WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey telescope vst

  1. The OmegaCAM 16K x 16K CCD detector system for the ESO VLT Survey Telescope (VST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwert, Olaf; Baade, D.; Balestra, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Bortolussi, A.; Christen, F.; Cumani, C.; Deiries, S.; Downing, M.; Geimer, C.; Hess, G.; Hess, J.; Kuijken, K.; Lizon, J.; Muschielok, B.; Nicklas, H.; Reiss, R.; Reyes, J.; Silber, A.; Thillerup, J.; Valentijn, E.; Dorn, David A.; Holland, Andrew D.

    A 16K x 16K, 1 degree x 1 degree field, detector system was developed by ESO for the OmegaCAM instrument for use on the purpose built ESO VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The focal plane consists of an 8 x 4 mosaic of 2K x 4K 15um pixel e2v CCDs and four 2K x 4K CCDs on the periphery for the

  2. A catalogue of white dwarf candidates in VST ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile Fusillo, Nicola Pietro; Raddi, Roberto; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Hermes, J. J.; Pala, Anna F.; Fuchs, Joshua T.; Chehade, Ben; Metcalfe, Nigel; Shanks, Tom

    2017-07-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has created a knowledge gap between the Northern and the Southern hemispheres, which is very marked for white dwarfs: Only ≃15 per cent of the known white dwarfs are south of the equator. Here, we make use of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) ATLAS survey, one of the first surveys obtaining deep, optical, multiband photometry over a large area of the southern skies, to remedy this situation. Applying the colour and proper-motion selection developed in our previous work on SDSS to the most recent internal data release (2016 April 25) of VST ATLAS, we created a catalogue of ≃4200 moderately bright (g ≤ 19), high-confidence southern white dwarf candidates, which can be followed up individually with both the large array of southern telescopes or in bulk with ESO's forthcoming multi-object spectrograph 4MOST.

  3. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  4. Software Design Aspects and First Test Results of VLT Survey Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, M.; Schipani, P.; Marty, L.; Capaccioli, M.

    2006-08-01

    The 2.6 m VLT Survey Telescope (VST) is going to be installed at Cerro Paranal (Chile) as a powerful survey instrument for the ESO VLT. The tightest requirements to be respected for such a telescope, (large field of view of 1°x1°, pixel scale of 0.21 arcsec/pixel, and hosted in a one of the best worldwide astronomical sites), are basically very high performances of active optics and autoguiding systems and an excellent axes control, in order to obtain the best overall image quality of the telescope. The VST active optics software must basically provide the analysis of the image coming from the 10x10 subpupils Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor and the calculation of primary mirror forces and secondary mirror displacements to correct the intrinsic aberrations of the optical system and the ones originated for thermal or gravity reasons. The algorithm to select the guide star depends on the specific geometry of the adapter system. The adapter of the VST hosts many devices handled by the overall telescope control software: a probe system to select the guide star realized with motions in polar coordinates, a pickup mirror to fold the light to the image analysis and guiding cameras, a selectable reference light system and a focusing device. All these devices deeply interface with autoguiding, active optics and field rotation compensation systems. A reverse engineering approach mixed to the integration of new specific solutions has been fundamental to match the ESO commitments in terms of software re-use, in order to smoothen the integration of a new telescope designed and built by an external institute in the ESO environment. The control software architecture, the simulation code to validate the results and the status of work are here described. This paper includes also first results of preliminary tracking tests performed at the VST integration site for azimuth, altitude and rotator axes, that already match system quality requirements.

  5. Machine-learning-based photometric redshifts for galaxies of the ESO Kilo-Degree Survey data release 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.; Napolitano, N. R.; Radovich, M.; Barbera, F. La; Capaccioli, M.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Paolillo, M.

    We have estimated photometric redshifts (zphot) for more than 1.1 million galaxies of the public European Southern Observatory (ESO) Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) data release 2. KiDS is an optical wide-field imaging survey carried out with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Survey Telescope (VST) and the

  6. Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (WFAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Guy; Ofek, Eran Oded; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Manulis, Ilan; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Diner, Oz; Rappaport, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (W-FAST) is an experiment designed to explore variability on sub-second time scales. When completed it will consist of two robotic 55-cm f/2 Schmidt telescopes. The optics is capable of providing $\\sim0.5$" image quality over 23 deg$^2$. The focal plane will be equipped with fast readout, low read-noise sCMOS detectors. The first generation focal plane is expected to have 6.2 deg$^2$ field of view. WFAST is designed to study occultations by solar system objects (KBOs and Oort cloud objects), short time scale stellar variability, and high resolution imaging via proper coaddition.

  7. Astro-WISE for KiDS survey production and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, G.V.; de Jong, Jelte; Valentijn, E.; Kuijken, K.; Consortiums, KiDS; Consortium, Astro-WISE; Ballester, P.; Egret, D.; Lorente, N.P.F.

    The Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) is a 1500 square degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). A suite of data products will be delivered to ESO and the community by the KiDS survey team. Spread over Europe, the KiDS team

  8. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  9. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David P.; Bally, John; Bond, I.; Cheng, Ed; Cook, Kem; Deming, Drake; Garnavich, P.; Griest, Kim; Jewitt, David; Kaiser, Nick; Lauer, Tod R.; Lunine, Jonathan; Luppino, Gerard; Mather, John C.; Minniti, Dante; Peale, Stanton J.; Rhie, Sun H.; Rhodes, Jason; Schneider, Jean; Sonneborn, George; Stevenson, Robert; Stubbs, Christopher; Tenerelli, Domenick; Woolf, Neville; Yock, Phillip

    2003-02-01

    The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) will observe a 2 square degree field in the Galactic bulge to search for extra-solar planets using a gravitational lensing technique. This gravitational lensing technique is the only method employing currently available technology that can detect Earth-mass planets at high signal-to-noise, and can measure the abundance of terrestrial planets as a function of Galactic position. GEST's sensitivity extends down to the mass of Mars, and it can detect hundreds of terrestrial planets with semi-major axes ranging from 0.7 AU to infinity. GEST will be the first truly comprehensive survey of the Galaxy for planets like those in our own Solar System.

  10. Unveiling the Nature of Giant Ellipticals and their Stellar Halos with the VST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spavone, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Iodice, E.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Cooper, A. P.; Cantiello, M.; Forbes, D. A.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of diffuse starlight in the outskirts of galaxies provide fundamental constraints on the cosmological context of galaxy assembly in the Lambda Cold Dark Matter model, which predicts that galaxies grow through a combination of in-situ star formation and accretion of stars from other galaxies. Accreted stars are expected to dominate in the outer parts of galaxies. Since dynamical timescales are longer in these regions, substructures related to accretion, such as streams and shells, can persist over many Gyr. In this work we use extremely deep g- and i-band images of six massive early- type galaxies (ETGs) from the VEGAS survey to constrain the properties of their accreted stellar components. The wide field of view of OmegaCAM on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) also allows us to investigate the properties of small stellar systems (such as globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs and satellite galaxies) in the halos of our galaxies. By fitting light profiles, and comparing the results to simulations of elliptical galaxy assembly, we have identified signatures of a transition between relaxed and unrelaxed accreted components and can constrain the balance between in-situ and accreted stars.

  11. Optical Design for a Survey X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0-degree full field-of-view.

  12. Synergy of CETUS with Survey Telescopes of the 2020's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara; and the CETUS Science Team

    2018-01-01

    There has been an explosion in wide-field telescopes conducting astrophysical surveys that will come to fruition in the 2020’s. These wide and deep telescopes will survey the sky at wavelengths ranging from gamma rays to radio waves. E-ROSITA will perform an all-sky X-ray survey with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Numerous telescopes on the ground and in space will observe electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave sources. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, LSST, will map the southern sky discovering billions of new galaxies and stars and detecting transient objects. Subaru’s Hyper Suprime Cam and Prime Focus Spectrograph will work to understand dark energy, and galaxy evolution at redshifts, z~1-2 using optical-IR spectra, and to carry out studies of stellar archeology. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, WFIRST, will conduct imaging and slitless spectroscopic surveys of the sky at near-IR wavelengths including nebular emission of H-alpha at redshifts up to z=2. The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and other radio telescopes will map a billion galaxies using the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen. We will show how CETUS’s near-UV and far-UV cameras and its near-UV multi-object spectrograph will work in synergy with these other survey telescopes.

  13. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Integrated Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Blaurock, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Contents: introduction to WFIRST (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope) and integrated modeling; WFIRST stability requirement summary; instability mitigation strategies; dynamic jitter results; STOP (structural-thermal-optical performance) (thermal distortion) results; STOP and jitter capability limitations; model validation philosophy.

  14. Research on scheduling of robotic transient survey for Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wei, Peng; Shang, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Bin; Hu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) are designed to be fully robotic telescopes at Dome A, Antarctica, which aim for highly efficient time-domain sky surveys as well as rapid response to special transient events (e.g., gamma-ray bursts, near-Earth asteroids, supernovae, etc.). Unlike traditional observations, a well-designed real-time survey scheduler is needed in order to implement an automatic survey in a very efficient, reliable and flexible way for the unattended telescopes. We present a study of the survey strategy for AST3 and implementation of its survey scheduler, which is also useful for other survey projects.

  15. Guiding and adapter/rotator control software approach: the VST case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipani, P.; Brescia, M.; Marty, L.; Spirito, G.

    2006-06-01

    The adapter of the VST telescope hosts many devices handled by the overall telescope control software: a probe system to select the guide star realized with motions in polar coordinates, a pickup mirror to fold the light to the image analysis and guiding cameras, a selectable reference light system and a focusing device. The algorithm to select the guide star depends on the specific geometry of the system. All these devices deeply interface with autoguiding, active optics and field rotation compensation systems. A reverse engineering approach mixed to the integration of new specific solutions has been fundamental to match the ESO commitments in terms of software re-use, in order to smoothen the integration of a new telescope designed and built by an external institute in the ESO environment. The control software architecture is here described, as well as the status of work.

  16. VLBI telescopes' gravitational deformations investigated with terrestrial surveying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, P.; Abbondanza, C.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.

    2008-09-01

    Large VLBI telescopes undergo gravitational deformations which affect both geodetic and astronomic observations. In order to assess the extent and magnitude of such deformations and to evaluate their effect on telescopes' performances, terrestrial surveying methods can be applied to monitor the telescopes' structure at different pointing elevations. Finite Element Model analysis, laser scanner surveying, trilateration and triangulation have been applied on the telescope in Medicina to estimate i) the deformations of the primary mirror and to monitor ii) the position of the feed horn located at the primary focus and iii) the position of the vertex of the paraboloid. If detectable, these deformations modify the position of the primary focus and the signal path length and may therefore reduce the antenna gain and bias the phase of the incoming signal. We are presenting the investigations performed on the Medicina VLBI telescope, quantifying the magnitude of the deformations of the primary dish, the quadrupode and the vertex and we are also presenting an elevation dependent model for signal path corrections.

  17. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) Proposed Discovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D. P.; Bally, J.; Bond, I.; Cheng, E.; Cook, K.; Deming, D.; Garnavich, P.; Griest, K.; Jewitt, D.; Lauer, T.; Lunine, J.; Luppino, G.; Mather, J.; Minniti, D.; Peale, S.; Rhie, S.; Sahu, K.; Schneider, J.; Sonneborn, G.; Stevenson, R.; Tenerelli, D.; Woolf, N.; Yock, P.; Rich, M.

    2003-12-01

    The results of detailed simulations of space and ground based microlensing searches for extra-solar terrestrial planets are presented. These simulations indicate that the proposed Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) can perform a comprehensive survey of extra-solar planetary systems with sensitivity to planets with masses as low as that of Mars (0.1M⊕ ) in orbits ranging from ˜ 0.7AU to infinity. In contrast, a multi-site ground based survey telescopes similar to VISTA or individual PAN-Stars telescopes, would be unlikely to discover a single Earth-like planet due the inability to resolve Galactic bulge main sequence stars from the ground, and the difficulty of obtaining 24 hour light curve coverage with good observing conditions. A space-based microlensing survey like GEST will be able to measure the abundance of extra-solar planets as a function of planet:star mass ratio and separation. For one third of detected events, the lens star will be detected, and this will allow the determination of the stellar type, mass and distance of the planetary host stars. A space-based microlensing survey is the only proposed method which can measure the abundance of free-floating planets which have been ejected from their parent stars. GEST can be accomplished at low risk with established technology at a cost that is within the cost cap of NASA's Discovery Program, but the prospects for planet detection from a possible future network large wide-field of view telescopes is unlikely to justify the funds necessary to build such s telescope network.

  18. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2009-01-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed hard X-ray imaging all-sky deep survey mission recommended by the Report of the 2001 Decadal Survey. It is a strong candidate to be the Black Hole Finder Probe, one of the three "Einstein Probes" in the Beyond Einstein Program. In its new more evolved form, the EXIST mission now includes a simplified, but more sensitive, very large area and field of view imaging hard X-ray telescope as well as a 1.1m optical-NIR telescope (0.3-2.5microns) for rapid ( 100sec) followup imaging and spectra and thus prompt redshifts of high-z GRBs. The IRT will also permit identification and galaxy spectra for a significant fraction of the obscured AGNs detected in the EXIST full sky survey. The primary science objectives for EXIST are to: 1) study the earliest stars, re-ionization, and development of structure in the universe with prompt hard X-ray and prompt followup NIR measurements of GRBs at z >7, 2) constrain the accretion luminosity of the universe by measurements of high luminosity obscured AGN at z 0-2.5, low luminosity AGN at z 10X the area of Swift/BAT and much broader energy band, as well deep NIR coverage with a passively cooled mirror, EXIST greatly surpasses any previous or proposed mission for wide-field imaging and spectroscopy of GRBs and black holes on all scales.

  19. 20 CFR 638.600 - Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) through work projects. 638.600 Section 638.600 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Skills Training (VST) § 638.600 Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects. (a)(1... (VST) projects; such procedures shall include funding and reporting requirements, criteria to be used...

  20. Survey Strategy Optimization for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, F.; Stevens, J. R.; Hasselfield, M.; Alonso, D.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Crowley, K. T.; Devlin, M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there have been significant improvements in the sensitivity and the angular resolution of the instruments dedicated to the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). ACTPol is the first polarization receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and is observing the CMB sky with arcmin resolution over approximately 2000 square degrees. Its upgrade, Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT), will observe the CMB in five frequency bands and over a larger area of the sky. We describe the optimization and implementation of the ACTPol and AdvACT surveys. The selection of the observed fields is driven mainly by the science goals, that is, small angular scale CMB measurements, B-mode measurements and cross-correlation studies. For the ACTPol survey we have observed patches of the southern galactic sky with low galactic foreground emissions which were also chosen to maximize the overlap with several galaxy surveys to allow unique cross-correlation studies. A wider field in the northern galactic cap ensured significant additional overlap with the BOSS spectroscopic survey. The exact shapes and footprints of the fields were optimized to achieve uniform coverage and to obtain cross-linked maps by observing the fields with different scan directions. We have maximized the efficiency of the survey by implementing a close to 24-hour observing strategy, switching between daytime and nighttime observing plans and minimizing the telescope idle time. We describe the challenges represented by the survey optimization for the significantly wider area observed by AdvACT, which will observe roughly half of the low-foreground sky. The survey strategies described here may prove useful for planning future ground-based CMB surveys, such as the Simons Observatory and CMB Stage IV surveys.

  1. Astronomical Image Simulation for Telescope and Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobke, Benjamin M.; Johnston, David E.; Massey, Richard; High, F. William; Ferry, Matt; Rhodes, Jason; Vanderveld, R. Ali

    2010-08-01

    We present the simage software suite for the simulation of artificial extragalactic images, based empirically around real observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The simulations reproduce galaxies with realistic and complex morphologies via the modeling of UDF galaxies as shapelets. Images can be created in the B, V, i and z bands for both space- and ground-based telescopes and instruments. The simulated images can be produced for any required field size, exposure time, PSF, telescope mirror size, pixel resolution, field star density, and a variety of detector noise sources. It has the capability to create images with either a predetermined number of galaxies, or one calibrated to the number counts of preexisting data sets such as the HST COSMOS survey. In addition, simple options are included to add a known weak gravitational lensing signal (both shear and flexion) to the simulated images. The software is available in IDL and can be freely downloaded for scientific, developmental, and teaching purposes.

  2. ALPACA: An Inexpensive but Uniquely Powerful Imaging Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotts, Arlin P.; ALPACA Consortium

    2006-12-01

    ALPACA (Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Astrophysics, Cosmology and Asteroids) is an 8-meter optical telescope destined for Cerro Tololo and designed to scan a strip of sky passing overhead and extending over 1000 square degrees. The imaging survey will be conducted in five photometric bands covering the optical waveband and allow for photometric descrimination of many source types, including supernova types and asteroid categories, and allow photometric redshift determination for both galaxies and supernovae. The ALPACA is intended to extend over at least a three years and reach a cumulative point-source detection of about 28th magnitude AB at 10-sigma. ALPACA will deliver nightly photometry for many classes of variable and moving objects. Most crucial, perhaps, will be the exquisitely deep, numerous and well-sampled multiband lightcurve sample for supernova, particularly SNe Ia to redshifts z 0.8. This is an excellent redshift range for dark energy model descrimination, but also can be used for unprecedentedly sensitive tests and improvements of the SN Ia standard candle relation. There are many other superlative projects that will be conducted with ALPACA data, including studies of high redshift galaxies, quasars and AGN, large scale structure, novae, variable stars, Galactic Bulge microlensing, Galactic structure, stellar populations, extrasolar planets, Kuiper Belt objects, Near-Earth objects and many other classes of targets. ALPACA is based on the 6-meter LZT (Large Zenith Telescope), which is currently operating in British Columbia and producing largely seeing-limited imaging. ALPACA has undergone conceptual design review and is now under design. Seeing tests are underway at sites on Cerro Tololo. We hope to achieve first light on ALPACA by late 2009. Proto-ALPACA is a stage of the project with the full-sized telescope with a smaller field of view, and will be first operational. ALPACA might eventually add instrumentation; a multiobject spectrograph is

  3. Asteroid Discovery and Characterization with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. Lynne; Jurić, Mario; Ivezić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a ground-based, optical, all-sky, rapid cadence survey project with tremendous potential for discovering and characterizing asteroids. With LSST's large 6.5m diameter primary mirror, a wide 9.6 square degree field of view 3.2 Gigapixel camera, and rapid observational cadence, LSST will discover more than 5 million asteroids over its ten year survey lifetime. With a single visit limiting magnitude of 24.5 in r band, LSST will be able to detect asteroids in the Main Belt down to sub-kilometer sizes. The current strawman for the LSST survey strategy is to obtain two visits (each `visit' being a pair of back-to-back 15s exposures) per field, separated by about 30 minutes, covering the entire visible sky every 3-4 days throughout the observing season, for ten years. The catalogs generated by LSST will increase the known number of small bodies in the Solar System by a factor of 10-100 times, among all populations. The median number of observations for Main Belt asteroids will be on the order of 200-300, with Near Earth Objects receiving a median of 90 observations. These observations will be spread among ugrizy bandpasses, providing photometric colors and allow sparse lightcurve inversion to determine rotation periods, spin axes, and shape information. These catalogs will be created using automated detection software, the LSST Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), that will take advantage of the carefully characterized LSST optical system, cosmetically clean camera, and recent improvements in difference imaging. Tests with the prototype MOPS software indicate that linking detections (and thus `discovery') will be possible at LSST depths with our working model for the survey strategy, but evaluation of MOPS and improvements in the survey strategy will continue. All data products and software created by LSST will be publicly available.

  4. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures.

  5. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W.N.; Burke, D.L.; Claver, C.F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K.H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jacoby, S.H.; Jones, R.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kantor, J.P.; Krabbendam, V.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T.L.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, Michael A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LSST Corp. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NOAO, Tucson /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz /Harvard U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Illinois U., Urbana

    2011-10-14

    In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg{sup 2} field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg{sup 2} with {delta} < +34.5{sup o}, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the

  6. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From science drivers to reference design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivezić Ž.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next- generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST. LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective primary mirror, a 9.6 deg2 field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg2 with δ < +34.5◦ , and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep- wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg2 region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the LSST

  7. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers To Reference Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivezić, Ž.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST. LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pach'{o}n in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4, m (6.5, m effective primary mirror, a 9.6 deg$^2$ field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg$^2$ with $delta<+34.5^circ$, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, $ugrizy$, covering the wavelength range 320--1050 nm. About 90\\% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg$^2$ region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10\\% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We

  8. Use of surgical telescopes by senior dental students: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagge, Mark S

    2003-12-01

    This survey examined the use of surgical telescopes (STs) in a large senior dental student class. The percentage of students who purchased STs, factors that influenced those purchases, frequency/patterns of use, and purchase satisfaction were investigated. The survey return rate was 85.3% (128 of 150). Among the respondents, 86% had purchased STs and 14% had not. The most frequent motive for ST purchase was advice received from others (43%); ergonomic reasons were cited by 21% of users. Fixed-lens designs were selected more frequently (70%) than flip-down systems (30%). Nearly all ST purchases were made during the first year of dental school (95%), and low-power magnification (x 2-2.5) was chosen by 88% of purchasers. STs were used more often for operative dentistry, fixed prosthodontics, endodontics, and pediatric dentistry than for practice in other disciplines. ST users expressed a high level of satisfaction with their purchases (84%). The most common reason given for not purchasing STs was being able to see well enough without them (9 of 18; 50%).

  9. Optical Studies of Space Debris at GEO: Survey and Follow-up with Two Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercomby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.; Barker, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    For 14 nights in March 2007, we used two telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile to study the nature of space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). In this project one telescope was dedicated to survey operations, while a second telescope was used for follow-up observations for orbits and colors. The goal was to obtain orbital and photometric information on every faint object found with the survey telescope. Thus we concentrate on objects fainter than R = 15th magnitude.

  10. Investigation of relationships between AIMS shape properties and VST friction values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A thorough analysis was conducted for AIMS shape properties measured for virgin aggregates, aggregates : polished in the Micro-Deval (MD) for 105 and 210 minutes, and VST friction samples. Excellent repeatability of : AIMS angularity and texture meas...

  11. Legacy extragalactic UV survey (LEGUS) with the Hubble space telescope. I. Survey description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzetti, D.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts–Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T. M.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Smith, L. J. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thilker, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Silva, R. da [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California—Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Mink, S. E. de [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dobbs, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Elmegreen, D. M., E-mail: calzetti@astro.umass.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ∼kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(λ2704 Å), F336W(λ3355 Å), F438W(λ4325 Å), F555W(λ5308 Å), and F814W(λ8024 Å); the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(λ4328 Å), F606W(λ5921 Å), and F814W(λ8057 Å). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (≲50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas–star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.

  12. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  13. The 2.5 m Telescope of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, James E.; Siegmund, Walter A.; al, Edward J. Mannery et

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Telescope located at Apache Point Observatory. The telescope is a modified two-corrector Ritchey-Chretien design which has a 2.5-m, f/2.25 primary, a 1.08-m secondary, a Gascoigne astigmatism corrector, and one of a pair of interchangeable highly aspheric correctors near the focal focal plane, one for imaging and the other for spectroscopy. The final focal ratio is f/5. The telescope is instrumented by a wid...

  14. Radio Frequency Interference Site Survey for Thai Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroenjittichai, P.; Punyawarin, S.; Singwong, D.; Somboonpon, P.; Prasert, N.; Bandudej, K.; Kempet, P.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Kramer, B.

    2017-09-01

    Radio astronomical observations have increasingly been threaten by the march of today telecommunication and wireless technology. Performance of radio telescopes lies within the fact that astronomical sources are extremely weak. National Astronomy Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) has initiated a 5-year project, known as the Radio Astronomy Network and Geodesy for Development (RANGD), which includes the establishment of 40-meter and 13-meter radio telescopes. Possible locations have been narrowed down to three candidates, situated in the Northern part of Thailand, where the atmosphere is sufficiently dry and suitable for 22 and 43 GHz observations. The Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) measurements were carried out with a DC spectrum analyzer and directional antennas at 1.5 meter above ground, from 20 MHz to 6 GHz with full azimuth coverage. The data from a 3-minute pointing were recorded for both horizontal and vertical polarizations, in maxhold and average modes. The results, for which we used to make preliminary site selection, show signals from typical broadcast and telecommunication services and aeronautics applications. The signal intensity varies accordingly to the presence of nearby population and topography of the region.

  15. Status Report on CASTOR (The Cosmological Advanced Survey Telescope for Optical and uv Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Patrick

    The Cosmological Advanced Survey Telescope for Optical and uv Research (CASTOR) is a proposed wide-field optical/UV imaging telescope concept that is currently being investigated by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The nearly diffraction-limited 1m CASTOR telescope would perform deep, panoramic imaging in three filters covering the ultra-violet and blue-optical spectral regions at a spatial resolution comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope but with a 200x gain in field of view. In this talk, I summarize the status of the proposed mission, concentrating on ongoing technical work on the focal plane array, optical design and scientific planning. I also review the main science drivers for the facility, which range from the study of dark energy to the nature of small bodies in the outer solar system.

  16. Data Mining for Double Stars on VLT Survey Telescope Image Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curelaru, Lucian

    2017-04-01

    The article presents a set of methods and tools used to identify and measure double stars on already existing images produced by the ESO VLT Survey Telescope in Paranal Chile. A precision analysis and a first set of measurements are included.

  17. The Green Bank Telescope 350 MHz Drift-scan survey. I. Survey Observations and the Discovery of 13 Pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyles, J.; Lynch, R.S.; Ransom, S.M.; Stairs, I.H.; Lorimer, D.R.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Kaspi, V.M.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Archibald, A.; Berndsen, A.; Cardoso, R.F.; Cherry, A.; Epstein, C.R.; Karako-Argaman, C.; McPhee, C.A.; Pennucci, T.; Roberts, M.S.E.; Stovall, K.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the summer of 2007, we obtained 1191 hr of "drift-scan" pulsar search observations with the Green Bank Telescope at a radio frequency of 350 MHz. Here we describe the survey setup, search procedure, and the discovery and follow-up timing of 13 pulsars. Among the new discoveries, one (PSR

  18. Do Multiple-Choice Options Inflate Estimates of Vocabulary Size on the VST?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Validated under a Rasch framework (Beglar, 2010), the Vocabulary Size Test (VST) (Nation & Beglar, 2007) is an increasingly popular measure of decontextualized written receptive vocabulary size in the field of second language acquisition. However, although the validation indicates that the test has high internal reliability, still unaddressed…

  19. Flagstaff Robotic Survey Telescope (FRoST): Rapid Response for NEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avner, Louis Daniel; Trilling, David E.; Dunham, Edward W.

    2016-10-01

    The Flagstaff Robotic Survey Telescope (FRoST) is a robotic 0.6m Schmidt telescope that will be used for instant follow-up observations of newly discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here, we present the progress being made on FRoST as well as the remaining tasks until the telescope is fully operational. With more than one thousand NEOs being found yearly, more telescopes are needed to carry out follow-up observations. Most NEOs are found at their peak brightness, meaning that these observations need to happen quickly before they fade. By using the Catalina Sky Survey Queue Manager, FRoST will be able to accept interruptions during the night and prioritize observations automatically, allowing instant follow-up observations. FRoST will help refine the orbit of these newly discovered objects while providing optical colors. We will ingest information from the NEOCP and JPL's Scout program at five minute intervals and observe newly discovered targets robotically, process the data automatically, and autonomously generate astrometry and colors. We estimate that will we provide essentially 100% recovery of objects brighter than V~20. This work was supported by the NSF MRI program as well as by NAU and Lowell Observatory.

  20. A 4-mm Spectral Line Survey of Orion-KL with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Michelle; Maddalena, R. J.; Frayer, D. T.; Hough, L.

    2013-01-01

    The KL region of the Orion Giant Molecular Cloud is one of the nearest sites of massive star formation. Its proximity, size, and favorable position in the sky have made it an area of intense scientific study across multiple wavelengths. The new 4-mm receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was used to carry out a spectral-line survey between 67.0 and 93.6 GHz. In comparison to the best previous survey in this band by Turner (1989) using the NRAO 12-m telescope, the new survey is both significantly more sensitive and covers the poorly-explored frequencies at the low-frequency end of the 3-mm atmospheric window. The survey has detected new lines and identified several previously unidentified lines. Additionally, from this research a high school project was created where by students enrolled in an introductory astronomy course at Eleanor Roosevelt High School were able to explore the methodologies used by modern radio astronomers to determine the composition of molecular clouds. Students were expected to perform a procedure similar to that performed by the researchers to explore both how radio telescopes ‘see’ the universe and to use the frequency spectra acquired to determine which molecules are present in the Orion-KL Nebula. This work was supported in part by the NSF-RET and the NSF-REU programs. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  1. The Javalambre Survey Telescope (JST/T250): a multi-filter surveying machine for the Northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenarro, Javier; Marin-Franch, Antonio; Moles, Mariano; Cristobal-Hornillos, David; Dupke, Renato a.; Benitez, Txitxo; Taylor, Keith

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre Survey Telescope (JST/T250) is a 2.55m Richey-Chretien, alt-azimuthal telescope with a field of view of diameter 3 deg and an effective etendue of 26.5 m2deg2 operated by the Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA) at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ). JST/T250 is particularly conceived and defined for carrying out large sky multi-filter surveys, like J-PAS (http://j-pas.org), which will be the main survey to be conducted during the first years of operation. To guarantee a seeing limited image quality all over the ~0.5m diameter focal plane, JST/T250 hosts state-of-the-arte optics, including complex hyperbolic M1 and M2 mirrors and a challenging field corrector of three lenses with 4 aspherical surfaces and high slopes. The optical configuration ends up with the powered entrance window of JPCam, the panoramic camera for J-PAS, with ~1200Mpix in a mosaic of 14 large format CCDs of 9.2k x 9.2k, and a set of 56 narrow-band, contiguous, optical filters. In this poster we present a detailed view of the telescope configuration, its optical performance and the expected operation for the J-PAS survey execution.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopic survey of brown dwarfs using NIRSPEC on the Keck II Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ian S.

    2003-02-01

    Since commissioning the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II telescope in April 1999 we have been carrying out an extensive spectroscopic survey of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. At least two objects in every spectral sub-class from M6 to T8 have been observed in the J band at a resolution of R ~ 2,000. For a subset of these we have obtained complete near-infrared flux-calibrated spectra from 0.9 - 2.5 μm. In addition, J band spectra at even higher resolution (R ~ 20,000) have been obtained for many sub-classes. The results of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) are summarized in this paper and presented as an illustration of the progress in infrared technology and the scientific productivity of the Keck telescopes.

  3. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: A summary update on the scientific potential for pulsating star research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide hundreds of deep images of the southern sky over its 10 year duration, enabling variability studies for an unprecedentedly large and unbiased population of objects. In this proceeding paper I will cover the aspects of the LSST's survey and data products that are most relevant to the study of stellar pulsations (Sect. 1), and provide a directory of pertinent materials for further information. I will also summarize the anticipated variable star sample sizes from the LSST, and highlight recent research from several members of the scientific community which evaluates the scientific potential of the LSST's data products with respect to pulsating stars (Sect. 2).

  4. EXIST (Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope): The Next Large GRB Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G. J.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies have begun on the EXIST (Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope) Mission. It is planned as a very wide-field, sensitive coded aperture telescope with a sensitive area of the order of 6-8 m^2 and having a positional accuracy for GRBs (Gamma ray bursts) better than one arc-minute. EXIST will use SWIFT as a pathfinder mission; the findings of SWIFT will refine the scientific objectives of EXIST and will help to determine many of its design parameters. It would study early star formation and early galaxy formation at very high redshifts through observations of thousands of GRBs, their afterglows and environments. It is intended that the international GRB community will play as large role in EXIST through direct participation as well as with complementary observational programs, both space-based and ground-based. Some preliminary design features and capabilities of the EXIST Mission will be presented.

  5. Precision Pointing for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope(WFIRST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Welter, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for a mid-2020's launch, is currently in its definition phase. The mission is designed to investigate essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. WFIRST will use a 2.4-meter primary telescope (same size as the Hubble Space Telescope's primary mirror) and two instruments: the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) and the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). In order to address the critical science requirements, the WFIRST mission will conduct large-scale surveys of the infrared sky, requiring both agility and precision pointing (11.6 milli-arcsec stability, 14 milli-arcsec jitter). This paper describes some of the challenges this mission profile presents to the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) subsystem, and some of the design elements chosen to accommodate those challenges. The high-galactic-latitude survey is characterized by 3-minute observations separated by slews ranging from 0.025 deg to 0.8 deg. The need for observation efficiency drives the slew and settle process to be as rapid as possible. A description of the shaped slew profile chosen to minimize excitation of structural oscillation, and the handoff from star tracker-gyro control to fine guidance sensor control is detailed. Also presented is the fine guidance sensor (FGS), which is integral with the primary instrument (WFI). The FGS is capable of tracking up to 18 guide stars, enabling robust FGS acquisition and precision pointing. To avoid excitation of observatory structural jitter, reaction wheel speeds are operationally maintained within set limits. In addition, the wheel balance law is designed to maintain 1-Hz separation between the wheel speeds to avoid reinforcing jitter excitation at any particular frequency. The wheel balance law and operational implications are described. Finally, the candidate GNC hardware suite needed to meet the requirements of the mission is presented.

  6. X-Ray Polarization Measurements with the EXIST Hard X-Ray Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynski, Henric; Garson, A., III; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed NASA mission for scanning the entire sky in intermediate and hard X-rays. The EXIST mission includes a wide field of view High Energy Telescope (HET) covering the 5-600 keV energy range, and an infrared telescope. The HET has the capability to measure the energy dependent X-ray polarization properties of moderately bright and bright X-ray sources. Here we report on a study of the polarization sensitivity of EXIST as a function of the integration time. Broadband X-ray polarization measurements with EXIST have the potential to make important contributions to our understanding of a number of astrophysical source types including binary black holes, accreting neutron stars, magnetars, pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. EXIST observations of the X-rays from binary black holes can be used to constrain the spins of black holes. Last but not least, EXIST observations of active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts can be used for extremely sensitive Lorentz Invariance tests.

  7. The James clerk maxwell telescope legacy survey of nearby star-forming regions in the gould belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Nutter, D.; Bastien, P.; Basu, S.; Bonnell, I.; Bowey, J.; Brunt, C.; Buckle, J.; Butner, H.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E.; Davis, C. J.; Dent, W. R. F.; van Dishoeck, E.; Edmunds, M. G.; Fich, M.; Fiege, J.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuller, G. A.; Gosling, A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J. S.; Helmich, F.; Hills, R. E.; Holland, W. S.; Houde, M.; Jayawardhana, R.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, H.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Matzner, C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.; Naylor, D.; Padman, R.; Plume, R.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Redman, R. O.; Reid, M.; Richer, J. S.; Shipman, R.; Simpson, R. J.; Spaans, M.; Stamatellos, D.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Whitworth, A. P.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    This paper describes a James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) legacy survey that has been awarded roughly 500 hr of observing time to be carried out from 2007 to 2009. In this survey, we will map with SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) almost all of the well-known low-mass and

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Preliminary Public Catalog Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; van der Marel, R. P.; Milone, A. P.; Brown, T. M.; Cool, A. M.; King, I. R.; Sarajedini, A.; Granata, V.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  9. WEAVE-QSO: A Massive Intergalactic Medium Survey for the William Herschel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, M. M.; Bonoli, S.; Chaves-Montero, J.; Pâris, I.; Fumagalli, M.; Bolton, J. S.; Viel, M.; Noterdaeme, P.; Miralda-Escudé, J.; Busca, N. G.; Rahmani, H.; Peroux, C.; Font-Ribera, A.; Trager, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    In these proceedings we describe the WEAVE-QSO survey, which will observe around 400,000 high redshift quasars starting in 2018. This survey is part of a broader WEAVE survey to be conducted at the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. We will focus on chiefly on the science goals, but will also briefly summarise the target selection methods anticipated and the expected survey plan. Understanding the apparent acceleration in the expansion of the Universe is one of the key scientific challenges of our time. Many experiments have been proposed to study this expansion, using a variety of techniques. Here we describe a survey that can measure this acceleration and therefore help elucidate the nature of dark energy: a survey of the Lyα forest (and quasar absorption in general) in spectra towards z>2 quasars (QSOs). Further constraints on neutrino masses and warm dark matter are also anticipated. The same data will also shed light on galaxy formation via study of the properties of inflowing/outflowing gas associated with nearby galaxies and in a cosmic web context. Gas properties are sensitive to density, temperature, UV radiation, metallicity and abundance pattern, and so constraint galaxy formation in a variety of ways. WEAVE-QSO will study absorbers with a dynamic range spanning more than 8 orders of magnitude in column density, their thermal broadening, and a host of elements and ionization species. A core principal of the WEAVE-QSO survey is the targeting of QSOs with near 100% efficiency principally through use of the J-PAS (r < 23.2) and Gaia (r ≲ 20) data.

  10. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  11. THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY: STACKED IMAGES AND CATALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J., E-mail: Stephen.Gwyn@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    This paper describes the image stacks and catalogs of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey produced using the MegaPipe data pipeline at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. The Legacy Survey is divided into two parts. The Deep Survey consists of four fields each of 1 deg{sup 2}, with magnitude limits (50% completeness for point sources) of u = 27.5, g = 27.9, r = 27.7, i = 27.4, and z = 26.2. It contains 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} sources. The Wide Survey consists of 150 deg{sup 2} split over four fields, with magnitude limits of u = 26.0, g = 26.5, r = 25.9, i = 25.7, and z = 24.6. It contains 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} sources. This paper describes the calibration, image stacking, and catalog generation process. The images and catalogs are available on the web through several interfaces: normal image and text file catalog downloads, a 'Google Sky' interface, an image cutout service, and a catalog database query service.

  12. Variability Properties of Four Million Sources in the TESS Input Catalog Observed with the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua; Somers, Garrett; Kafka, Stella; Stevens, Daniel J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; James, David; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2018-01-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) has been surveying more than 70% of the celestial sphere for nearly a decade. While the primary science goal of the survey is the discovery of transiting, large-radii planets around bright host stars, the survey has collected more than 106 images, with a typical cadence between 10–30 minutes, for more than four million sources with apparent visual magnitudes in the approximate range 7https://filtergraph.com/kelt_vars.

  13. Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST): A Proposed Space-Based Microlensing Survey for Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D.; Rhie, S. H.

    We present a conceptual design for a space based Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) which will use the gravitational microlensing technique to detect extra solar planets with masses as low as that of Mars at all separations >~ 1 AU. The microlensing data would be collected by a diffraction limited, wide field imaging telescope of ~ 1.5m aperture equipped with a large array of red-optimized CCD detectors. Such a system would be able to monitor $\\sim 2\\times 10^8$ stars in $\\sim 6$ square degrees of the Galactic bulge at intervals of 20-30 minutes, and it would observe $\\sim 12000$ microlensing events in three bulge seasons. If planetary systems like our own are common, GEST should be able to detect $\\sim 5000$ planets over a 2.5 year lifetime. If gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn are rare, then GEST would detect $\\sim 1300$ planets in a 2.5 year mission if we assume that most planetary systems are dominated by planets of about Neptune's' mass. Such a mission would also discover $\\sim 100$ planets of an Earth mass or smaller if such planets are common. This is a factor of $\\sim 50$ better than the most ambitious ground based programs that have been proposed. GEST will also be sensitive to planets which have been separated from their parent stars.

  14. New "Einstein Cross" Gravitational Lens Candidates in Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Survey Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Ostrander, Eric J.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Im, Myungshin

    1995-11-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of "Einstein cross" gravitational lens candidates using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have so far discovered two good examples of such lenses, each in the form of four faint blue images located in a symmetric configuration around a red elliptical galaxy. The high resolution of HST has facilitated the discovery of this optically selected sample of faint lenses with small (~1") separations between the (I ~ 25--27) lensed components and the much brighter (I ~ 19--22) lensing galaxies. The sample has been discovered in the routine processing of HST fields through the Medium Deep Survey pipeline, which fits simple galaxy models to broadband filter images of all objects detected in random survey fields using WFPC2. We show that the lens configuration can be modeled using the gravitational field potential of a singular isothermal ellipsoidal mass distribution. With this model the lensing potential is very similar, both in ellipticity and orientation, to the observed light distribution of the elliptical galaxy, as would occur when stars are a tracer population. The model parameters and associated errors have been derived by two-dimensional analysis of the observed images. The maximum likelihood procedure iteratively converges simultaneously on the model for the lensing elliptical galaxy and the source of the lensed components. A systematic search is in progress for other gravitational lens candidates in the HST Medium Deep Survey. This should eventually lead to a good statistical estimate for lensing probabilities and enable us to probe the cosmological parameters.

  15. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Slitless Spectrometer: Design, Prototype, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; hide

    2016-01-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  16. Star counts from the Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey. I - Galactic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A.; Bahcall, J. N.; Maoz, D.

    1993-01-01

    We report a photometric study of stars from 450 fields at high Galactic latitudes that were observed in the Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey to an average limiting apparent magnitude of V = 21.4. There are 166 fields that contain quasars selected in radio, X-ray, and color-excess surveys. This sample of 273 stars is free of selection bias with respect to the density of stars. To within the Poisson errors, the total counts and magnitude distribution of this unbiased sample are in agreement with the Bahcall-Soneira model (Bahcall, 1986). The angular distribution of the faint stars favors, at the 2 sigma level, a somewhat steeper disk luminosity function and a smaller spheroid main-sequence normalization than given by the model. The sample does not have enough statistical power to distinguish between the two-component Bahcall-Soneira model and the three-component model first proposed by Gilmore and Reid (1983), which contains a thick disk. The statistical power of the survey would increase about 15-fold if colors were obtained for the stars: the data probe the main sequences of the disk, thick disk, and spheroid. Models with and without a thick disk could then be distinguished at the 6 sigma level. The HST Snapshot Survey includes an additional 284 fields, 279 of which are centered on quasars that were selected by objective-prism surveys. These 279 fields are expected to show and do exhibit bias against bright stars, making them unsuitable for testing Galactic models.

  17. Origins Space Telescope: 3D infrared surveys of star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; bradford, charles; Origins Space Telescope STDT

    2018-01-01

    In the coming decade, new telescope facilities and surveys aim to provide a 3D map of the unobscured Universe over cosmic time. However, much of galaxy formation and evolution occurs behind dust, and is only observable through infrared observations. Previous extragalactic infrared surveys were fundamentally limited to a 2D mapping of the most extreme populations of galaxies due to spatial resolution and sensitivity. The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies sponsored by NASA to provide input to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. OST is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum, which will achieve spectral line sensitivities up to 1000 times deeper than previous infrared facilities. With powerful instruments such as the Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS), capable of simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy, the extragalactic infrared sky can finally be surveyed in 3D. In addition to spectroscopic redshifts, the rich suite of lines in the infrared provides unique diagnostics of the ongoing star formation (both obscured and unobscured) and the central supermassive black hole growth. In this poster, we present a simulated extragalactic survey with OST/MRSS which will detect millions of galaxies down to well below the knee of the infrared luminosity function. We demonstrate how this survey can map the coeval star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over cosmic time.

  18. New Mission Concept Study: Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This Report summarizes the activity carried out under the New Mission Concept (NMC) study for a mission to conduct a sensitive all-sky imaging survey in the hard x-ray (HX) band (approximately 10-600 keV). The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission was originally proposed for this NMC study and was then subsequently proposed for a MIDEX mission as part of this study effort. Development of the EXIST (and related) concepts continues for a future flight proposal. The hard x-ray band (approximately 10-600 keV) is nearly the final band of the astronomical spectrum still without a sensitive imaging all-sky survey. This is despite the enormous potential of this band to address a wide range of fundamental and timely objectives - from the origin and physical mechanisms of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to the processes on strongly magnetic neutron stars that produce soft gamma-repeaters and bursting pulsars; from the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars to the origin and evolution of the hard x-ray diffuse background; from the nature and number of black holes and neutron stars and the accretion processes onto them to the extreme non-thermal flares of normal stars; and from searches for expected diffuse (but relatively compact) nuclear line (Ti-44) emission in uncatalogued supernova remnants to diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton emission from galaxy clusters. A high sensitivity all-sky survey mission in the hard x-ray band, with imaging to both address source confusion and time-variable background radiations, is very much needed.

  19. Simulation of a wide area survey for NEOs with Pan-STARRS PS1 & PS2 Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Lilly (Schunova), Eva; Dukes, Martin Todd; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We have performed a new survey simulation for a wide area survey with PS1 & PS2 as part of our quest to optimize the discovery rate of Near Earth Objects with the full Pan-STARRS system. The survey is intended to be as unbiased and as complete as possible given the available sky visibility and the anticipated performance of the PS1 and PS2 telescopes working together. The simulation includes a complete model of both telescopes, camera and slew overhead, sky visibility, moon phase, galactic plane exclusion, and weather. The performance of the resulting survey strategy is then evaluated using the method of Lilly et. al. 2017. This uses the Greenstreet et al. 2012 model with 50 million NEOs with absolute magnitudes 13 < H < 29 and the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS, Denneau et al. 2013) for linkages. The results are compared with other possible strategies.

  20. 3D-HST: A WIDE-FIELD GRISM SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Nelson, Erica; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Da Cunha, Elisabete [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Erb, Dawn K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Dan, E-mail: gbrammer@eso.org [Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2012-06-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of {approx}7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when {approx}60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625 arcmin{sup 2}) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}5 per resolution element at H{sub 140} {approx} 23.1 and a 5{sigma} emission-line sensitivity of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for typical objects, improving by a factor of {approx}2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 {mu}m at a spatial resolution of {approx}0.''13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of {sigma}(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or {sigma}(v) Almost-Equal-To 1000 km s{sup -1}. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z {approx} 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys

  1. The Top 10 List of Gravitational Lens Candidates from the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Medium Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Ostrander, Eric J.

    1999-05-01

    A total of 10 good candidates for gravitational lensing have been discovered in the WFPC2 images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Medium Deep Survey (MDS) and archival primary observations. These candidate lenses are unique HST discoveries, i.e., they are faint systems with subarcsecond separations between the lensing objects and the lensed source images. Most of them are difficult objects for ground-based spectroscopic confirmation or for measurement of the lens and source redshifts. Seven are ``strong lens'' candidates that appear to have multiple images of the source. Three are cases in which the single image of the source galaxy has been significantly distorted into an arc. The first two quadruply lensed candidates were reported by Ratnatunga et al. We report on the subsequent eight candidates and describe them with simple models based on the assumption of singular isothermal potentials. Residuals from the simple models for some of the candidates indicate that a more complex model for the potential will probably be required to explain the full structural detail of the observations once they are confirmed to be lenses. We also discuss the effective survey area that was searched for these candidate lens objects.

  2. Disk and Bulge Morphology of WFPC2 Galaxies: The HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Medium Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Ostrander, Eric J.

    1999-07-01

    Quantitative morphological and structural parameters are estimated for galaxies detected in Hubble Space Telescope observations of WFPC2 survey fields. A modeling approach based on maximum likelihood has been developed for two-dimensional decomposition of faint undersampled galaxy images into components of disk and bulge morphology. Decomposition can be achieved for images down to F814W(I)~23.0, F606W(V)~23.8, and F450W(B)~23.3 mag in WFPC2 exposures of 1 hr. We discuss details of the fitting procedure and present the observed distributions of magnitude, color, effective half-light radius, disk and bulge axis ratios, bulge-to-(disk+bulge) flux ratio, bulge-to-disk half-light radius ratio, and surface brightness. We also discuss the various selection limits on the measured parameters. The Medium Deep Survey catalogs and images of random pure parallel fields and other similar archival primary WFPC2 fields have been made available via the Internet with a searchable browser interface to the database.

  3. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Extragalactic Sources at 148 GHz in the 2008 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, T. A.; Juin, J. B.; Lin, Y. T.; Marsden, D.; Nolta, M. R.; Partridge, B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on extragalactic sources detected in a 455 square-degree map of the southern sky made with data at a frequency of 148 GHz from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 2008 observing season. We provide a catalog of 157 sources with flux densities spanning two orders of magnitude: from 15 mJy to 1500 mJy. Comparison to other catalogs shows that 98% of the ACT detections correspond to sources detected at lower radio frequencies. Three of the sources appear to be associated with the brightest cluster galaxies of low redshift X-ray selected galaxy clusters. Estimates of the radio to mm-wave spectral indices and differential counts of the sources further bolster the hypothesis that they are nearly all radio sources, and that their emission is not dominated by re-emission from warm dust. In a bright (> 50 mJy) 148 GHz-selected sample with complete cross-identifications from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey, we observe an average steepening of the spectra between .5, 20, and 148 GHz with median spectral indices of alp[ha (sub 5-20) = -0.07 +/- 0.06, alpha (sub 20-148) -0.39 +/- 0.04, and alpha (sub 5-148) = -0.20 +/- 0.03. When the measured spectral indices are taken into account, the 148 GHz differential source counts are consistent with previous measurements at 30 GHz in the context of a source count model dominated by radio sources. Extrapolating with an appropriately rescaled model for the radio source counts, the Poisson contribution to the spatial power spectrum from synchrotron-dominated sources with flux density less than 20 mJy is C(sup Sync) = (2.8 +/- 0.3) x 1O (exp-6) micro K(exp 2).

  4. Performance Improvement of Near Earth Space Survey (NESS Wide-Field Telescope (NESS-2 Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeol Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We modified the optical system of 500 mm wide-field telescope of which point spread function showed an irregularity. The telescope has been operated for Near Earth Space Survey (NESS located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO in Australia, and the optical system was brought back to Korea in January 2008. After performing a numerical simulation with the tested value of surface figure error of the primary mirror using optical design program, we found that the surface figure error of the mirror should be fabricated less than root mean square (RMS λ/10 in order to obtain a stellar full width at half maximum (FWHM below 28 μm. However, we started to figure the mirror for the target value of RMS λ/20, because system surface figure error would be increased by the error induced by the optical axis adjustment, mirror cell installation, and others. The radius of curvature of the primary mirror was 1,946 mm after the correction. Its measured surface figure error was less than RMS λ/20 on the table of polishing machine, and RMS λ/15 after installation in the primary mirror cell. A test observation performed at Daeduk Observatory at Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute by utilizing the exiting mount, and resulted in 39.8 μm of stellar FWHM. It was larger than the value from numerical simulation, and showed wing-shaped stellar image. It turned out that the measured-curvature of the secondary mirror, 1,820 mm, was not the same as the designed one, 1,795.977 mm. We fabricated the secondary mirror to the designed value, and finally obtained a stellar FWHM of 27 μm after re-installation of the optical system into SSO NESS Observatory in Australia.

  5. The Secondary Standards programme for OmegaCAM at the VST

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Vermeij, Ronald; Valentijn, Edwin; Kuijken, Koen

    2006-01-01

    The OmegaCAM wide-field imager will start operations at the ESO VLT Survey Telescope at Paranal, Chile, in 2007. The photometric calibration of OmegaCAM data depends on standard star measurements that cover the complete 1 square degree FoV of OmegeaCAM. A catalog fullfilling this requirement for eight Landolt equatorial fields, denoted the OmegaCAM Secondary Standards Catalog, will be constructed from OmegaCAM observations during the first year of operations. Here we present the 'Preliminary ...

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Ground-based Orbit Determination Accuracy for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sease, Brad

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a 2.4-meter telescope planned for launch to the Sun-Earth L2 point in 2026. This paper details a preliminary study of the achievable accuracy for WFIRST from ground-based orbit determination routines. The analysis here is divided into two segments. First, a linear covariance analysis of early mission and routine operations provides an estimate of the tracking schedule required to meet mission requirements. Second, a simulated operations scenario gives insight into the expected behavior of a daily Extended Kalman Filter orbit estimate over the first mission year given a variety of potential momentum unloading schemes.

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. XIII. ACS/WFC Parallel-Field Catalogues★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Aparicio, A.; Piotto, G.; Milone, A. P.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Cunial, A.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters, 110 parallel fields were observed with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys, in the outskirts of 48 globular clusters, plus the open cluster NGC 6791. Totalling about 0.3 square degrees of observed sky, this is the largest homogeneous Hubble Space Telescope photometric survey of Galalctic globular clusters outskirts to date. In particular, two distinct pointings have been obtained for each target on average, all centred at about 6.5 arcmin from the cluster centre, thus covering a mean area of about 23 arcmin2 for each globular cluster. For each field, at least one exposure in both F475W and F814W filters was collected. In this work, we publicly release the astrometric and photometric catalogues and the astrometrised atlases for each of these fields.

  8. FAINT TIDAL FEATURES IN GALAXIES WITHIN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY WIDE FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M{sub r{sup '}}<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun }, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  10. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE 350 MHz DRIFT-SCAN SURVEY. I. SURVEY OBSERVATIONS AND THE DISCOVERY OF 13 PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyles, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Cardoso, R. F. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Lynch, R. S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Archibald, A.; Karako-Argaman, C. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St., Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Stairs, I. H.; Berndsen, A.; Cherry, A.; McPhee, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Van Leeuwen, J. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Epstein, C. R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pennucci, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Roberts, M. S. E. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Stovall, K., E-mail: jason.boyles@wku.edu [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Over the summer of 2007, we obtained 1191 hr of 'drift-scan' pulsar search observations with the Green Bank Telescope at a radio frequency of 350 MHz. Here we describe the survey setup, search procedure, and the discovery and follow-up timing of 13 pulsars. Among the new discoveries, one (PSR J1623-0841) was discovered only through its single pulses, two (PSRs J1327-0755 and J1737-0814) are millisecond pulsars, and another (PSR J2222-0137) is a mildly recycled pulsar. PSR J1327-0755 is a 2.7 ms pulsar at a dispersion measure (DM) of 27.9 pc cm{sup -3} in an 8.7 day orbit with a minimum companion mass of 0.22 M {sub Sun }. PSR J1737-0814 is a 4.2 ms pulsar at a DM of 55.3 pc cm{sup -3} in a 79.3 day orbit with a minimum companion mass of 0.06 M {sub Sun }. PSR J2222-0137 is a 32.8 ms pulsar at a very low DM of 3.27 pc cm{sup -3} in a 2.4 day orbit with a minimum companion mass of 1.11 M {sub Sun }. It is most likely a white-dwarf-neutron-star system or an unusual low-eccentricity double neutron star system. Ten other pulsars discovered in this survey are reported in the companion paper Lynch et al.

  11. Weak-Lensing Mass Calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich Cluster Sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, N.; Leauthaud, A.; Miyatake, H.; Hasseleld, M.; Gralla, M. B.; Allison, R.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Crichton, D.; Devlin, M. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clustersof galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). For a sample of 9 ACT clusters with a tSZ signal-to-noise greater than five, the average weak lensing mass is (4.8 plus or minus 0.8) times 10 (sup 14) solar mass, consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of (4.7 plus or minus 1.0) times 10 (sup 14) solar mass, which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously excluded.

  12. Using SysML for verification and validation planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Angeli, George

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the tool, language, and methodology used for Verification and Validation Planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project. LSST has implemented a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach as a means of defining all systems engineering planning and definition activities that have historically been captured in paper documents. Specifically, LSST has adopted the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) standard and is utilizing a software tool called Enterprise Architect, developed by Sparx Systems. Much of the historical use of SysML has focused on the early phases of the project life cycle. Our approach is to extend the advantages of MBSE into later stages of the construction project. This paper details the methodology employed to use the tool to document the verification planning phases, including the extension of the language to accommodate the project's needs. The process includes defining the Verification Plan for each requirement, which in turn consists of a Verification Requirement, Success Criteria, Verification Method(s), Verification Level, and Verification Owner. Each Verification Method for each Requirement is defined as a Verification Activity and mapped into Verification Events, which are collections of activities that can be executed concurrently in an efficient and complementary way. Verification Event dependency and sequences are modeled using Activity Diagrams. The methodology employed also ties in to the Project Management Control System (PMCS), which utilizes Primavera P6 software, mapping each Verification Activity as a step in a planned activity. This approach leads to full traceability from initial Requirement to scheduled, costed, and resource loaded PMCS task-based activities, ensuring all requirements will be verified.

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Cluster Sample: Methodology and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, E. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We present a new, objectively selected, sample of galaxy overdensities detected in the Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These clusters/groups were found using an automated procedure that involved searching for statistically significant galaxy overdensities. The contrast of the clusters against the field galaxy population is increased when morphological data are used to search around bulge-dominated galaxies. In total, we present 92 overdensities above a probability threshold of 99.5%. We show, via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, that at least 60% of these overdensities are likely to be real clusters and groups and not random line-of-sight superpositions of galaxies. For each overdensity in the MDS cluster sample, we provide a richness and the average of the bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies within each system. This MDS cluster sample potentially contains some of the most distant clusters/groups ever detected, with about 25% of the overdensities having estimated redshifts z > ~0.9. We have made this sample publicly available to facilitate spectroscopic confirmation of these clusters and help more detailed studies of cluster and galaxy evolution. We also report the serendipitous discovery of a new cluster close on the sky to the rich optical cluster Cl l0016+16 at z = 0.546. This new overdensity, HST 001831+16208, may be coincident with both an X-ray source and a radio source. HST 001831+16208 is the third cluster/group discovered near to Cl 0016+16 and appears to strengthen the claims of Connolly et al. of superclustering at high redshift.

  14. A MEASUREMENT OF THE CORRELATION OF GALAXY SURVEYS WITH CMB LENSING CONVERGENCE MAPS FROM THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L. E.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Van Engelen, A.; Holder, G. P.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Biesiadzinski, T. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Busha, M. T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway, Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Dore, O. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, 1216 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We compare cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps derived from South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with galaxy survey data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, WISE, and a new large Spitzer/IRAC field designed to overlap with the SPT survey. Using optical and infrared catalogs covering between 17 and 68 deg{sup 2} of sky, we detect a correlation between the SPT convergence maps and each of the galaxy density maps at >4{sigma}, with zero correlation robustly ruled out in all cases. The amplitude and shape of the cross-power spectra are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the measured galaxy bias is consistent with previous work. The detections reported here utilize a small fraction of the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey data and serve as both a proof of principle of the technique and an illustration of the potential of this emerging cosmological probe.

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crighton, Devin; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14 -1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN) and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97 per cent of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogues. When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, A(sub 148-218), of 3.7 (+0.62 or -0.86), and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshift around 6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  16. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and/or 218GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14-1700mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two sub-populations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN), and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97% of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogs. When combined with flux densities from the Australian Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148GHz, with the trend continuing to 218GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, alpha(sub 148-218), of 3.7+0.62 or -0.86, and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshifts as great as 5.6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogs likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  17. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) II: Spectral Homogeneity Among Hungaria Family Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; MacLennan, Eric M.; Cartwright, Richard; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2017-10-01

    Spectral observations of asteroid family members provide valuable information regarding parent body interiors, the source regions of near-Earth asteroids, and the link between meteorites and their parent bodies. Hungaria family asteroids constitute the closest samples to the Earth from a collisional family (~1.94 AU), permitting observations of smaller fragments than accessible for Main Belt families. We have carried out a ground-based observational campaign - Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) - to record reflectance spectra of these preserved samples from the inner-most primordial asteroid belt. During HARTSS phase one (Lucas et al. [2017]. Icarus 291, 268-287) we found that ~80% of the background population is comprised of stony S-complex asteroids that exhibit considerable spectral and mineralogical diversity. In HARTSS phase two, we turn our attention to family members and hypothesize that the Hungaria collisional family is homogeneous. We test this hypothesis through taxonomic classification, albedo estimates, and spectral properties.During phase two of HARTSS we acquired near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 50 new Hungarias (19 family; 31 background) with SpeX/IRTF and NICS/TNG. We analyzed X-type family spectra for NIR color indices (0.85-J J-K), and a subtle ~0.9 µm absorption feature that may be attributed to Fe-poor orthopyroxene. Surviving fragments of an asteroid collisional family typically exhibit similar taxonomies, albedos, and spectral properties. Spectral analysis of X-type Hungaria family members and independently calculated WISE albedo determinations for 428 Hungaria asteroids is consistent with this scenario. Furthermore, ~1/4 of the background population exhibit similar spectral properties and albedos to family X-types.Spectral observations of 92 Hungaria region asteroids acquired during both phases of HARTSS uncover a compositionally heterogeneous background and spectral homogeneity down to ~2 km for collisional family

  18. Nonlinear research of an image motion stabilization system embedded in a space land-survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somov, Yevgeny; Butyrin, Sergey; Siguerdidjane, Houria

    2017-01-01

    We consider an image motion stabilization system embedded into a space telescope for a scanning optoelectronic observation of terrestrial targets. Developed model of this system is presented taking into account physical hysteresis of piezo-ceramic driver and a time delay at a forming of digital control. We have presented elaborated algorithms for discrete filtering and digital control, obtained results on analysis of the image motion velocity oscillations in the telescope focal plane, and also methods for terrestrial and in-flight verification of the system.

  19. Nuclei of nearby disk galaxies .1. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, AC; Illingworth, GD; MacKenty, JW; Franx, M

    We present deconvolved images of the central regions of 20 nearby disk galaxies, obtained with the original Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. The galaxies span a range in Hubble type from SO to Sm. We have measured surface brightness profiles, and inverted these to estimate

  20. Analysis of the GPS Observations of the Site Survey at Sheshan 25-m Radio Telescope in August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, Z. Y.; Li, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The processing of the GPS observations of the site survey at Sheshan 25-m radio telescope in August 2008 is reported. Because each session in this survey is only about six hours, not allowing the subdaily high frequency variations in the station coordinates to be reasonably smoothed, and because there are serious cycle slips in the observations and a large volume of data would be rejected during the software automatic adjustment of slips, the ordinary solution settings of GAMIT needed to be adjusted by loosening the constraints in the a priori coordinates to 10 m, adopting the "quick" mode in the solution iteration, and combining Cview manual operation with GAMIT automatic fixing of cycle slips. The resulting coordinates of the local control polygon in ITRF2005 are then compared with conventional geodetic results. Due to large rotations and translations in the two sets of coordinates (geocentric versus quasi-topocentric), the seven transformation parameters cannot be solved for directly. With various trial solutions it is shown that with a partial pre-removal of the large parameters, high precision transformation parameters can be obtained with post-fit residuals at the millimeter level. This analysis is necessary to prepare the follow-on site and transformation survey of the VLBI and SLR telescopes at Sheshan

  1. Fast, wide-field and distortion-free telescope with curved detectors for surveys at ultralow surface brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Eduard; Valls-Gabaud, David; Lemaître, Gérard; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfred; Lombardo, Simona; Wang, Xin; Vola, Pascal; Ferrari, Marc

    2017-11-01

    We present the design of an all-reflective, bifolded Schmidt telescope aimed at surveys of extended astronomical objects with extremely low surface brightness. The design leads to a high image quality without any diffracting spider, a large aperture and field of view (FoV), and a small central obstruction that barely alters the point spread function (PSF). As an example, we design a high-quality, 36 cm diameter, fast (f/2.5) telescope working in the visible with a large FoV (1.6°×2.6°). The telescope can operate with a curved detector (or with a flat detector with a field flattener) and a set of filters. The entrance mirror is anamorphic and replaces the classical Schmidt entrance corrector plate. We show that this anamorphic primary mirror can be manufactured through stress polishing, avoiding high spatial frequency errors, and testing with a simple interferometer scheme. This prototype is intended to serve as a fast-track scientific and technological pathfinder for the future space-based MESSIER mission.

  2. THE LARGE SKY AREA MULTI-OBJECT FIBER SPECTROSCOPIC TELESCOPE QUASAR SURVEY: QUASAR PROPERTIES FROM THE FIRST DATA RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Y. L.; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Wang, Feige; Guo, Rui; Dong, Xiaoyi [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zuo, Wenwen; Shen, S.-Y. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Y.-X.; Yuan, H.-L.; Song, Y.-H.; Yang, M.; Wu, H.; Shi, J.-R.; He, B.-L.; Lei, Y.-J.; Li, Y.-B. [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences 100012, Beijing (China); Wang, Jianguo; Dong, Xiaobo, E-mail: aiyl@pku.edu.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); and others

    2016-02-15

    We present preliminary results of the quasar survey in the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) first data release (DR1), which includes the pilot survey and the first year of the regular survey. There are 3921 quasars reliably identified, among which 1180 are new quasars discovered in the survey. These quasars are at low to median redshifts, with a highest z of 4.83. We compile emission line measurements around the Hα, Hβ, Mg ii, and C iv regions for the new quasars. The continuum luminosities are inferred from SDSS photometric data with model fitting, as the spectra in DR1 are non-flux-calibrated. We also compile the virial black hole mass estimates, with flags indicating the selection methods, and broad absorption line quasars. The catalog and spectra for these quasars are also available. Of the 3921 quasars, 28% are independently selected with optical–infrared colors, indicating that the method is quite promising for the completeness of the quasar survey. LAMOST DR1 and the ongoing quasar survey will provide valuable data for studies of quasars.

  3. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and wellfunded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  4. Characterizing the Survey Strategy and Initial Orbit Determination Abilities of the NASA MCAT Telescope for Geosynchronous Orbital Debris Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Barker, Ed; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Anz-Meado, Phillip; Lederer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) recently commissioned the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island with the primary goal of obtaining population statistics of the geosynchronous (GEO) orbital debris environment. To help facilitate this, studies have been conducted using MCAT's known and projected capabilities to estimate the accuracy and timeliness in which it can survey the GEO environment. A simulated GEO debris population is created and sampled at various cadences and run through the Constrained Admissible Region Multi Hypotheses Filter (CAR-MHF). The orbits computed from the results are then compared to the simulated data to assess MCAT's ability to determine accurately the orbits of debris at various sample rates. Additionally, estimates of the rate at which MCAT will be able produce a complete GEO survey are presented using collected weather data and the proposed observation data collection cadence. The specific methods and results are presented here.

  5. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  6. The Green Bank Telescope 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey II: Data Analysis and the Timing of 10 New Pulsars, Including a Relativistic Binary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, R.S.; Boyles, J.; Ransom, S.M.; Stairs, I.H.; Lorimer, D.R.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Kaspi, V.M.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Archibald, A.M.; Berndsen, A.; Cardoso, R.F.; Cherry, A.; Epstein, C.R.; Karako-Argaman, C.; McPhee, C.A.; Pennucci, T.; Roberts, M.S.E.; Stovall, K.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We have completed a 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope with the goal of finding new radio pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars that can be timed to high precision. This survey covered ~10,300 deg2 and all of the data have now been fully processed. We have

  7. A Deep Extragalactic Survey with the ART-XC Telescope of the Spectrum-RG Observatory: Simulations and Expected Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereminskiy, I. A.; Filippova, E. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Sazonov, S. Yu.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Tkachenko, A. Yu.; Lapshov, I. Yu.; Shtykovskiy, A. E.; Krivonos, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    To choose the best strategy for conducting a deep extragalactic survey with the ART-XC X-ray telescope onboard the Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory and to estimate the expected results, we have simulated the observations of a 1.1° × 1.1° field in the 5-11 and 8-24 keV energy bands. For this purpose, we have constructed a model of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population that reflects the properties of the X-ray emission from such objects. The photons that "arrived" from these sources were passed through a numerical model of the telescope, while the resulting data were processed with the standard ART-XC data processing pipeline. We show that several hundred AGNs at redshifts up to z ≈ 3 will be detected in such a survey over 1.2 Ms of observations with the expected charged particle background levels. Among them there will be heavily obscured AGNs, which will allow a more accurate estimate of the fraction of such objects in the total population to be made. Source confusion is expected at fluxes below 2 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 (5-11 keV). Since this value can exceed the source detection threshold in a deep survey at low particle background levels, it may turn out to be more interesting to conduct a survey of larger area (several square degrees) but smaller depth, obtaining a sample of approximately four hundred bright AGNs as a result.

  8. Managing Astronomy Research Data: Data Practices in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Ashley Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based astronomy sky surveys are massive, decades-long investments in scientific data collection. Stakeholders expect these datasets to retain scientific value well beyond the lifetime of the sky survey. However, the necessary investments in knowledge infrastructures for managing sky survey data are not yet in place to ensure the long-term…

  9. Structural Parameters of Faint Galaxies from Prerefurbishment Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casertano, S.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.; Im, M.; Neuschaefer, L. W.; Ostrander, E. J.; Windhorst, R. A.

    1995-11-01

    We present a statistical study of the properties of faint galaxies from a large catalog of about 13,500 objects found in 112 random fields observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera before refurbishment. The majority of the objects are faint galaxies with 18 20 mag. Typical half-light radii of faint galaxies are somewhat smaller than spirals. Half-light radius is not correlated with (V - I) color for I ≲ 21 mag; at fainter magnitudes, a weak correlation in the sense of larger galaxies being redder is marginally detected.

  10. An integrated modeling framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, G. Z.; Xin, B.; Claver, C.; Cho, M.; Dribusch, C.; Neill, D.; Peterson, J.; Sebag, J.; Thomas, S.

    2016-08-01

    All of the components of the LSST subsystems (Telescope and Site, Camera, and Data Management) are in production. The major systems engineering challenges in this early construction phase are establishing the final technical details of the observatory, and properly evaluating potential deviations from requirements due to financial or technical constraints emerging from the detailed design and manufacturing process. To meet these challenges, the LSST Project Systems Engineering team established an Integrated Modeling (IM) framework including (i) a high fidelity optical model of the observatory, (ii) an atmospheric aberration model, and (ii) perturbation interfaces capable of accounting for quasi static and dynamic variations of the optical train. The model supports the evaluation of three key LSST Measures of Performance: image quality, ellipticity, and their impact on image depth. The various feedback loops improving image quality are also included. The paper shows application examples, as an update to the estimated performance of the Active Optics System, the determination of deployment parameters for the wavefront sensors, the optical evaluation of the final M1M3 surface quality, and the feasibility of satisfying the settling time requirement for the telescope structure.

  11. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. I. Discovery of low surface brightness systems around nearby spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmardi, B.; Martinez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Henkel, C.; Crawford, K.; Teuwen, K.; Gabany, R. J.; Hanson, M.; Chonis, T. S.; Neyer, F.

    2016-04-01

    Context. We introduce the Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes (DGSAT) project and report the discovery of eleven low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in the fields of the nearby galaxies NGC 2683, NGC 3628, NGC 4594 (M 104), NGC 4631, NGC 5457 (M 101), and NGC 7814. Aims: The DGSAT project aims to use the potential of small-sized telescopes to probe LSB features around large galaxies and to increase the sample size of the dwarf satellite galaxies in the Local Volume. Methods: Using long exposure images, fields of the target spiral galaxies are explored for extended LSB objects. After identifying dwarf galaxy candidates, their observed properties are extracted by fitting models to their light profiles. Results: We find three, one, three, one, one, and two new LSB galaxies in the fields of NGC 2683, 3628, 4594, 4631, 5457, and 7814, respectively. In addition to the newly found galaxies, we analyse the structural properties of nine already known galaxies. All of these 20 dwarf galaxy candidates have effective surface brightnesses in the range 25.3 ≲ μe ≲ 28.8 mag arcsec-2 and are fit with Sersic profiles with indices n ≲ 1. Assuming that they are in the vicinity of the above mentioned massive galaxies, their r-band absolute magnitudes, their effective radii, and their luminosities are in the ranges -15.6 ≲ Mr ≲ -7.8, 160 pc ≲ Re ≲ 4.1 kpc, and 0.1 × 106 ≲ (L/L⊙)r ≲ 127 × 106, respectively. To determine whether these LSB galaxies are indeed satellites of the above mentioned massive galaxies, their distances need to be determined via further observations. Conclusions: Using small telescopes, we are readily able to detect LSB galaxies with similar properties to the known dwarf galaxies of the Local Group.

  12. FOREST unbiased Galactic plane imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN). I. Project overview and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Tomofumi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Kuno, Nario; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Torii, Kazufumi; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kohno, Mikito; Kuriki, Mika; Tsuda, Yuya; Hirota, Akihiko; Ohashi, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Handa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Koide, Nagito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Kazuki; Seta, Masumichi; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Tachihara, Kengo; Sano, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Onodera, Sachiko; Oasa, Yumiko; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Tsuboi, Masato; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Higuchi, Aya E.; Chibueze, James O.; Mizuno, Norikazu; Honma, Mareki; Muller, Erik; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Ozawa, Takeaki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Costes, Jean; Kuwahara, Sho

    2017-10-01

    The FUGIN project is one of legacy projects using a new multi-beam FOREST (four-beam receiver system on the 45 m telescope). This project aims to simultaneously investigate the distribution, kinematics, and physical properties of both diffuse and dense molecular gases in the Galaxy by observing 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 1-0 lines simultaneously. Mapping regions are parts of the first quadrant (10° ≤ l ≤ 50°, |b| ≤ 1°) and the third quadrant (198° ≤ l ≤ 236°, |b| ≤ 1°) of the Galaxy, where spiral arms, bar structure, and the molecular gas ring are included. This survey achieves the highest angular resolution to date (˜20″) for the Galactic plane survey in the CO J = 1-0 lines, which makes it possible to find dense clumps located farther away than the previous surveys. FUGIN will provide us an invaluable dataset for investigating the physics of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM), particularly the evolution of interstellar gas covering galactic-scale structures to the internal structures of giant molecular clouds, such as small filaments/clumps/cores. We present an overview of the FUGIN project, the observation plan and initial results. These results reveal wide-field and detailed structures of molecular clouds, such as entangled filaments that have not been obvious in previous surveys, and large-scale kinematics of molecular gas, such as spiral arms.

  13. Optical Metrology for the Filter Set for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Boucarut, Rene A.; Content, David A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Krebs, Carolyn A.; Miner, Linda A.; Norton, Todd A.; Mehalick, Kimberly; Petrone, Peter; Bush, Frank D.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) will employ a wide variety of spectral filtration components including narrow band, medium band, wide band, and far ultraviolet (FUV) long pass filters, spatially- variable filters (ramp filters), VIS/IR polarizers, NUV polarizers, FUV prisms, and a grism. These components are spread across ACS's Wide Field, High Resolution, and Solar Blind channels which provide diffraction-limited imaging of astronomical targets using aberration-correcting optics which remove most aberrations from HST's Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements which these filters must meet include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, and a high degree of parfocality. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The development of optical metrology stations used to demonstrate that each ACS filter will meet its design specifications is discussed. Of particular note are specially-designed spectral transmissometers and interferometers.

  14. A High Angular Resolution Survey of Massive Stars in Cygnus OB2: Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Printed in the U.S.A. A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF MASSIVE STARS IN CYGNUS OB2: RESULTS FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FINE GUIDANCE SENSORS...angular resolution survey of massive OB stars in the Cygnus OB2 association that we conducted with the fine guidance sensor 1R (FGS1r) on the Hubble Space...al. 2009) and imaging observations (Maı́z Apellániz 2010). The fine guidance sensors (FGSs) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provide us with

  15. THE DISTRIBUTION OF FAINT SATELLITES AROUND CENTRAL GALAXIES IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C. Y.; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the radial number density profile and the abundance distribution of faint satellites around central galaxies in the low-redshift universe using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey. We consider three samples of central galaxies with magnitudes of M {sub r} = -21, -22, and -23 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog of Yang et al. The satellite distribution around these central galaxies is obtained by cross-correlating these galaxies with the photometric catalog of the CFHT Legacy Survey. The projected radial number density of the satellites obeys a power-law form with the best-fit logarithmic slope of -1.05, independent of both the central galaxy luminosity and the satellite luminosity. The projected cross-correlation function between central and satellite galaxies exhibits a non-monotonic trend with satellite luminosity. It is most pronounced for central galaxies with M {sub r} = -21, where the decreasing trend of clustering amplitude with satellite luminosity is reversed when satellites are fainter than central galaxies by more than 2 mag. A comparison with the satellite luminosity functions in the Milky Way (MW) and M31 shows that the MW/M31 system has about twice as many satellites as around a typical central galaxy of similar luminosity. The implications for theoretical models are briefly discussed.

  16. A Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O.C.; McDonald, I.; Rich, R.M.; Kemper, F.; Boyer, M.L.; Zijlstra, A.A.; Bendo, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the population of cool, evolved stars in the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy M32, using Infrared Array Camera observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We construct deep mid-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams for the resolved stellar populations within 3.5 arcminutes of M32's centre, and identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess. Our data is dominated by a population of luminous, dustproducing stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and extend to approximately 3 magnitudes below the AGB tip. We detect for the first time a sizeable population of 'extreme' AGB stars, highly enshrouded by circumstellar dust and likely completely obscured at optical wavelengths. The total dust-injection rate from the extreme AGB candidates is measured to be 7.5 x 10 (sup -7) solar masses per year, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 1.5 x 10 (sup -4) solar masses per year. These extreme stars may be indicative of an extended star-formation epoch between 0.2 and 5 billion years ago.

  17. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope as a Near-Earth Object Discovery Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.; Juric, Mario; Slater, Colin; Ivezic, Zeljko; Moeyens, Joachim; Axelrod, Tim S.; Cook, Kem H.; Myers, Jonathan Ashley; Petry, Catherine E.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the capabilities of LSST to discover small bodies throughout the Solar System, including Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) which present a challenge to automated discovery techniques due to their rapid motion across the sky. Tests of the prototype LSST difference imaging software conducted on DECam data yield an estimate of the false detection rate at ~450 sources per square degree when scaled to LSST's depth and seeing. Tests of the prototype Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) indicate that NEOs can be effectively linked with the planned LSST cadence with this rate of false detections (Veres & Chesley 2017). Using a high-fidelity simulated survey pointing history, we evaluate the performance of the LSST baseline survey strategy in discovering NEOs and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), as well as other populations of small bodies throughout the solar system. With the baseline cadence, LSST alone could discover 68.4% of PHAs with Hoperational surveys are included, this could rise to 80% and 78% respectively. Extension of the LSST survey by an additional two years and further investments in LSST software development and compute resources can provide a further boost of about 5%.

  18. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mei, S. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bartlett, J. G. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT Survey Telescope ATLAS (Shanks+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, T.; Metcalfe, N.; Chehade, B.; Findlay, J. R.; Irwin, M. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Lewis, J. R.; Yoldas, A. K.; Mann, R. G.; Read, M. A.; Sutorius, E. T. W.; Voutsinas, S.

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS sky coverage consists of two contiguous blocks in the North and South galactic caps. The ATLAS South Galactic Cap (SGC) area lies between 21h30msurvey (de Jong et al. 2013, Cat. II/344) in the SGC, but only partial coverage in the NGC. The NGC area below Decsurvey in iz and is approved as a Chilean ESO proposal (e.g. 095.A-0561) in ugr. The total area of the survey is 4711 deg2 with 2087 deg2 in the NGC and 2624 deg2 in the SGC. There is also an ongoing 'Chilean u extension project' to double the exposure time in u from 2 to 4 min over the full ATLAS area (PI: L. Infante). Status maps of the ATLAS survey can be found at http://astro.dur.ac.uk/Cosmology/vstatlas/. (1 data file).

  20. Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  1. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. A QUINTUPLE STELLAR POPULATION IN NGC 2808

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Jerjen, H. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Piotto, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, Padova, IT-35122 (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,” Univ. di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, Padova, IT-35122 (Italy); Anderson, J.; Bellini, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3800 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F.; Ventura, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)

    2015-07-20

    In this study we present the first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC 2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), which we name A, B, C, D, and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex color–magnitude diagram, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC 2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by ΔY ∼ 0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether Population A also has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium.

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. II. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in High-redshift Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbary, K.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Brodwin, M.; Connolly, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Doi, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Faccioli, L.; Fadeyev, V.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Gilbank, D. G.; Gladders, M. D.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E.; Huang, X.; Ihara, Y.; Kashikawa, N.; Koester, B.; Konishi, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lubin, L.; Meyers, J.; Morokuma, T.; Oda, T.; Panagia, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Postman, M.; Ripoche, P.; Rosati, P.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D. J.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Strovink, M.; Suzuki, N.; Takanashi, N.; Tokita, K.; Yasuda, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2012-01-01

    We report a measurement of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in galaxy clusters at 0.9 z z > 0.9 SNe. Finding 8 ± 1 cluster SNe Ia, we determine an SN Ia rate of 0.50+0.23 -0.19 (stat) +0.10 -0.09 (sys) h 2 70 SNuB (SNuB ≡ 10-12 SNe L -1 ⊙, B yr-1). In units of stellar mass, this translates to 0.36+0.16 -0.13 (stat) +0.07 -0.06 (sys) h 2 70 SNuM (SNuM ≡ 10-12 SNe M -1 ⊙ yr-1). This represents a factor of ≈5 ± 2 increase over measurements of the cluster rate at z influence of younger stellar populations by calculating the rate specifically in cluster red-sequence galaxies and in morphologically early-type galaxies, finding results similar to the full cluster rate. Finally, the upper limit of one hostless cluster SN Ia detected in the survey implies that the fraction of stars in the intra-cluster medium is less than 0.47 (95% confidence), consistent with measurements at lower redshifts. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Institute. STScI is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The observations are associated with program GO-10496.

  3. Fifteen Years of the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys: Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Advanced CameraSurveys Instrument Team

    2017-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over fifteen years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation in 2002. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating almost twice as long (>8yrs) since its Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) repair than it had originally operated prior to its 2007 failure. Despite the accumulating radiation damage to the WFC CCDs during their long stay in low Earth orbit, ACS continues to be heavily exploited by the HST community as both a prime and a parallel detector.The past year has seen several advancements in ACS data acquisition and calibration capabilities: the mostwidespread changes since shortly after SM4. We review these recent developments that enable the continued high performance of this instrument, including both the WFC and the Solar Blind Channel (SBC). Highlightsinclude: 1) implementaton of new WFC subarray modes to allow for more consistent high-fidelity calibration; 2) a thorough modernization of the original pixel-based correction of WFC charge-transfer efficiency decline; 3)"save the pixels" initiatives resulting in much less WFC bad-pixel flagging via hot-pixel stability analyses and readout-dark modeling; and 4) a new initiative to provide improved PSF estimates via empirical fitting to the full ACS archive of nearly 200,000 images.

  4. The Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS) for the Origins Space Telescope: Enabling 3-D Surveys of the Universe in the Far-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Charles Matt; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Medium-Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS) is a multi-purpose wideband spectrograph being designed for the Origins Space Telescope (OST -- the NASA-funded far-IR flagship mission study being prepared for the 2020 Decadal Survey). The sensitivity possible with the combination of the actively-cooled OST telescope and new-generation far-IR direct detector arrays is outstanding; potentially offering a 10,000x improvement in speed over the Herschel, SOFIA for point-source measurements, and factor of more than 1,000,000 for spatial-spectral mapping. Massive galaxy detection rates are possible via the rest-frame mid- and far-IR spectral features, overcoming continuum confusion and reaching back to the epoch of reionization. The MRSS covers the full 30 to 670 micron band instantaneously at a resolving power (R) of 500 using 6 logarithmically-spaced grating modules. Each module couples at least 60 and up to 200 spatial beams simultaneously, enabling true 3-D spectral mapping, both for the blind extragalactic surveys and for mapping all phases of interstellar matter in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Furthermore, a high-resolution mode inserts a long-path Fourier-transform interferometer into the light path in advance of the grating backends, enabling R up to 38,000 x [100 microns / lambda], while preserving the basic grating sensitivity for line detection.Maximum scientific return with the MRSS on OST will require large arrays of direct detectors with sensitivity meeting or exceeding the photon background limit due to zodiacal and Galactic dust: NEP~3e-20 W/sqrt(Hz). The total pixel count for all 6 bands is ~200,000 pixels. These sensitive far-IR detector arrays are not provided by the kind of industrial efforts producing the the optical and near-IR detectors, but they are being developed by NASA scientists, including OST team members. We outline the rapid progress in this area, briefly highlighting a) recent low-NEP single-pixel measurements which meet the

  5. Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  6. THE ALL-SKY GEOS RR Lyr SURVEY WITH THE TAROT TELESCOPES: ANALYSIS OF THE BLAZHKO EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Borgne, J.-F.; Klotz, A.; Poretti, E. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31400 Toulouse (France); Boeer, M. [ARTEMIS, Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Nice (France); Butterworth, N.; Dvorak, S. [American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), 49 Bay State Rd., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dumont, M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Vandenbroere, J. [Groupe Europeen d' Observations Stellaires (GEOS), 23 Parc de Levesville, 28300 Bailleau l' Eveque (France); Hund, F. [Bundesdeutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Veraenderliche Sterne e.V. (BAV), Munsterdamm 90, 12169 Berlin (Germany); Kugel, F. [Observatoire Chante-Perdrix, 04150 Banon (France); Vilalta, J. M. [Agrupacio Astronomica de Sabadell (AAS), Apartat de Correus, 50, 08200 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    We used the GEOS database to study the Blazhko effect of galactic RRab stars. The database is continuously enriched by maxima supplied by amateur astronomers and by a dedicated survey by means of the two TAROT robotic telescopes. The same value of the Blazhko period is observed at different values of the pulsation periods and different values of the Blazhko periods are observed at the same value of the pulsation period. There are clues suggesting that the Blazhko effect is changing from one cycle to the next. The secular changes in the pulsation and Blazhko periods of Z CVn are anticorrelated. The diagrams of magnitudes against phases of the maxima clearly show that the light curves of Blazhko variables can be explained as modulated signals, both in amplitude and in frequency. The closed curves describing the Blazhko cycles in such diagrams have different shapes, reflecting the phase shifts between the epochs of the brightest maximum and the maximum O - C. Our sample shows that both clockwise and counterclockwise directions are possible for similar shapes. The improved observational knowledge of the Blazhko effect, in addition to some peculiarities of the light curves, has yet to be explained by a satisfactory physical mechanism.

  7. The All-sky GEOS RR Lyr Survey with the TAROT Telescopes: Analysis of the Blazhko Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, J.-F.; Klotz, A.; Poretti, E.; Boër, M.; Butterworth, N.; Dumont, M.; Dvorak, S.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Hund, F.; Kugel, F.; Vandenbroere, J.; Vilalta, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    We used the GEOS database to study the Blazhko effect of galactic RRab stars. The database is continuously enriched by maxima supplied by amateur astronomers and by a dedicated survey by means of the two TAROT robotic telescopes. The same value of the Blazhko period is observed at different values of the pulsation periods and different values of the Blazhko periods are observed at the same value of the pulsation period. There are clues suggesting that the Blazhko effect is changing from one cycle to the next. The secular changes in the pulsation and Blazhko periods of Z CVn are anticorrelated. The diagrams of magnitudes against phases of the maxima clearly show that the light curves of Blazhko variables can be explained as modulated signals, both in amplitude and in frequency. The closed curves describing the Blazhko cycles in such diagrams have different shapes, reflecting the phase shifts between the epochs of the brightest maximum and the maximum O - C. Our sample shows that both clockwise and counterclockwise directions are possible for similar shapes. The improved observational knowledge of the Blazhko effect, in addition to some peculiarities of the light curves, has yet to be explained by a satisfactory physical mechanism.

  8. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  9. Britain Approaches ESO about Installation of Major New Telescope at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    interesting celestial objects which can then be studied in much more detail with the many specialised instruments at the powerful VLT Unit Telescopes." ESO, the European Southern Observatory, has eight member states, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. The United Kingdom participated actively in the early discussions in the 1950's about the establishment of ESO, but later elected not to join, mainly because of its access to other southern astronomical facilities in Australia and South Africa. ESO already possesses a smaller survey instrument at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), with the optical Wide-Field Imager at the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope. In addition, the 2.6-m VLT Survey Telescope (VST) with the 16kx16k OmegaCam camera will be installed at Paranal in 2002. It will operate in the visual region of the spectrum and, together with VISTA's infrared capability, ensure unequalled sky- and wavelength coverage from one observing site. Notes [1] The announcement was made in a PPARC Press Release, available at http://www.pparc.ac.uk and at the AlphaGalileo site. [2] Universities in the VISTA Consortium are (in alphabetical order) Birmingham, Cambridge, Cardiff, Durham, Edinburgh, Hertfordshire, Keele, Central Lancashire, Leicester, Liverpool John Moores, Nottingham, Oxford, Queen Mary & Westfield College, Queen's University Belfast, St Andrews, Southampton, Sussex, University College London.

  10. THE SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE CLUSTER SURVEY. III. CLUSTER CATALOG FROM 2005-2012 ARCHIVAL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei, Anhui (China); Tozzi, Paolo; Tundo, Elena [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Firenze, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Moretti, Alberto [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy); Rosati, Piero [Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Via Saragat 1, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Campana, Sergio [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Giavalisco, Mauro, E-mail: liuteng@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, LGRT-B 619E, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present the Swift X-ray Cluster Survey (SWXCS) catalog obtained using archival data from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite acquired from 2005 February to 2012 November, extending the first release of the SWXCS. The catalog provides positions, soft fluxes, and, when possible, optical counterparts for a flux-limited sample of X-ray group and cluster candidates. We consider the fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 20° to avoid high H I column densities. We discard all of the observations targeted at groups or clusters of galaxies, as well as particular extragalactic fields not suitable to search for faint extended sources. We finally select ∼3000 useful fields covering a total solid angle of ∼400 deg{sup 2}. We identify extended source candidates in the soft-band (0.5-2 keV) images of these fields using the software EXSdetect, which is specifically calibrated for the XRT data. Extensive simulations are used to evaluate contamination and completeness as a function of the source signal, allowing us to minimize the number of spurious detections and to robustly assess the selection function. Our catalog includes 263 candidate galaxy clusters and groups down to a flux limit of 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} in the soft band, and the logN-logS is in very good agreement with previous deep X-ray surveys. The final list of sources is cross-correlated with published optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalogs of clusters. We find that 137 sources have been previously identified as clusters in the literature in independent surveys, while 126 are new detections. Currently, we have collected redshift information for 158 sources (60% of the entire sample). Once the optical follow-up and the X-ray spectral analysis of the sources are complete, the SWXCS will provide a large and well-defined catalog of groups and clusters of galaxies to perform statistical studies of cluster properties and tests of cosmological models.

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - XII. The RGB Bumps of multiple stellar populations★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A. J.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Barbuy, B.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Renzini, A.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters is providing a major breakthrough in our knowledge of Globular Clusters (GCs) and their stellar populations. Among the main results, we discovered that all the studied GCs host two main discrete groups consisting of first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) stars. We exploit the multiwavelength photometry from this project to investigate, for the first time, the Red Giant Branch Bump (RGBB) of the two generations in a large sample of GCs. We identified, with high statistical significance, the RGBB of 1G and 2G stars in 26 GCs and found that their magnitude separation as a function of the filter wavelength follows comparable trends. The comparison of observations to synthetic spectra reveals that the RGBB luminosity depends on the stellar chemical composition and that the 2G RGBB is consistent with stars enhanced in He and N and depleted in C and O with respect to 1G stars. For metal-poor GCs the 1G and 2G RGBB relative luminosity in optical bands mostly depends on helium content, Y. We used the RGBB observations in F606W and F814W bands to infer the relative helium abundance of 1G and 2G stars in 18 GCs, finding an average helium enhancement Δ Y = 0.011± 0.002 of 2G stars with respect to 1G stars. This is the first determination of the average difference in helium abundance of multiple populations in a large number of clusters and provides a lower limit to the maximum internal variation of helium in GCs.

  12. Gravity-dependent signal path variation in a large VLBI telescope modelled with a combination of surveying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, C.; Vittuari, L.

    2009-11-01

    The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) antenna in Medicina (Italy) is a 32-m AZ-EL mount that was surveyed several times, adopting an indirect method, for the purpose of estimating the eccentricity vector between the co-located VLBI and Global Positioning System instruments. In order to fulfill this task, targets were located in different parts of the telescope’s structure. Triangulation and trilateration on the targets highlight a consistent amount of deformation that biases the estimate of the instrument’s reference point up to 1 cm, depending on the targets’ locations. Therefore, whenever the estimation of accurate local ties is needed, it is critical to take into consideration the action of gravity on the structure. Furthermore, deformations induced by gravity on VLBI telescopes may modify the length of the path travelled by the incoming radio signal to a non-negligible extent. As a consequence, differently from what it is usually assumed, the relative distance of the feed horn’s phase centre with respect to the elevation axis may vary, depending on the telescope’s pointing elevation. The Medicina telescope’s signal path variation Δ L increases by a magnitude of approximately 2 cm, as the pointing elevation changes from horizon to zenith; it is described by an elevation-dependent second-order polynomial function computed as, according to Clark and Thomsen (Techical report, 100696, NASA, Greenbelt, 1988), a linear combination of three terms: receiver displacement Δ R, primary reflector’s vertex displacement Δ V and focal length variations Δ F. Δ L was investigated with a combination of terrestrial triangulation and trilateration, laser scanning and a finite element model of the antenna. The antenna gain (or auto-focus curve) Δ G is routinely determined through astronomical observations. A surprisingly accurate reproduction of Δ G can be obtained with a combination of Δ V, Δ F and Δ R.

  13. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  14. Machine-learning-based photometric redshifts for galaxies of the ESO Kilo-Degree Survey data release 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.; Napolitano, N. R.; Radovich, M.; La Barbera, F.; Capaccioli, M.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Paolillo, M.

    2015-09-01

    We have estimated photometric redshifts (zphot) for more than 1.1 million galaxies of the public European Southern Observatory (ESO) Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) data release 2. KiDS is an optical wide-field imaging survey carried out with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Survey Telescope (VST) and the OmegaCAM camera, which aims to tackle open questions in cosmology and galaxy evolution, such as the origin of dark energy and the channel of galaxy mass growth. We present a catalogue of photometric redshifts obtained using the Multi-Layer Perceptron with Quasi-Newton Algorithm (MLPQNA) model, provided within the framework of the DAta Mining and Exploration Web Application REsource (DAMEWARE). These photometric redshifts are based on a spectroscopic knowledge base that was obtained by merging spectroscopic data sets from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) data release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) data release 9. The overall 1σ uncertainty on Δz = (zspec - zphot)/(1 + zspec) is ˜0.03, with a very small average bias of ˜0.001, a normalized median absolute deviation of ˜0.02 and a fraction of catastrophic outliers (|Δz| > 0.15) of ˜0.4 per cent.

  15. Emission-line Galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) Grism Survey. II. The Complete Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Noeske, Kai G.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth H.; Bellini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber N.; Mechtley, Matthew; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2013-07-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations complemented by the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data, we are able to identify star-forming galaxies (SFGs) within the redshift volume 0 = 109 M ⊙ decreases by an order of magnitude at z <= 0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9, supporting the argument of galaxy downsizing.

  16. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  17. Deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope photometric survey of the entire M33 galaxy - I. Catalogue of 36000 variable point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bersier, D.; Stanek, K. Z.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Kaluzny, J.; Marquette, J.-B.; Stetson, P. B.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2006-09-01

    We have conducted a variability survey of the Local Group galaxy M33, using g',r', and i' observations from 27 nights spanning 17 months, made with the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument on the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We identify more than 36000 variable sources with g', r', i' camk.edu.pl (JK); marquette@iap.fr (J-BM); Peter.Stetson@nrc.ca (PBS); alex@camk.edu.pl (AS-C)

  18. SNAP telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  19. Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  20. Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Proc 6317:OT1–OT9 Serlemitsos PJ, Jahota L, Soong Y (plus 14 authors) (1995) The X-ray telescope on board ASCA. Pub Astron Soc Jap 47:105–114...Serlemitsos PJ, Soong Y, Chan K-W (plus 31 authors) (2007) The X-ray telescope on board Suzaku. Pub Astron Soc Jap 59:9–21 Shimizu T (2004) Solar-B solar

  1. The Blanco Cosmology Survey: Data Reduction, Calibration and Photometric Redshift Estimation to Four Distant Galaxy Clusters Discovered by the South Pole Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeow, Chow Choong; Mohr, J.; Zenteno, A.; Data Management, DES; BCS; SPT Collaborations

    2009-01-01

    The Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) is designed to enable a study of the cosmic acceleration using multiple techniques. To date, BCS has acquired Sloan griz band imaging data from 60 nights (15 nights per year from 2005 to 2008) using the Blanco 4m Telescope located at CTIO. The astronomical imaging data taken from this survey have been processed on high performance computer TeraGrid platforms at NCSA, using the automated Dark Energy Survey (DES) data management (DM) system. The DES DM system includes (1) middlewares for controlling and managing the processing jobs, and serve as an application container encapsulating the scientific codes; and (2) DES archive, which includes filesystem nodes, a relational database and a data access framework, to support the pipeline processing, data storage and scientific analyzes. Photometric solution module (PSM) were run on photometric nights to determine the zeropoints (ZP) and other photometric solutions. We remapped and coadded the images that lie within the pre-defined coadd tiles in the sky. When running the coaddition pipeline, we determined the ZP for each images using the photometric ZP from PSM, the magnitude offsets between overlapping images, and the sky brightness ratio for CCDs within a given exposure. We also applied aperture correction and color-term correction to the coadded catalogs. Satisfactory photometric and astrometric precision were achieved. These enabled initial estimation of photometric redshifts using ANNz codes, trained from 5000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. RMS in the photometric redshifts ranges from 0.05 to 0.1 in sigma_z/(1+z) for redshift extended to z=1. We used the BCS data to optically confirm and estimate redshifts for four of the highest S/N galaxy clusters discovered with the South Pole Telescope using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect.

  2. Bright Active Galactic Nuclei Source List from the First Three Months of the Fermi Large Area Telescope All-Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Collmar, W.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Foschini, L.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hartman, R. C.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kuehn, F.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sellerholm, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Taylor, G. B.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-07-01

    The first three months of sky-survey operation with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope reveal 132 bright sources at |b|>10° with test statistic greater than 100 (corresponding to about 10σ). Two methods, based on the CGRaBS, CRATES, and BZCat catalogs, indicate high-confidence associations of 106 of these sources with known active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This sample is referred to as the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). It contains two radio galaxies, namely, Centaurus A and NGC 1275, and 104 blazars consisting of 58 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 42 BL Lac objects, and 4 blazars with unknown classification. Four new blazars were discovered on the basis of the LAT detections. Remarkably, the LBAS includes 10 high-energy-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), sources which were previously difficult to detect in the GeV range. Another 10 lower-confidence associations are found. Only 33 of the sources, plus two at |b| < 10°, were previously detected with Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope(EGRET), probably due to variability. The analysis of the γ-ray properties of the LBAS sources reveals that the average GeV spectra of BL Lac objects are significantly harder than the spectra of FSRQs. No significant correlation between radio and peak γ-ray fluxes is observed. Blazar log N-log S distributions and luminosity functions are constructed to investigate the evolution of the different blazar classes, with positive evolution indicated for FSRQs but none for BL Lacs. The contribution of LAT blazars to the total extragalactic γ-ray intensity is estimated.

  3. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE 350 MHz DRIFT-SCAN SURVEY II: DATA ANALYSIS AND THE TIMING OF 10 NEW PULSARS, INCLUDING A RELATIVISTIC BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Archibald, Anne M.; Karako-Argaman, Chen [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Boyles, Jason; Lorimer, Duncan R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Cardoso, Rogerio F. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, 111 White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stairs, Ingrid H.; Berndsen, Aaron; Cherry, Angus; McPhee, Christie A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Van Leeuwen, Joeri [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Epstein, Courtney R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pennucci, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Roberts, Mallory S. E. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Stovall, Kevin, E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We have completed a 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope with the goal of finding new radio pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars that can be timed to high precision. This survey covered {approx}10,300 deg{sup 2} and all of the data have now been fully processed. We have discovered a total of 31 new pulsars, 7 of which are recycled pulsars. A companion paper by Boyles et al. describes the survey strategy, sky coverage, and instrumental setup, and presents timing solutions for the first 13 pulsars. Here we describe the data analysis pipeline, survey sensitivity, and follow-up observations of new pulsars, and present timing solutions for 10 other pulsars. We highlight several sources-two interesting nulling pulsars, an isolated millisecond pulsar with a measurement of proper motion, and a partially recycled pulsar, PSR J0348+0432, which has a white dwarf companion in a relativistic orbit. PSR J0348+0432 will enable unprecedented tests of theories of gravity.

  4. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST): A Search for Terrestrial Extra-solar Planets via Gravitational Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D. P.; Clampin, M.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A.; Gould, A.; Horne, K.; Horner, S.; Jewitt, D.; Langston, G.; Lauer, T.; Lumsdaine, A.; Minniti, D.; Peale, S.; Rhie, S. H.; Shao, M.; Stevenson, R.; Tenerelli, D.; Tytler, D.; Woolf, N.

    2000-12-01

    GEST is a comprehensive extra-solar planet search mission sensitive to planets with masses as low as that of Mars. GEST will monitor the Galactic bulge for 8 months per year for three years to detect planets via gravitational microlensing and transits. GEST's microlensing survey will detect low-mass planets at separations of > 0.6 AU via high signal-to-noise variations of gravitational microlensing light curves. These planetary signals do not require follow-up observations to confirm the planetary interpretation, and they yield direct measurements of the star:planet mass ratio. GEST will be able to detect 100 Earth-mass planets at 1 AU (assuming 1 such planet per star) and will detect its first Earth-mass planets within a few months of launch. The GEST microlensing survey is the only proposed planet search program sensitive to old, free-floating planets. GEST's transit survey will search ~ 108 Galactic bulge stars for giant planets at separations of GEST will survey ~ 1200 square degrees for Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and operate a Participating Scienctist Program (PSP) with observational programs selected via competitive proposals. The KBO survey should discover 100,000 new KBOs.

  5. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-Selected Galaxy Clusters AT 148 GHz in the 2008 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Tobias A.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Brown, Ben; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on 23 clusters detected blindly as Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrements in a 148 GHz, 455 deg (exp 2) map of the southern sky made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 2008 observing season. All SZ detections announced in this work have confirmed optical counterparts. Ten of the clusters are new discoveries. One newly discovered cluster, ACT-CL 10102-4915, with a redshift of 0.75 (photometric), has an SZ decrement comparable to the most massive systems at lower redshifts. Simulations of the cluster recovery method reproduce the sample purity measured by optical follow-up. In particular, for clusters detected with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than six, simulations are consistent with optical follow-up that demonstrated this subsample is 100% pure, The simulations further imply that the total sample is 80% complete for clusters with mass in excess of 6 x 10(exp 14) solar masses referenced to the cluster volume characterized by 500 times the critical density. The Compton gamma-X-ray luminosity mass comparison for the 11 best-detected clusters visually agrees with both self-similar and non-adiabatic, simulation-derived scaling laws,

  6. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rateswith the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, N.; Barbary, K.; Connolly, B.; Kim, A.G.; Pain, R.; Roe, N.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Dawson, K.; Doi, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goober, A.; Gude, A.; Knop,R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Morokuma, T.; Meyers, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D.J.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Strovink, M.; Suzuki, N.; Wang, L.; Yasuda, N.

    2007-10-01

    We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of possible models for the evolution of the Type Ia supernova rate as a function of redshift. The data do not distinguish between a flat rate at redshift > 0.5 and a previously proposed model, in which the Type Ia rate peaks at redshift {approx} 1 due to a significant delay from star-formation to the supernova explosion. Except for the highest redshifts, where the signal to noise ratio is generally too low to apply this technique, this approach yields smaller or comparable uncertainties than previous work.

  7. Future Sky Surveys: New Discovery Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, J. Anthony; Borne, Kirk D.

    2012-03-01

    Driven by the availability of new instrumentation, there has been an evolution in astronomical science toward comprehensive investigations of new phenomena. Major advances in our understanding of the Universe over the history of astronomy have often arisen from dramatic improvements in our capability to observe the sky to greater depth, in previously unexplored wavebands, with higher precision, or with improved spatial, spectral, or temporal resolution. Substantial progress in the important scientific problems of the next decade (determining the nature of dark energy and dark matter, studying the evolution of galaxies and the structure of our own Milky Way, opening up the time domain to discover faint variable objects, and mapping both the inner and outer Solar System) can be achieved through the application of advanced data mining methods and machine learning algorithms operating on the numerous large astronomical databases that will be generated from a variety of revolutionary future sky surveys. Over the next decade, astronomy will irrevocably enter the era of big surveys and of really big telescopes. New sky surveys (some of which will produce petabyte-scale data collections) will begin their operations, and one or more very large telescopes (ELTs = Extremely Large Telescopes) will enter the construction phase. These programs and facilities will generate a remarkable wealth of data of high complexity, endowed with enormous scientific knowledge discovery potential. New parameter spaces will be opened, in multiple wavelength domains as well as the time domain, across wide areas of the sky, and down to unprecedented faint source flux limits. The synergies of grand facilities, massive data collections, and advanced machine learning algorithms will come together to enable discoveries within most areas of astronomical science, including Solar System, exo-planets, star formation, stellar populations, stellar death, galaxy assembly, galaxy evolution, quasar evolution

  8. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. II. THE COMPLETE SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Noeske, Kai G.; Bellini, Andrea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth And Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Meurer, Gerhardt R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Walsh, Jeremy R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Straughn, Amber N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations complemented by the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data, we are able to identify star-forming galaxies (SFGs) within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star-forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allows us to detect the presence of multiple emission-line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. We identified a total of 1162 H{alpha}, [O III], and/or [O II] emission lines in the PEARS sample of 906 galaxies to a limiting flux of {approx}10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis, we find three key results: (1) the computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; (2) the star-forming systems show evidence of complex morphologies with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass. (3) Also, the number density of SFGs with M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} decreases by an order of magnitude at z {<=} 0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9, supporting the argument of galaxy downsizing.

  9. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST): A Search for Extra-Solar Planets via Gravitational Microlensing and Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, S. H.; Bennett, D. P.; Clampin, M.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Gould, A.; Horne, K.; Horner, S. D.; Jewitt, D. C.; Langston, G. I.; Lauer, T. R.; Lumsdaine, A.; Minniti, D.; Peale, S. J.; Shao, M.; Stevenson, R. L.; Tenerelli, D.; Tytler, D.; Woolf, N. J.

    2000-10-01

    GEST is a comprehensive extra-solar planet search mission sensitive to planets with masses as low as that of Mars. GEST will monitor the Galactic bulge for 8 months per year for three years to detect planets via gravitational microlensing and transits. GEST's microlensing survey will detect low-mass planets via high signal-to-noise variations of gravitational microlensing light curves. These planetary signals do not require follow-up observations to confirm the planetary interpretation, and they yield direct measurements of the star:planet mass ratio. GEST will be able to detect ~ 100 Earth-mass planets at 1 AU (assuming ~ 1 such planet per star) and will detect its first Earth-mass planets within a few months of launch. GEST's survey of the Galactic bulge will also detect ~ 50,000 planets via transits. When the Galactic bulge is not visible, GEST will do a Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) survey and operate a Participating Scienctist Program (PSP) with observational programs selected via competitive proposals. It is expected that 100,000 new KBOs will be discovered. The GEST mission can be accomplished at low risk with established technology, and a GEST proposal has been submitted to the current Discovery Competition.

  10. The Hubble space telescope UV legacy survey of galactic globular clusters. I. Overview of the project and detection of multiple stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotto, G.; Nardiello, D.; Cunial, A., E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: domenico.nardiello@studenti.unipd.it, E-mail: andrea.cunial@studenti.unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,” Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we describe a new UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope project (GO-13297) that will complement the existing F606W and F814W database of the Advanced Camera for Surveys Globular Cluster (GC) Treasury by imaging most of its clusters through UV/blue WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. This “magic trio” of filters has shown an uncanny ability to disentangle and characterize multiple population (MP) patterns in GCs in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to C, N, and O abundance variations. Combination of these passbands with those in the optical also gives the best leverage for measuring helium enrichment. The dozen clusters that had previously been observed in these bands exhibit a bewildering variety of MP patterns, and the new survey will map the full variance of the phenomenon. The ubiquity of multiple stellar generations in GCs has made the formation of these cornerstone objects more intriguing than ever; GC formation and the origin of their MPs have now become one and the same problem. In this paper we will describe the database and our data reduction strategy, as well as the uses we intend to make of the final photometry, astrometry, and PMs. We will also present preliminary color–magnitude diagrams from the data so far collected. These diagrams also draw on data from GO-12605 and GO-12311, which served as a pilot project for the present GO-13297.

  11. Emission-Line Galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) Grism Survey. I. The South Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-01

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy "knots" within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the Hβ and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the Hβ and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/Hβ ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z ~ 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  12. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. New Uses for the Kepler Telescope: A Survey of the Ecliptic Plane For Transiting Planets and Star Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Beichman, Charles; Ciardi, David; Akeson, Rachel; Plavchan, Peter; Howell, Steve; Christiansen, Jesse; Kane, Stephen; Cody, Ann Marie; Stauffer, John; Vasisht, Gautam; Covey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    With the loss of two reaction wheels, the period of Kepler's ultra-high precision photometric performance is at an end. Yet Kepler retains unique capabilities impossible to replicate from the ground or with existing or future space missions. This White Paper calls for the use of Kepler to conduct a survey in the ecliptic plane to search for planet transits around stars at high galactic latitudes and to study star forming regions to investigate physics of very young stars not studied by Kepler...

  14. The Hubble Space TelescopeUV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - V. Constraints on formation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzini, A.; D'Antona, F.; Cassisi, S.; King, I. R.; Milone, A. P.; Ventura, P.; Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T. M.; Piotto, G.; van der Marel, R. P.; Barbuy, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Hidalgo, S.; Marino, A. F.; Ortolani, S.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.

    2015-12-01

    We build on the evidence provided by our Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters (GC) to submit to a crucial test four scenarios currently entertained for the formation of multiple stellar generations in GCs. The observational constraints on multiple generations to be fulfilled are manifold, including GC specificity, ubiquity, variety, predominance, discreteness, supernova avoidance, p-capture processing, helium enrichment and mass budget. We argue that scenarios appealing to supermassive stars, fast rotating massive stars and massive interactive binaries violate in an irreparable fashion two or more among such constraints. Also the scenario appealing to asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars as producers of the material for next generation stars encounters severe difficulties, specifically concerning the mass budget problem and the detailed chemical composition of second-generation stars. We qualitatively explore ways possibly allowing one to save the AGB scenario, specifically appealing to a possible revision of the cross-section of a critical reaction rate destroying sodium, or alternatively by a more extensive exploration of the vast parameter space controlling the evolutionary behaviour of AGB stellar models. Still, we cannot ensure success for these efforts and totally new scenarios may have to be invented to understand how GCs formed in the early Universe.

  15. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; et al.

    2016-11-11

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  16. Holographic telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  17. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  18. Evidence for the Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Velocity Reconstruction from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Emmanuel S.; Ferraro, Simone; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Smith, Kendrick M.; Ho, Shirley; Aiola, Simone; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J. Richard; De Bernardis, Francesco; Calabrese, Erminia; hide

    2016-01-01

    We use microwave temperature maps from two seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 146 GHz, together with the "Constant Mass" CMASS galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to measure the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect over the redshift range z1/4 0.4-0.7. We use galaxy positions and the continuity equation to obtain a reconstruction of the line-of-sight velocity field. We stack the microwave temperature at the location of each halo, weighted by the corresponding reconstructed velocity. We vary the size of the aperture photometry filter used, thus probing the free electron profile of these halos from within the virial radius out to three virial radii, on the scales relevant for investigating the missing baryons problem. The resulting best fit kSZ model is preferred over the no-kSZ hypothesis at 3.3 and 2.9 sigma for two independent velocity reconstruction methods, using 25,537 galaxies over 660 square degrees. The data suggest that the baryon profile is shallower than the dark matter in the inner regions of the halos probed here, potentially due to energy injection from active galactic nucleus or supernovae. Thus, by constraining the gas profile on a wide range of scales, this technique will be useful for understanding the role of feedback in galaxy groups and clusters. The effect of foregrounds that are uncorrelated with the galaxy velocities is expected to be well below our signal, and residual thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich contamination is controlled by masking the most massive clusters. Finally, we discuss the systematics involved in converting our measurement of the kSZ amplitude into the mean free electron fraction of the halos in our sample.

  19. REDSHIFTS, SAMPLE PURITY, AND BCG POSITIONS FOR THE GALAXY CLUSTER CATALOG FROM THE FIRST 720 SQUARE DEGREES OF THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zenteno, A.; Desai, S.; Bazin, G. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bleem, L. E.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aird, K. A. [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bertin, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Santiago (Chile); De Haan, T. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); and others

    2012-12-10

    We present the results of the ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) follow-up of 224 galaxy cluster candidates detected with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in the 720 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey completed in the 2008 and 2009 observing seasons. We use the optical/NIR data to establish whether each candidate is associated with an overdensity of galaxies and to estimate the cluster redshift. Most photometric redshifts are derived through a combination of three different cluster redshift estimators using red-sequence galaxies, resulting in an accuracy of {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.017, determined through comparison with a subsample of 57 clusters for which we have spectroscopic redshifts. We successfully measure redshifts for 158 systems and present redshift lower limits for the remaining candidates. The redshift distribution of the confirmed clusters extends to z = 1.35 with a median of z{sub med} = 0.57. Approximately 18% of the sample with measured redshifts lies at z > 0.8. We estimate a lower limit to the purity of this SPT SZ-selected sample by assuming that all unconfirmed clusters are noise fluctuations in the SPT data. We show that the cumulative purity at detection significance {xi} > 5({xi} > 4.5) is {>=}95% ({>=}70%). We present the red brightest cluster galaxy (rBCG) positions for the sample and examine the offsets between the SPT candidate position and the rBCG. The radial distribution of offsets is similar to that seen in X-ray-selected cluster samples, providing no evidence that SZ-selected cluster samples include a different fraction of recent mergers from X-ray-selected cluster samples.

  20. Automatizovaný dopravníkový zásobník pro vstřikovací lis s manipulátorem

    OpenAIRE

    Rychtářík, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem automatizovaného dopravníkového zásobníku, který je určen pro vstřikovací lisy. Jedná se o sestavu pásových dopravníků, gravitačních válečkových tratí a zdviže. V této práci je obsaženo navržení konstrukce pro automatizovaný dopravníkový zásobník, výpočet pohonu pro pásové dopravníky a hnaný válečkový dopravník. Dále je zde výpočet hnacího hřídele pro pásové dopravníky, návrh pera a výpočetživotnosti ložisek. U výpočtu gravitační válečkové tratě je vypoč...

  1. FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN): Molecular clouds toward W 33; possible evidence for a cloud-cloud collision triggering O star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Mikito; Torii, Kazufumi; Tachihara, Kengo; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuda, Yuya; Kuriki, Mika; Kuno, Nario; Ohama, Akio; Hattori, Yusuke; Sano, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-01-01

    We observed molecular clouds in the W 33 high-mass star-forming region associated with compact and extended H II regions using the NANTEN2 telescope as well as the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O as part of the FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN) legacy survey. We detected three velocity components at 35 km s-1, 45 km s-1, and 58 km s-1. The 35 km s-1 and 58 km s-1 clouds are likely to be physically associated with W 33 because of the enhanced 12CO J = 3-2 to J = 1-0 intensity ratio as R3-2/1-0 > 1.0 due to the ultraviolet irradiation by OB stars, and morphological correspondence between the distributions of molecular gas and the infrared and radio continuum emissions excited by high-mass stars. The two clouds show complementary distributions around W 33. The velocity separation is too large to be gravitationally bound, and yet not explained by expanding motion by stellar feedback. Therefore, we discuss whether a cloud-cloud collision scenario likely explains the high-mass star formation in W 33.

  2. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  3. Merz telescopes a global heritage worth preserving

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises a fascinating collection of contributions on the Merz telescopes in Italy that collectively offer the first survey on historical large refracting telescopes in the country, drawing on original documents and photographs. It opens with a general introduction on the importance of Merz telescopes in the history of astronomy and analyses of the local and international contexts in which the telescopes were made. After examination of an example of the interaction between the maker and the astronomer in the construction and maintenance of these refractors, the history of the Merz telescopes at the main Italian observatories in the nineteenth century is described in detail. Expert testimony is also provided on how these telescopes were successfully used until the second half of the twentieth century for research purposes, thus proving their excellent optical qualities.

  4. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  5. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum at 148 AND 218 GHz from the 2008 Southern Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Marriage, Tobias A.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia A.; Bond, J. Richard; Brown, Ben; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. Our results dearly show the second through the seventh acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum. The measurements of these higher-order peaks provide an additional test of the ACDM cosmological model. At l > 3000, we detect power in excess of the primary anisotropy spectrum of the CMB. At lower multipoles 500 < l < 3000, we find evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB in the power spectrum at the 2.8(sigma) level. We also detect a low level of Galactic dust in our maps, which demonstrates that we can recover known faint, diffuse signals.

  6. Design of the STAR-X Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2017-01-01

    Top-level science goals of the Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) include: investigations of most violent explosions in the universe, study of growth of black holes across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats majority of baryons in the universe. To meet these goals, the field-of-view of the telescope should be about 1 square-degree, the angular resolution should be 5 arc-seconds or below across large part of the field-of-view. The on-axis effective area at 1 KeV should be about 2,000 sq cm. Payload cost and launch considerations limit the outer diameter, focal length, and mass to 1.3 meters, 5 meters, and 250 kilograms, respectively. Telescope design is based on a segmented meta-shell approach we have developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for the STAR-X telescope. The telescope shells are divided into 30-degree segments. Individual telescopes and meta-shells are nested inside each other to meet the effective area requirements in 0.5 - 6.0 KeV range. We consider Wolter-Schwarzschild, and Modified-Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks of the nested STAR-X telescope. These designs offer an excellent resolution over a large field of views. Nested telescopes are vulnerable to stray light problems. We have designed a multi-component baffle system to eliminate direct and single-reflection light paths inside the telescopes. Large number of internal and external baffle vane structures are required to prevent stray rays from reaching the focal plane. We have developed a simple ray-trace based tool to determine the dimensions and locations of the baffles. In this paper, we present the results of our trade studies, baffle design studies, and optical performance analyses of the STAR-X telescope.

  7. Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Bartosz; Kus, Andrzej [Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Birkinshaw, Mark [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Peter, E-mail: blew@astro.uni.torun.pl, E-mail: Mark.Birkinshaw@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: peter.wilkinson@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: ajk@astro.uni.torun.pl [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of blind surveys for radio sources and galaxy cluster thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (TSZEs) using the four-pair, beam-switched OCRA-f radiometer on the 32-m radio telescope in Poland. The predictions are based on mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from hydrodynamical simulations of large scale structure formation, and unresolved radio sources. We validate the mock maps against observational data, and examine the limitations imposed by simplified physics. We estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters from NVSS source counts around Planck-selected cluster candidates, and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. The study allows us to quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the detections of TSZEs. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera and operating at frequencies up to 22 GHz.We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect 33{sup +17}{sub −11} new radio sources brighter than 0.87 mJy at 30 GHz in a 1 deg{sup 2} field at > 5σ CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that any galaxy cluster will be detected at 3σ CL in such a survey. A 60-deg{sup 2} survey, with field coverage of 2{sup 2} beams per pixel, at 15 GHz with the RTH, would find <1.5 galaxy clusters per year brighter than 60 μJy (at 3σ CL), and would detect about 3.4 × 10{sup 4} point sources brighter than 1 mJy at 5σ CL, with confusion causing flux density errors ∼< 2% (20%) in 68% (95%) of the detected sources.A primary goal of the planned RTH will be a wide-area (π sr) radio source survey at 15 GHz. This survey will detect nearly 3 × 10{sup 5} radio sources at 5σ CL down to 1.3 mJy, and tens of galaxy

  8. Parametric cost models for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtnay

    2017-11-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  9. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  10. Documentation and verification of VST2D; a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heat-solute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heatsolute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic, 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (VST2D). VST2D was developed to help understand the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on quantity and quality of variably saturated ground-water systems. The model solves simultaneously for one or more dependent variables (pressure, temperature, and concentration) at nodes in a horizontal or vertical mesh using a quasi-linearized general minimum residual method. This approach enhances computational speed beyond the speed of a sequential approach. Heterogeneous and anisotropic conditions are implemented locally using individual element property descriptions. This implementation allows local principal directions to differ among elements and from the global solution domain coordinates. Boundary conditions can include time-varying pressure head (or moisture content), heat, and/or concentration; fluxes distributed along domain boundaries and/or at internal node points; and/or convective moisture, heat, and solute fluxes along the domain boundaries; and/or unit hydraulic gradient along domain boundaries. Other model features include temperature and concentration dependent density (liquid and vapor) and viscosity, sorption and/or decay of a solute, and capability to determine moisture content beyond residual to zero. These features are described in the documentation together with development of the governing equations, application of the finite-element formulation (using the Galerkin approach), solution procedure, mass and energy balance considerations, input requirements, and output options. The VST2D model was verified, and results included solutions for problems of water transport under isohaline and isothermal conditions, heat transport under isobaric and isohaline conditions, solute transport under isobaric and isothermal conditions, and coupled water

  11. A Hubble Space Telescope survey for novae in M87 - III. Are novae good standard candles 15 d after maximum brightness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha F.; Pagnotta, Ashley; Garland, James T.; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Goerl, Ariel; Kovetz, Attay; Machac, Tamara; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer

    2018-02-01

    Ten weeks of daily imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has yielded 41 nova light curves of unprecedented quality for extragalactic cataclysmic variables. We have recently used these light curves to demonstrate that the observational scatter in the so-called maximum-magnitude rate of decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae is so large as to render the nova-MMRD useless as a standard candle. Here, we demonstrate that a modified Buscombe-de Vaucouleurs hypothesis, namely that novae with decline times t2 > 10 d converge to nearly the same absolute magnitude about two weeks after maximum light in a giant elliptical galaxy, is supported by our M87 nova data. For 13 novae with daily sampled light curves, well determined times of maximum light in both the F606W and F814W filters, and decline times t2 > 10 d we find that M87 novae display M606W,15 = -6.37 ± 0.46 and M814W,15 = -6.11 ± 0.43. If very fast novae with decline times t2 < 10 d are excluded, the distances to novae in elliptical galaxies with stellar binary populations similar to those of M87 should be determinable with 1σ accuracies of ± 20 per cent with the above calibrations.

  12. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several

  13. Japanese radio telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    Japanese principal radio telescopes available for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are overviewed, and their characteristics and performances are summarized. Three fixed stations, Usuda, Nobeyama, and Kashima, and one 5-m mobile station use a hydrogen master-frequency standard, while other stations use an ultrastable X'tal oscillator locked to a cesium frequency standard. The 64-m telescope in Usuda developed for tracking satellites of deep-space missions is outlined, as well as the Kashima 34-m telescope covering a frequency range from 300 MHz to 49 GHz with 11 receivers. Attention is given to the Nobeyama 45-m telescope as a major telescope in Japan working in an international mm-VLBI network.

  14. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  15. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J.E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D.O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Whitmore, B.C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L.J.; Bright, S.N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; Dale, D.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify

  16. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: THE INTERNAL KINEMATICS OF THE MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN NGC 2808

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Marel, R. P. van der [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vesperini, E.; Hong, J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Piotto, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,” Università di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Rd, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedin, L. R.; Renzini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Cassisi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100, Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    Numerous observational studies have revealed the ubiquitous presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters and cast many difficult challenges for the study of the formation and dynamical history of these stellar systems. In this Letter we present the results of a study of the kinematic properties of multiple populations in NGC 2808 based on high-precision Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurements. In a recent study, Milone et al. identified five distinct populations (A–E) in NGC 2808. Populations D and E coincide with the helium-enhanced populations in the middle and the blue main sequences (mMS and bMS) previously discovered by Piotto et al.; populations A–C correspond to the redder main sequence that, in Piotto et al., was associated with the primordial stellar population. Our analysis shows that, in the outermost regions probed (between about 1.5 and 2 times the cluster half-light radius), the velocity distribution of populations D and E is radially anisotropic (the deviation from an isotropic distribution is significant at the ∼3.5σ level). Stars of populations D and E have a smaller tangential velocity dispersion than those of populations A–C, while no significant differences are found in the radial velocity dispersion. We present the results of a numerical simulation showing that the observed differences between the kinematics of these stellar populations are consistent with the expected kinematic fingerprint of the diffusion toward the cluster outer regions of stellar populations initially more centrally concentrated.

  17. Možnosti ovlivnění vstřebávání kofeinu z kolových nápojů

    OpenAIRE

    Osecká, Karolína

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá studiem základních fyzikálně-chemických vlastností kofeinu a interakci mezi polysacharidem hyaluronanem (HA), pektinem (PEC) nebo lignohumátem (HUM) a alkaloidem kofeinem (CAF). Důvodem, proč je tato práce zaměřena na studování vlastností vodných roztoků hyaluronanu nebo pektinu s kofeinem je ten, že systém polysacharid-kofein by mohl být přínosem pro zpomalení vstřebávání kofeinu. V teoretické části práce je popsána skupina alkaloidů, do které kofein patří a také po...

  18. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  19. Gemini telescope structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Keith; Gillett, Paul E.; Hatton, Peter; Pentland, Gordon; Sheehan, Mike; Warner, Mark

    1994-06-01

    The Gemini project is an international collaboration to design, fabricate, and assemble two 8 M telescopes, one on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the other on Cerro Pachon in Chile. The telescopes will be national facilities designed to meet the Gemini Science Requirements (GSR), a document developed by the Gemini Science Committee (GSC) and the national project scientists. The Gemini telescope group, based on Tucson, has developed a telescope structure to meet the GSR. This paper describes the science requirements that have technically driven the design, and the features that have been incorporated to meet these requirements. This is followed by a brief description of the telescope design. Finally, analyses that have been performed and development programs that have been undertaken are described briefly. Only the designs that have been performed by the Gemini Telescope Structure, Building and Enclosure Group are presented here; control, optical systems, acquisition and guiding, active and adaptive optics, Cassegrain rotator and instrumentation issues are designed and managed by others and will not be discussed here, except for a brief description of the telescope configurations to aid subsequent discussions.

  20. Telescopic vision contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  2. Ritchey-Chretien Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, S.; Amon, M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Ritchey-Chretien telescope is described which was designed to respond to images located off the optical axis by using two transparent flat plates positioned in the ray path of the image. The flat plates have a tilt angle relative to the ray path to compensate for astigmatism introduced by the telescope. The tilt angle of the plates is directly proportional to the off axis angle of the image. The plates have opposite inclination angles relative to the ray paths. A detector which is responsive to the optical image as transmitted through the plates is positioned approximately on the sagittal focus of the telescope.

  3. Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since it is not possible to predict when a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) occurs, the follow-up ground telescopes must be distributed as uniform as possible all over the...

  4. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  5. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  6. Eclipse telescope design factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Tony; Trauger, John T.; Macenka, Steven A.; Moody, Dwight; Olarte, Guillermo; Sepulveda, Cesar; Tsuha, Walter; Cohen, David

    2003-02-01

    Very high contrast imagery, required for exoplanet image acquisition, imposes significantly different criteria upon telescope architecture than do the requirements imposed upon most spaceborne telescopes. For the Eclipse Mission, the fundamental figure-of-merit is a stellar contrast, or brightness reduction ratio, reaching a factor of 10-9 or better at star-planet distances as close as the 4th Airy ring. Factors necessary to achieve such contrast ratios are both irrelevant and largely ignored in contemporary telescope design. Although contemporary telescoeps now meet Hubble Space Telescope performance at substantially lower mass and cost than HST, control of mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, crucial to coronagraphy, has not been emphasized. Accordingly, roughness at MSF has advanced little since HST. Fortunately, HST primary mirror smoothness would nearly satisfy Eclipse requirements, although other aspects of HST are undesirable for stellar coronagraphy. Conversely, the narrow field required for Eclipse eases other drivers of traditional telescope design. A systematic approach to telescope definition, with primary and sub-tier figures-of-merit, will be discussed in the context of the Eclipse Mission.

  7. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E. [Ritter Astrophsical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomical Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Flaherty, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hartmann, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester NY 14627 (United States); Stauffer, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Young, E. T., E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu [SOFIA-Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc{sup −2} to over 10,000 pc{sup −2}, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc{sup −2}, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ∼2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions.

  8. DESTINY, The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Bert A.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed the development of a low-cost space telescope, Destiny, as a concept for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission. Destiny is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared (0.85-1.7m) survey camera/spectrometer with a moderate flat-field field of view (FOV). Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.

  9. Telescopes in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessayian, Rick

    Imagine sitting in your classroom with your students and controlling a Research Grade 24 inch telescope. You control where it points, you control the duration of the exposure of a high grade CCD camera, and you control all of this within your school day, on a camera half way around the globe, in real time. You can hear the telescope moving, talk to the operator sitting atop historic Mt. Wilson Observatory in California. You might be looking at comets, asteroids, galaxies, nebulas or a host of other interesting celestial objects. Perhaps you have students that are up to a real challenge -- doing real science! Students in our program have contributed the discovery of a new variable star, to the Pluto Express project, to the search for supernovas, and the collection of images of intersecting galaxies. These are among the many possible projects you might choose from. The age and ability of your students are taken into account when you choose your project. Students from Kindergarten through Grade 12 have participated in this free program. A new robotic telescope was added at Mount Wilson in 1999. The telescope is a Celestron 14" SCT mounted on a Bisque Paramount GT-1100 with an Apogee AP-7 CCD camera (512X512 pixels). In the Spring of 2001, we duplicated the 14" robotic telescope configuration and placed it at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile (operated by the Carnegie Observatories). I installed the system in late September, 2001, and we began testing. The system requires one more upgrade and some hardware adjustments, which I will complete in June, 2002. We duplicated another 14" robotic telescope, and sent it to Brisbane Australia in January, 2002. The grand opening of the telescope will be in August 2002.

  10. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. II. A catalogue of isolated nearby edge-on disk galaxies and the discovery of new low surface brightness systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, C.; Javanmardi, B.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Teuwen, K.

    2017-07-01

    The connection between the bulge mass or bulge luminosity in disk galaxies and the number, spatial and phase space distribution of associated dwarf galaxies is a discriminator between cosmological simulations related to galaxy formation in cold dark matter and generalised gravity models. Here, a nearby sample of isolated Milky Way-class edge-on galaxies is introduced, to facilitate observational campaigns to detect the associated families of dwarf galaxies at low surface brightness. Three galaxy pairs with at least one of the targets being edge-on are also introduced. Approximately 60% of the catalogued isolated galaxies contain bulges of different size, while the remaining objects appear to be bulgeless. Deep images of NGC 3669 (small bulge, with NGC 3625 at the edge of the image) and NGC 7814 (prominent bulge), obtained with a 0.4 m aperture, are also presented, resulting in the discovery of two new dwarf galaxy candidates, NGC 3669-DGSAT-3 and NGC 7814-DGSAT-7. Eleven additional low surface brightness galaxies are identified, previously notified with low quality measurement flags in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Integrated magnitudes, surface brightnesses, effective radii, Sersic indices, axis ratios, and projected distances to their putative major hosts are displayed. At least one of the galaxies, NGC 3625-DGSAT-4, belongs with a surface brightness of μr ≈ 26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radius >1.5 kpc to the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). NGC 3669-DGSAT-3, the galaxy with the lowest surface brightness in our sample, may also be an UDG.

  11. The Travelling Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  12. Radio Telescope Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Jacob W. M.; Kärcher, Hans J.

    2017-11-01

    This book demonstrates how progress in radio astronomy is intimately linked to the development of reflector antennas of increasing size and precision. The authors describe the design and construction of major radio telescopes as those in Dwingeloo, Jodrell Bank, Parkes, Effelsberg and Green Bank since 1950 up to the present as well as millimeter wavelength telescopes as the 30m MRT of IRAM in Spain, the 50m LMT in Mexico and the ALMA submillimeter instrument. The advances in methods of structural design and coping with environmental influences (wind, temperature, gravity) as well as application of new materials are explained in a non-mathematical, descriptive and graphical way along with the story of the telescopes. Emphasis is placed on the interplay between astronomical and electromagnetic requirements and structural, mechanical and control solutions. A chapter on management aspects of large telescope projects closes the book. The authors address a readership with interest in the progress of engineering solutions applied to the development of radio telescope reflectors and ground station antennas for satellite communication and space research. The book will also be of interest to historians of science and engineering with an inclination to astronomy.

  13. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  14. Corot telescope (COROTEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Thierry; Mathieu, Jean-Claude; Fer, Yann; Bouzou, Nathalie; Spalinger, Etienne; Chataigner, Bruno; Bodin, Pierre; Magnan, Alain; Baglin, Annie

    2017-11-01

    COROTEL is the telescope of the COROT Satellite which aims at measuring stellar flux variations very accurately. To perform this mission, COROTEL has to be very well protected against straylight (from Sun and Earth) and must be very stable with time. Thanks to its high experience in this field, Alcatel Alenia Space has proposed, manufactured and tested an original telescope concept associated with a high baffling performance. Since its delivery to LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS) the telescope has passed successfully the qualification tests at instrument level performed by CNES. Now, the instrument is mounted on a Proteus platform and should be launched end of 2006. The satellite should bring to scientific community for the first time precious data coming from stars and their possible companions.

  15. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Vassigh, Kenny; Bendek, Selman; Young, Zion W; Lynch, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide strawman mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible andor UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST.

  16. Habitable Exoplanet Imager Optical Telescope Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  17. The Liverpool Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, Neil R.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Tomlinson, M. D.

    2011-03-01

    The Liverpool Telescope (LT) is a fully robotic 2m optical telescope at a world-class observatory site. It runs autonomously without direct human control either on site or remotely. It is not operated primarily for a single science project, but rather is a common-user facility, time allocated by an open, peer-review process and conducting a variety of optical and IR imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric programs. This paper describes some of aspects of the site infrastructure and instrument suite designed specifically to support robust and reliable unsupervised operations. Aside from the telescope hardware, the other aspect of robotic operations is the mechanisms whereby users interact with the telescope and its automated scheduler. We describe how these have been implemented for the LT. Observing routinely since 2004, the LT has demonstrated it is possible to operate a large, common-user robotic observatory. Making the most of the flexibility afforded by fully robotic operations, development continues in collaboration with both observers and other observatories to develop observing modes to enable new science across the broad discipline of time-domain astrophysics.

  18. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  19. Taiwan Automated Telescope Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean-Yi Chou

    2010-01-01

    can be operated either interactively or fully automatically. In the interactive mode, it can be controlled through the Internet. In the fully automatic mode, the telescope operates with preset parameters without any human care, including taking dark frames and flat frames. The network can also be used for studies that require continuous observations for selected objects.

  20. Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Unsolved Problems in Stellar Evolution

    2000-01-01

    This timely volume reviews recent progress in our understanding of all aspects of stellar structure and evolution, with special emphasis on currently unsolved problems. It covers every stage in the life of a star, from birth to death, as well as the fundamental processes that affect stellar evolution. Each chapter is written by a leading world expert, based on presentations at an international conference held at the Space Telescope Science Institute. A complete understanding of stellar evolution is important in its own right, constituting a vital piece in the more general puzzle of understanding how galaxies form and evolve. This volume presents the most comprehensive and up-to-date survey available of this crucial topic in astrophysics.

  1. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  2. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  3. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  4. The high energy telescope on EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Skinner, G. K.; Gehrels, N.

    2009-08-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed next generation multi-wavelength survey mission. The primary instrument is a High Energy telescope (HET) that conducts the deepest survey for Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), obscured-accreting and dormant Supermassive Black Holes and Transients of all varieties for immediate followup studies by the two secondary instruments: a Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) and an Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). EXIST will explore the early Universe using high redshift GRBs as cosmic probes and survey black holes on all scales. The HET is a coded aperture telescope employing a large array of imaging CZT detectors (4.5 m2, 0.6 mm pixel) and a hybrid Tungsten mask. We review the current HET concept which follows an intensive design revision by the HET imaging working group and the recent engineering studies in the Instrument and Mission Design Lab at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The HET will locate GRBs and transients quickly (<10-30 sec) and accurately (< 20") for rapid (< 1-3 min) onboard followup soft X-ray and optical/IR (0.3-2.2 μm) imaging and spectroscopy. The broad energy band (5-600 keV) and the wide field of view (~90° × 70&° at 10% coding fraction) are optimal for capturing GRBs, obscured AGNs and rare transients. The continuous scan of the entire sky every 3 hours will establish a finely-sampled long-term history of many X-ray sources, opening up new possibilities for variability studies.

  5. Galileo's wondrous telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    If you need reminding of just how wrong the great and the good can be, take a trip to the Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy. The museum is staging an exhibition entitled "Galileo's telescope - the instrument that changed the world" to mark the 400th anniversary this year of Galileo Galilei's revolutionary astronomical discoveries, which were made possible by the invention of the telescope. At the start of the 17th century, astronomers assumed that all the planets and the stars in the heavens had been identified and that there was nothing new for them to discover, as the exhibition's curator, Giorgio Strano, points out. "No-one could have imagined what wondrous new things were about to be revealed by an instrument created by inserting two eyeglass lenses into the ends of a tube," he adds.

  6. The Bionic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Neville

    2009-05-01

    Four hundred years after children in a spectacle makers workshop accidentally discovered the telescope, the development of this device has been a continuous replacement of the ``natural'' by the deliberate. The human eye is gone. The lens is gone. The tube is gone. The dome is on the verge of going. The size of the optics are ceasing to be set by transportation limits. Adaptive optics are preferred to stable optics. We deliberately break the Lagrange invariant. We focus on lasers instead of stars, and natural observing environments are being replaced by adaptive environments. The goals for the new ground based telescope encompass the oldest and newest ideas, to find signs of life elsewhere, and to find how all the universe developed.

  7. Calibrating the Athena telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijne, J.; Guainazzi, M.; den Herder, J.; Bavdaz, M.; Burwitz, V.; Ferrando, P.; Lumb, D.; Natalucci, L.; Pajot, F.; Pareschi, G.

    2017-10-01

    Athena is ESA's upcoming X-ray mission, currently set for launch in 2028. With two nationally-funded, state-of-the-art instruments (a high-resolution spectrograph named X-IFU and a wide-field imager named WFI), and a telescope collecting area of 1.4-2 m^2 at 1 keV, the calibration of the spacecraft is a challenge in itself. This poster presents the current (spring 2017) plan of how to calibrate the Athena telescope. It is based on a hybrid approach, using bulk manufacturing and integration data as well as dedicated calibration measurements combined with a refined software model to simulate the full response of the optics.

  8. Everyday Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Pranshu; Kumar, Pratik; Yelikar, Anjali; Soni, Kanchan; T, Vineeth Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an affordable, portable college level radio telescope for amateur radio astronomy which can be used to provide hands-on experience with the fundamentals of a radio telescope and an insight into the realm of radio astronomy. With our set-up one can measure brightness temperature and flux of the Sun at 11.2 GHz and calculate the beam width of the antenna. The set-up uses commercially available satellite television receiving system and parabolic dish antenna. We report the detection of point sources like Saturn and extended sources like the galactic arm of the Milky way. We have also developed python pipeline, which are available for free download, for data acquisition and visualization.

  9. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH-SELECTED CLUSTERS WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS IN THE FIRST 178 deg{sup 2} OF THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); De Haan, T.; Dudley, J. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Reichardt, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Andersson, K.; Bazin, G.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Armstrong, R. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautz, M. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bayliss, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A., E-mail: bbenson@kicp.uchicago.edu [Departamento de Astronoma y Astrofsica, PUC Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2013-02-15

    We use measurements from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster survey in combination with X-ray measurements to constrain cosmological parameters. We present a statistical method that fits for the scaling relations of the SZ and X-ray cluster observables with mass while jointly fitting for cosmology. The method is generalizable to multiple cluster observables, and self-consistently accounts for the effects of the cluster selection and uncertainties in cluster mass calibration on the derived cosmological constraints. We apply this method to a data set consisting of an SZ-selected catalog of 18 galaxy clusters at z > 0.3 from the first 178 deg{sup 2} of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey, with 14 clusters having X-ray observations from either Chandra or XMM-Newton. Assuming a spatially flat {Lambda}CDM cosmological model, we find the SPT cluster sample constrains {sigma}{sub 8}({Omega} {sub m}/0.25){sup 0.30} = 0.785 {+-} 0.037. In combination with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum from the SPT and the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data, the SPT cluster sample constrains {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.795 {+-} 0.016 and {Omega} {sub m} = 0.255 {+-} 0.016, a factor of 1.5 improvement on each parameter over the CMB data alone. We consider several extensions beyond the {Lambda}CDM model by including the following as free parameters: the dark energy equation of state (w), the sum of the neutrino masses ({Sigma}m {sub {nu}}), the effective number of relativistic species (N {sub eff}), and a primordial non-Gaussianity (f {sub NL}). We find that adding the SPT cluster data significantly improves the constraints on w and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} beyond those found when using measurements of the CMB, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the Hubble constant. Considering each extension independently, we best constrain w = -0.973 {+-} 0.063 and the sum of neutrino masses {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} < 0.28 eV at 95

  10. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    replaced by COSTAR. During the second Servicing Mission instruments and other equipment were repaired and updated. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) replaced the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and the Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) replaced the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS). Servicing mission 3A The original Servicing Mission 3 (initially planned for June 2000) has been split into two missions - SM3A and SM3B - due in part to its complexity, and in part to the urgent need to replace the failed gyroscopes on board. Three gyroscopes must function to meet the telescope's very precise pointing requirements. With only two new operational, observations have had to be suspended, but the telescope will remain safely in orbit until the servicing crew arrives. During this servicing mission * all six gyroscopes will be replaced, * a Fine Guidance Sensor will be replaced, * the spacecraft's computer will be replaced by a new one which will reduce the burden of flight software maintenance and significantly lower costs, * six voltage/temperature kits will be installed to protect spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating if the spacecraft enters safe mode, * a new S-Band Single Access Transmitter will replace a failed spare currently aboard the spacecraft, * a solid-state recorder will be installed to replace the tape recorder, * degraded telescope thermal insulation will be replaced if time allows; this insulation is necessary to control the internal temperature on HST. For the mission to be fully successful the gyroscopes, the Fine Guidance Sensor, the computer and the voltage/temperature kits must be installed. The minimum mission success criterion is that HST will have 5 operational gyros after the mission, 4 of them newly installed. The Future During SM3B (presently scheduled for 2001) the astronauts will replace the Faint Object Camera with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), install a cooling system for

  12. SOAR Telescope Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.

    1999-12-01

    The 4.3m SOAR telescope is fully funded and under construction. A partnership between the country of Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, SOAR is being designed for high-quality imaging and imaging spectroscopy in the optical and near-IR over a field of view up to 12' diameter. US astronomers outside MSU and UNC will access 30% of the observing time through the standard NOAO TAC process. The telescope is being designed to support remote and synoptic observations. First light is scheduled for July 2002 at Cerro Pachon in Chile, a site with median seeing of 2/3" at 500 nm. The telescope will be operated by CTIO. Corning Inc. has fused the mirror blanks from boules of ULE glass. RSI in Richardson, Texas and Raytheon Optical Systems Inc. in Danbury, Conn. are designing and will fabricate the mount and active optics systems, respectively. The mount supports an instrument payload in excess of 5000 kg, at 2 Nasmyth locations and 3 bent Cass. ports. The mount and facility building have space for a laser to generate an artificial AO guide star. LabVIEW running under the Linux OS on compactPCI hardware has been adopted to control all telescope, detector, and instrument systems. The primary mirror is 10 cm thick and will be mounted on 120 electro-mechanical actuators to maintain its ideal optical figure at all elevations. The position of the light-weighted secondary mirror is adjusted to maintain collimation through use of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The tertiary mirror feeds instruments and also jitters at up to 50 Hz to compensate for telescope shake and atmosphere wavefront tilt. The dome is a steel framework, with fiberglass panels. Air in the observing volume will be exchanged with that outside every few minutes by using large fans under computer control. All systems will be assembled and checked at the manufacturer's facility, then shipped to Chile. A short integration period is planned, and limited science

  13. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  14. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  15. Is Your Telescope Tweeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Half of the world's population today was born after the Apollo Moon landings. The best way to reach this generation and get them excited about today's space exploration and astronomy news and events is through online social media, which are technologies that allow anyone to communicate with everyone. Twitter is a growing popular social media tool that uses short, 140 character "Tweets" to quickly and concisely convey updates on what you "are doing." With the right combination of information, personality and fun, telescopes and spacecraft are using Twitter for public outreach, providing important status updates while making the public feel like they are part of the mission.

  16. Polaris Tracking Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Justin; Castelaz, M.; Cline, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC has been imaging 5 degrees of the sky surrounding Polaris since 2004 using a wide-angle lens and CCD camera. The images are used for differential photometry and to measure the variation in brightness of the Polaris itself. To enhance the quality of the measurements of Polaris a special robotic telescope mount was built to accommodate a narrow field-of-view telescope that focuses on Polaris alone. The movement of Polaris is a circle about 1 degree in radius every 24 hours which is 1 arcsecond every 8 seconds of clock time. The design team had to consider that the polar axis is on a 19-year cycle due to the changing lunar gravitational attractions upon the earth's equatorial bulge. There are several components to this effect. The lunar component amplitude is +/-9 arcseconds towards the ecliptic pole with a period of 18.6 years. The solar component is +/- 1.2 arcseconds over 0.5 years; there is a 'fortnightly nutation' of +/- 0.1 arcseconds per 5 days; there is also a seasonal variation caused by the movement of airm asses of +/- 0.18 arcseconds per year. Utilizing two CCD cameras, the SBIG STV and the SBIG ST7 we can capture the image of Polaris by following the path of the star in the sky with linear actuators set to the coordinates of its circular path.

  17. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.

    2008-07-01

    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  18. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  19. Optical Design of the STAR-X Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2017-01-01

    Top-level science goals of the Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) include: investigations of most violent explosions in the universe, study of growth of black holes across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats majority of baryons in the universe. To meet these goals, the field-of-view of the telescope should be about 1 square-degree, the angular resolution should be 5 arc-seconds or below across large part of the field-of-view. The on-axis effective area at 1 KeV should be about 2,000 sq cm. Payload cost and launch considerations limit the outer diameter, focal length, and mass to 1.3 meters, 5 meters, and 250 kilograms, respectively. Telescope design is based on a segmented meta-shell approach we have developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for the STAR-X telescope. The telescope shells are divided into 30-degree segments. Individual telescopes and meta-shells are nested inside each other to meet the effective area requirements in 0.5 - 6.0 KeV range. We consider Wolter-Schwarzschild, and Modified-Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks of the nested STAR-X telescope. These designs offer an excellent resolution over a large field of views. Nested telescopes are vulnerable to stray light problems. We have designed a multi-component baffle system to eliminate direct and single-reflection light paths inside the telescopes. Large number of internal and external baffle vane structures are required to prevent stray rays from reaching the focal plane. We have developed a simple ray-trace based tool to determine the dimensions and locations of the baffles. In this paper, we present the results of our trade studies, baffle design studies, and optical performance analyses of the STAR-X telescope.

  20. Photonic Spectrograph for new Technology Telescope (PSTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. R. A.; PSTT Colaboration

    We outline a high stability precision infrared spectrograph intended for the New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. This spectrograph known as PSTT (Photonic Spectrograph for new Technology Telescope) is intended to incorporate a number of new technologies that have recently become available, e.g., reformatting photonic lanterns, broadband laser combs and 4k2 infrared arrays. Elements such as OH suppression and an integrated photonic spectrograph should also be considered. The intention is to deliver a high resolution infrared spectrograph that can deliver sub-m/s radial velocity precision to the ESO community. This will enable the opportunity to discover and characterise Earth-mass planets around nearby objects as well as follow-up on results from transit surveys from the ground and space.

  1. First results of the Test-Bed Telescopes (TBT) project: Cebreros telescope commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Ibarra, Aitor; Racero, Elena; Montero, Ángel; Doubek, Jirí; Ruiz, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The TBT project is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme (GSTP), and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario within the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The goal of the project is to provide two fully robotic telescopes, which will serve as prototypes for development of a future network. The system consists of two telescopes, one in Spain and the second one in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope is a fast astrograph with a large Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 x 2.5 square-degrees and a plate scale of 2.2 arcsec/pixel. The tube is mounted on a fast direct-drive mount moving with speed up to 20 degrees per second. The focal plane hosts a 2-port 4K x 4K back-illuminated CCD with readout speeds up to 1MHz per port. All these characteristics ensure good survey performance for transients and fast moving objects. Detection software and hardware are optimised for the detection of NEOs and objects in high Earth orbits (objects moving from 0.1-40 arcsec/second). Nominal exposures are in the range from 2 to 30 seconds, depending on the observational strategy. Part of the validation scenario involves the scheduling concept integrated in the robotic operations for both sensors. Every night it takes all the input needed and prepares a schedule following predefined rules allocating tasks for the telescopes. Telescopes are managed by RTS2 control software, that performs the real-time scheduling of the observation and manages all the devices at the observatory.1 At the end of the night the observing systems report astrometric positions and photometry of the objects detected. The first telescope was installed in Cebreros Satellite Tracking Station in mid-2015. It is currently in the commissioning phase and we present here the first results of the telescope. We evaluate the site characteristics and the performance of the TBT Cebreros

  2. Why Space Telescopes Are Amazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    One of humanity's best ideas has been to put telescopes in space. The dark stillness of space allows telescopes to perform much better than they can on even the darkest and clearest of Earth's mountaintops. In addition, from space we can detect colors of light, like X-rays and gamma rays, that are blocked by the Earth's atmosphere I'll talk about NASA's team of great observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory} and how they've worked together to answer key questions: When did the stars form? Is there really dark matter? Is the universe really expanding ever faster and faster?

  3. Astronomy with a Budget Telescope An Introduction to Practical Observing

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    If you had purchased an inexpensive astronomical telescope a few years ago, disappointment would have been almost guaranteed. In current Internet age, times have changed and most (but not quite all) telescopes have been used to favorable results. Sir Patrick Moore, working with John Watson, has surveyed and tested the best and the worst of today's budget-priced astronomical telescopes. This new edition of Astronomy with a Budget Telescope is the result of their efforts. This book will show you how to recognize the good from the bad in observational ware with essential hints and tips on what to look for when buying both new and used telescopes. Updated and expanded, this latest edition includes budgeting tips for the new generation of digital cameras and 'go-to' telescopes. It provides a step-by-step guide to setting up your telescope, and how to observe the Moon, Sun, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Inside you'll find full-page finder charts and full-color images showing you what each object should loo...

  4. The Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies to be submitted by NASA Headquarters to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The observatory will provide orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity over prior missions, in particular for spectroscopy, enabling breakthrough science across astrophysics. The observatory will cover a wavelength range between 5 μm and 600 μm in order to enable the study of the formation of proto-planetary disks, detection of bio-signatures from extra-solar planet's atmospheres, characterization of the first galaxies in the universe, and many more. The five instruments that are currently studied are two imaging far-infrared spectrometers using incoherent detectors, providing up to R 10^5 spectral resolution, one far-infrared infrared heterodyne instrument for even higher spectral resolving powers, one far-infrared continuum imager and polarimeter, plus a mid-infrared coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopy mode. I will describe the scientific and technical capabilities of the observatory with focus on the expected synergies with AtLAST.

  5. The metagenomic telescope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Szalkai

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair; next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis; and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms.

  6. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  7. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  8. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  9. Space Telescope Systems Description Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Space Telescope Project is to orbit a high quality optical 2.4-meter telescope system by the Space Shuttle for use by the astronomical community in conjunction with NASA. The scientific objectives of the Space Telescope are to determine the constitution, physical characteristics, and dynamics of celestial bodies; the nature of processes which occur in the extreme physical conditions existing in stellar objects; the history and evolution of the universe; and whether the laws of nature are universal in the space-time continuum. Like ground-based telescopes, the Space Telescope was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of utilizing a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic will allow the Space Telescope to be effectively used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs for an international user community and hence making contributions to man's needs. By using the Space Shuttle to provide scientific instrument upgrading and subsystems maintenance, the useful and effective operational lifetime of the Space Telescope will be extended to a decade or more.

  10. The proposed high-energy telescope (HET) for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Allen, B.; Skinner, G.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Cook, W.; Harrison, F.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.

    2010-07-01

    The hard X-ray sky now being studied by INTEGRAL and Swift and soon by NuSTAR is rich with energetic phenomena and highly variable non-thermal phenomena on a broad range of timescales. The High Energy Telescope (HET) on the proposed Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission will repeatedly survey the full sky for rare and luminous hard X-ray phenomena at unprecedented sensitivities. It will detect and localize (<20", at 5σ threshold) X-ray sources quickly for immediate followup identification by two other onboard telescopes - the Soft X-ray imager (SXI) and Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). The large array (4.5 m2) of imaging (0.6 mm pixel) CZT detectors in the HET, a coded-aperture telescope, will provide unprecedented high sensitivity (~0.06 mCrab Full Sky in a 2 year continuous scanning survey) in the 5 - 600 keV band. The large field of view (90° × 70°) and zenith scanning with alternating-orbital nodding motion planned for the first 2 years of the mission will enable nearly continuous monitoring of the full sky. A 3y followup pointed mission phase provides deep UV-Optical-IR-Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopy for thousands of sources discovered in the Survey. We review the HET design concept and report the recent progress of the CZT detector development, which is underway through a series of balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope experiments, ProtoEXIST. We carried out a successful flight of the first generation of fine pixel large area CZT detectors (ProtoEXIST1) on Oct 9, 2009. We also summarize our future plan (ProtoEXIST2 & 3) for the technology development needed for the HET.

  11. 4MOST: 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Roelof S.; Barden, Sam; Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Brynnel, Joar; Chiappini, Cristina; Depagne, Éric; Haynes, Roger; Johl, Diana; Phillips, Daniel P.; Schnurr, Olivier; Schwope, Axel D.; Walcher, Jakob; Bauer, Svend M.; Cescutti, Gabriele; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Dionies, Frank; Enke, Harry; Haynes, Dionne M.; Kelz, Andreas; Kitaura, Francisco S.; Lamer, Georg; Minchev, Ivan; Müller, Volker; Nuza, Sebastián. E.; Olaya, Jean-Christophe; Piffl, Tilmann; Popow, Emil; Saviauk, Allar; Steinmetz, Matthias; Ural, Uǧur; Valentini, Monica; Winkler, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Ansorge, Wolfgang R.; Banerji, Manda; Gonzalez Solares, Eduardo; Irwin, Mike; Kennicutt, Robert C.; King, David M. P.; McMahon, Richard; Koposov, Sergey; Parry, Ian R.; Sun, Xiaowei; Walton, Nicholas A.; Finger, Gert; Iwert, Olaf; Krumpe, Mirko; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Cohen, Matthieu; François, Patrick; Jagourel, Pascal; Mignot, Shan B.; Royer, Frédéric; Sartoretti, Paola; Bender, Ralf; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Muschielok, Bernard; Schlichter, Jörg; Böhringer, Hans; Boller, Thomas; Bongiorno, Angela; Brusa, Marcella; Dwelly, Tom; Merloni, Andrea; Nandra, Kirpal; Salvato, Mara; Pragt, Johannes H.; Navarro, Ramón; Gerlofsma, Gerrit; Roelfsema, Ronald; Dalton, Gavin B.; Middleton, Kevin F.; Tosh, Ian A.; Boeche, Corrado; Caffau, Elisabetta; Christlieb, Norbert; Grebel, Eva K.; Hansen, Camilla J.; Koch, Andreas; Ludwig, Hans-G.; Mandel, Holger; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Sbordone, Luca; Seifert, Walter; Thimm, Guido; Helmi, Amina; trager, Scott C.; Bensby, Thomas; Feltzing, Sofia; Ruchti, Gregory; Edvardsson, Bengt; Korn, Andreas; Lind, Karin; Boland, Wilfried; Colless, Matthew; Frost, Gabriella; Gilbert, James; Gillingham, Peter; Lawrence, Jon; Legg, Neville; Saunders, Will; Sheinis, Andrew; Driver, Simon; Robotham, Aaron; Bacon, Roland; Caillier, Patrick; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, Florence; Richard, Johan

    4MOST is a wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, high-energy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. 4MOST will in particular

  12. 4MOST : 4-metre multi-object spectroscopic telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Roelof S.; Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Chiappini, Cristina; Depagne, Éric; Haynes, Roger; Johl, Diana; Schnurr, Olivier; Schwope, Axel; Walcher, Jakob; Dionies, Frank; Haynes, Dionne; Kelz, Andreas; Kitaura, Francisco S.; Lamer, Georg; Minchev, Ivan; Müller, Volker; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Olaya, Jean-Christophe; Piffl, Tilmann; Popow, Emil; Steinmetz, Matthias; Ural, Ugur; Williams, Mary; Winkler, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Ansorge, Wolfgang R.; Banerji, Manda; Gonzalez Solares, Eduardo; Irwin, Mike; Kennicutt, Robert C.; King, Dave; McMahon, Richard G.; Koposov, Sergey; Parry, Ian R.; Sun, David; Walton, Nicholas A.; Finger, Gert; Iwert, Olaf; Krumpe, Mirko; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Vincenzo, Mainieri; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Cohen, Mathieu; Francois, Patrick; Jagourel, Pascal; Mignot, Shan B.; Royer, Frédéric; Sartoretti, Paola; Bender, Ralf; Grupp, Frank; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Muschielok, Bernard; Böhringer, Hans; Boller, Thomas; Bongiorno, Angela; Brusa, Marcella; Dwelly, Tom; Merloni, Andrea; Nandra, Kirpal; Salvato, Mara; Pragt, Johannes H.; Navarro, Ramón; Gerlofsma, Gerrit; Roelfsema, Ronald; Dalton, Gavin B.; Middleton, Kevin F.; Tosh, Ian A.; Boeche, Corrado; Caffau, Elisabetta; Christlieb, Norbert; Grebel, Eva K.; Hansen, Camilla; Koch, Andreas; Ludwig, Hans-G; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Sbordone, Luca; Seifert, Walter; Thimm, Guido; Trifonov, Trifon; Helmi, Amina; Trager, Scott C.; Feltzing, Sofia; Korn, Andreas; Boland, Wilfried

    The 4MOST consortium is currently halfway through a Conceptual Design study for ESO with the aim to develop a wide-field ( <3 square degree, goal <5 square degree), high-multiplex ( <1500 fibres, goal 3000 fibres) spectroscopic survey facility for an ESO 4m-class telescope (VISTA). 4MOST will run

  13. 4MOST: 4-metre multi-object spectroscopic telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Roelof S.; Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Chiappini, Cristina; Depagne, Éric; Haynes, Roger; Johl, Diana; Schnurr, Olivier; Schwope, Axel; Walcher, Jakob; Dionies, Frank; Haynes, Dionne; Kelz, Andreas; Kitaura, Francisco S.; Lamer, Georg; Minchev, Ivan; Müller, Volker; Nuza, Sebastián. E.; Olaya, Jean-Christophe; Piffl, Tilmann; Popow, Emil; Steinmetz, Matthias; Ural, Ugur; Williams, Mary; Winkler, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Ansorge, Wolfgang R.; Banerji, Manda; Gonzalez Solares, Eduardo; Irwin, Mike; Kennicutt, Robert C.; King, Dave; McMahon, Richard G.; Koposov, Sergey; Parry, Ian R.; Sun, David; Walton, Nicholas A.; Finger, Gert; Iwert, Olaf; Krumpe, Mirko; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Vincenzo, Mainieri; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Cohen, Mathieu; Francois, Patrick; Jagourel, Pascal; Mignot, Shan B.; Royer, Frédéric; Sartoretti, Paola; Bender, Ralf; Grupp, Frank; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Muschielok, Bernard; Böhringer, Hans; Boller, Thomas; Bongiorno, Angela; Brusa, Marcella; Dwelly, Tom; Merloni, Andrea; Nandra, Kirpal; Salvato, Mara; Pragt, Johannes H.; Navarro, Ramón; Gerlofsma, Gerrit; Roelfsema, Ronald; Dalton, Gavin B.; Middleton, Kevin F.; Tosh, Ian A.; Boeche, Corrado; Caffau, Elisabetta; Christlieb, Norbert; Grebel, Eva K.; Hansen, Camilla; Koch, Andreas; Ludwig, Hans-G.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Sbordone, Luca; Seifert, Walter; Thimm, Guido; Trifonov, Trifon; Helmi, Amina; Trager, Scott C.; Feltzing, Sofia; Korn, Andreas; Boland, Wilfried

    The 4MOST consortium is currently halfway through a Conceptual Design study for ESO with the aim to develop a wide-field ( <3 square degree, goal <5 square degree), high-multiplex ( <1500 fibres, goal 3000 fibres) spectroscopic survey facility for an ESO 4m-class telescope (VISTA). 4MOST will run

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) by deploying a large cooled infrared telescope around the Sun-Earth Lagrange point L2. With a 6 m aperture and three instruments covering the wavelength range from 0.6 to 28 microns, it will provide sensitivities orders of magnitude better than any other facilities. It is intended to observe the light from the first galaxies and the first supernovae, the assembly of galaxies, and the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. In this talk I will review the scientific objectives and the ability of the system to meet them. I will close with a summary of possible future IR space missions, ranging from the far IR to planet-finding coronagraphs and interferometers

  15. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  16. The origins of the telescope

    OpenAIRE

    van Helden, A.; Dupré, S.; van Gent, R.; Zuidervaart, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The origins of the telescope have been debated since the instrument’s appearance in the Hague in 1608. Civic and national pride has led local dignitaries, popular writers, and scholars to present sharply divergent histories over the years, crediting a variety of people and places with the invention. Drawing on newly discovered documents, re-examined records, and tests of early lenses and telescopes, this fascinating study proposes a new and convincing account of the origins of the instrument ...

  17. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  18. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in late fall 1995 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia. Construction

  19. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  20. The University of Durham Mark 3 very high energy gamma ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, P. M.; Dipper, N. A.; Dowthwaite, J. C.; Kirkman, I. W.; Mccomb, T. J.; Orford, K. J.; Turver, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    A new very high energy gamma-ray telescope employing the atmospheric Cerenkov light technique and currently nearing completion is described. The telescope is designed to have capability as both a wide angle instrument (4 degree field of view) for sky survey work and as a narrow field of view instrument (1.35 degrees) for conventional drift-scanning and tracking modes of operation. The telescope consists of two 10 sq. m. mirrors operated in fast coincidence with multiple phototube assemblies at the prime focus of each mirror. The design philosophy of the instrument is discussed and comparisons of its performance with our previous telescopes are made.

  1. Origins Space Telescope: Breaking the Confusion Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s.OST will have a background-limited sensitivity for a background 27,000 times lower than the Herschel background caused by thermal emission from Herschel's warm telescope. For continuum observations the confusion limit in a diffraction-limited survey can be reached in very short integration times at longer far-infrared wavelengths. But the confusion limit can be pierced for both the nearest and the farthest objects to be observed by OST. For outer the Solar System the targets' motion across the sky will provide a clear signature in surveys repeated after an interval of days to months. This will provide a size-frequency distribution of TNOs that is not biased toward high albedo objects.For the distant Universe the first galaxies and the first metals will provide a third dimension of spectral information that can be measured with a long-slit, medium resolution spectrograph. This will allow 3Dmapping to measure source densities as a function of redshift. The continuum shape associated with sourcesat different redshifts can be derived from correlation analyses of these 3D maps.Fairly large sky areas can be scanned by moving the spacecraft at a constant angular rate perpendicular to the orientation of the long slit of the spectrograph, avoiding the high overhead of step-and-stare surveying with a large space observatory.We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu

  2. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  3. Ultra-stable segmented telescope sensing and control architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matthew; Knight, Scott; Redding, David

    2017-09-01

    Large segmented space telescopes that can achieve 10^10 contrast are under consideration for both the Large Ultraviolet Optical Infra-Red (LUVOIR) and Habex mission studies. The key challenge for this type of architecture is how to achieve sufficient stability to support this level of contrast. This paper will survey a few emerging sensing and control architectures and associated technologies that can potentially achieve the required stability. It will also provide a summary of the sensing and control portion of the LUVOIR segmented telescope architecture that has emerged from a recent design study and will provide a first look at the control methods that are being employed.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  5. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Novae in M87. II. Snuffing out the Maximum Magnitude-Rate of Decline Relation for Novae as a Non-standard Candle, and a Prediction of the Existence of Ultrafast Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Kovetz, Attay; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer

    2017-04-01

    The extensive grid of numerical simulations of nova eruptions from the work of Yaron et al. first predicted that some classical novae might significantly deviate from the Maximum Magnitude-Rate of Decline (MMRD) relation, which purports to characterize novae as standard candles. Kasliwal et al. have announced the observational detection of a new class of faint, fast classical novae in the Andromeda galaxy. These objects deviate strongly from the MMRD relationship, as predicted by Yaron et al. Recently, Shara et al. reported the first detections of faint, fast novae in M87. These previously overlooked objects are as common in the giant elliptical galaxy M87 as they are in the giant spiral M31; they comprise about 40% of all classical nova eruptions and greatly increase the observational scatter in the MMRD relation. We use the extensive grid of the nova simulations of Yaron et al. to identify the underlying causes of the existence of faint, fast novae. These are systems that have accreted, and can thus eject, only very low-mass envelopes, of the order of 10-7-10-8 M ⊙, on massive white dwarfs. Such binaries include, but are not limited to, the recurrent novae. These same models predict the existence of ultrafast novae that display decline times, t 2, to be as short as five hours. We outline a strategy for their future detection. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  6. Spaceborne telescopes on a budget: paradigms for producing high-reliability telescopes, scanners, and EO assemblies using heritage building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Tony; Schwalm, Mark

    2011-06-01

    By starting with established and flown hardware (high Technology Readiness Level (TRL)), and implementing a concurrent engineering environment and seamless team, a mission architect can achieve high reliability and high performance while operating under constrained cost and short implementation schedule. We will describe methods, including those used by the telescope team on the recent Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission, to manage cost and realize aggressive schedules. These lessons may be evoked for telescopes addressing defense, security and sensing, as well as those for NASA science.

  7. Performance of the second MEMS space telescope for observation of extreme lightning from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-A.; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jik; Park, Il H.

    2016-03-01

    A small space-telescope equipped with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) micro-mirror is applied to space missions for observing random, rare and temporal events like transient luminous events (TLEs). The measurement of TLEs with fine time resolution will show the different temporal profiles predicted by the various models for sprites, blue jets, elves and halos. The proposed space-telescope consists of three components: two sub-telescopes with different focal lengths and a spectrometer. The trigger telescope with a short focal length surveys a wide field of view. The zoom-in telescope with a long focal length looks into a small field of view area that is part of the trigger telescope's wide field of view. Upon identifying a candidate TLE, the trigger telescope determines the location of the event and provides the location to the MEMS micro-mirror. Then, the micro-mirror, which is placed as a pinhole in front of the zoom-in telescope, rotates its mirror plane by such an angle that the zoom-in telescope will watch the small field of view around the center of the event. In this manner, the zoom-in telescope achieves the zoom-in designed by its long focal length. The first such small-space telescope, the MEMS Telescope for Extreme Lightning (MTEL), was launched into space in 2009 and identified a few candidates sprites. However a power failure (over-charge of the solar battery) of the main satellite occurred, and the MTEL was not able to continue space operation to acquire sizable statistics for TLE events. We developed and constructed the second small-space telescope, called MTEL-II, to continue to observe TLE events in space. In this paper, we present the performance of MTEL-II based on ground tests.

  8. New Control System Software for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, T.; Cornell, M. E.; Taylor, C., III; Moreira, W.

    2011-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope at the McDonald Observatory is undergoing a major upgrade to support the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and to facilitate large field systematic emission-line surveys of the universe. An integral part of this upgrade will be the development of a new software control system. Designed using modern object oriented programming techniques and tools, the new software system uses a component architecture that closely models the telescope hardware and instruments, and provides a high degree of configuration, automation and scalability. Here we cover the overall architecture of the new system, plus details some of the key design patterns and technologies used. This includes the utilization of an embedded Python scripting engine, the use of the factory method pattern and interfacing for easy run-time configuration, a flexible communication scheme, the design and use of a centralized logging system, and the distributed GUI architecture.

  9. Trick or Treat and Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Schmude, Richard W.

    2017-10-01

    Based on an activity that DPS member Richard Schmude Jr. has been doing for years, with over 5000 children reached, DPS initiated in 2016 a pilot program entitled “Trick-or-Treat and Telescopes.” DPS encouraged its members to put out their telescopes during trick-or-treat time on Halloween, in their own lawns or in a neighbor’s lawn with better viewing (or more traffic). The program will be continued in 2017. This year should offer good viewing with a waxing gibbous moon and Saturn visible. The program was also advertised though the Night Sky Network, a consortium of astronomy clubs. The following website gives advice and connections to resources.https://dps.aas.org/education/trick-or-treat-and-telescopes acknowledged.

  10. LISA telescope spacer design investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Josep; Mueller, Guido; Livas, Jeffrey; Preston, Alix; Arsenovic, Petar; Castellucci, Kevin; Generie, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Stebbins, Robin

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observa-tory with the goal of observing Gravitational Waves (GWs) from astronomical sources in a frequency range from 30 µHz to 0.1 Hz. The detection of GWs at such low frequency requires measurements of distances at the pico-meter level between bodies separated by 5 million kilo-meters. The LISA mission consists of three identical spacecraft (SC) separated by 5 × 106 km forming an equilateral triangle. Each SC contains two optical assemblies and two vacuum en-closures housing one proof mass (PM) in geodesic (free fall) motion each. The two assemblies on one SC are each pointing towards an identical assembly on each of the other two SC to form a non-equal arm interferometer. The measurement of the GW strain is done by measuring the change in the length of the optical path between the PMs of one arm relative to the other arms caused by the pass of a GW. An important element of the Interferometric Measurement System (IMS) is the telescope which, on one hand, gathers the light coming from the far SC (˜100 pW) and, on the other hand, expands and collimates the small outgoing beam ( 1 W) and sends it to the far SC. Due to the very demanding sensitivity requirements care must be taken in the design and validation of the telescope not to degrade the IMS performance. For instance, the diameter of the telescope sets the the shot noise of the IMS and depends critically on the diameter of the primary and the divergence angle of the outgoing beam. As the telescope is rather fast telescope, the divergence angle is a critical function of the overall separation between the primary and secondary. Any long term changes of the distance of more than a a few micro-meter would be detrimental to the LISA mission. Similarly challenging are the requirements on the in-band path-length noise for the telescope which has to be kept below 1 pm Hz-1/2 in the LISA band. Different configurations (on-axis/off axis

  11. The Large Space Telescope program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The 1980's should see the establishment of the first major observatory in space. This observatory will contain a long-lifetime reflecting telescope of about 120 inches clear aperture. Advantages of an orbiting telescope include the elimination of astronomical seeing effects and improvements in resolving power. The small images and darker sky will permit low-dispersion spectrographs to avoid more of the contaminating background. The crispness of the images also has potential for very efficient high-dispersion spectroscopy. A further advantage lies in the accessibility of all the sky and nearly around-the-clock observing.

  12. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  13. Direct Explorations of Exoplanets with the Subaru Telescope and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motohide; Abe, Lyu

    We present a Japanese "roadmap" on direct extrasolar planet studies spanning from the current ground-based telescope to future IR/Opt space-based telescopes. Several searches for young planets and disks have been conducted with the Subaru 8.2m telescope with adaptive optics (AO) infrared coronagraph, CIAO. The instrument will be soon upgraded to a new AO and a coronagraph with simultaneous spectral and polarimetric differential imaging modes (HiCIAO), which will significantly improve the contrast performance and hence the capability of young planet detection. A sensitive unbiased survey for extrasolar zodiacal emission around nearby stars will be conducted with the ASTRO-F space mission (0.7m telescope, ˜2-200 μm) to be launched around the beginning of 2006. A successor space mission, SPICA (3.5m, 5-200 μm), is also planned; its high sensitivity will enable the detection and characterization of outer-most planets around nearby stars, if any. For the studies of extrasolar terrestrial planets, a high contrast space telescope (HCST; 3.5m, ˜0.3-2 μm). We are also seeking for collaborations with or are considering to join to foreign missions. We describe an outline, status, and role of each project on the extrasolar planet studies.

  14. Optical Studies of Orbital Debris at GEO Using Two Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K. J.; Rodriquez,H. M.; Barker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in March, 2007, optical observations of debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) were commenced using two telescopes simultaneously at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The University of Michigan's 0.6/0.9-m Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope) was used in survey mode to find objects that potentially could be at GEO. Because GEO objects only appear in this telescope's field of view for an average of 5 minutes, a full six-parameter orbit can not be determined. Interrupting the survey for follow-up observations leads to incompleteness in the survey results. Instead, as objects are detected on MODEST, initial predictions assuming a circular orbit are done for where the object will be for the next hour, and the objects are reacquired as quickly as possible on the CTIO 0.9-m telescope. This second telescope then follows-up during the first night and, if possible, over several more nights to obtain the maximum time arc possible, and the best six parameter orbit. Our goal is to obtain an initial orbit for all detected objects fainter than R = 15th in order to estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: magnitude and angular rate. Objects fainter than 15th are largely uncataloged and have a completely different angular rate distribution than brighter objects. Combining the information obtained for both faint and bright objects yields a more complete picture of the debris environment rather than just concentrating on the faint debris. One objective is to estimate what fraction of objects selected on the basis of angular rate are not at GEO. A second objective is to obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. This paper reports on results from two 14 night runs with both telescopes: in March and November 2007: (1) A significant fraction of objects fainter than

  15. The origins of the telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072210524; Dupré, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/23478055X; van Gent, R.; Zuidervaart, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The origins of the telescope have been debated since the instrument’s appearance in the Hague in 1608. Civic and national pride has led local dignitaries, popular writers, and scholars to present sharply divergent histories over the years, crediting a variety of people and places with the invention.

  16. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J

    2003-01-01

    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  17. Wanderings of the 'Simply Perfect' Burnham Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattis, James

    2017-08-01

    S.W. Burnham's 6-inch Clark refractor, in service from 1870, quickly became famous as a potent double star catcher. It was the instrument he used for the site survey of Lick Observatory in 1879. Sold to Washburn Observatory, it travelled to Caroline Island with Edward Holden to search for Vulcan during the total solar eclipse of May 1883. Back in Madison, it was used by George Comstock for his measurements of refraction and aberration. In the late 1950s it was used at the Knuijt Observatory in Appleton, Wisconsin. Travels and transformations of this famous telescope have spread its parts widely as astronomical relics, and it even remains in active service today.

  18. Overdenture dengan Pegangan Telescopic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Santoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaitan presisi merupakan alat retensi mekanis yang menghubungkan antara satu atau lebih pegangan gigi tiruan, yang bertujuan untuk menambah retensi dan/atau stabilisasi. Kaitan presisi dapat digunakan secara luas pada gigi tiruan cekat, gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan, overdenture, implant untuk retensi overdenture, dan protesa maksilo fasial. Overdenture dengan kaitan presisi dapat membantu dalam pembagian beban kunyah, meminimalkan trauma pada gigi pegangan dan jaringan lunak, meminimalkan resorbsi tulang, dan meningkatkan estetik dan pengucapan suara. Salah satu jenis dari kaitan presisi adalah telescopic crown, terdiri dari 2 macam mahkota, yaitu mahkota primer yang melekat secara permanen pada gigi penyangga, dan mahkota sekunder yang melekat pada gigi tiruan. Tujuan pemaparan kasus ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang rehabilitasi pasien edentulous sebagian rahang atas dengan telescopic crown..  Pasien wanita berusia 45 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM Prof.Soedomo dengan keluhan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Pasien kehilangan gigi 11 12 15 16 17 21 22 24 25 26 dan 27 yang diindikasikan untuk pembuatan overdenture gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTS kerangka logam dengan pegangan telescopic crown pada gigi 13 dan 14 dengan sistem parallel-sided crown. Tahap-tahap pembuatan telescopic crown yaitu mencetak model study dengan catatan gigit pendahuluan. Perawatan saluran dilakukan pada akar gigi 13, dilanjutkan pemasangan pasak fiber serta rewalling dinding bukal. Gigi 13 dan 14 dilakukan preparasi mahkota penuh, dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan model kerja untuk coping primer dan kerangka logam dengan metode double impression. Coping primer disementasi pada gigi penyangga, dilanjutkan pasang coba coping sekunder beserta kerangka logam. Selanjutnya dilakukan pencatatan gigit, pencetakan model kerja, penyusunan gigi dan pasang coba penyusunan gigi pada pasien. Prosedur dilanjutkan dengan proses di laboratorium, serta insersi pada

  19. NEAT: A Microarcsec Astrometric Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.

    2011-01-01

    NEAT, Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope is a medium-small telescope (is) approximately 1m in diameter that is designed to make ultra precise (is) less than 1 uas (microarcsec) astrometric measurements of nearby stars in a (is) approximately 1hr observation. Four major error sources prevent normal space telescopes from obtaining accuracies close to 1 uas. Even with a small 1m telescope, photon noise is usually not a problem for the bright nearby target stars. But in general, the reference stars are much fainter. Typically a field of view of (is) approximately 0.5 deg dia is needed to obtain enough bright reference stars. The NEAT concept uses a very simple but unusual design to avoid optically induced astrometric errors. The third source of error is the accuracy and stability of the focal plane. A 1uas error over a (is) approximately 2000 arcsec field of view implies the focal plane is accurate or at least stable to 5 parts in 10(exp 10) over the lifetime of the mission ( (is) approximately 5yrs). The 4th class of error has to do with our knowledge of the PSF and how that PSF is sampled by an imperfect detector. A Nyquist sampled focal plane would have (is) greater than 2 pixels per lambda/D, and centroiding to 1uas means centroiding to 10-5 pixels. This paper describes the mission concept, and an overview of the technology needed to perform 1uas astrometry with a small telescope, and how we overcome problems 1 and 2. A companion paper will describe the technical progress we've made in solving problems 3 and 4.

  20. Origins Space Telescope: Cosmology and Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Origins Space Telescope

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.A core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization (EoR). OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation. OST will provide a detailed astrophysical probe into the condition of the intergalactic medium at z > 6 and the galaxies which dominate the epoch of reionization.

  1. Art concept of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Art concept of the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit above the earth with a Space Shuttle approaching and an astronaut performing an extravehicular activity (EVA) (30462); Art concept of the Hubble Space Telescope with the interior design exposed (30463).

  2. CFRP lightweight structures for extremely large telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J.

    2008-01-01

    Telescope structures are traditionally built out of steel. To improve the possibility of realizing the ambitious extremely large telescopes, materials with a higher specific stiffness and a lower coefficient of thermal expansion are needed. An important possibility is Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plas...... Plastic (CFRP). The advantages of using CFRP for the secondary mirror support structure of the European overwhelmingly large telescope are discussed....

  3. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  4. The Principles of Astronomical Telescope Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Jingquan

    2009-01-01

    Presents a summary of the author's twenty five years of experience in telescope design. This work provides a general introduction to various aspects of telescope design. It discusses the theory behind telescope design. It covers Radio, Infrared, Optical, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray wavelengths

  5. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  6. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super...

  7. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  8. Building the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous presentation, I reported on how the freak collapse of the NRAO 300-ft transit radio telescope led to the inclusion of $75 million for a new radio telescope in the 1989 Congressional Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. But, this was only the beginning. NRAO was faced with challenging specifications and an unworkable schedule, but there was no design and no project team. Only one bid was even close to the Congressional appropriation. In an attempt to meet the unrealistic antenna delivery date, the contractor started construction of the foundation and fabrication of antenna members before the design was finished, leading to retrofits, redesign, and multiple delays. The antenna contractor was twice sold to other companies leading to further delays and cost escalation. In order to recoup their mounting losses, the new owners sued NRAO for $29 million for claimed design changes, and NRAO countersued demanding to be reimbursed for added project management costs and lost scientific data resulting from the seven-year delay in the completion of the telescope. Legal fees and a small net award in favor of the contractor left NRAO and the NSF with a nine million dollar bill which NSF handled by an innovative accounting adjustment.

  9. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.; Werner, M. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Soifer, B. T.; Levine, D. A.; Romana, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  10. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  11. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Schüler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1, the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  12. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  13. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  14. Origins Space Telescope Concept 1: Mid to Far Infrared Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ruth; DiPirro, Michael; Origins Space Telescope Decadal Mission Study Team

    2018-01-01

    Origins Space Telescope (OST), is a NASA large mission concept designed to investigate the mid to far infrared sky. It would launch in the mid 2030’s, with mission development and implementation beginning in the mid-2020’s. This poster presents the overall architecture of OST Mission Concept 1. The Concept 1 telescope has a 9-meter diameter off-axis primary mirror, a three-mirror astigmat with a field steering mirror, covering the wavelength range of 6 to 600 µm. Five science instruments are on board the OST observatory for spectroscopy, imaging and coronagraphy. The instruments are the Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS), High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS), Far –IR Imaging and Polarimeter (FIP), Mid-IR Imaging Spectrometer and Coronagraph (MISC) and Heterodyne Instrument (HERO). The instruments are housed in the Instrument Accommodation Module (IAM). The Telescope and IAM are actively cooled to 4 Kelvin by relative high maturity 4 K cryocoolers To limit the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Spacecraft thermal radiation into the 4 K environment, multiple layers of sun shields similar to those used on JWST, are implemented. The sun-shields are also designed to minimize solar pressure and center of gravity discrepancies, thus resulting in the “sugar-scoop” like shape. To prevent locally generated stray light from entering the 4 Kelvin environment during mission operations, a 4 K baffle around the telescope and IAM is used. The OST Observatory will be inserted to a Sun-Earth L2 for mission operations.

  15. The EXIST Infra-Red Telescope System: Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey; Golisano, C.; Gong, Q.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Kutyrev, A.; Woodgate, B.; EXIST Team

    2010-01-01

    The Infra-Red Telescope is a critical element of the EXIST (Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope) observatory. It is a passively cooled 1.1m visible/infrared telescope. The primary goal of the IRT is to obtain photometric and spectroscopic measurements of high redshift (>6) gamma ray burst afterglows to study the nature of these enigmatic events and the their environments, and to use them as probes of the composition and ionization state of the intergalactiic medium of the young universe . The IRT will provide a prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST with exceptional NIR sensitivitiy (AB=24 in 100s) surpassing HST in the infrared due to its passively cooled (-30ºC) mirror. Its optical design and spectral coverage is tailored to the high redshift transient events that require prompt pointing, identification, accurate phototmetry and both low and high resolution spectroscopy. Here we describe the telescope, its instrument complement, and the cooling systems which provide its remarkable sensitivity.

  16. The EXIST Infra-Red Telescope System: Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    The Infra-Red Telescope is a critical element of the EXIST (Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope) observatory. It is a passively cooled 1.lm visible/infrared telescope. The primary goal of the IRT is to obtain photometric and spectroscopic measurements of high redshift (>6) gamma ray burst afterglows to study the nature of these enigmatic events and their environments, and to use them as probes of the composition and ionization state of the intergalactic medium of the young universe. The IRT will provide a prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST with exceptional NIR sensitivity (AB=24 in 100s) surpassing HST in the infrared due to its passively cooled (- 30 C) mirror. Its optical design and spectral coverage is tailored to the high redshift transient events that require prompt pointing, identification, accurate photometry and both low and high resolution spectroscopy. Here we describe the telescope, its instrument complement, and the cooling systems which provide its remarkable sensitivity

  17. The BUFFALO HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles; Jauzac, Mathilde; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Oesch, Pascal; Richard, Johan; Sharon, Keren q.; BUFFALO

    2018-01-01

    Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields And Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) is an astronomical survey built around the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields clusters designed to learn about early galactic assembly and clustering and prepare targets for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. BUFFALO will place significant new constraints on how and when the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe formed and how early galaxy formation is linked to dark matter assembly. The same data will also probe the temperature and cross section of dark matter in the massive Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, and tell us how the dark matter, cluster gas, and dynamics of the clusters influence the galaxies in and around them. These studies are possible because the Spitzer Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and ground based telescopes have already invested heavily in deep observations around the Frontier Fields, so that the addition of HST observations can yield significant new results.

  18. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Anderson, B. /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bissaldi, E.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASI, Rome /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3

  19. Optical design of the STAR-X telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2017-08-01

    Top-level science objectives of the Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) include: investigations of most violent explosions in the universe, study of growth of black holes across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats majority of baryons in the universe. To meet these objectives, the STAR-X telescope requires a field of view of about 1 square-degree, an angular resolution of 5 arc-seconds or better across large part of the field of view. The on-axis effective area at 1 keV should be about 2,000 cm2 . Payload cost and launch considerations limit the outer diameter, focal length, and mass to 1.3 meters, 5 meters, and 250 kilograms, respectively. Telescope design is based on a segmented meta-shell approach we have developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. The telescope mirror shells are divided into segments. Individual shells are nested inside each other to meet the effective area requirements in 0.5 - 6.0 keV range. We consider Wolter-Schwarzschild, and Modified-WolterSchwarzschild telescopes. These designs offer an excellent PSF over a large field of view. Nested shells are vulnerable to stray light problems. We have designed a multi-component baffle system to eliminate direct and single-reflection light paths inside the mirror assembly. Large numbers of internal and external baffles are required to prevent stray rays from reaching the focal plane. We have developed a simple ray-trace tool to determine the dimensions and locations of the baffles. In this paper, we present the results of our trade studies, baffle design studies, and optical performance analyses of the STAR-X telescope.

  20. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

  1. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  2. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  3. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with PG...... underwent a diagnostic interview to examine gambling behaviors, age at initiation of gambling, and time from initiation to meeting criteria for PG. The women had a higher mean age at gambling initiation compared with that of the men (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [13.0] years, compared with 22.4 [7.9] years; p = 0.......0003) and a significantly shorter time from initiation of gambling to meeting the criteria for PG (8.33 [8.7] years compared with 11.97 [9.1] years; p = 0.0476) after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. This study presents evidence for a gender-specific course of PG unrelated to psychiatric comorbidities...

  4. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  5. Design of Galilean-type telescope systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchaca, C; Malacara, D

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we present the design of three Galilean-type telescope systems with magnifications of 2.2x, 4x, and 5x. These systems are free of the large weight and length as well as the reduced field of view, which are frequent undesirable properties of Galilean telescopes. These designs have a moderate field of view and a short length, with reasonably good aberration correction, and may be used as binocular telescopes or magnifiers with a large working distance.

  6. Trading order for degree in creative telescoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoshi; Kauers, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the differential equations produced by the method of creative telescoping applied to a hyperexponential term in two variables. We show that equations of low order have high degree, and that higher order equations have lower degree. More precisely, we derive degree bounding formulas which allow to estimate the degree of the output equations from creative telescoping as a function of the order. As an application, we show how the knowledge of these formulas can be used to improve, at least in principle, the performance of creative telescoping implementations, and we deduce bounds on the asymptotic complexity of creative telescoping for hyperexponential terms. PMID:26538804

  7. eSTAR: a distributed telescope network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Iain A.; Naylor, Tim; Allan, Alisdair; Etherton, Jason; Mottram, C. J.

    2002-11-01

    The e-STAR (e-Science Telescopes for Astronomical Research) project uses GRID techniques to develop the software infrastructure for a global network of robotic telescopes. The basic architecture is based around Intelligent Agents which request data from Discovery Nodes that may be telescopes or databases. Communication is based on a development of the XML RTML language secured using the Globus I/O library, with status serving provided via LDAP. We describe the system architecture and protocols devised to give a distributed approach to telescope scheduling, as well as giving details of the implementation of prototype Intelligent Agent and Discovery Node systems.

  8. The SXI telescope on board EXIST: scientific performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalucci, L.; Bazzano, A.; Campana, S.; Caraveo, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Grindlay, J. E.; Panessa, F.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ubertini, P.; Villa, G.

    2009-08-01

    The SXI telescope is one of the three instruments on board EXIST, a multiwavelenght observatory in charge of performing a global survey of the sky in hard X-rays searching for Supermassive Black Holes. One of the primary objectives of EXIST is also to study with unprecedented sensitivity the most unknown high energy sources in the Universe, like high redshift GRBs, which will be pointed promptly by the Spacecraft by autonomous trigger based on hard X-ray localization on board. The recent addition of a soft X-ray telescope to the EXIST payload complement, with an effective area of 950 cm2 in the energy band 0.2-3 keV and extended response up to 10 keV will allow to make broadband studies from 0.1 to 600 keV. In particular, investigations of the spectra components and states of AGNs and monitoring of variability of sources, study of the prompt and afterglow emission of GRBs since the early phases, which will help to constrain the emission models and finally, help the identification of sources in the EXIST hard X-ray survey and the characterization of the transient events detected. SXI will also perform surveys: a scanning survey with sky coverage ~ 2 π and limiting flux of ~ 5 × 10-14 cgs plus other serendipitous. We give an overview of the SXI scientific performance and also describe the status of its design emphasizing how it has been derived by the scientific requirements.

  9. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  10. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  11. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  12. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  13. Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG): Recent developments and a prospective observing site for robotic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Keskin, O.

    2016-12-01

    This document (Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG) is the new observatory of Turkey with the optical and near-infrared largest telescope (4 m class) and its robust observing site infrastructure. This national project consists of three phases with DAG (Telescope, Enclosure, Buildings and Infrastructures), FPI (Focal Plane Instruments and Adaptive Optics) and MCP (Mirror Coating Plant) and is supported by the Ministry of Development of Turkey. The tenders of telescope and enclosure have been made and almost all the infrastructure (roads, geological and atmospherical surveys, electricity, fiber optics, cable car, water, generator, etc.) of DAG site (Erzurum/Turkey, 3,170 m altitude) have been completed. This poster is about the recent developments of DAG and about the future possible collaborations for various robotic telescopes which can be set up in DAG site.

  14. Proxy magnetometry with the Dutch Open Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Superb movies from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma have proven the validity of the open concept of this innovative telescope for high-resolution imaging of the solar atmosphere. A five- camera speckle-burst registration system is being installed that should permit consistent and

  15. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the

  16. Solar Magnetometry with the dutch open telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Zalm, E.B.J. van der

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) has become op- erational at the Roque de los Muchachos Observa- tory on La Palma. The rst image sequences taken with this innovative telescope demonstrate its capa- bility for tomographic high-resolution imaging of the magnetic topology of the solar atmosphere up

  17. Reverse Galilean telescopic spectacles in unilateral aphakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefman, R A

    1981-09-01

    Minimizing aniseikonia in unilateral aphakia is often a difficult task. A case is presented in which a patient preferred a reverse Galilean telescopic spectacle of his own design to a contact lens. The design of the spectacles and the patient's visual performance with them are described. A reverse Galilean telescopic spectacle should not be excluded from the therapeutic alternatives in unilateral aphakia.

  18. Herschel SPIRE FTS telescope model correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Rosalind; Fulton, Trevor; Polehampton, Edward T.; Valtchanov, Ivan; Benielli, Dominique; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Pearson, Chris P.; Swinyard, Bruce M.

    2014-07-01

    Emission from the Herschel telescope is the dominant source of radiation for the majority of SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations, despite the exceptionally low emissivity of the primary and secondary mirrors. Accurate modelling and removal of the telescope contribution is, therefore, an important and challenging aspect of FTS calibration and data reduction pipeline. A dust-contaminated telescope model with time invariant mirror emissivity was adopted before the Herschel launch. However, measured FTS spectra show a clear evolution of the telescope contribution over the mission and strong need for a correction to the standard telescope model in order to reduce residual background (of up to 7 Jy) in the final data products. Systematic changes in observations of dark sky, taken over the course of the mission, provide a measure of the evolution between observed telescope emission and the telescope model. These dark sky observations have been used to derive a time dependent correction to the telescope emissivity that reduces the systematic error in the continuum of the final FTS spectra to ˜0.35 Jy.

  19. Simulation and Track Reconstruction for Beam Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are an important tool to test new detectors under development in a particle beam. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, its predicted position on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them do not account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framework along with the General Broken ...

  20. Remote secure observing for the Faulkes Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Steele, Iain A.; Marchant, Jonathan M.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Mucke-Herzberg, Dorothea

    2004-09-01

    Since the Faulkes Telescopes are to be used by a wide variety of audiences, both powerful engineering level and simple graphical interfaces exist giving complete remote and robotic control of the telescope over the internet. Security is extremely important to protect the health of both humans and equipment. Data integrity must also be carefully guarded for images being delivered directly into the classroom. The adopted network architecture is described along with the variety of security and intrusion detection software. We use a combination of SSL, proxies, IPSec, and both Linux iptables and Cisco IOS firewalls to ensure only authenticated and safe commands are sent to the telescopes. With an eye to a possible future global network of robotic telescopes, the system implemented is capable of scaling linearly to any moderate (of order ten) number of telescopes.

  1. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  2. Extreme multiplex spectroscopy at wide-field 4-m telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Robert; Shanks, Tom

    2008-07-01

    We describe the design and science case for a spectrograph for the prime focus of classical 4-m wide-field telescopes that can deliver at least 4000 MOS slits over a 1° field. This extreme multiplex capability means that 25000 galaxy redshifts can be measured in a single night, opening up the possibilities for large galaxy redshift surveys out to z~0.7 and beyond for the purpose of measuring the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale and for many other science goals. The design features four cloned spectrographs and exploits the exclusive possibility of tiling the focal plane of wide-field 4-m telescopes with CCDs for multi-object spectroscopic purposes. In ~200 night projects, such spectrographs have the potential to make galaxy redshift surveys of ~6×106 galaxies over a wide redshift range and thus may provide a low-cost alternative to other survey routes such as WFMOS and SKA. Two of these extreme multiplex spectrographs are currently being designed for the AAT (NG1dF) and Calar Alto (XMS) 4-m class telescopes. NG2dF, a larger version for the AAT 2° field, would have 12 clones and at least 12000 slits. The clones use a transparent design including a grism in which all optics are smaller than the clone square subfield so that the clones can be tightly packed with little gaps between the contiguous fields. Only low cost glasses are used; the variations in chromatic aberrations between bands are compensated by changing one or two of the lenses adjacent to the grism. The total weight and length is smaller with a few clones than a unique spectrograph which makes it feasible to place the spectrograph at the prime focus.

  3. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  4. ESO Telescope Designer Raymond Wilson Wins Prestigious Kavli Award for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    with four individual telescopes with 17.5 cm thick 8.2-metre mirrors. Active optics has contributed towards making the VLT the world's most successful ground-based observatory and will be an integral part of ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) project. Active optics technology is also part of the twin 10-metre Keck telescopes, the Subaru telescope's 8.2-metre mirror and the two 8.1-metre Gemini telescopes. Co-prize winners Jerry Nelson and Roger Angel respectively pioneered the use of segmentation in telescope primary mirrors - as used on the Keck telescopes, and the development of lightweight mirrors with short focal ratios. A webcast from Oslo, Norway, announcing the prize winners is available at www.kavlifoundation.org and www.kavliprize.no. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  5. The Genesis Project: Science Cases for a Large Submm Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    The formation of stars is intimately linked to the structure and evolution of molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. In the context of the ANR/DFG project GENESIS (GENeration and Evolution of Structures in the Ism, http://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/node/965), we explore this link with a new approach by combining far-infrared maps and surveys of dust (Herschel) and cooling lines (CII, CI, CO, OI with SOFIA), with molecular line maps. Dedicated analysis tools are used to characterise molecular cloud structure, and we explore the coupling of turbulence with heating- and cooling processes. The project gathers a large observational data set, from molecular line maps at (sub)-mm wavelengths from ground-based telescopes (e.g. IRAM) up to high-frequency airborne spectroscopic and continuum observations (SOFIA). Nevertheless, we identified the need for a large single-dish submm telescope, operating in the southern hemisphere at high frequencies. Only such an instrument is able to observe important ISM cooling lines, like the CI lines at 490 and 810 GHz or high-J CO lines, shock tracers, or probes of turbulence dissipation with high angular resolution in Galactic and extragalactic sources. We will discuss possible science cases and demonstrate how those are addressed within GENESIS, and the science done with the new 6m Cologne-Cornell CCAT-prime submm telescope.

  6. The STAR-X X-Ray Telescope Assembly (XTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Bautz, Mark W.; Bonafede, Joseph A.; Miller, Eric D.; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.; Zhang, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) science goals are to discover what powers the most violent explosions in the Universe, understand how black holes grow across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats the majority of baryons in the Universe. To achieve these goals, STAR-X requires a powerful X-ray telescope with a large field of view, large collecting area, and excellent point spread function. The STAR-X instrument, the X-Ray Telescope Assembly (XTA), meets these requirements using a powerful X-ray mirror technology based on precision-polished single crystal silicon and a mature CCD detector technology. The XTA is composed of three major subsystems: an X-ray Mirror Assembly (MA) of high resolution, lightweight mirror segments fabricated out of single crystal silicon; a Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) made of back-illuminated CCD's capable of detecting X-rays with excellent quantum efficiency; and a composite Telescope Tube that structurally links the MA and FPA. The MA consists of 5,972 silicon mirror segments mounted into five subassemblies called meta-shells. A meta-shell is constructed from an annular central structural shell covered with interlocking layers of mirror segments. This paper describes the requirements, design, and analysis of the XTA subsystems with particular focus on the MA.

  7. An afocal telescope configuration for the ESA Ariel mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, V.; Middleton, K.; Focardi, M.; Morgante, G.; Pace, E.; Claudi, R.; Micela, G.

    2017-09-01

    ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three candidates for the next ESA medium-class science mission (M4) expected to be launched in 2026. This mission will be devoted to observing spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighborhood of the Solar System, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planets and enabling the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.8 microns. In addition there are four photometric channels: two wide band, also used as fine guidance sensors, and two narrow band. During its 3.5 years of operations from L2 orbit, ARIEL will continuously observe exoplanets transiting their host star. The ARIEL optical design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is composed of an off-axis portion of a two-mirror classic Cassegrain coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror. The telescope and optical bench operating temperatures, as well as those of some subsystems, will be monitored and fine tuned/stabilised mainly by means of a thermal control subsystem (TCU-Telescope Control Unit) working in closed-loop feedback and hosted by the main Payload electronics unit, the Instrument Control Unit (ICU). Another important function of the TCU will be to monitor the telescope and optical bench thermistors when the Payload decontamination heaters will be switched on (when operating the instrument in Decontamination Mode) during the Commissioning Phase and cyclically, if required. Then the thermistors data will be sent by the ICU to the On Board Computer by means of a proper formatted telemetry. The latter (OBC) will be in charge of switching on and off the decontamination heaters on the basis of the thermistors readout

  8. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope spectral legacy survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plume, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Helmich, F.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Roberts, H.; Bowey, J.; Buckle, J.; Butner, H.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A. G.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Matthews, H.; Millar, T. J.; Mitchell, G.; Moore, T. J. T.; Ossenkopf, V.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Richer, J.; Roellig, M.; Schilke, P.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Thompson, M. A.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, Glenn J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    Stars form in the densest, coldest, most quiescent regions of molecular clouds. Molecules provide the only probes that can reveal the dynamics, physics, chemistry, and evolution of these regions, but our understanding of the molecular inventory of sources and how this is related to their physical

  9. Shutter heating system of Antarctic bright star survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Dong, Shucheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A heat preservation system for mechanical shutter in Antarctic is introduced in the paper. The system consists of the heat preservation chamber, the host controller STM32F103C8T6 with peripheral circuit and the control algorithm. The whole design is carried out on the basis of the low temperature requirement, including the cavity structure and thermal insulation. The heat preservation chamber is used to keep the shutter warm and support the weight of the camera. Using PT100 as the temperature sensor, the signal processing circuit converts the temperature to the voltage which is then digitized by the 12 bit ADC in the STM32. The host controller transforms the voltage data into temperature, and through the tuning of the Fussy PID algorithm which controls the duty cycle of the MOSFET, the temperature control of chamber is realized. The System has been tested in the cryogenic environment for a long time, with characteristic of low temperature resistance, small volume, high accuracy of temperature control as well as remote control and detection.

  10. The earliest telescope preserved in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

  11. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, M.E.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, M.A.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  12. LAST: Laser Array Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madajian, Jonathan A.; Cohen, Alexander; Hwang, Rebecca; Bishman, Chase; Reyes, Rachel; Bautista, Miguel; Tsukamoto, Ryan; Pon, Brandon; Vanmali, Dylan; Xu, Xu; Rommelfanger, Nicholas; Ho, Ian; Lin, Lucas; Prazak, Michael; Ruehl, Patrick; Brashears, Travis; Rupert, Nic; Lubin, Philip

    2016-09-01

    A phased array operates by modulating the phases of several signals, allowing electronic control over the locations that these signals interfere constructively or destructively, allowing the beam to be steered. A space-based laser phased array, called the Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation (DE-STAR) has previously been posited by our group for a number of uses, from planetary defense to relativistic propulsion of small probes. Here we propose using the same basic system topology as a receiver rather than a transmitter. All of the components in the system, excluding the laser, are bidirectional. Rather than each elements transmitting laser light, they would instead receive light, which will then be combined to create an interference pattern that can be imaged onto a focal plane. The Laser Array Space Telescope (LAST) uses most of the same components and metrology as DE-STAR and could thus be integrated into a singular system, allowing both transmit and receive modes. This paper discusses the possible applications of this system from laser communications to astrophysics.

  13. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  14. First Steps Toward K-12 Teacher Professional Development Using Internet-based Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    How can science teachers become more familiar with emerging technology, excite their students and give students a taste of astronomy research? Astronomy teachers do not always have research experience, so it is difficult for them to convey to students how researchers use telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier to providing teachers with insight into the process. Robotic telescopes (operated automatically with queued observing schedules) and remotely controlled telescopes (controlled by the user via the Internet) allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), and middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005). However, teachers need to be trained to use these resources. Responding to this need, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are developing teacher professional development programs using Internet-based telescopes. We conducted an online course in the science education graduate program at the University of Wyoming. This course was designed to sample different types of Internet-based telescopes to evaluate them as resources for teacher professional development. The 10 participants were surveyed at the end of the course to assess their experiences with each activity. In addition, pre-test/post-test data were collected focusing specifically on one of the telescopes (Gershun, Berryhill and Slater 2012). Throughout the course, the participants learned to use a variety of robotic and remote telescopes including SLOOH Space Camera (www.slooh.com), Sky Titan Observatory (www

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This sturning image, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is an image of the center of the Omega Nebula. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3,500 times wider than our solar system. The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: blue, near infrared, hydrogen alpha, and doubly ionized oxygen. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  16. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  17. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  18. An Overview of the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, S.; Norrod, R.; King, L.; Parker, D.

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) site in Green Bank, is to be the largest, fully-steerable telescope in the world. The GBT has a main reflector 100 mx100 m with unblocked aperture. The telescope will operate at prime focus in the 230 MHz-1200 MHz frequency range and at Gregorian focus in the 1.15 GHz to >100 GHz range. The performance of the GBT above 15 GHz will be enhanced by the use of an active surface and a metrology system. The location of the surface panels are to be measured and adjusted to minimize the surface error as measured from a best -fit paraboloid. Switching between prime focus and secondary focus operation, as well as selection of different receivers, will be achieved in a few minutes giving the telescope a rapid frequency agility.

  19. The ATHENA telescope and optics status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The work on the definition and technological preparation of the ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) mission continues to progress. In parallel to the study of the accommodation of the telescope, many aspects of the X-ray optics are being evolved further. The optics technology...... chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided...... by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided....

  20. The ATHENA telescope and optics status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark; Ferreira, Ivo; Shortt, Brian; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barriere, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Zuknik, Karl-Heintz; Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis; Oliver, Paul; Seidel, André

    2017-08-01

    The work on the definition and technological preparation of the ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) mission continues to progress. In parallel to the study of the accommodation of the telescope, many aspects of the X-ray optics are being evolved further. The optics technology chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided.

  1. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stellar Imager, an ultraviolet, sparse-aperture telescope, was one of the fifteen Vision Missions chosen for a study completed last year. Stellar Imager will...

  2. EDUCATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON REMOTE ACCESS TELESCOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Kriachko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the way of overcoming one of the major problems of astronomy teaching methods in upper secondary school – organization of educational astronomical observations. Nowadays it became possible to perform such observations on remote access telescopes. By using up-to-date informational and communicational technologies, having an opportunity to work with robotic telescopes allows us to organize a unique cognitive and research oriented activities for students while conducting their specialized astronomical studies. Below here is given a brief description of the most significant robotic telescopes and the way of the usage of open remote access telescopic network which was created by professors and scientists of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA.

  3. Lightweight composite mirrors for telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, steady and stiff mirrors are necessary to decrease cost of telescopes such as IXO and GenX used in special NASA missions. Low-density materials are...

  4. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  5. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  6. New infrared telescopic observation of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, E.; D'Aversa, E.; Sato, T.; Longobardo, A.; Aoki, S.; Sindoni, G.; Oliva, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present new telescopic observations of the Vesta asteroid made at the Subaru Telescope by using the COMICS IR spectrometer. We were able to obtain 5 different observations in 5 day, at two different epochs. The obtained spectra do not exhibit Reststrahlen bands and show only weak features attributable to the Christiansen peak and to the transparency feature compatible with a fine grain size regolith.

  7. Active optics for next generation space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, V.; Perret, L.; Laubier, D.; Delvit, J. M.; Imbert, C.; Cadiergues, L.; Faure, C.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution observation systems need bigger and bigger telescopes. The design of such telescopes is a key issue for the whole satellite. In order to improve the imaging resolution with minimum impact on the satellite, a big effort must be made to improve the telescope compactness. Compactness is also important for the agility of the satellite and for the size and cost of the launcher. This paper shows how compact a high resolution telescope can be. A diffraction limited telescope can be less than ten times shorter than its focal length. But the compactness impacts drastically the opto-mechanical sensitivity and the optical performances. Typically, a gain of a factor of 2 leads to a mechanical tolerance budget 6 times more difficult. The need to implement active optics for positioning requirements raises very quickly. Moreover, the capability to compensate shape defaults of the primary mirror is the way to simplify the mirror manufacture, to mitigate the development risks and to minimize the cost. The larger the primary mirror is, the more interesting it is to implement active optics for shape compensations. CNES is preparing next generation of earth observation satellite in the frame of OTOS (Observation de la Terre Optique Super-Résolue; High resolution earth observing optical system). OTOS is a technology program. In particular, optical technological developments and breadboards dedicated to active optics are on-going. The aim is to achieve TRL 5 to TRL6 for these new technologies and to validate the global performances of such an active telescope.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Airflow in Telescope Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, David S.

    1996-12-01

    Contemporary design of large telescopes requires optimization of the telescope environment in order to fully realize the capabilities of advanced mirror technology, telescope control, and instrumentation. Telescope enclosure design is a critical element in providing this optimized environment. Enclosures must protect the telescope while minimizing the local degradation of image quality, and the large cost of such structures requires that a successful design be in place before construction begins. In order to test various enclosure designs, three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic calculations have been carried out to determine the flow of air within and around proposed enclosure configurations. Such calculations can test the effectiveness of dome venting, evaluate the dynamic pressures that cause possible deformation of primary mirror surfaces and structural windshake, and isolate sources of turbulent flow that may cause image degradation. Results are presented from a series of calculations that investigated characteristic flows in the Gemini 8-meter enclosure and around its associated primary mirror cell. In general the enclosure design is found to meet its overall design goals. Good dome venting is achieved under a variety of conditions, yet the telescope structure is kept in a low wind environment.

  9. A Southern Sky Survey with Fermi LAT and ASKAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Robert A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-04-29

    We present the prospects for a future joint gamma-ray and radio survey of southern hemisphere sources using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the upcoming Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope. ASKAP is a next generation radio telescope designed to perform surveys at GHz frequencies at a much higher survey speed than previous radio telescopes, and is scheduled to start engineering observations in 2011. The survey capabilities of both Fermi LAT and ASKAP are described, and the planned science surveys for ASKAP are summarized. We give some expected details of the Variable and Slow Transient (VAST) survey using ASKAP, which will search for transients on timescales from 5 seconds to years. Some observational properties of faint and transient sources seen at gamma-ray and radio wavelengths are summarized, and prospects and strategies for using ASKAP survey data for LAT source counterpart identification are summarized.

  10. NEOSTEL: the telescope detail design program for the ESA optical ground network dedicated to NEO discovery and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibin, L.; Chiarini, M.; Bernardi, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Salinari, P.

    The Fly-Eye architecture applied for a Space Debris and NEO Surveillance and Tracking optical telescope has been originally proposed by CGS and further refined in the framework of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Program studies. The high level architecture of a Telescope based on the Fly-Eye concept has been defined in the TELAD Study. Following TELAD conceptual design, the activities of NEOSTEL aim now at generating the Detailed Design of a NEO Survey Telescope based on the Fly-Eye concept. All components of the telescope are designed at detailed level to satisfy the specific requirements for the Survey and Follow Up of the Near Earth Objects. The NEO Survey Telescope detailed design generated under this Program will be directly utilized for the manufacturing of the first prototype, planned to be launched by the SSA Program in the second half of 2015. In addition, the result of the Detailed Design will produce the documentation necessary to prepare the future site that will host the NEO Survey Telescope prototype as well as the high level architecture of the data processing SW that will be required at the telescope site. The product of the prototypation activity will then constitute a full Italian key Optical Core Technology, dedicated to the NEO thematic but also extendable to the SST Segment, therefore offering possibility of application both at Civil and at Institutional level. Furthermore the Fly-Eye Telescope Technology can actively collaborate with a dedicated Space Segment, opening the way to a complete and autonomous EU System.

  11. The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE): Enabling technology for an early lunar surface payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nein, M. E.; Hilchey, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture, fixed declination, optical telescope to be operated on the surface of the Moon. This autonomous science payload will provide an unprecedented ultraviolet stellar survey even before manned lunar missions are resumed. This paper very briefly summarizes the LUTE concept analyzed by the LUTE Task Team of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Scientific capabilities and the Reference Design Concept are identified, and the expected system characteristics are summarized. Technologies which will be required to enable the early development, deployment, and operation of the LUTE are identified, and the principle goals and approaches for their advancement are described.

  12. SST-GATE telescope: an innovative dual-mirror prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Delphine; Huet, Jean-Michel; Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Laporte, Philippe; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Fasola, Gilles; Zech, Andreas; Rulten, Cameron; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon; Schmoll, Jurgen

    2014-07-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is involved in the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project by designing and constructing on the site of Meudon a Small Size Telescope prototype, named SST-GATE, in collaboration with the CHEC team (Compact High Energy Camera) which is providing the camera. The telescope structure is based on the Schwarzschild- Couder optical design which has never been adopted before in the design of a ground-based telescope. This concept allows a larger field of view and cheaper and smaller telescope and camera design with improved performance compared to the Davies-Cotton design traditionally used in very high energy gamma-ray telescopes. The SST-GATE telescope has been designed with the prime objectives of being light, versatile and simple to assemble with a minimal maintenance cost. This papers aims at reviewing the SST-GATE telescope structure from mechanics to optics along with the control command architecture; several innovative developments implemented within the design are discussed. Updates of the project status and perspectives are made.

  13. ESO Successfully Tests Automation of Telescope Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This week astronomers at the European Southern Observatory have tested a novel approach of doing astronomy from the ground. Inaugurating a new era, the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla successfully performed a series of observations under automatic control by advanced computer software developed by the ESO Data Management Division (DMD) for use with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). This move has been made necessary by technological improvements in telescopes and the increasing competition among scientists for these valuable resources. Caption to ESO PR Photo 05/97 [JPG, 184k] This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 05/97 of the NTT. New telescopes produce more data Over the past few years, astronomical telescopes and the amount of data they produce have grown rapidly in size. With the advent of increasingly efficient, large digital cameras, the new telescopes with mirrors as large as 8 to 10 metres in diameter will deliver Gigabytes of valuable information each night. There is little doubt that scientific breakthroughs will be made with these telescopes and it should be no surprise that there is fierce competition for precious observing nights among the international astronomical community. Automated observations In order to make sure that the available observing time at the VLT will be used in the best and most efficient way, ESO has been developing advanced computer systems which will automatically schedule observations according to the scientific priorities of astronomers and the prevailing conditions of weather and equipment at the observatory. Once the astronomical data is gathered it is processed automatically at the telescope to provide the astronomer with immediately useful astronomical images and other pertinent information. No longer will the astronomer be required to spend weeks processing data into a form where results can be extracted. The continuous flow of astronomical data made possible with this system is

  14. Undergraduate Research with a Small Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P. L.; Williams, G. J.

    2001-11-01

    We describe the construction of a small radio telescope system at ULM and the role of radio astronomy in undergraduate education. The heart of the system is the Small Radio Telescope (SRT), which is a modified satellite TV antenna and custom receiver purchased from MIT Haystack Observatory. This telescope measures the brightness of many celestial objects at wavelengths near 21 cm. The system consists of various components to control dish movement, as well as perform analog to digital conversions allowing analysis of collected data. Undergraduate students have participated in the construction of the hardware and the task of interfacing the hardware to software on two GNU/Linux computer systems. The construction of the telescope and analysis of data allow the students to employ key concepts from mechanics, optics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics, as well as computer and electronics skills. We will report preliminary results of solar observations conducted with this instrument and with the MIT Haystack Observatory 37m radio telescope. This work was supported by Louisiana Board of Regents grant LEQSF-ENH-UG-16, NASA/LaSPACE LURA R109139 and ULM Development Foundation Grant 97317.

  15. Remote wireless control for LAMOST telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingzhe; Xu, Xinqi

    2006-06-01

    The R and D of the Chinese 4-m ever-ambitious telescope, Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), has advanced towards a new stage, and first light is expected by the end of 2006. As one of national scientific and engineering projects the telescope will become national facility and accommodate maximum accessibility for public reach in general and for the astronomical community in particular. Thus remote or even robotic control of the telescope is put under careful exploration. With the rapid development of IT technology one of the fashions is the mobile telephone carried around by average people mainly for daily communication, and mobile notes application has become a real hit. This paper presents GSM based remote wireless application adapted to telescope control, which can be utilized for greatly enhancing LAMOST' accessibility. The novel technique has recently been developed in LAMOST control lab. Test has demonstrated successful execution of Monitor and Control (M and C) commands for LAMOST through remote wireless mobile. The hardware and software configuration with techniques involved for reliable and secure communication is outlined in this paper too.

  16. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  17. In-the-Spectacle-Lens Telescopic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peli, Eli; Vargas-Martín, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Spectacle-mounted telescopic systems are prescribed for individuals with visual impairments. Bioptic telescopes are typically mounted toward the top of the spectacle lens (or above the frame) with the telescope eyepiece positioned above the wearer’s pupil. This allows the wearer to use up and down head tilt movements to quickly alternate between the unmagnified wide view (through the carrier lens) and the magnified narrow field-of-view (available through the eyepiece). Rejection of this visual aid has been attributed mainly to its appearance and to the limited field-of-view through the smaller Galilean designs. We designed a wide-field Keplerian telescope that is built completely within the spectacle lens. The design uses embedded mirrors inside the carrier lens for optical pathway folding and conventional lenses or curved mirrors for magnification power. The short height of the ocular, its position, and a small tilt of the ocular mirror enable the wearer to simultaneously view the magnified field above the unmagnified view of the uninterrupted horizontal field. These features improve the cosmetics and utility of the device. The in-the-lens design will allow the telescope to be mass-produced as a commodity ophthalmic lens blank that can be surfaced to include the wearer’s spectacle prescription. PMID:18601572

  18. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  19. Measurement System for the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D. H.; Srikanth, S.

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) site in Green Bank, WV, was completed in June 2000. At the time of writing, the GBT is undergoing testing of the various systems and characterization of the actual structural modes. It is the largest, fully-steerable radio telescope in the world. The main reflector which is a solid-surface paraboloid has an unblocked 100-meter projected aperture. The telescope will operate at prime focus from 25 MHz to 1200 MHz and at Gregorian focus from 1.15 GHz to ≥ 100 GHz. It is a state-of-the-art instrument with an active surface to compensate for deformations of the primary reflector backup structure due to external loads. The GBT has a unique six-degree of freedom subreflector and a three-degree of freedom prime focus mount that allow realigning of the optics which is required as the telescope moves in elevation. A receiver turret that holds 8 secondary focus receivers will provide rapid frequency agility for the telescope. This paper describes the metrology system, based on laser rangefinders, that has been developed at NRAO for the realization of the active surface and precision pointing of the GBT.

  20. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA-Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of GB of imagery data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Originally planned for the island of Legan, part of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, recent developments have led to a change in venue. Specifically, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance, or GEODSS, System of telescopes is the United States' major tracking system for deep space. This network consists of telescopes in Maui, Hawaii; Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), and Socorro, New Mexico. A fourth optical telescope, though

  1. Evaluating SLOOH Robotic Telescopes for Formal Educational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershun, D.; Berryhill, K. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    The past several years has seen a gradual shift from telescopes being used only by top researchers to a case where educators across the STEM spectrum now have access to quality telescopes. This has been made possible by equipping telescopes to be controlled over the internet, either robotically which requires no human interaction during observation, or remotely which retain full user controllability. Education researchers around the world have recently focused on applications in elementary and secondary education (McKinnon & Geissinger 2002, Sadler et al. 2007). Responding to this paradigm shift, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and Center for Physic & Astronomy Education Research (www.caperteam.com) are dedicating time to explore this further at the undergraduate level, in order to better advise STEM educators of the most effective technological resources and curriculum development. Current research focuses on evaluating the academic merit of using SLOOH Space Camera in a summer online course offered by the University of Wyoming Outreach Program. SLOOH has robotic telescopes in the Canary Islands and La Dehesa, Chile. This evaluation will provide valuable data on an emerging technology as well as serve to advise future introductory astronomy sections at the University of Wyoming on the use of similar internet-controlled telescopes. The eight-week course exposed nine graduate science education students to basic night sky observing knowledge as well as provided hands-on experience using several robotic and remote observatories1,2,3,4. This mixed-methods case study collected data in the forms of six focus-group recordings, pre- and post-tests from all participants, a post-class survey, and general observations by the lead researcher. Transcripts and comments are coded to determine the most important features of SLOOH, and testing measures are analyzed to gauge the incoming and outgoing knowledge of participants. Analysis of testing measures

  2. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Oliver; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and Exo-Earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling it.

  3. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  4. The Design and Capabilities of the EXIST Optical and Infra-Red Telescope (IRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, A S.; Moseley, S. H.; Golisano, C.; Gong, Q.; Allen, B. T.; Gehrels, N.; Grindlay, J. E.; Hong, J. S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    The Infra-Red Telescope is a critical element of the EXIST (Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope) observatory. The primary goal of the IRT is to obtain photometric and spectroscopic measurements of high redshift (> or =6) gamma ray reaching to the epoque of reionization. The photometric and spectral capabilities of the IRT will allow to use GRB afterglow as probes of the composition and ionization state of the intergalactic medium of the young universe. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events in the infrared and optical wavelength, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories. We present the results of the mission study development on the IRT as part of the EXIST observatory. Keywords: infrared spectroscopy, space telescope, gamma ray bursts, early universe

  5. An afocal telescope configuration for the ESA ARIEL mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Focardi, Mauro; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pascale, Enzo; Grella, Samuele; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Amiaux, Jérôme; Colomé Ferrer, Josep; Hunt, Thomas; Rataj, Miroslaw; Sierra-Roig, Carles; Ficai Veltroni, Iacopo; Eccleston, Paul; Micela, Giuseppina; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey (ARIEL) is a candidate as an M4 ESA mission to launch in 2026. During its 3.5 years of scientific operations, ARIEL will observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighbourhood of the solar system. ARIEL aims to give a breakthrough in the observation of exoplanet atmospheres and understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far-away worlds. ARIEL is based on a 1 m class telescope feeding a collimated beam into two separate instrument modules: a spectrometer module covering the waveband between 1.95 and 7.8 μm and a combined fine guidance system/visible photometer/NIR spectrometer. The telescope configuration is a classic Cassegrain layout used with an eccentric pupil and coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror. To constrain the thermo-mechanically induced optical aberrations, the primary mirror (M1) temperature will be monitored and finely tuned using an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. They will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ± 1 K by the telescope control unit (TCU). The TCU is a payload electronics subsystem also responsible for the thermal control of the spectrometer module detectors as well as the secondary mirror mechanism and IR calibration source management. The TCU, being a slave subsystem of the instrument control unit, will collect the housekeeping data from the monitored subsystems and will forward them to the master unit. The latter will run the application software, devoted to the main spectrometer management and to the scientific data on-board processing.

  6. An afocal telescope configuration for the ESA ARIEL mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Focardi, Mauro; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pascale, Enzo; Grella, Samuele; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Amiaux, Jérôme; Colomé Ferrer, Josep; Hunt, Thomas; Rataj, Miroslaw; Sierra-Roig, Carles; Ficai Veltroni, Iacopo; Eccleston, Paul; Micela, Giuseppina; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey (ARIEL) is a candidate as an M4 ESA mission to launch in 2026. During its 3.5 years of scientific operations, ARIEL will observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighbourhood of the solar system. ARIEL aims to give a breakthrough in the observation of exoplanet atmospheres and understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far-away worlds. ARIEL is based on a 1 m class telescope feeding a collimated beam into two separate instrument modules: a spectrometer module covering the waveband between 1.95 and 7.8 μm and a combined fine guidance system/visible photometer/NIR spectrometer. The telescope configuration is a classic Cassegrain layout used with an eccentric pupil and coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror. To constrain the thermo-mechanically induced optical aberrations, the primary mirror (M1) temperature will be monitored and finely tuned using an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. They will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ± 1 K by the telescope control unit (TCU). The TCU is a payload electronics subsystem also responsible for the thermal control of the spectrometer module detectors as well as the secondary mirror mechanism and IR calibration source management. The TCU, being a slave subsystem of the instrument control unit, will collect the housekeeping data from the monitored subsystems and will forward them to the master unit. The latter will run the application software, devoted to the main spectrometer management and to the scientific data on-board processing.

  7. Pulsar science with the Five hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, R.; Lorimer, D. R.; Kramer, M.; Manchester, R.; Stappers, B.; Jin, C. J.; Nan, R. D.; Li, D.

    2009-10-01

    With a collecting area of 70 000 m^2, the Five hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) will allow for great advances in pulsar astronomy. We have performed simulations to estimate the number of previously unknown pulsars FAST will find with its 19-beam or possibly 100-beam receivers for different survey strategies. With the 19-beam receiver, a total of 5200 previously unknown pulsars could be discovered in the Galactic plane, including about 460 millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Such a survey would take just over 200 days with eight hours survey time per day. We also estimate that, with about 80 six-hour days, a survey of M 31 and M 33 could yield 50-100 extra-Galactic pulsars. A 19-beam receiver would produce just under 500 MB of data per second and requires about 9 tera-ops to perform the major part of a real time analysis. We also simulate the logistics of high-precision timing of MSPs with FAST. Timing of the 50 brightest MSPs to a signal-to-noise of 500 would take about 24 h per epoch.

  8. New Concept of Hungarian Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, T.; Kiss, Z.; Biro, B.; Jager, Z.

    As the result of a longer innovation of a few Hungarian opto-mechanical and electronic small companies, a concept of fully robotic mounts has been formed some years ago. There are lots of Hungarian Automated Telescopes over the world (in Arizona, South Korea, Izrael and atop Mauna Kea, just below the famous Keck domes). These are cited as HAT telescopes (Bakos et al. 2002), and served thousands of large-frame time-series CCD images since 2004, and the working team found already 6 exoplanets, and a number of new variable stars, etc... The newest idea was to build a more robust robotic mount, hosting larger optics (D > 50 cm) for achieving much fainter celestial objects, than the HAT series (they are operating with Nikon teleobjective lenses) on a still relatively wide celestial area. The very first sample model is the BART-1, a 50cm f/6 telescope.

  9. Toward active x-ray telescopes II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-10-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the observation time required to achieve a given sensitivity has decreased by eight orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope, culminating with the exquisite subarcsecond imaging performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (technologically challenging—requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes current progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  10. Perceptual image quality and telescope performance ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Joshua K.; Harvey, James E.; Marshall, Kenneth H.; Salg, Joseph; Houston, Joseph B.

    2010-08-01

    Launch Vehicle Imaging Telescopes (LVIT) are expensive, high quality devices intended for improving the safety of vehicle personnel, ground support, civilians, and physical assets during launch activities. If allowed to degrade from the combination of wear, environmental factors, and ineffective or inadequate maintenance, these devices lose their ability to provide adequate quality imagery to analysts to prevent catastrophic events such as the NASA Space Shuttle, Challenger, accident in 1986 and the Columbia disaster of 2003. A software tool incorporating aberrations and diffraction that was developed for maintenance evaluation and modeling of telescope imagery is presented. This tool provides MTF-based image quality metric outputs which are correlated to ascent imagery analysts' perception of image quality, allowing a prediction of usefulness of imagery which would be produced by a telescope under different simulated conditions.

  11. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  12. Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.

    2011-01-01

    NEAT (Nearby Exo ]Earths Astrometric Telescope) is a modest sized (1m diameter telescope) It will be capable of searching approx 100 nearby stars down to 1 Mearth planets in the habitable zone, and 200 @ 5 Mearth, 1AU. The concept addresses the major issues for ultra -precise astrometry: (1) Photon noise (0.5 deg dia field of view) (2) Optical errors (beam walk) with long focal length telescope (3) Focal plane errors , with laser metrology of the focal plane (4) PSF centroiding errors with measurement of the "True" PSF instead of using a "guess " of the true PSF, and correction for intra pixel QE non-uniformities. Technology "close" to complete. Focal plane geometry to 2e-5 pixels and centroiding to approx 4e -5 pixels.

  13. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  14. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  15. A deep X-ray spectroscopic survey of the ESO imaging survey fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    V, we propose to perform a spectroscopic survey with SODART and push these telescopes to the limit at the high energies. By selecting the four ESO Imaging Survey fields EIS teach 6 deg(2)) we will take full advantage of the large, systematic effort ESO is putting into the optical survey of these fields...

  16. The Development of the Control System for the Automated Patrol Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Paul Wilfrid

    A Baker-Nunn Satellite Tracking Camera has been modified to undertake contemporary astronomical survey and patrol projects. The f/1 camera now has a CCD at the focus with a field of 1.2 by 0.9 degrees, with a pixel resolution of 9 arc seconds. The mount has been reconfigured into an equatorial, with new bearings and a friction drive on the right ascension axis. The camera is now called the Automated Patrol Telescope (A.P.T.). This thesis describes the servo control system which was developed to control the motion of the telescope. A digital servo control system was developed incorporating three 6502 microprocessors. Two digital controllers were constructed which interface to a host Apple IIe. Each controller drives a D.C. printed armature motor which is coupled to the axes of the telescope mount through reduction gears. The position and velocity of the telescope are sensed through an incremental encoder on the shaft of each motor. The thesis describes the development of the control algorithm and its performance. Nonlinear friction within the drive mechanism led to the implementation of a velocity PID control algorithm with gain scheduling. The control system is responsible for pointing, tracking and autoguiding the telescope. Each utility can be initiated through the Apple IIe keyboard or remotely via a GPIB link. The results of an initial pointing test are presented. The pointing algorithm compensates for the effects introduced by the nonperpendicularities between the axes of the mount, polar misalignment, and atmospheric refraction. Modelling of the telescope and mount improved the pointing accuracy from 746 to 168 arc second. The thesis discusses possible causes as to why further improvement was not achieved. The tracking and autoguiding responses of the telescope are presented. The tracking accuracy during autoguiding is 0.22 arc seconds. A systematic error of 0.56 arc seconds is also present. The source of this systematic error is explained and a solution is

  17. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.″03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.″1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  18. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.

    2016-07-01

    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  19. Autonomous Dome for a Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Sengupta, A.; Ganesh, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50 cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu (Rajsthan, India). This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of the Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5 m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  20. Status of the GroundBIRD Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Génova-Santos, R.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Kanno, F.; Karatsu, K.; Kiuchi, K.; Koyano, R.; Kutsuma, H.; Lee, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Naruse, M.; Oguri, S.; Okada, T.; Otani, C.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.; Sekimoto, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Taino, T.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.; Won, E.; Yoshida, M.

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of physics at very early Universe, as early as 10-35 s after the Big Bang, relies on the scenario known as the inflationary cosmology. Inflation predicts a particular polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background, known as the B-mode yet the strength of such polarization pattern is extremely weak. To search for the B-mode of the polarization in the cosmic microwave background, we are constructing an off-axis rotating telescope to mitigate systematic effects as well as to maximize the sky coverage of the observation. We will discuss the present status of the GroundBIRD telescope.

  1. Enclosure design for Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, N.; Breckenridge, C.; Vasiljevic, A.

    2008-07-01

    The design of the calotte enclosure for the Thirty-Meter Telescope is currently in the preliminary design phase. Key aspects of the design include an efficient structural/mechanical form, repetition of components, modular construction, and operational efficiency. This paper includes an overall description of the enclosure design, as well as a description of the major structural and mechanical subsystems. The enclosure incorporates features that influence the thermal and aerodynamic environment of the telescope including ventilation openings and wind deflecting features. Other key considerations of the preliminary design include the constructability and maintainability of a dynamic structure of this scale at a remote mountain site.

  2. Telescope Pointing Based in Inertial Measurment Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujičić, D.; Pavlović, R.; Cvetković, Z., Randjić, S.; Jagodić, D.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we study the problem of how to determine the coordinates of a point a telescope is directed to on the basis of data obtained from a 9DOF sensor board. On the 9DOF sensor board there are three sensors: the gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer. By combining the data from all the three sensors one obtains the Eulerian angles in the system tied to the sensor board. The Eulerian angles are transformed into the horizontal and equatorial coordinates in order to obtain the point the telescope is directed to.

  3. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.

  4. DAG: a new observatory and a prospective observing site for other potential telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyaprak, Cahit; Yerli, Sinan K.; Keskin, Onur; Güçsav, B. Bülent

    2016-07-01

    DAG (Eastern Anatolia Observatory is read as "Doğu Anadolu Gözlemevi" in Turkish) is the newest and largest observatory of Turkey, constructed at an altitude of 3150 m in Konaklı/Erzurum provenience, with an optical and nearinfrared telescope (4 m in diameter) and its robust observing site infrastructure. This national project consists of three main phases: DAG (Telescope, Enclosure, Buildings and Infrastructures), FPI (Focal Plane Instruments and Adaptive Optics) and MCP (Mirror Coating Plant). All these three phases are supported by the Ministry of Development of Turkey and funding is awarded to Atatürk University. Telescope, enclosure and building tenders were completed in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively. The final design of telescope, enclosure and building and almost all main infrastructure components of DAG site have been completed; mainly: road work, geological and atmospheric surveys, electric and fiber cabling, water line, generator system, cable car to summit. This poster explains recent developments of DAG project and talks about the future possible collaborations for various telescopes which can be constructed at the site.

  5. Spitzer Space Telescope Mid-IR Light Curves of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Marley, Mark S.; Gizis, John E.; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; hide

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 microns and 0.6 mag at 4.5 microns. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 microns) and W2 (4.6 microns) from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)/NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010-2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler/K2 in the visible (amplitude approximately 0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude approximately 0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune's atmosphere than for K2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune's atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 micron filters.

  6. The infrared-optical telescope (IRT) of the EXIST observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  7. The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  8. Revisiting the Effectiveness of Large Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To create large-size optical telescopes, various design concepts have been used. Each concept inevitably faced the challenge to optimize technical characteristics and parameters of the telescope. There was always a question: what concept to choose, how to estimate efficiency of such telescopes and by what criteria and how to estimate expediency of this or that project of the large-size telescope. It is, obviously, insufficient to make a resolution-based estimation. An estimate by the angular field size is inappropriate too. Well, it may be also an estimate by the stellar magnitude. All these criteria are related to each other. Improvement of one of these parameters inevitably leads to deterioration of the others. Obviously, the certain generalized criterion considering all parameters and features of the design concept of the large-size telescope is necessary here. As such can serve the criterion of informational content of the telescope.The article offers a complex criterion allowing not only to estimate efficiency of large-size optical telescopes, but also to compare their conceptual and technological level among themselves in terms of obtaining information.The article suggests a new term, i.e. the informational content invariant to characterize informative capacities of the chosen concept and of the realizing technology. It will allow us to avoid unjustified complications of technical solutions, wrong accents in designing and excess material inputs when developing the project.The informational content criterion-based analysis of the existing projects of large-size telescopes has been convincingly shown that, conceptually, there are three best telescopes, namely: GSMT, CELT, and ACT-25. And, in terms of informational content, the АCТ-25 is 10 times more than GSMT and CELT, and the existing Keck-telescope exceeds by 30 times. Hence, it is hard to escape a conclusion that it is more favourable to implement one ACT-25, than to do 10 GSMT or CELT

  9. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Pace, L. F.; Abercromby, K. J.; Kervin, P. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA - Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of gigabytes of image data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Ascension Island offers numerous advantages. As a British overseas territory with a US Air Force base presence, the necessary infrastructure and support already exists. It is located mid-way between Brazil and Africa at 7.93S latitude and 14.37 W longitude. With the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) asset in Moron, Spain shutting down, this presents access to the sky from a unique latitude

  10. Choosing and Using a Refracting Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The refracting telescope has a long and illustrious past. Here’s what the author says about early telescopes and today’s refractors: “Four centuries ago, a hitherto obscure Italian scientist turned a home-made spyglass towards the heavens. The lenses he used were awful by modern standards, inaccurately figured and filled with the scars of their perilous journey from the furnace to the finishing workshop. Yet, despite these imperfections, they allowed him to see what no one had ever seen before – a universe far more complex and dynamic than anyone had dared imagine. But they also proved endlessly useful in the humdrum of human affairs. For the first time ever, you could spy on your neighbor from a distance, or monitor the approach of a war-mongering army, thus deciding the fate of nations. “The refractor is without doubt the prince of telescopes. Compared with all other telescopic designs, the unobstructed view of the refractor enables it to capture the sharpest, highest contrast images and the wides...

  11. The Science and Art of Using Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Explains how to select equipment that is at the 'next level', and describes how to use more advanced telescopes and accessories. This book includes a section on imaging and equipment that range from regular digital cameras, through web cams, to specialized chilled-chip CCD cameras

  12. Introduction to the Solar Space Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The design of the space solar telescope (SST) (phase B) has been completed. The manufacturing is under development. At the end of 2000, it will be assembled. The basic aspect will be introduced in this paper. Author Affiliations. G. Ai1 S. Jin1 S. Wang1 B. Ye1 S. Yang1. Beijing Astronomical Observatory / National ...

  13. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  14. The telescopic tourist's guide to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Whether you’re interested in visiting Apollo landing sites or the locations of classic sci-fi movies, this is the tourist guide for you! This tourist guide has a twist – it is a guide to a whole different world, which you can visit from the comfort of your backyard with the aid of nothing more sophisticated than an inexpensive telescope. It tells you the best times to view the Moon, the most exciting sights to look out for, and the best equipment to use, allowing you to snap stunning photographs as well as view the sights with your own eyes. Have you ever been inspired by stunning images from the Hubble telescope, or the magic of sci-fi special effects, only to look through a small backyard telescope at the disappointing white dot of a planet or faint blur of a galaxy? Yet the Moon is different. Seen through even a relatively cheap telescope, it springs into life like a real place, with mountains and valleys and rugged craters. With a bit of imagination, you can even picture yourself as a sightseeing visi...

  15. Go-To Telescopes Under Suburban Skies

    CERN Document Server

    Monks, Neale

    2010-01-01

    For the last four centuries stargazers have turned their telescopes to the night skies to look at its wonders, but only in this age of computers has it become possible to let the telescope find for you the object you are looking for! So-called “go-to” telescopes are programmed with the locations of thousands of objects, including dazzling distant Suns, stunning neighboring galaxies, globular and open star clusters, the remnants of past supernovae, and many other breathtaking sights. This book does not tell you how to use your Go-to telescope. Your manual will help you do that. It tells you what to look for in the deep sky and why, and what equipment to best see it with. Organized broadly by what is best for viewing in the northern hemisphere in different seasons, Monks further divides the sights of each season into groupings such as “Showpiece Objects,” “Interesting Deep Sky Objects,” and “Obscure and Challenging Deep Sky Objects.” He also tells what objects are visible even in light-polluted ...

  16. Tilt-Sensitivity Analysis for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandris, Miltiadis; Waluschka, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    A report discusses a computational-simulation study of phase-front propagation in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in which space telescopes would transmit and receive metrological laser beams along 5-Gm interferometer arms. The main objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity of the average phase of a beam with respect to fluctuations in pointing of the beam. The simulations account for the effects of obscurations by a secondary mirror and its supporting struts in a telescope, and for the effects of optical imperfections (especially tilt) of a telescope. A significant innovation introduced in this study is a methodology, applicable to space telescopes in general, for predicting the effects of optical imperfections. This methodology involves a Monte Carlo simulation in which one generates many random wavefront distortions and studies their effects through computational simulations of propagation. Then one performs a statistical analysis of the results of the simulations and computes the functional relations among such important design parameters as the sizes of distortions and the mean value and the variance of the loss of performance. These functional relations provide information regarding position and orientation tolerances relevant to design and operation.

  17. Teaching a Course about the Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Thornton

    1983-01-01

    "Astronomy with the Space Telescope" is a course designed to show scientists/engineers how this instrument can make important advances in astrophysics, planetology, and geophysics. A description of the course (taught to 11 students working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and sample student paper on black holes are…

  18. FACT. Bokeh alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian Achim [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need fast and large imaging optics to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors are inexpensive, lightweight and offer good image quality. However, alignment of the mirror facets remains a challenge. A good alignment is crucial in IACT observations to separate gamma rays from hadronic cosmic rays. We present a simple, yet extendable method, to align segmented reflectors using their Bokeh. Bokeh alignment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done anytime, even during the day. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflector's Bokeh to a predefined template. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a nearby point like light source in a distance of about ten times the focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment on segmented reflectors and present its use on the First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on Canary Island La Palma, as well as on the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype in Berlin Adlershof.

  19. The Giant Magellan Telescope adaptive optics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Antonin H.; Acton, D. Scott; Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bennet, Francis; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Brusa-Zappellini, Guido; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Codona, Johanan L.; Conan, Rodolphe; Connors, Thomas; Durney, Oliver; Espeland, Brady; Esposito, Simone; Fini, Luca; Gardhouse, Rusty; Gauron, Thomas M.; Hart, Michael; Hinz, Philip M.; Kanneganti, Srikrishna; Kibblewhite, Edward J.; Knox, Russell P.; McLeod, Brian A.; McMahon, Thomas; Montoya, Manny; Norton, Timothy J.; Ordway, Mark P.; d'Orgeville, Celine; Parcell, Simon; Piatrou, Piotr K.; Pinna, Enrico; Price, Ian; Puglisi, Alfio; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Roll, John B.; Trancho, Gelys; Uhlendorf, Kristina; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; van Dam, Marcos A.; Weaver, David; Xompero, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope adaptive optics system will be an integral part of the telescope, providing laser guide star generation, wavefront sensing, and wavefront correction to most of the currently envisioned instruments. The system will provide three observing modes: Natural Guidestar AO (NGSAO), Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), and Ground Layer AO (GLAO). Every AO observing mode will use the telescope’s segmented adaptive secondary mirror to deliver a corrected beam directly to the instruments. High-order wavefront sensing for the NGSAO and LTAO modes is provided by a set of wavefront sensors replicated for each instrument and fed by visible light reflected off the cryostat window. An infrared natural guidestar wavefront sensor with open-loop AO correction is also required to sense tip-tilt, focus, segment piston, and dynamic calibration errors in the LTAO mode. GLAO mode wavefront sensing is provided by laser guidestars over a ~5 arcminute field of view, and natural guidestars over wider fields. A laser guidestar facility will project 120 W of 589 nm laser light in 6 beacons from the periphery of the primary mirror. An off-axis phasing camera and primary and secondary mirror metrology systems will ensure that the telescope optics remain phased. We describe the system requirements, overall architecture, and innovative solutions found to the challenges presented by high-order AO on a segmented extremely large telescope. Further details may be found in specific papers on each of the observing modes and major subsystems.

  20. Fusion of Telescopic and Doppler Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navara, M.; Matousek, M.; Drbohlav, O.

    2014-09-01

    We study the possibilities of observations of satellites at circular LEO orbits simultaneously by a telescope and a bistatic continuous-wave Doppler radar. Telescopic images allow for trajectory determination except for its distance (and hence height). Assuming a circular orbit, the height can be computed from the angular speed, but this is often impossible for LEO objects which do not remain in the field of view during the whole exposure time. To restore the missing information, we use Doppler radar data from a radio astronomy network, originally designed for detection of meteors. Using simulated perturbations of real radar data we studied their influence on the estimates of (i) permanent parameters of trajectory (orbital elements), (ii) instantaneous parameters of trajectory, (iii) distance and height estimates if the other parameters are given by the telescopic data. We derived recommendations for the optimal positions of the transmitter and receivers leading to the best resolution. We also discuss possible ways of improvement of this technique. Fusion results are shown on a suite of several matched radar and telescopic satellite fly-over data.

  1. HabEx space telescope optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan; Rud, Mayer; Scowen, Paul; Stern, Daniel; Nissen, Joel; Krist, John

    2017-09-01

    The HabEx study is defining a concept for a new space telescope with the primary mission of detecting and characterizing planetary systems around nearby stars. The telescope is designed specifically to operate with both a high contrast coronagraph and a starshade, enabling the direct optical detection of exoplanets as close as 70 mas from their star. The telescope will be equipped with cameras for exoplanetary system imaging and with spectrometers capable of characterizing exoplanet atmospheres. Gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane have spectral lines in the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum and may indicate biological activity. In addition to the study of exoplanets, HabEx enables general astrophysics with two dedicated instruments. One instrument is a camera enabling imaging on a 3 arc minute field of view in two bands stretching from the UV to the near infrared. The same instrument can also be operated as a multi-object spectrograph, with resolution of 2000. A second instrument will be a high resolution UV spectrograph operating from 120 nm with up to 60,0000 resolution. We discuss the preliminary designs of the telescope and the optical instruments for the observatory.

  2. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Boggs, Steve; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2010-01-01

    in this energy band. In addition, NuSTAR provides sub-arcminute imaging with good spectral resolution over a 12-arcminute eld of view. After launch, NuSTAR will carry out a two-year primary science mission that focuses on four key programs: studying the evolution of massive black holes through surveys carried...... incidence optics focused onto a solid state CdZnTe pixel detectors. To be launched in early 2012 on a Pegasus rocket into a low-inclination Earth orbit, NuSTAR largely avoids SAA passage, and will therefore have low and stable detector backgrounds. The telescope achieves a 10.14-meter focal length through...... Center (HEASARC) following validation at the science operations center located at Caltech....

  3. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    will remove the European-built Faint Object Camera, which has been working without any problem since the launch in 1990, and replace it with a new-generation instrument, called the Advanced Camera for Survey. With its three electronic cameras and complement of filters, this camera is expected to improve the telescope's sensitivity tenfold. Other primary tasks to be accomplished during STS-104 mission include replacement of the existing solar arrays with rigid, high-efficiency arrays for which ESA will deliver the mechanisms, manufactured by Daimler-Benz Aerospace/Dornier. In common with optical instruments, solar arrays gradually decline in performance when exposed to the space environment. Further tasks are the replacement of a mechanical tape recorder with a new-generation solid-state recorder and the replacement of Fine Guidance Sensor no. 2, one of three such devices that help to point the telescope at a celestial target with an accuracy of 0.007 arc seconds. This is equivalent to keeping the telescope pointed at a candle in Amsterdam from Vevey, Switzerland, about 700 km away, where Nicollier was born. The crew will also install a cooling system to improve the thermal protection of some of the telescope's systems, a new-technology cryogenic cooler for the Near Infrared Camera and Mutli-Object Spectrometer instrument and six improvement kits which will enhance Hubble's battery charge capability. In addition, they will repair and replace much of the multi-layer exterior thermal insulation on the sun-facing side of the telescope. On the second Hubble servicing mission, STS-82 in February 1997, the crew noticed peeling on several areas of the insulation and applied four patches to the worst affected areas. Both Smith and Nicollier have previous in-flight experience with Hubble: Smith performed three extravehicular sorties during the STS-82 mission to Hubble and Nicollier operated the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm during the first servicing mission on the STS-61 mission

  4. Camera Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Roberto Jose

    2017-01-01

    With the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the very-high-energy gamma-ray universe, between 30 GeV and 300 TeV, will be probed at an unprecedented resolution, allowing deeper studies of known gamma-ray emitters and the possible discovery of new ones. This exciting project could also confirm the particle nature of dark matter by looking for the gamma rays produced by self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The telescopes will use the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) to record Cherenkov photons that are produced by the gamma-ray induced extensive air shower. One telescope design features dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics that allows the light to be finely focused on the high-resolution silicon photomultipliers of the camera modules starting from a 9.5-meter primary mirror. Each camera module will consist of a focal plane module and front-end electronics, and will have four TeV Array Readout with GSa/s Sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET) chips, giving them 64 parallel input channels. The TARGET chip has a self-trigger functionality for readout that can be used in higher logic across camera modules as well as across individual telescopes, which will each have 177 camera modules. There will be two sites, one in the northern and the other in the southern hemisphere, for full sky coverage, each spanning at least one square kilometer. A prototype SC telescope is currently under construction at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF award AST-1560016.

  5. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Data Characterization and Map Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenner, Rolando; Hasselfield, Matthew; Marriage, Tobias A.; Sievers, Jon; Acquaviva, Viviana; Addison, Graeme E.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a description of the data reduction and mapmaking pipeline used for the 2008 observing season of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The data presented here at 148 GHz represent 12% or the 90 TB collected by ACT from 2007 to 2010. In 2008 we observed for 136 days, producing a total of 142h of data (11 TB for the 148 GHz band only), with a daily average of 10.5 h of observation. From these, 108.5 h were devoted to 850 sq deg stripe (11.2 h by 9 deg.1) centered on a declination of -52 deg.7, while 175 h were devoted to a 280 square deg stripe (4.5 h by 4 deg.8) centered at the celestial equator. We discuss sources of statistical and systematic noise, calibration, telescope pointing and data selection. Out of 1260 survey hours and 1024 detectors per array, 816 h and 593 effective detectors remain after data selection for this frequency band, yielding a 38 % survey efficiency. The total sensitivity in 2008, determined from the noise level between 5 Hz and 20 Hz in the time-ordered data stream (TOD), is 32 muK square root of s in CMB units. Atmospheric brightness fluctuations constitute the main contaminant in the data and dominate the detector and noise covariance at low frequencies in the TOD. The maps were made by solving the lease squares problem using the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method, incorporating the details of the detector and noise correlations. Cross-correlation with WMAP sky maps as well as analysis from simulations reveal the our maps are unbiased at l > 300. This paper accompanies the public release of the 148 GHz southern stripe maps from 2008. The techniques described here will be applied to future maps and data releases.

  7. Origins Space Telescope: The Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter FIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Chuss, David; Howard, Joseph; Meixner, Margaret; Vieira, Joaquin; Amatucci, Edward; Bradley, Damon; Carter, Ruth; Cooray, Asantha; Flores, Anel; Leisawitz, David; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Wollack, Edward; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST)* is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The current "concept 1", which envisions a cold (4K) 9m space telescope, includes 5 instruments, providing a wavelength coverage ranging from 6um and 667um. The achievable sensitivity of the observatory will provide three to four orders of magnitude of improvement in sensitivity over current observational capabilities, allowing to address a wide range of new and so far inaccessible scientific questions, ranging from bio-signatures on exo-planets to mapping primordial H_2 from the "dark ages" before the universe went through the phase of re-ionization.Here we present the Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter (FIP) for OST. The cameral will cover four bands, 40um, 80um, 120um, and 240um. It will allow for differential polarimetry in those bands with the ability to observe two colors in polarimtery mode simultaneously, while all four bands can be observed simultaneously in total power mode. While the confusion limit will be reached in only 32ms at 240um, at 40um the source density on the sky is so low, that at the angular resolution of 1" of OST at this wavelength there will be no source confusion, even for the longest integration times. Science topics that can be addressed by FIP include but are not limited to galactic and extragalactic magnetic field studies, Deep Galaxy Surveys, and Outer Solar System objects..*Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu

  8. Mosaic3: a red-sensitive upgrade for the prime focus camera at the Mayall 4m telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arjun; Rabinowitz, David; Karcher, Armin; Bebek, Chris; Baltay, Charles; Sprayberry, David; Valdes, Frank; Stupak, Bob; Donaldson, John; Emmet, Will; Hurteau, Tom; Abareshi, Behzad; Marshall, Bob; Lang, Dustin; Fitzpatrick, Mike; Daly, Phil; Joyce, Dick; Schlegel, David; Schweiker, Heidi; Allen, Lori; Blum, Bob; Levi, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction and will be used to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) technique and the growth of structure using redshift-space distortions (RSD). The spectra of 30 million galaxies over 14000 sq deg will be measured over the course of the experiment. In order to provide spectroscopic targets for the DESI survey, we are carrying out a three-band (g,r,z ) imaging survey of the sky using the NOAO 4-m telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO). At KPNO, we will use an upgraded version of the Mayall 4m telescope prime focus camera, Mosaic3, to carry out a z-band survey of the Northern Galactic Cap at declinations δ>=+30 degrees. By equipping an existing Dewar with four 4kx4k fully depleted CCDs manufactured by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we increased the z-band throughput of the system by a factor of 1.6. These devices have the thickest active area fielded at a telescope. The Mosaic3 z-band survey will be complemented by g-band and r-band observations using the Bok telescope and 90 Prime imager on Kitt Peak. We describe the upgrade and performance of the Mosaic3 instrument and the scope of the northern survey.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope: Optical telescope assembly handbook. Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Chris

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope is described along with how its design affects the images produced at the Science Instruments. An overview is presented of the hardware. Details are presented of the focal plane, throughput of the telescope, and the point spread function (image of an unresolved point source). Some detailed simulations are available of this, which might be useful to observers in planning their observations and in reducing their data.

  10. NASA 3D Models: James Webb Space Telescope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. The project is working to a 2018 launch date. The JWST will...

  11. The Origins Space Telescope — A NASA Decadal Mission Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Origins Space Telescope STDT

    2017-11-01

    The Origins Space Telescope will discover or characterize exoplanets, the most distant galaxies, nearby galaxies and the Milky Way, and the outer reaches of our solar system. This talk will present the Origins Space Telescope Mission Concept 1.

  12. Scientific Performance Analysis of the SYZ Telescope Design versus the RC Telescope Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Cai, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Recently, Su et al. propose an innovative design, referred as the “SYZ” design, for China’s new project of a 12 m optical-infrared telescope. The SYZ telescope design consists of three aspheric mirrors with non-zero power, including a relay mirror below the primary mirror. SYZ design yields a good imaging quality and has a relatively flat field curvature at Nasmyth focus. To evaluate the science-compatibility of this three-mirror telescope, in this paper, we thoroughly compare the performance of SYZ design with that of Ritchey–Chrétien (RC) design, a conventional two-mirror telescope design. Further, we propose the Observing Information Throughput (OIT) as a metric for quantitatively evaluating the telescopes’ science performance. We find that although a SYZ telescope yields a superb imaging quality over a large field of view, a two-mirror (RC) telescope design holds a higher overall throughput, a better diffraction-limited imaging quality in the central field of view (FOV < 5‧) which is better for the performance of extreme Adaptive Optics (AO), and a generally better scientific performance with a higher OIT value. D. Ma & Z. Cai contributed equally to this paper.

  13. HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY : MILESTONE OF THE PROTEA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thean

    One of its first ships, the HMSAS Protea, was a survey ship. The Creation of the South African Navy and the first Protea. The history of hydrographic surveying in ..... ship, those with telescopes and binoculars reported that officers were seen walking around, while passengers enjoyed drinks on the well-lit decks. The theory.

  14. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  15. Optics ellipticity performance of an unobscured off-axis space telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Guangwei; Wu, Hongbo

    2014-10-20

    With the development of astronomy, more and more attention is paid to the survey of dark matter. Dark matter cannot be seen directly but can be detected by weak gravitational lensing measurement. Ellipticity is an important parameter used to define the shape of a galaxy. Galaxy ellipticity changes with weak gravitational lensing and nonideal optics. With our design of an unobscured off-axis telescope, we implement the simulation and calculation of optics ellipticity. With an accurate model of optics PSF, the characteristic of ellipticity is modeled and analyzed. It is shown that with good optical design, the full field ellipticity can be quite small. The spatial ellipticity change can be modeled by cubic interpolation with very high accuracy. We also modeled the ellipticity variance with time and analyzed the tolerance. It is shown that the unobscured off-axis telescope has good ellipticity performance and fulfills the requirement of dark matter survey.

  16. South African Student Constructed Indlebe Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGruder, Charles H.; MacPherson, Stuart; Janse Van Vuuren, Gary Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Indlebe Radio Telescope (IRT) is a small transit telescope with a 5 m diameter parabolic reflector working at 21 cm. It was completely constructed by South African (SA) students from the Durban University of Technology (DUT), where it is located. First light occurred on 28 July 2008, when the galactic center, Sagittarius A, was detected. As a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, staff members in the Department of Electronic Engineering at DUT in 2006 decided to have their students create a fully functional radio telescope by 2009. The specific project aims are to provide a visible project that could generate interest in science and technology in high school students and to provide a real world system for research in radio astronomy in general and an optimization of low noise radio frequency receiver systems in particular. These aims must be understood in terms of the SA’s government interests in radio astronomy. SA is a partner in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, has constructed the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) and MeerKat, which is the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere. SA and its partners in Africa are investing in the construction of the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN), an array of radio telescopes throughout Africa as an extension of the existing global Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (VLBI). These projects will allow SA to make significant contributions to astronomy and enable astronomy to contribute to the scientific education and development goals of the country. The IRT sees on a daily basis the transit of Sag A. The transit time is influenced by precession, nutation, polar motion, aberration, celestial pole offset, proper motion, length of the terrestrial day and variable ionospheric refraction. Of these eight factors six are either predictable or measureable. To date neither celestial pole offset nor variable ionospheric refraction are predicable

  17. Eyes on the sky a spectrum of telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Graham-Smith, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy is experiencing a golden age, with a new generation of innovative telescopes yielding a flood of information on the Universe. This book traces the development of telescopes from Galileo to the present day, and explains the basic principles of telescopes that operate in different parts of electromagnetic spectrum.

  18. Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope Observations of Wolf–Rayet Dwarf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope (DFOT) is a 1.3 meter aperture optical telescope, recently installed at Devasthal, Nainital. We present here the first results using an H filter with this telescope on a Wolf–Rayet dwarf galaxy Mrk 996. The instrumental response and the H sensitivity obtained with the ...

  19. Searching Hubble Space Telescope Archives for Solar System Observations and Planned Improvements for James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmeyer, C. M.; Brasseur, C.; Fleming, S.; Mutchler, M.

    2017-06-01

    We present tips and tools for searching Hubble Space Telescope archives for solar system observations. Additionally, we provide an overview of planned archive improvements for James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. Origins Space Telescope: Tracing Dark Molecular Gas in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Li, Qi; Krumholz, Mark; Dave, Romeel; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    We present theoretical models for quantifying the fraction of CO-dark molecular gas in galaxies. To do this, we combine novel thermal, chemical, and radiative equilibrium calculations with high-resolution cosmological zoom galaxy formation models. We discuss how this dark molecular gas will be uncovered by the Origins Space Telescope, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey.

  1. Spectroscopic observation of ASASSN-17he by NUTS (NOT Un-biased Transient Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Benetti, S.; Dong, S.; Stritzinger, M.; Stanek, K.; Brimacombe, J.; Sagues, A.; Galindo, P.; Losada, I. Rivero

    2017-10-01

    The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS; ATel #8992) reports the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-17he. The candidate was discovered by by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae.

  2. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  3. A rigorous algorithm for telescope pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick T.

    2002-12-01

    A typical modern telescope control system points by first calculating the direction of the target in nominal mount coordinates and then applying small corrections to the demanded mount angles. The pointing refers to the rotation axis of the instrument mount, and rotator demands are calculated via parallactic angle. This simple approach works well enough when the corrections are small and the accuracy objectives are modest. However, a more rigorous approach can pay off, in the form of improved pointing, more accurate guide probe predictions, reduced residual field rotation and reliable world coordinate system information even when the detector is off-axis. In this paper I propose a rigorous vector/matrix algorithm for generating pointing predictions on an imperfect telescope, with support for autoguiding, field stabilization and world coordinate systems even in difficult cases such as Nasmyth and coude.

  4. A 25 m Live Optics Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardeberg, Arne; Andersen, Torben; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    A 25 m four mirror live optics telescope is studied. M1 is spherical with 141 segments and f/0.96. M1 is reimaged onto M4 also with 141 segments. Image FWHM is 20 arc min. A horseshoe solution with a simple azimuth platform is applied. M1 segments are supported by a fine...... meniscus form truss structure, tied to the horseshoe by a coarser mesh. A FEM with 10^4 dof was developed and applied. Live optics control M1 and M4 segments (the latter with potential high bandwidth). Correction signals in tilt, coma and defocus are traced. A correlation tracker and a lase guide star.......Key words: Very large telescopes - live optics - image quality - wind buffeting - end-to-end simulation model....

  5. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.

    2017-03-01

    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  6. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  7. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...... and much better angular resolution in the 10 - 100 keV band, and (3) higher sensitivity for detecting gamma ray lines of known energy in the 100 keV to 1 MeV band. This paper emphasizes the mission aspects of the concept study such as the payload configuration and launch vehicle. An engineering team...... at the Marshall Space Center is participating in these two key aspects of the study....

  8. Apochromatic telescope without anomalous dispersion glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplov, Roman

    2006-07-01

    In order to correct secondary longitudinal chromatic aberration in conventional refracting optical systems, it is necessary to use at least one optical material having anomalous partial dispersion. A novel lens system with correction of the secondary spectrum by using only normal glasses is presented. The lens system comprises three widely separated lens components; both second and third components are subaperture. The presented example of an apochromatic telescope demonstrates secondary spectrum correction with the use of only crown BK7 and flint F2, which are among the most inexpensive optical glasses available at the market. Two more similar designs are presented, both with the use of low-cost slightly anomalous dispersion glasses. These telescopes have a higher relative aperture and a smaller tertiary spectrum.

  9. The microchannel x-ray telescope status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, D.; Meuris, A.; Pinsard, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Tourrette, T.; Osborne, J. P.; Willingale, R.; Sykes, J. M.; Pearson, J. F.; Le Duigou, J. M.; Mercier, K.

    2016-07-01

    We present design status of the Microchannel X-ray Telescope, the focussing X-ray telescope on board the Sino- French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Bursts. Its optical design is based on square micro-pore optics (MPOs) in a Lobster-Eye configuration. The optics will be coupled to a low-noise pnCCD sensitive in the 0.2{10 keV energy range. With an expected point spread function of 4.5 arcmin (FWHM) and an estimated sensitivity adequate to detect all the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs, MXT will be able to provide error boxes smaller than 60 (90% c.l.) arc sec after five minutes of observation.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope: A cosmic time machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, J. A.; Harms, R. J.; Brandt, J. C.; Bless, R. C.; Macchetto, F. D.; Jefferys, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is to explore the expanding and evolving universe. During the 3,000 operating hours every year for the next 15 years or more, the HST will be used to study: galaxies; pulsars; globular clusters; neighboring stars where planets may be forming; binary star systems; condensing gas clouds and their chemical composition; and the rings of Saturn and the swirling ultraviolet clouds of Venus. The major technical achievements - its nearly perfect mirrors, its precise guidance system of rate gyroscopes, reaction wheels, star trackers, and fine guidance sensors are briefly discussed. The scientific instruments on board HST are briefly described. The integration of the equipment and instruments is outlined. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has approved time for 162 observations from among 556 proposals. The mission operation and data flow are explained.

  11. Rare Events searches with Cherenkov Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doro Michele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based Imaging Cherenkov Telescope Arrays observe the Cherenkov radiation emitted in extended atmospheric showers generated by cosmic gamma rays in the TeV regime. The rate of these events is normally overwhelmed by 2–3 orders of magnitude more abundant cosmic rays induced showers. A large fraction of these “back-ground” events is vetoed at the on-line trigger level, but a substantial fraction still goes through data acquisition system and is saved for the off-line reconstruction. What kind of information those events carry, normally rejected in the analysis? Is there the possibility that an exotic signature is hidden in those data? In the contribution, some science cases, and the problems related to the event reconstruction for the current and future generation of these telescopes will be discussed.

  12. Nanolaminate Membranes as Cylindrical Telescope Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Hickey, Gregory; Lih, Shyh-Shiu Lih

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses a proposal to use axially stretched metal nanolaminate membranes as lightweight parabolic cylindrical reflectors in the Dual Anamorphic Reflector Telescope (DART) - a planned spaceborne telescope in which the cylindrical reflectors would be arranged to obtain a point focus. The discussion brings together a combination of concepts reported separately in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most relevant being "Nanolaminate Mirrors With Integral Figure-Control Actuators" NPO -30221, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 90; and "Reflectors Made From Membranes Stretched Between Beams" NPO -30571, Vol. 33, No. 10 (October 2009), page 11a. The engineering issues receiving the greatest emphasis in the instant document are (1) the change in curvature associated with the Poisson contraction of a stretched nanolaminate reflector membrane and (2) the feasibility of using patches of poly(vinylidene fluoride) on the rear membrane surface as piezoelectric actuators to correct the surface figure for the effect of Poisson contraction and other shape errors.

  13. Time to Revisit the Heterogeneous Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessman, F. V.

    The "Heterogeneous Telescope Network" (HTN) was founded in 2005 as a loose collaboration of people somehow associated with robotic telescopes and/or projects interested in the transient universe. Other than being a very interesting forum for the exchange of ideas, the only lasting contribution of the HTN was a proposed protocol for the operation of a loose e-market for the exchange of telescope time (Allan et al. 2006; White & Allan 2007). Since the last formal meeting in 2007, the HTN has gone into a "Dornröschenschlaf" (a better word than "hibernation") : the players and interest are there, but the public visibility and activity is not. Although the participants knew and know that global networking is the way of the future for many types of science, various things have kept the HTN from taking the idea and actually implementing it: work on simply getting one's own system to work (e.g. myself), career paths of major players (e.g. Allan), dealing with the complexity of ones' own network (TALONS, RoboNet, LCO), and - most importantly - no common science driver big enough to push the participants to try it in earnest. Things have changed, however: robotic telescopes have become easier to create and operate, private networks have matured, large-scale consortia have become more common, event reporting using VOEvent has become the global standard and has a well-defined infrastructure, and large-scale sources of new objects and events are operating or will soon be operating (OGLE, CSS, Pan-STARRs, GAIA). I will review the scientific and sociological prospects for re-invigorating the HTN idea and invite discussion.

  14. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D imag...

  15. Variable stars with the Kepler space telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár, László; Szabó, Róbert; Plachy, Emese

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has revolutionised our knowledge about exoplanets and stars and is continuing to do so in the K2 mission. The exquisite photometric precision, together with the long, uninterrupted observations opened up a new way to investigate the structure and evolution of stars. Asteroseismology, the study of stellar oscillations, allowed us to investigate solar-like stars and to peer into the insides of red giants and massive stars. But many discoveries have been made about cla...

  16. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Construction: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R.; McMullin, J.; Keil, S.; Goode, P.; Knoelker, M.; Kuhn, J.; Rosner, R.; ATST Team

    2012-05-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) on Haleakala will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world’s leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun’s output. The ATST will provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve magnetic features at their intrinsic scales. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Photopheric and chromospheric magnetometry is part of the key mission of four of these instruments. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. Site construction is expected to begin in April 2012. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. A robust instrument program has been established and all instruments have passed preliminary design reviews or critical design reviews. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility. The National Science Foundation (NSF) through the National Solar Observatory (NSO) funds the ATST Project. The NSO is operated under a cooperative agreement between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) and NSF.

  17. Galileo Italian National Telescope and its instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Cesare

    1997-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of the present status of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), a 3.5 m, active-optics telescope for the Italian community, whose initial characteristics were derived from those of the ESO NTT. For a more detailed description see e.g. in Barbieri et al. (1994). Its site is the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, in the Canary Island of La Palma, on the West side of the mountain, at an altitude of about 2360 m. Construction and erection activities, started in 1993, are nearing completion. The telescope structure has been installed inside the rotating dome. The three main mirrors have also been transported to the mountain and aluminized in the WHT plant. They will shortly be installed in the telescope. Three major subsystems still undergo intensive activity in Italy, namely testing of the M2 and M3 units, testing of the operational version of the control hardware and software, and construction of the two rotator adapters for the Nasmyth foci. First light instruments are also being built. Arm A of the telescope is reserved for the imaging section, composed by a visual camera, a near-IR camera, plus a common adaptive optics module. On the other arm B, a faint object spectrograph with long slit, atmospheric dispersion corrector, multiobject and imaging capabilities, will be mounted. A fixed high resolution spectrograph with optical derotation is also being designed. Attention has already been given to the archive of the data. It is planned to have first light before the end of 1996, and to start regular scientific operations after an adequate period of debugging and commissioning.

  18. The perfect machine. Building the Palomar telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, R.

    The author's chronicle of the conception of the great 200-inch Palomar telescope is an inspiring account of the birth of big science and of America at its can-do apex. Countless scientists, engineers, administrators, and workmen - from Edwin Hubble, John D. Rockefeller, Elihu Root, and Andrew Carnegie, to unemployed laborers - come alive in this story of two decades of effort to create "the perfect machine".

  19. Australia Telescope National Facility Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollow, Robert; Sim, H.

    2008-05-01

    As Australia's largest astronomical institution and a national facility the CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) plays an important role in supporting effective astronomy education and outreach around Australia. The dedicated Australia Telescope Outreach and Education website has a range of materials, some directly targeted to school syllabus requirements and receives over 330,000 visits annually. ATNF runs a series of astronomy education workshops for schoolteachers and also runs sessions at other teacher conferences and professional development events around Australia. Linkages with regional and state-based institutions such as planetaria and science centres ensure the dissemination of current research to outreach personnel and educators in an effective manner and provide them with astronomy education expertise. With the development of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) and potentially the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) in Australia there is increased focus for and support of astronomy education nationally. ATNF has been active in designing and implementing education projects that specifically link to ASKAP and SKA themes. These include the Wildflowers in the Sky: Astronomy for Mid West WA Schools and PULSE@Parkes. The first takes astronomers and educators to remote outback schools that have high Indigenous student populations; the second gives high school students the chance to control the Parkes radio telescope remotely to observe pulsars. ATNF staff also provide a key role in organizing and coordinating IYA2009 in Australia.

  20. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  1. IAA RAS Radio Telescope Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A.; Lavrov, A.

    2007-07-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAA RAS) has three identical radio telescopes, the receiving complex of which consists of five two-channel receivers of different bands, six cryogen systems, and additional devices: four local oscillators, phase calibration generators and IF commutator. The design, hardware and data communication protocol are described. The most convenient way to join the devices of the receiving complex into the common monitoring system is to use the interface which allows to connect numerous devices to the data bus. For the purpose of data communication regulation and to exclude conflicts, a data communication protocol has been designed, which operates with complex formatted data sequences. Formation of such sequences requires considerable data processing capability. That is provided by a microcontroller chip in each slave device. The test version of the software for the central computer has been developed in IAA RAS. We are developing the Mark IV FS software extension modules, which will allow us to control the receiving complex of the radio telescope by special SNAP commands from both operator input and schedule files. We are also developing procedures of automatic measurements of SEFD, system noise temperature and other parameters, available both in VLBI and single-dish modes of operation. The system described has been installed on all IAA RAS radio telescopes at "Svetloe", "Zelenchukskaya" and "Badary" observatories. It has proved to be working quite reliably and to show the perfonmance expected.

  2. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  3. Applied Astronomy: An Optical Survey for Space Debris at GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, K.; Rodriquez, H.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph is presented to discuss space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The topics include: 1) Syncom1 launched February 14, 1963 Failed on orbit insertion 1st piece of GEO debris!; 2) Example of recent GEO payload: XM-2 Rock satellite for direct broadcast radio; 3) MODEST Michigan Orbital DEbrisSurvey Telescope the telescope formerly known as the Curtis-Schmidt; 4) GEO Debris Survey; 5) Examples of Detections; 6) Brightness Variations Common; 7) Observed Angular Rates; 8) Two Populations at GEO; 9) High Area-to-Mass Ratio Material (A/M); 10) Examples of MLI; 11) Examples of MLI Release in LEO; 12) Liou & Weaver (2005) models; 13) ESA 1-m Telescope Survey; 14) Two Telescopes March 2007 Survey and Follow-up; 15) Final Eccentricity; and 16) How control Space Debris?

  4. The Deepest Hubble Space Telescope Color-Magnitude Diagram of M32 : Evidence for Intermediate-age Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Trager, Scott C.; Lauer, Tod R.; Freedman, Wendy; Dressler, Alan; Grillmair, Carl; Mighell, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the deepest optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) to date of the local elliptical galaxy M32. We have obtained F435W and F555W photometries based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys/High-Resolution Channel images for a region 110 '' from the center of M32 (F1) and

  5. Project overview and update on WEAVE: the next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Gavin; Trager, Scott; Abrams, Don Carlos; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; López Aguerri, J. Alfonso; Middleton, Kevin; Benn, Chris; Dee, Kevin; Sayède, Frédéric; Lewis, Ian; Pragt, Johan; Pico, Sergio; Walton, Nic; Rey, Juerg; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Peñate, José; Lhome, Emilie; Agócs, Tibor; Alonso, José; Terrett, David; Brock, Matthew; Gilbert, James; Ridings, Andy; Guinouard, Isabelle; Verheijen, Marc A.W.; Tosh, Ian; Rogers, Kevin; Steele, Iain; Stuik, Remko; Tromp, Neils; Jasko, Attila; Kragt, Jan; Lesman, Dirk; Mottram, Chris; Bates, Stuart; Gribbin, Frank; Rodriguez, Luis Fernando; Delgado, José M.; Martin, Carlos; Cano, Diego; Navarro, Ramón; Irwin, Mike; Lewis, Jim; Gonzalez Solares, Eduardo; O'Mahony, Neil; Bianco, Andrea; Zurita, Christina; ter Horst, Rik; Molinari, Emilio; Lodi, Marcello; Guerra, José; Vallenari, Antonella; Baruffolo, Andrea

    We present an overview of and status report on the WEAVE next-generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT). WEAVE principally targets optical ground-based follow up of upcoming ground-based (LOFAR) and space-based (Gaia) surveys. WEAVE is a multi-object and multi-IFU

  6. Multi-Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of IZw18 : Characterization of Variable Stars at Ultra-Low Metallicities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Ramos, R. Contreras; Clementini, G.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    Variable stars have been identified for the first time in the very metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxy IZw18, using deep multi-band (F606W, F814W) time-series photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We detected 34 candidate variable stars in the

  7. 1608-2008: Clarifying the Anniversary of the Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Peter

    2007-12-01

    2008 will mark the quadricentennial of the telescope, a simple instrument with an ambiguous origin. It is possible that objects similar to telescopes existed many years before 1608, and very likely that telescopes were in use shortly before 1608. The question of the utility of these optical devices is unknown, but they were not likely to be reasonably functional. As an instrument is incrementally improved to the point of practicality, the date of 'invention' is difficult to define. 1608 is the year of the first telescope with associated unambiguous documentation surviving into the modern era. When Hans Lipperhey applied for a patent covering his telescope in October 1608, the proceedings became the earliest account of a telescope that can be dated with certainty and leave no question that it was a functional instrument. However, the patent application was denied, the rejection stating that the reason was prior art. More important is the circumstance that Lipperhey's telescope is the example that began the very rapid dissemination of telescopes. The instrument had been reported in diplomatic channels even before the patent application was filed, telescopes were fabricated elsewhere within weeks and in many locations within the year, and were exported around the globe to Japan within 5 years. In contrast, any previous telescopes were kept secret, or were inoperable prototypes, or were a proposal or design that was not fabricated. These predecessors had little or no effect on the course of history, as compared to Lipperhey's invention, which initiated the course of events that led to today's telescopes.

  8. Measuring Visual Double Stars with Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Pat; Boyce, Grady; Genet, Russell M.; Faisal Al-Zaben, Dewei Li, Yongyao Li, Aren Dennis, Zhixin Cao, Junyao Li, Steven Qu, Jeff Li, Michael Fene, Allen Priest, Stephen Priest, Rex Qiu, , and, Bill Riley

    2016-06-01

    The Astronomy Research Seminars introduce students to scientific research by carrying out the entire process: planning a scientific research project, writing a research proposal, gathering and analyzing observational data, drawing conclusions, and presenting the research results in a published paper and presentation.In 2015 Cuesta College and Russell Genet sponsored a new hybrid format for the seminar enabling distance learning. Boyce Research Initiatives and Education Foundation (BRIEF) conducted the course at The Army and Navy Academy (ANA) in Carlsbad, California, in the spring and fall of 2015.The course objective is to complete the research and publish the paper within one semester. Our program schedule called for observations to be performed within a two week period. Measurement of visual binary stars was chosen because sufficient observations could be made in just two evenings of good weather. We quickly learned that our location by the ocean did not provide reliable weather to use local telescopes.The iTelescope network of robotic telescopes located in Australia, Spain and the U.S. solved the problem. Reservations for these systems are booked online and include date, time, exposure and filters. The high quality telescopes range from 4" to 27" in size with excellent cameras. By watching the weather forecasts for the sites, we were able to schedule our observations within the two week time frame required.Timely and reliable data reduction was the next hurdle. The students were using widely varying equipment (PCs, MACs, tablets, smart phones) with incompatible software. After wasting time trying to be computer technicians, we settled a on standard set of software relying on Mirametrics' Mira Pro x64. We installed the software on an old laptop, downloaded the iTelescope data files, gave the students remote access using GoToMyPC.These efficiencies enabled us to meet the demanding one semester schedule and assure a better learning experience. We have been able to

  9. Classic Telescopes A Guide to Collecting, Restoring, and Using Telescopes of Yesteryear

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Classic Telescopes explores the exciting world of telescopes past, as well as the possibilities involved in acquiring these instruments. What are classic telescopes? First, the book takes a look at the more traditional telescopes built by the great instrument makers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the dynastic houses founded by the likes of John Dollond, Alvan Clark, Thomas Cooke & Sons and Carl Zeiss, plus some lesser-known luminaries, including John Brashear, John Calver, and Henry Fitz. Instruments constructed from the 1950s until as recently as the early 1990s are now also considered 'classic.' There is thus a very active market for buying and selling these 'modern' classics. The author examines some of the most talked about instruments on the amateur Internet forums, including the Unitron refractors, the Questar 90, a classic 6-inch reflector, the RV-6; a 3-inch F/15 achromat by Fullerscopes; the time-honored AstroScan Richfield reflector; and many, many more. Classic telescopes are of...

  10. Calibration and testing of a prototype of the JEM-EUSO telescope on Telescope Array site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the TA-EUSO project is to install a prototype of the JEM-EUSO telescope on the Telescope Array site in Black Rock Mesa, Utah and perform observation of natural and artificial ultraviolet light. The detector consists of one Photo Detector Module (PDM, identical to the 137 present on the JEM-EUSO focal surface. Each PDM is composed by 36 Hamamatsu multi-anode photomultipliers (64 channels per tube, for a total of 2304 channels. Front-End readout is performed by 36 ASICS, with trigger and readout tasks performed by two FPGA boards that send the data to a CPU and storage system. Two, 1 meter side square Fresnel lenses provide a field-of-view of 8 degrees. The telescope will be housed in a container located in front of the fluorescence detector of the Telescope Array collaboration, looking in the direction of the ELF (Electron Light Source and CLF (Central Laser Facility. Aim of the project is to calibrate the response function of the EUSO telescope with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of a shower of known intensity and distribution. An initial run of about six months starting from end 2012 is foreseen, during which we expect to observe, triggered by TA electronics, a few cosmic ray events which will be used to further refine the calibration of the EUSO-Ground with TA. Medium term plans include the increase of the number of PDM and therefore the field of view.

  11. The UKIRT wide-field camera (WFCAM): commissioning and performance on the telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Paul; Casali, Mark; Adamson, Andy; Ives, Derek; Kerr, Tom

    2006-06-01

    The UKIRT Wide-Field Camera (WFCAM) was commissioned in two phases between October and December 2004, and March and April 2005. It has been carrying out full-scale sky survey operations since May 2005. This paper describes the commissioning process and compares actual performance on the telescope with specifications in four key areas: optical image quality including delivered FWHM and ghosting etc., noise and sensitivity in the infrared and on the visible autoguider, array artifacts such as crosstalk and persistent images, and observing efficiency. A comprehensive program of science verification was carried out before commencing the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS).

  12. PLATO: a multiple telescope spacecraft for exo-planets hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Magrin, Demetrio; Rauer, Heike; Pagano, Isabella; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Piotto, Giampaolo; Piazza, Daniele; Levacher, Patrick; Schweitzer, Mario; Basso, Stefano; Bandy, Timothy; Benz, Willy; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Boerner, Anko; Borsa, Francesco; Brandeker, Alexis; Brändli, Mathias; Bruno, Giordano; Cabrera, Juan; Chinellato, Simonetta; De Roche, Thierry; Dima, Marco; Erikson, Anders; Farinato, Jacopo; Munari, Matteo; Ghigo, Mauro; Greggio, Davide; Gullieuszik, Marco; Klebor, Maximilian; Marafatto, Luca; Mogulsky, Valery; Peter, Gisbert; Rieder, Martin; Sicilia, Daniela; Spiga, Daniele; Viotto, Valentina; Wieser, Matthias; Heras, Ana Maria; Gondoin, Philippe; Bodin, Pierre; Catala, Claude

    2016-07-01

    PLATO stands for PLAnetary Transits and Oscillation of stars and is a Medium sized mission selected as M3 by the European Space Agency as part of the Cosmic Vision program. The strategy behind is to scrutinize a large fraction of the sky collecting lightcurves of a large number of stars and detecting transits of exo-planets whose apparent orbit allow for the transit to be visible from the Earth. Furthermore, as the transit is basically able to provide the ratio of the size of the transiting planet to the host star, the latter is being characterized by asteroseismology, allowing to provide accurate masses, radii and hence density of a large sample of extra solar bodies. In order to be able to then follow up from the ground via spectroscopy radial velocity measurements these candidates the search must be confined to rather bright stars. To comply with the statistical rate of the occurrence of such transits around these kind of stars one needs a telescope with a moderate aperture of the order of one meter but with a Field of View that is of the order of 50 degrees in diameter. This is achieved by splitting the optical aperture into a few dozens identical telescopes with partially overlapping Field of View to build up a mixed ensemble of differently covered area of the sky to comply with various classes of magnitude stars. The single telescopes are refractive optical systems with an internally located pupil defined by a CaF2 lens, and comprising an aspheric front lens and a strong field flattener optical element close to the detectors mosaic. In order to continuously monitor for a few years with the aim to detect planetary transits similar to an hypothetical twin of the Earth, with the same revolution period, the spacecraft is going to be operated while orbiting around the L2 Lagrangian point of the Earth-Sun system so that the Earth disk is no longer a constraints potentially interfering with such a wide field continuous uninterrupted survey.

  13. Blind deconvolution with principal components analysis for wide-field and small-aperture telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Sun, Rongyu; Wang, Weinan; Cai, Dongmei; Liu, Huigen

    2017-09-01

    Telescopes with a wide field of view (greater than 1°) and small apertures (less than 2 m) are workhorses for observations such as sky surveys and fast-moving object detection, and play an important role in time-domain astronomy. However, images captured by these telescopes are contaminated by optical system aberrations, atmospheric turbulence, tracking errors and wind shear. To increase the quality of images and maximize their scientific output, we propose a new blind deconvolution algorithm based on statistical properties of the point spread functions (PSFs) of these telescopes. In this new algorithm, we first construct the PSF feature space through principal component analysis, and then classify PSFs from a different position and time using a self-organizing map. According to the classification results, we divide images of the same PSF types and select these PSFs to construct a prior PSF. The prior PSF is then used to restore these images. To investigate the improvement that this algorithm provides for data reduction, we process images of space debris captured by our small-aperture wide-field telescopes. Comparing the reduced results of the original images and the images processed with the standard Richardson-Lucy method, our method shows a promising improvement in astrometry accuracy.

  14. Communicating astronomy in a small island state: The unique role of the Mauritius Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddul-Hauzaree, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT) is a 2 km x 1 km T-shaped aperture synthesis array that can generate radio images of the southern sky at 151.6 MHz. The sky surveyed can be in the declination range of -70o to -10o. It is located at Bras d'Eau, northeast of Mauritius at latitude 20oS and longitude 60oE. The MRT is a joint project of the University of Mauritius, the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and the Raman Research Institute. One of the main objectives of the MRT is to generate public interest in astronomy. Thus, it is involved in a wide range of onsite outreach activities for young school children. More mature students visiting the telescope learn about sky observation with a radio telescope, get to explore some sets of data, interact with the scientific personnel, get the opportunity to have hands-on experience with image manipulation and can ask a lot of questions on astronomy. This poster gives an overview of the Mauritius Radio Telescope and the attempts of MRT ito communicate astronomy to students as a process and not just as a vast expanse of knowledge. The challenges and dilemmas faced by MRT in conveying astronomy to the general public in a small island state are investigated and presented.

  15. Origins Space Telescope Concept 2: Trades, Decisions, and Study Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; DiPirro, Michael; Carter, Ruth; Origins Space Telescope Decadal Mission Concept Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) will trace the history of our cosmic origins from the time dust and heavy elements began to alter the astrophysical processes that shaped galaxies and enabled planets to form, culminating at least once in the development of a life-bearing planet. But how did the universe evolve in response to its changing ingredients, and how common are planets that support life? The OST, an advancing concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission described in the NASA Astrophysics roadmap, is being designed to answer these questions. As envisaged in the Roadmap, Enduring Quests/Daring Visions, OST will offer sensitivity and spectroscopic capabilities that vastly exceed those found in any preceding far-IR observatory. The spectral range of OST was extended down to 6 microns to allow measurements of key biomarkers in transiting exoplanet spectra. Thus, OST is a mid- and far-IR mission. OST Concept 2 will inform the Science and Technology Definition Team’s understanding of the “solution space,” enabling a recommendation to the 2020 Decadal Survey which, while not fully optimized, will be scientifically compelling, executable, and intended to maximize the science return per dollar. OST Concept 1, described in a companion paper, would satisfy virtually all of the STDT’s science objectives in under 5 years. Concept 2 is intentionally less ambitious than Concept 1, but it still includes a 4 K telescope, enabling exquisitely sensitive far-IR measurements. This paper will summarize the architecture options considered for OST Concept 2 and describe the factors that led to the chosen design concept. Lessons from the Concept 1 study influenced our choices. We report progress on the Concept 2 study to date.

  16. A Distributed Datacube Analysis Service for Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, V.; Rosolowsky, E.

    2011-07-01

    Current- and next-generation radio telescopes are poised to produce data at an unprecedented rate. We are developing the cyberinfrastructure to enable distributed processing and storage of FITS data cubes from these telescopes. In this contribution, we will present the data storage and network infrastructure that enables efficient searching, extraction and transfer of FITS datacubes. The infrastructure combines the iRODS distributed data management with a custom spatially-enabled PostgreSQL database. The data management system ingests FITS cubes, automatically populating the metadata database using FITS header data. Queries to the metadata service return matching records using VOTable format. The iRODS system allows for a distributed network of fileservers to store large data sets redundantly with a minimum of upkeep. Transfers between iRODS data sites use parallel I/O streams for maximum speed. Files are staged to the optimal host for download by an end user. The service can automatically extract subregions of individual or adjacent cubes registered to user-defined astrometric grids using the Montage package. The data system can query multiple surveys and return spatially registered data cubes to the user. Future development will allow the data system to utilize distributed processing environment to analyze datasets, returning only the calculation results to the end user. This cyberinfrastructure project combines many existing, open-source packages into a single deployment of a data system. The codebase can also function on two-dimensional images. The project is funded by CANARIE under the Network-Enabled Platforms 2 program.

  17. Enthusiasm for Europe's space telescope ISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    down 75 per cent of the proposed observations. Nevertheless the allocations announced this month will meet the wishes of most groups of applicants at least in part. ISO is now about half way through its operating life. An Ariane 44P launcher put it into orbit on 17 November 1995. ISO's superfluid helium which keeps the telescope and instruments cold, will last about six months longer than required in the specification. Operations are expected to continue until December 1997, with the benefit that the chemically rich and starmaking clouds of the important Orion region of the sky will be observable by ISO. Tracing the origin of planets Observations of the Antennae galaxies, and some of the other ISO results now described in full technical detail in Astronomy and Astrophysics, were outlined in earlier ESA Information Notes, 02-96 and 14-96. These include examinations of star formation in many galaxies and within dust clouds in our own Galaxy, the Milky Way. ISO has also given a big boost to astrochemistry by identifying infrared signatures of many materials, which play a physical as well as a chemical role in the evolution of galaxies and stars. The materials seen by ISO include ionized carbon atoms, sooty carbon compounds, hydrogen molecules, water molecules, and frozen carbon dioxide and methane. The latest results tell of mineral crystals, which may shed light on the origin of the Earth itself. Disks of dust around some stars, of the kind from which planets might evolve, were a major discovery in infrared astronomy by ISO's predecessor, the Dutch US UK satellite IRAS (1983). The prototype was the bright northern star Vega. It showed excess emissions of long-wavelength infrared rays, which could not come from the star itself. Subsequent studies confirmed the dust disks of Vega and a few other stars, and the search for more such disks is a major programme for ISO, relying particularly on measurements by the photometer ISOPHOT across a wide range of infrared wavelengths

  18. The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope: The Final Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William V.; Blair, William P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Romelfanger, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) was a 0.9 m telescope and moderate-resolution (Delta)lambda equals 3 A) far-ultraviolet (820-1850 Å) spectrograph that flew twice on the space shuttle, in 1990 December (Astro-1, STS-35) and 1995 March (Astro-2, STS-67). The resulting spectra were originally archived in a nonstandard format that lacked important descriptive metadata. To increase their utility, we have modified the original datareduction software to produce a new and more user-friendly data product, a time-tagged photon list similar in format to the Intermediate Data Files (IDFs) produced by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer calibration pipeline. We have transferred all relevant pointing and instrument-status information from locally-archived science and engineering databases into new FITS header keywords for each data set. Using this new pipeline, we have reprocessed the entire HUT archive from both missions, producing a new set of calibrated spectral products in a modern FITS format that is fully compliant with Virtual Observatory requirements. For each exposure, we have generated quicklook plots of the fully-calibrated spectrum and associated pointing history information. Finally, we have retrieved from our archives HUT TV guider images, which provide information on aperture positioning relative to guide stars, and converted them into FITS-format image files. All of these new data products are available in the new HUT section of the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), along with historical and reference documents from both missions. In this article, we document the improved data-processing steps applied to the data and show examples of the new data products.

  19. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    As the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) rapidly takes on shape, Europe has just come one step closer to the realisation of its 556 million DEM astronomical showcase project. Last week, the ESO Council held its semi-annual meeting in Milan (Italy) [1]. During a break in the long agenda list, Council members had the opportunity to visit the Ansaldo factory in the outskirts of this city and to see for the first time the assembled mechanical structure of one of the four 8.2-metre VLT Unit telescopes. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows the ESO Council delegates in front of the giant telescope. After a long climb up the steep staircase to the large Nasmyth platform at the side of the telescope where the astronomical instruments will later be placed, Dr. Peter Creola (Switzerland) , President of the ESO Council and a mechanics expert, grabbed the handrail and surveyed the structure with a professional eye: `I knew it was going to be big, but not that enormous!', he said. Other delegates experienced similar feelings, especially when they watched the 430 tonnes of steel in the 24-metre tall and squat structure turn smoothly and silently around the vertical axis. The Chairman of the ESO Scientific Technical Committee (STC), Dr. Johannes Andersen (Denmark) , summarized his first, close encounter with the VLT by `This is great fun!' and several of his colleague astronomers were soon seen in various corners of the vast structure, engaged in elated discussions about the first scientific investigations to be done with the VLT in two years' time. The VLT Main Structures The visit by Council took place at the invitation of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. (Genova), EIE-European Industrial Engineering S.r.I. (Venice) and SOIMI-Societa Impianti Industriale S.p.A. (Milan), the three Italian enterprises responsible for the construction of the main structures of the VLT 8.2-metre Unit telescopes. Short speeches were given on this occasion by Drs. Ferruccio Bressani (Ansaldo

  20. Optical System and Desing Of The New 1.6 Meter Wide-Field Telescope With Active Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papushev, Pavel; Denisenko, Sergey; Kamus, Sergey; Pimenov, Yury; Tergoev, Vladim

    2006-08-01

    In this report we present and discuss the design, construction and capabilities of the two meters class wide field survey telescope. The designs based on modified R-C system with two or three lens correctors in visible and near infrared (2,2 mkm) spectral range. The optical systems of the 1.6 meters telescope with up to 3 degrees field of view and less than 15% obscuration area are considered in detail. Optical performance of system, its mount and separate element of the active optics system are examined.

  1. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh

    2018-02-01

    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  2. Astrobiology with Robotic Telescopes at CAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cuesta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objectives of RTRCAB are the identification of new exoplanets and especially the characterization of the known exoplanets by observing photometric and systematic monitoring of their transits. These telescopes, equipped with advanced technology, optimized control programs, and optical and technical characteristics adequate for this purpose, are ideal to make the observations that are required to carry out these programs. The achievement of these goals is ensured by the existence of three separated geographical stations. In this sense, there are several planned missions that have the same objectives among their scientific goals, like Kepler, CoRoT, GAIA, and PLATO.

  3. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; ALLAN, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV to 10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will con...

  4. Supernova Remnants with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragiulo M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Area Telescope (LAT, on-board the Fermi satellite, proved to be, after 8 years of data taking, an excellent instrument to detect and observe Supernova Remnants (SNRs in a range of energies running from few hundred MeV up to few hundred GeV. It provides essential information on physical processes that occur at the source, involving both accelerated leptons and hadrons, in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the primary Cosmic Ray (CR acceleration. We show the latest results in the observation of Galactic SNRs by Fermi-LAT.

  5. "HUBBLE, the astronomer, the telescope, the results"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental discoveries made by Edwin Hubble in the first quarter of the last century will be presented. The space telescope bearing his name will be introduced, as well as the strategy put in place by NASA and the European Space Agency for its operation and its maintenance on-orbit. The personal experience of the speaker having participated in two of five servicing mission will be exposed and illustrated by pictures taken on-orbit. Finally, the main results obtained by the orbital observatory will be presented, in particular the ones related to the large scale structure of the Universe and its early history

  6. Planning, scheduling, and control for automatic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark; Swanson, Keith; Philips, Andy; Levinson, Rich; Bresina, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an argument for the appropriateness of Entropy Reduction Engine (ERE) technology to the planning, scheduling, and control components of Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) management. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we give a brief summary of the planning and scheduling requirements for APTs. Following this, in section 3, we give an ERE project precis, couched primarily in terms of project objectives. Section 4 gives a sketch of the match-up between problem and technology, and section 5 outlines where we want to go with this work.

  7. Telescope stray light: early experience with SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Patrick; Becklin, Eric E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Vacca, William D.; Lachenmann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Effective stray light control is a key requirement for wide dynamic range performance of scientific optical and infrared systems. SOFIA now has over 325 mission flights including extended southern hemisphere deployments; science campaigns using 7 different instrument configurations have been completed. The research observations accomplished on these missions indicate that the telescope and cavity designs are effective at suppressing stray light. Stray light performance impacts, such as optical surface contamination, from cavity environment conditions during mission flight cycles and while on-ground, have proved to be particularly benign. When compared with earlier estimates, far fewer large optics re-coatings are now anticipated, providing greater facility efficiency.

  8. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  9. Galileo's Instruments of Credit Telescopes, Images, Secrecy

    CERN Document Server

    Biagioli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    In six short years, Galileo Galilei went from being a somewhat obscure mathematics professor running a student boarding house in Padua to a star in the court of Florence to the recipient of dangerous attention from the Inquisition for his support of Copernicanism. In that brief period, Galileo made a series of astronomical discoveries that reshaped the debate over the physical nature of the heavens: he deeply modified the practices and status of astronomy with the introduction of the telescope and pictorial evidence, proposed a radical reconfiguration of the relationship between theology and a

  10. Operating performance of the gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope: An end-to-end Schwarzschild–Couder telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dournaux, J.L., E-mail: jean-laurent.dournaux@obspm.fr [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); De Franco, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Laporte, P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); White, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Greenshaw, T. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, P.O. Box 147, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Sol, H. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Abchiche, A. [CNRS, Division technique DT-INSU, 1 Place Aristide Briand, 92190 Meudon (France); Allan, D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Amans, J.P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Armstrong, T.P. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Balzer, A.; Berge, D. [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) consortium aims to build the next-generation ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray observatory. The array will feature different sizes of telescopes allowing it to cover a wide gamma-ray energy band from about 20 GeV to above 100 TeV. The highest energies, above 5 TeV, will be covered by a large number of Small-Sized Telescopes (SSTs) with a field-of-view of around 9°. The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT), based on Schwarzschild–Couder dual-mirror optics, is one of the three proposed SST designs. The GCT is described in this contribution and the first images of Cherenkov showers obtained using the telescope and its camera are presented. These were obtained in November 2015 in Meudon, France.

  11. Measuring Galactic Feedback with the Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armus, Lee; Bolatto, Alberto; Pope, Alexandra; Bradford, Charles Matt; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    Since a significant fraction of star formation and black hole growth occurs behind dust, our understanding of how and why galaxies evolve will remain incomplete until deep, wide area spectroscopic surveys in the FIRcan be carried out from space. The Origins Space Telescope (OST), a mission concept being studied for presentation to the 2020 Decadal Survey, represents an enormous leap over any existing infrared mission, and will uniquely measure black hole growth and star formation in dusty galaxies over more than 95% of cosmic history. Energetic feedback from AGN, young stars, and supernovae can regulate galaxy growth over a wide range in mass and be important for the enrichment of the interstellar and circumgalactic medium, yet the existence and type of feedback as a function of redshift, luminosity, and environment is poorly constrained. With wide wavelength coverage (5-600 microns), a large primary mirror actively cooled to ~4K, and a capable suite of imagers and spectrometers, OST will be an extremely sensitive probe of the effects of feedback on the multi-phase ISM in galaxies, through measurement of key feedback tracers such as OH and H2O absorption lines, fine structure emission lines, and PAH dust features. With OST we can directly observe the role of feedback in quenching galaxies, derive the wind kinetic energy and mass outflow rates, and correlate these with key galaxy properties (AGN or starburst power, environment, mass, age). In this poster we will explain how blind and targeted surveys with OST will have an enormous impact on our understanding of the duty cycle and basic physical properties of feedback in AGN and starburst galaxies over the last 12 Gyr.

  12. OCTOCAM: A Workhorse Instrument for the Gemini Telescopes During the Era of LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roming, Peter; van der Horst, Alexander; OCTOCAM Team

    2018-01-01

    The decade of the 2020s are planned to be an era of large surveys and giant telescopes. A trademark of this era will be the large number of interesting objects observed daily by high-cadence surveys, such as the LSST. Because of the sheer numbers, only a very small fraction of these interesting objects will be observed with extremely large telescopes. The follow up workhorses during this era will be the 8-meter class telescopes and corresponding instruments that are prepared to pursue these interesting objects. One such workhorse instrument is OCTOCAM, a highly efficient instrument designed to probe the time domain window with simulatenous broad-wavelength coverage. OCTOCAM optimizes the use of Gemini for broadband imaging and spectroscopic single-target observations. The instrument is designed for high temporal resolution, broad spectral coverage, and moderate spectral resolution. OCTOCAM was selected as part of the Gemini instrumentation program in early 2017. Here we provide a description of the science cases to be addressed, overall instrument design, and current status.

  13. The x-ray mirrors for the EXIST/SXI telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Stefano; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Parodi, Giancarlo; Villa, Gabriele E.; Bazzano, Angela; Caraveo, Patrizia A.; Conconi, Paolo; Della Ceca, Roberto; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Ramsey, Brian D.; Ubertini, Pietro; Uslenghi, Michela C. A.

    2010-07-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will continuously survey the full sky in scanning mode for 2- years followed by a 3-years pointing phase. The mission includes three instruments: a High Energy coded mask Telescope; a 1.1m aperture optical-IR Telescope; and a Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), sensitive in the 0.1-10 keV band. SXI is proposed as a contribution of ASI-Italy, fully developed by Italian institutes. Here we will present the optical and mechanical design of the SXI mirror module, that includes also a pre-collimator and a magnetic diverter to ensure a low background on the detector. In particular we will describe the mirror module characteristics in term of effective area, imaging capability, thermal requirement and mechanical properties. The current optical design foresees 26 shells providing an effective area comparable to one XMM-Newton mirror module up to 3 keV. The realization of these shells is based on the well-proven Nickel replication-process technology.

  14. The x-ray camera of the EXIST/SXI telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslenghi, Michela; Fiorini, Mauro; Mereghetti, Sandro; Villa, Gabriele E.; Bazzano, Angela; Caraveo, Patrizia A.; Fiorini, Carlo E.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Ubertini, Pietro

    2010-07-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission, submitted to the Decadal Survey, is a multiwavelength observatory mainly devoted to the study of Super Massive Black Holes, Gamma Ray Bursts and other transient sources. The set of instruments foreseen for EXIST includes a soft x-ray telescope (SXI), proposed as a contribution of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). We present the baseline design of the X-Ray camera for SXI telescope, that we have finalized under ASI contract. The camera is based on a focal plane detector consisting of a 450 μm thick silicon pixel sensor sensitive, with high QE, in the full SXI range (0.1-10 KeV), and capable of high energy resolution when operated in photon counting mode (E/dE ~ 47 at 6 keV), frame rate ~ 100-200 frames/s (enabling timing in the ms range), and spatial resolution matching the optical characteristics of the mirror module. We provide an overview of the mechanical, thermal and electrical concept of the camera.

  15. Development of telescope control system for the 50cm telescope of UC Observatory Santa Martina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Reveco, Johnny; Vanzi, Leonardo; Fernández, Jose M.; Escarate, Pedro; Suc, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    The main telescope of the UC Observatory Santa Martina is a 50cm optical telescope donated by ESO to Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. During the past years the telescope has been refurbished and used as the main facility for testing and validating new instruments under construction by the center of Astro-Engineering UC. As part of this work, the need to develop a more efficient and flexible control system arises. The new distributed control system has been developed on top of Internet Communication Engine (ICE), a framework developed by Zeroc Inc. This framework features a lightweight but powerful and flexible inter-process communication infrastructure and provides binding to classic and modern programming languages, such as, C/C++, java, c#, ruby-rail, objective c, etc. The result of this work shows ICE as a real alternative for CORBA and other de-facto distribute programming framework. Classical control software architecture has been chosen and comprises an observation control system (OCS), the orchestrator of the observation, which controls the telescope control system (TCS), and detector control system (DCS). The real-time control and monitoring system is deployed and running over ARM based single board computers. Other features such as logging and configuration services have been developed as well. Inter-operation with other main astronomical control frameworks are foreseen in order achieve a smooth integration of instruments when they will be integrated in the main observatories in the north of Chile

  16. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow

    2005-01-01

    Commercially-made astronomical telescopes are better and less expensive than ever before, and their optical and mechanical performance can be superb. When a good-quality telescope fails to perform as well as it might, the reason is quite probably that it needs a little care and attention! Here is a complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters. Here, too, are details of choosing new and used optics and accessories, along with enhancements you can make to extend their versatility and useful lifetime. This book is for you. Really. Looking after an astronomical telescope isn't only for the experts - although there are some things that only an expert should attempt - and every serious amateur astronomer will find invaluable information here, gleaned from ...

  17. Deploying the NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Pace, L.; Hickson, P.; Cowardin, H. M.; Frith, J.; Buckalew, B.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Douglas, D.; Nishimoto, D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has successfully constructed the 1.3m Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) facility on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. MCAT is an optical telescope designed specifically to collect ground-based data for the statistical characterization of orbital debris ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Middle Earth Orbits (MEO) and beyond to Geo Transfer and Geosynchronous Orbits (GTO/GEO). The location of Ascension Island has two distinct advantages. First, the near-equatorial location fills a significant longitudinal gap in the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network of telescopes, and second, it allows access to objects in Low Inclination Low-Earth Orbits (LILO). The MCAT facility will be controlled by a sophisticated software suite that operates the dome and telescope, assesses sky and weather conditions, conducts all necessary calibrations, defines an observing strategy (as dictated by weather, sky conditions and the observing plan for the night), and carries out the observations. It then reduces the collected data via four primary observing modes ranging from tracking previously cataloged objects to conducting general surveys for detecting uncorrelated debris. Nightly observing plans, as well as the resulting text file of reduced data, will be transferred to and from Ascension, respectively, via a satellite connection. Post-processing occurs at NASA Johnson Space Center. Construction began in September, 2014 with dome and telescope installation occurring in April through early June, 2015. First light was achieved in June, 2015. Acceptance testing, full commissioning, and calibration of this soon-to-be fully autonomous system commenced in summer 2015. The initial characterization of the system from these tests is presented herein.

  18. Robotic telescopes and their use as an educational tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, L.

    2008-06-01

    Robotic telescopes are new tools that are changing many aspects of the way we do astronomy. The use of this type of telescope has been quickly adopted in some of the most prolific fields of this science, including searches for extrasolar planets. In this particular field, robotic telescopes have demonstrated an efficiency and agility that would hardly have been obtained with conventional telescopes. In addition to the typical scientific uses, robotic telescopes are being used as fundamental pieces in the practical education of astronomy. Numerous institutes and museums have begun to develop their own robotic telescopes to bring astronomy into the classroom; as a way to understand the Universe that surrounds us. By establishing collaborations between institutes in different countries observations can be made in the classroom without a change in school schedules, which has an enormous benefit to the education community.

  19. Undergraduate Education with the WIYN 0.9-m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Several models have been explored at Indiana University Bloomington for undergraduate student engagement in astronomy using the WIYN 0.9-m telescope at Kitt Peak. These models include individual student research projects using the telescope, student observations as part of an observational techniques course for majors, and enrichment activities for non-science majors in general education courses. Where possible, we arrange for students to travel to the telescope. More often, we are able to use simple online tools such as Skype and VNC viewers to give students an authentic observing experience. Experiences with the telescope motivate students to learn basic content in astronomy, including the celestial sphere, the electromagnetic spectrum, telescopes and detectors, the variety of astronomical objects, date reduction processes, image analysis, and color image creation and appreciation. The WIYN 0.9-m telescope is an essential tool for our program at all levels of undergraduate education

  20. The reflective surface of the MAGIC telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, M.; Bastieri, D.; Biland, A.; Dazzi, F.; Font, L.; Garczarczyk, M.; Ghigo, M.; Giro, E.; Goebel, F.; Kosyra, R.; Lorenz, E.; Mariotti, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Peruzzo, L.; Pareschi, G.; Zapatero, J.

    2008-09-01

    The atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy is operating since late 2003 on the Canary island of La Palma. Its 17 m diameter mirror is composed of 964 square all-aluminum mirrors of ˜0.5m side, making up a parabola of 236 m2 area. Each mirror is composed of a sandwich of two thin aluminum layers interspaced by a honeycomb structure that ensures rigidity, high temperature conductivity and low weight. The surface of each raw blank is diamond milled to provide high reflectivity and a slightly different focal length to fit the overall parabolic shape of the reflector. We report about the stability and performance of the surface exposed to the atmosphere for over 3 years. For the construction of the clone of the first telescope, dubbed MAGIC II, major improvements of the design and performance of the reflective surface were required. Given the good experience with aluminum mirrors, a similar assembly was tested, but the area was increased to 1 m2, which allowed to skip the inter-alignment of four mirrors within a panel and to reduce substantially the weight. The increased rigidity of the mirror unit resulted in an improved focussing quality. In addition, a second class of mirrors will be installed in the outermost part of the reflector, namely glass mirrors obtained by cold-slumping replica technique. Details on the construction of both type MAGIC II new mirrors and the 17 m reflector will be presented.

  1. Using ISS to develop telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Future space telescope missions concepts have introduced new technologies such as precision formation flight, optical metrology, and segmented mirrors. These new technologies require demonstration and validation prior to deployment in final missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin. Ground based demonstrations do not provide the precision necessary to obtain a high level of confidence in the technology; precursor free flyer space missions suffer from the same problems as the final missions. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of the International Space Station as an intermediate research environment where these technologies can be developed, demonstrated, and validated. The ISS provides special resources, such as human presence, communications, power, and a benign atmosphere which directly reduce the major challenges of space technology maturation: risk, complexity, cost, remote operations, and visibility. Successful design of experiments for use aboard the space station, by enabling iterative research and supporting multiple scientists, can further reduce the effects of these challenges of space technology maturation. This paper presents results of five previous MIT Space Systems Laboratory experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, MIR, and the ISS to illustrate successful technology maturation aboard these facilities.

  2. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurio M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere, running in its final configuration since 2008. After the discovery of a cosmic neutrino diffuse flux by the IceCube detector, the search for its origin has become a key mission in high-energy astrophysics. The ANTARES sensitivity is large enough to constrain the origin of the IceCube excess from regions extended up to 0.2 sr in the Southern sky. The Southern sky has been studied searching for point-like objects, for extended regions of emission (as the Galactic plane and for signal from transient objects selected through multimessenger observations. Upper limits are presented assuming different spectral indexes for the energy spectrum of neutrino sources. In addition, ANTARES provides results on studies of the sky in combination with different multimessenger experiments, on atmospheric neutrinos, on the searches for rare particles in the cosmic radiation (such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites, and on Earth and Sea science. