recruited via email to answer survey questions assessing the prevalence of medical students’ tobacco use, attitudes and clinical skills related to patients’ smoking, and elements of medical school curricula related to tobacco use. Results Of the 449 medical students enrolled at Brown and the 1426 enrolled at Bologna, 174 Brown students (38.7% and 527 Bologna students (36.9% participated in this study. Italian students were more likely to smoke (29.5% vs. 6.1%; p<0.001 and less likely to receive smoking cessation training (9.4% vs. 80.3%; p<0.001 than their American counterparts, even though the majority of students in both countries desired smoking cessation training (98.6% at Brown, 85.4% at Bologna; p<0.001. Additionally, negative beliefs regarding tobacco usage, the absence of formal training in smoking cessation counseling, and a negative interest in receiving specific training on smoking cessation were associated with a higher risk of not investigating a patient’s smoking status during a routine history and not offering tobacco cessation treatment to patients. Conclusions Medical curricula on tobacco-related health hazards and on smoking cessation should be mandatory in order to reduce smoking among medical students, physicians, and patients, thereby improving tobacco-related global health.

  10. Association between family history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and lifestyle risk factors in the United States population: The 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Lazo, Mariana

    2017-03-01

    Family history is a well-known risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and modification of lifestyle risk factors can significantly lessen such risk. Our aim was to assess the association between family history of diabetes and/or CVD and lifestyle behaviors and risk factors (smoking, low physical activity, excessive dietary sodium and cholesterol intake and obesity) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Family history, lifestyle behaviors and risk factors were defined using self-reported and physical examination data. The study sample included 10,988 participants with a mean age of 47years. Among the U.S. adult population, 29.5%, 5.7% and 6.5% had a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diseases respectively. Compared to participants with no family history, participants with a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be current smokers (OR=1.18[95% CI, 1.03-1.35], OR=1.68[95% CI, 1.31-2.17] and OR=1.71[95% CI, 1.30-2.26] respectively). Participants with a family history of diabetes (OR=1.42[95% CI, 1.26-1.61]) and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR=2.06[95% CI, 1.57-2.69]). There was no association between family history and dietary factors or physical activity. In the U.S., there is a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors among persons with a family history of diabetes and/or CVD. Healthcare providers have a significant role to play in targeting these individuals for lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of asthma among adult females and males in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Michelle K; Symanski, Elaine; Pompeii, Lisa A; Delclos, George L

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased over the last three decades with females exhibiting a higher prevalence of asthma than males. The objective of this study was to obtain gender-specific estimates of the prevalence of current and ever asthma and describe the relationships between risk factors and asthma by gender in US men and women ages 20 to 85. Data for this study came from two cycles (2001-2002 and 2003-2004) of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and included 9,243 eligible adults: 4,589 females and 4,654 males. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate gender-specific associations between race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), sociodemographic characteristics, and smoking habits for current asthma and ever asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 8.8% for women and 5.8% for men, while the prevalence of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was higher (13.7% and 10.4% for women and men, respectively). Current asthma was less prevalent in Mexican American women (1.9%) and men (0.9%) born in Mexico as compared to Mexican Americans born in the U.S. (8.7% and 5.2% for women and men, respectively) or for any other ethnic group. Approximately 20% of extremely obese women and men had ever been diagnosed with asthma; among this group, 15% reported they had current asthma. Results from multiple logistic regression models indicate that extreme obesity and living in poverty were strongly associated with current and ever asthma for both women and men, as was former smoking and ever asthma for men. As compared to previous NHANES reports, our results indicate that the prevalence of asthma among U.S. adults continues to increase. Further, our findings of marked differences among subgroups of the population suggest asthma-related disparities for impoverished persons and greater prevalence of asthma among obese and extremely obese US adults.

  12. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Among Females After Vaccine Introduction-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sara E; Unger, Elizabeth R; Lewis, Rayleen; McDaniel, Darius; Gargano, Julia W; Steinau, Martin; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2017-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recommended in 2006 for routine vaccination of US females aged 11-12 years. Most vaccine used through 2014 was quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV), which prevents HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 infection. To evaluate vaccine impact, we measured HPV prevalence in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We analyzed HPV DNA types detected in self-collected cervicovaginal specimens and demographic, sexual behavior, and self-reported vaccination data from females 14-34 years old. We estimated HPV prevalence in the prevaccine (2003-2006) and vaccine eras (2007-2010 and 2011-2014). Among 14- to 19-year-olds, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased from 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%-14.4%) in 2003-2006 to 3.3% (95% CI, 1.9%-5.8%) in 2011-2014, when ≥1-dose coverage was 55%. Among 20- to 24-year-olds, prevalence decreased from 18.5% (95% CI, 14.9%-22.8%) in 2003-2006 to 7.2% (95% CI, 4.7%-11.1%) in 2011-2014, when ≥1-dose coverage was 43%. Compared to 2003-2006, 4vHPV prevalence in sexually active 14- to 24-year-olds in 2011-2014 decreased 89% among those vaccinated and 34% among those unvaccinated. Vaccine effectiveness was 83%. Within 8 years of vaccine introduction, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased 71% among 14- to 19-year-olds and 61% among 20- to 24-year-olds. Estimated vaccine effectiveness was high. The decrease in 4vHPV-type prevalence among unvaccinated females suggests herd protection.

  13. Blood mercury concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant women in the United States; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.; Crider, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to methylmercury is associated with adverse neurological development in children. We examined total blood mercury (BHg) concentrations and predictors of higher BHg concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We analyzed data from 1,183 pregnant and 5,587 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We estimated geometric mean BHg concentrations and characteristics associated with higher mercury concentrations (≥3.5 μg/L) in crude and adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Results After adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, geometric mean BHg concentrations were clinically similar but significantly lower for pregnant (0.81 μg/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71, 0.91) and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (0.93 μg/L, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99); 94% of pregnant and 89% of non-pregnant women had BHg concentrations below 3.5 μg/L. The most significant predictor of higher BHg concentrations for both pregnant and non-pregnant women was any seafood consumption vs. no consumption in the last 30 days (Odds ratio [OR]: 18.7, 95% CI: 4.9, 71.1; OR: 15.5, 95% CI: 7.5, 32.1, respectively). Other characteristics associated with ≥3.5 μg/L BHg concentrations were older age (35+ years), higher education (greater than high school), and higher family income to poverty ratio (3.501+) for both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Conclusion Pregnancy status was not strongly associated with BHg concentrations in women of childbearing age and BHg concentrations above the 3.5 μg/L cut were uncommon. PMID:24189168

  14. Blood mercury concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C; Crider, Krista

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to methylmercury is associated with adverse neurologic development in children. We examined total blood mercury concentrations and predictors of higher blood mercury concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women. We analyzed data from 1183 pregnant and 5587 nonpregnant women aged 16-49 years from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We estimated geometric mean blood mercury concentrations and characteristics associated with higher mercury concentrations (≥3.5 μg/L) in crude and adjusted linear and logistic regression models. After adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, geometric mean blood mercury concentrations were clinically similar but significantly lower for pregnant (0.81 μg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.91) and nonpregnant women of childbearing age (0.93 μg/L; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99); 94% of pregnant and 89% of nonpregnant women had blood mercury concentrations below 3.5 μg/L. The most significant predictor of higher blood mercury concentrations for both pregnant and nonpregnant women was any seafood consumption vs no consumption in the last 30 days (odds ratio, 18.7; 95% CI, 4.9-71.1; odds ratio, 15.5; 95% CI, 7.5-32.1, respectively). Other characteristics associated with ≥3.5 μg/L blood mercury concentrations were older age (≥35 years), higher education (greater than high school), and higher family income to poverty ratio (3.501+) for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. Pregnancy status was not strongly associated with blood mercury concentrations in women of childbearing age and blood mercury concentrations above the 3.5 μg/L cut were uncommon. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Food security and cardiovascular disease risk among adults in the United States: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S

    2013-12-05

    Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P food security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.31). Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk.

  16. Trends in serum lipids and hypertension prevalence among non-pregnant reproductive-age women: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among reproductive-age women. In this study, we examine trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and related clinicians' advice among reproductive-age women. We conducted trend analysis of these factors among non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years (n = 5,768) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data obtained between 1999 and 2008. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine linear trends over a 10-year period after adjusting for covariates. A downward trend was observed for the proportion of women with abnormal levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL; P = 0.038) and high density lipoprotein (HDL; P = 0.008) cholesterol from 1999 to 2008. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol (P = 0.948) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.300), or hypertension (P = 0.632). Based on the self-reported data, upward trends were observed in the rates of cholesterol checking (P = 0.002), high cholesterol (P = 0.012), receiving clinicians' advice to use lipid-lowering agents (P < 0.001) and patients' compliance with their advice (P < 0.001). Although rates of self-reported hypertension did not change over time (P = 0.120), receiving clinicians' advice to use antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003) and patients' compliance with these medications (P = 0.015) also increased significantly. Overall improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol over this time period could be due to increases in related awareness, receiving advice to use medications, and patients' compliance with this advice. Use of antihypertensive medication has also increased among reproductive-age women in the US.

  17. Trends in antihypertensive medication use and blood pressure control among United States adults with hypertension: the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qiuping; Burt, Vicki L; Dillon, Charles F; Yoon, Sarah

    2012-10-23

    The monitoring of national trends in hypertension treatment and control can provide important insight into the effectiveness of primary prevention efforts for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine recent trends in antihypertensive medication use and its impact on blood pressure control among US adults with hypertension. A total of 9320 hypertensive people aged ≥18 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2010 were included in this study. The prevalence of antihypertensive medication use increased from 63.5% in 2001 to 2002 to 77.3% in 2009 to 2010 (P(trend)<0.01). Most notably, there was a large increase in the use of multiple antihypertensive agents (from 36.8% to 47.7%, P(trend)<0.01). Overall, the use of thiazide diuretics, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers increased by 23%, 57%, 31%, and 100%, respectively. In comparison with monotherapy, single-pill combinations and multiple-pill combinations were associated with 55% and 26% increased likelihoods of blood pressure control, respectively. By the 2009 to 2010 time period, 47% of all hypertensive people and 60% of treated hypertensive people had blood pressure controlled. However, higher treated but uncontrolled hypertension rates continued to persist among older Americans, non-Hispanic blacks, diabetic people, and those with chronic kidney disease. Also, Mexican Americans with hypertension were still less likely to take antihypertensive medication than non-Hispanic whites with hypertension. Antihypertensive medication use and blood pressure control among US adults with hypertension significantly increased over the past 10 years. Combination therapy regimens can facilitate achievement of blood pressure goals.

  18. Trends in Serum Lipids and Hypertension Prevalence Among Non-Pregnant Reproductive-Age Women: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among reproductive-age women. In this study, we examine trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and related clinicians’ advice among reproductive-age women. We conducted trend analysis of these factors among non-pregnant women aged 20–49 years (n = 5,768) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data obtained between 1999 and 2008. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine linear trends over a 10-year period after adjusting for covariates. A downward trend was observed for the proportion of women with abnormal levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL; P = 0.038) and high density lipoprotein (HDL; P = 0.008) cholesterol from 1999 to 2008. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol (P = 0.948) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.300), or hypertension (P = 0.632). Based on the self-reported data, upward trends were observed in the rates of cholesterol checking (P = 0.002), high cholesterol (P = 0.012), receiving clinicians’ advice to use lipid-lowering agents (P < 0.001) and patients’ compliance with their advice (P < 0.001). Although rates of self-reported hypertension did not change over time (P = 0.120), receiving clinicians’ advice to use antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003) and patients’ compliance with these medications (P = 0.015) also increased significantly. Overall improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol over this time period could be due to increases in related awareness, receiving advice to use medications, and patients’ compliance with this advice. Use of antihypertensive medication has also increased among reproductive-age women in the US. PMID:23054453

  19. Surficial materials in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Reheis, Marith C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The Earth's bedrock is overlain in many places by a loosely compacted and mostly unconsolidated blanket of sediments in which soils commonly are developed. These sediments generally were eroded from underlying rock, and then were transported and deposited. In places, they exceed 1,000 ft (330 m) in thickness. Where the sediment blanket is absent, bedrock is either exposed or has been weathered to produce a residual soil. This map shows the sediments and the weathered, residual material; for ease of discussion, these are referred to here as 'surficial materials.' Certain areas on this map include a significant number of rock outcrops, which cannot be shown at the scale of the map; this is noted in the 'Description of Map Units' section. Most daily human activities occur on or near the Earth's surface. Homeowners, communities, and governments can make improved decisions about hazard, resource, and environmental issues, when they understand the nature of surficial materials and how they vary from place to place. For example, are the surficial materials upon which a home is built stable enough to resist subsidence or lateral movement during an earthquake? Do these materials support a ground water resource adequate for new homes? Can they adequately filter contaminants and protect buried aquifers both in underlying sediments and in bedrock? Are they suitable for development of a new wetland? Where can we find materials suitable for aggregate? The USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) works with the State geological surveys to identify priority areas for mapping of surficial materials (for example, in areas of complex and poorly understood deposits of various sediment types, where metropolitan areas are experiencing rapid growth). To help establish these priorities, a modern, synoptic overview of the geology is needed. This map represents an overview of our current knowledge of the composition and distribution of surficial materials in

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Major Roads of the United States 199911 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  1. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Political Areas of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the counties and equivalent entities of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. States and the...

  2. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  3. HIV Risk Behaviors and Utilization of Prevention Services, Urban and Rural Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States: Results from a National Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Jennie; Sullivan, Patrick S; Bowles, Kristina E; Oraka, Emeka; Sanchez, Travis H; DiNenno, Elizabeth

    2017-10-06

    Rural men who have sex with men (MSM) are heavily affected by HIV, and many lack culturally competent HIV prevention resources. Rural MSM may find sexual partners on the internet, which may also be a way to deliver prevention services to them. To understand the differences between rural and urban MSM with respect to HIV risk factors and behaviors and the utilization of online HIV prevention services, we used data from the 2012 Web-Based HIV Behavioral Survey (WHBS). Using WHBS data collected between June and August 2012, we compared the characteristics of MSM with positive or unknown HIV infection status who had sex with a male in the past 12 months, from rural vs urban areas using Chi square tests and median tests. We used logistic regression and calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare self-reported HIV risk behaviors, HIV/STI testing behaviors, use of prevention services, and perceived discrimination. Of the 8166 MSM included in our analysis, 3583 (44%) were from rural areas, and 4583 (56%) were from urban areas. Compared to urban MSM, rural MSM were less likely to ever test for HIV (aPR = 0.94, CI 0.92-0.95), to be tested for HIV in the last year (aPR = 0.83, CI 0.79-0.87), or to receive free condoms (aPR = 0.83, CI 0.79-0.86) or individual prevention counseling in the past year (aPR = 0.86, CI 0.78-0.95). Rural MSM were less likely to have been tested in the last year for syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia (aPR = 0.70, CI 0.62-0.78; aPR = 0.72, CI 0.64-0.81; aPR = 0.75, CI 0.67-0.85, respectively). Rural MSM also reported perceiving less tolerance of gays and bisexuals within their community (aPR = 0.80, CI 0.77-0.84). HIV prevalence is lower among MSM in rural areas compared to MSM in urban areas, but rural MSM report that they are more likely to face intolerance and are less likely to use basic HIV prevention services compared to urban MSM. Therefore, this hard-to-reach population could benefit

  4. Conventional and technical diving surveys reveal elevated biomass and differing fish community composition from shallow and upper mesophotic zones of a remote United States coral reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldan C Muñoz

    surveys of the upper mesophotic and shallow-water coral reef have revealed valuable information concerning the reef fish community in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with implications for the conservation of apex predators, oceanic coral reefs, and the future management of FGBNMS.

  5. Patient-reported prevalence and symptomatic burden of uterine fibroids among women in the United States: findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuldeore MJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh J Fuldeore, Ahmed M Soliman Health Economics and Outcomes Research, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, US Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and the associated symptom burden in the US.Patients and methods: Responses of women aged 18–54 years, who completed an online survey, were analyzed. Data were weighted based on age, education, race, geographic region, income, and propensity score to derive national estimates of the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and associated symptom burden. Weighted means and percentages were reported. Prevalence across age and ethnic groups was examined. Symptom burden among women with and without uterine fibroids was compared using weighted logistic regressions.Results: Of 59,411 respondents who met study inclusion criteria, 7.7% reported receiving a diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Of these, 5,670 women (1,402 in the uterine fibroid group and 4,268 in the control group were excluded from analysis because they had a hysterectomy. Among the non-hysterectomized study participants, 3,031 self-reported a diagnosis of uterine fibroids (prevalence: 5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5%–6.1%; prevalence increased as women aged and was greatest in the 50–54 age group (11.4%; 95% CI: 10.4%–12.4%. In addition, prevalence was greater in black vs white women (9.8%; 95% CI: 8.7%–11.0% vs 5.4%; 95% CI: 5.1%–5.7%. A greater percentage of women with uterine fibroids (vs those without experienced severe heavy menstrual bleeding (16.7% vs 7.7%, severe constipation/bloating/diarrhea (7.7% vs 4.7%, severe passage of clots (6.7% vs 2.4%, severe spotting/bleeding between periods (1.7% vs 1.0%, and severe pelvic pressure (1.6% vs 0.6%. Among uterine fibroid patients with these typical uterine fibroid-related symptoms, 56.4%, 32.3%, 26.4%, 25.8%, and 20.4% reported heavy menstrual bleeding, passage of clots, spotting/bleeding between periods, constipation

  6. Prevalence, correlates, and disability of personality disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S; Stinson, Frederick S; Dawson, Deborah A; Chou, S Patricia; Ruan, W June; Pickering, Roger P

    2004-07-01

    To present nationally representative data on the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and disability of 7 of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. The data were derived from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093). Diagnoses were made using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version, and associations between personality disorders and sociodemographic correlates were determined. The relationship between personality disorders and 3 emotional disability scores (Short-Form 12, version 2) was also examined. Overall, 14.79% of adult Americans (95% CI = 14.08 to 15.50), or 30.8 million, had at least 1 personality disorder. The most prevalent personality disorder in the general population was obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, 7.88% (95% CI = 7.43 to 8.33), followed by paranoid personality disorder 4.41% (95% CI = 4.12 to 4.70), antisocial personality disorder 3.63% (95% CI = 3.34 to 3.92), schizoid personality disorder 3.13% (95% CI = 2.89 to 3.37), avoidant personality disorder 2.36% (95% CI = 2.14 to 2.58), histrionic personality disorder 1.84% (95% CI = 1.66 to 2.02), and dependent personality disorder 0.49% (95% CI = 0.40 to 0.58). The risk of avoidant, dependent, and paranoid personality disorders was significantly greater among women than men (p personality disorder was greater among men compared with women (p personality disorders. In general, risk factors for personality disorders included being Native American or black, being a young adult, having low socioeconomic status, and being divorced, separated, widowed, or never married. Avoidant, dependent, schizoid, paranoid, and antisocial personality disorders (p disability. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was inconsistently related to disability. In contrast, disability was not significantly different among individuals with histrionic personality disorder compared with those without the disorder

  7. Occult chronic kidney disease among persons with hypertension in the United States: data from the national health and nutrition surveys 1988–1994 and 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Carmen A.; Weekley, Cristin C.; Li, Yongmei; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension guidelines recommend screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) using serum creatinine and urine dipstick; this strategy may lead to misclassification. Persons with occult CKD [i.e. missed by creatinine but detected by cystatin C or albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)] have higher risks for death, cardiovascular events, and end-stage renal disease. Methods We studied occult CKD prevalence among nondiabetic, hypertensive adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994 (N = 2088) and 1999–2002 (N = 737). We defined occult CKD as estimated glomerular filtration rate by cystatin C (eGFRcys) less than 60 ml/min per 1.73m2 and/or ACR at least 30 mg/g among persons with eGFRcreat more than 60 ml/min per 1.73m2. We studied occult CKD prevalence by either marker, stratified by age, race/ethnicity, and assessed clinical predictors associated with occult CKD presence. Results In 1988–1994, occult CKD was prevalent among 25% of nondiabetic hypertensive persons, and it was 22% in 1999–2002. Each marker’s ability to detect occult CKD varied by age and race. Cystatin C detected occult CKD among 8.9% of persons more than 65 years, and among 3.8% of whites. ACR detected occult CKD among 9.3% of persons less than 45 years, 16.6% of Blacks, and 20.6% of Mexican–Americans. In multivariate models, each decade of advancing age was associated with a higher occult CKD prevalence by cystatin C (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.5–3.8) in 1988–1994 and 1999–2002 (OR 2.9, 1.8–4.6). Conclusion Current hypertension guidelines may fail to detect a large proportion of high-risk individuals with CKD who can be identified by cystatin C or ACR. Future studies are needed to evaluate targeted use of multimarker renal panels among hypertensives. PMID:23640605

  8. Occult chronic kidney disease among persons with hypertension in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Surveys 1988-1994 and 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Carmen A; Weekley, Cristin C; Li, Yongmei; Shlipak, Michael G

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension guidelines recommend screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) using serum creatinine and urine dipstick; this strategy may lead to misclassification. Persons with occult CKD [i.e. missed by creatinine but detected by cystatin C or albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)] have higher risks for death, cardiovascular events, and end-stage renal disease. We studied occult CKD prevalence among nondiabetic, hypertensive adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (N = 2088) and 1999-2002 (N = 737). We defined occult CKD as estimated glomerular filtration rate by cystatin C (eGFRcys) less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m and/or ACR at least 30 mg/g among persons with eGFRcreat more than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m. We studied occult CKD prevalence by either marker, stratified by age, race/ethnicity, and assessed clinical predictors associated with occult CKD presence. In 1988-1994, occult CKD was prevalent among 25% of nondiabetic hypertensive persons, and it was 22% in 1999-2002. Each marker's ability to detect occult CKD varied by age and race. Cystatin C detected occult CKD among 8.9% of persons more than 65 years, and among 3.8% of whites. ACR detected occult CKD among 9.3% of persons less than 45 years, 16.6% of Blacks, and 20.6% of Mexican-Americans. In multivariate models, each decade of advancing age was associated with a higher occult CKD prevalence by cystatin C (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.5-3.8) in 1988-1994 and 1999-2002 (OR 2.9, 1.8-4.6). Current hypertension guidelines may fail to detect a large proportion of high-risk individuals with CKD who can be identified by cystatin C or ACR. Future studies are needed to evaluate targeted use of multimarker renal panels among hypertensives.

  9. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Portuguese forces in Angola in 1972 and that of President Stroessner of Paraguay in 1974. Other appearances include those at state fune- rals and when foreign ambassadors present their credentials to the State President. All the occasions at which the Unit performs, especially the annual official Opening of Parlia-.

  10. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  11. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  12. Elevated serum uric acid levels are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independently of metabolic syndrome features in the United States: Liver ultrasound data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Jeffrey C; McFann, Kim; Targher, Giovanni; Johnson, Richard J; Chonchol, Michel; Jalal, Diana I

    2013-03-01

    Experimental and observational studies suggest a role for uric acid in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined the association between serum uric acid levels and NAFLD in a large population-based study from the United States. A cross-sectional analysis of 10,732 nondiabetic adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994. Sex specific uric acid quartiles were defined: ≤5.2, 5.3-6.0, 6.1-6.9, and >6.9mg/dL for men and ≤3.7, 3.8-4.5, 4.6-5.3, and >5.3mg/dL for women. NAFLD presence and severity were defined by ultrasonographic detection of steatosis in the absence of other liver diseases. We modeled the probability that more severe NAFLD would be associated with the highest quartiles of uric acid. Compared to the 1st quartile, the odds ratio for NAFLD was 1.79 (95% C.I. 1.49-2.15, puric acid (4th quartile) was significantly associated with NAFLD (odds ratio 1.43; 95% C.I. 1.16-1.76, puric acid is associated with greater severity of NAFLD. Elevated uric acid level is independently associated with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD in a nationally representative sample of United States nondiabetic adults. Increasing uric acid is associated with increasing severity of NAFLD on ultrasonography. These findings warrant further studies on the role of uric acid in NAFLD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Tutorial on technology transfer and survey design and data collection for measuring Internet and Intranet existence, usage, and impact (survey-2000) in acute care hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-02-01

    This paper provides a tutorial of technology transfer for management information systems in health care. Additionally it describes the process for a national survey of acute care hospitals using a random sample of 813 hospitals. The purpose of the survey was to measure the levels of Internet and Intranet existence and usage in acute care hospitals. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business to business and with customers. The relationships with systems approaches, user involvement, user satisfaction and decision-making will be studied. Changes with results of a prior survey conducted in 1997 can be studied and enabling and inhabiting factors identified. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals.

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Hydrographic Geodatabase of the United States - Conterminous United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains streams, waterbodies and wetlands, streamflow gaging stations, and coastlines for the conterminous United States. The streams are...

  15. Characteristics of Public and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Library Media Centers in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES 2009-322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Rebecca; Gruber, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school library media center data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public…

  16. Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Library Media Centers in the United States: Results from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2013-315

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Amy; Gray, Lucinda; Goldring, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the Public School Library Media Center Data File of the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public and private K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. School districts associated with public schools…

  17. Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results from the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey. First Look. NCES 2017-070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taie, Soheyla; Goldring, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS) is a nationally representative sample survey of public K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report presents selected findings from the Public School Principal Data File of NTPS. The purpose of NTPS is to collect information that can…

  18. VT Data - NRCS Soil Survey Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil...

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of the United States, in an Albers...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief 200512 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States....

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of the United States, with relief shading...

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of the United States, in an Albers Equal-Area...

  4. 15 CFR 806.17 - Rules and regulations for BE-12, 2007 Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. 806.17 Section 806.17 Commerce and..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.17 Rules and regulations for BE-12, 2007 Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. A BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct...

  5. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  6. Orphan drug product regulation--United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, M E

    2002-02-01

    The legislative history of the United States Orphan Drug Act began with rare, unanimous approval by the United States Congress. The Act, mid consequently the Regulations, have evolved since then. The two-stage process of Orphan Drug designation and approval is outlined, as well as the incentives that are offered to commercial companies for their implementation. Orphan Drugs are likely to be over-represented among drugs used under "Treatment" INDs. For patent- and "drug-difference" reasons, the benefits under the Orphan Drug Act are especially valuable to those who develop biologics. By any measure, this legislation, which requires only voluntary participation, has been a success; because the human genome is likely to lead to more biologicals than orthodox drugs, this success is likely to continue into the future. But even so, the 18-year experience with Orphan Drugs in the United States has led to some 225 Orphan Product approvals that benefit many millions of patients.

  7. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  8. Strong Motion Recording in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The United States strong motion program began in 1932 when the Coast and Geodetic Survey (C&GS) installed eight strong motion accelerographs in California. During the March 1933 Long Beach earthquake, three of these produced the first strong motion records. With this success the C&GS expanded the number of accelerographs to 71 by 1964. With development of less expensive, mass-produced accelerographs the number of strong motion accelerographs expanded to ~575 by 1972. Responsibilities for operating the network and disseminating data were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970 and then to the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973. In 1972 the California Legislature established the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). CSMIP operates accelerographs at 812 ground stations, with multi-channel accelerographs in 228 buildings, 125 lifelines and 37 geotechnical arrays, in California. The USGS and the ANSS effort operate accelerographs at 1584 ground stations, 96 buildings, 14 bridges, 70 dams, and 15 multi-channel geotechnical arrays. The USC Los Angeles array has 78 ground stations; UCSB operates 5 geotechnical arrays; other government and private institutions also operate accelerographs. Almost all accelerographs are now digital with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Most of the strong motion data can be downloaded from the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org). As accelerographs have become more sophisticated, the concept of what constitutes strong motion has blurred because small earthquakes (M ~3) are well recorded on accelerometers as well as seismometers. However, when accelerations are over ~10%g and velocities over ~1 cm/s, the accelerometers remain on scale, providing the unclipped data necessary to analyze the ground motion and its consequences. Strong motion data are essential to the development of ground motion prediction equations, understanding structural response, performance

  9. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  10. Forest statistics of the United States, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Danlel D. Oswald; Douglas S. Powell

    1989-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 (88 Stat. 476 as amended) directs the U.S. Department of Agriculture to conduct a comprehensive assessment of all forest and range land resources on both public and private lands. Forest resource data collected from periodic surveys in each State and Forest Service Region were entered into a...

  11. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  12. Moose Survey-Inventory Progress Report : Unit 15B Soldotna

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 1972 moose surveys on Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Game Management Unit 15(B). Harvest report returns indicate a hunter harvest of 73...

  13. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  14. Sheltered Workshops: United States v. Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Prince, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Federal legislation, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, Section 504, and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, mandates that individuals with disabilities be integrated in all aspects of life from education to employment to independent living. A recent development involves a settlement reached between the United States and the…

  15. Pulp capacity in the United States, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett R. Smith; Robert W. Rice; Peter J. Ince

    2003-01-01

    Production capacities of all woodpulp mills in the United States are identified by location, ownership, and process type. For each mill, production capacity is reported for the year 2000 by process type; total mill capacities are also reported for 1961, 1965, 1979, 1974, and 1983. In addition, the report summarizes the recent history and current status of woodpulp...

  16. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Relations, ed. Robert O. Freedman (Boulder: Westview Press, 2012), 22. 47 radicals such as Gamal Abdel Nasser to become more defiant. The United...States backed Egypt in the 1956 Suez War, taking on Britain, France, and Israel, but received no credit from Nasser . The aftermath of the Israeli

  17. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  18. Black Studies and United States History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptheker, Herbert

    1971-01-01

    A consciously anti-racist historiography is urgently needed by the historical profession. The movement for what is called Black Studies would contribute decisively towards making the educational process real and wholesome, and help exalt the historical profession in the United States. (Author)

  19. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  20. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800.225 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND...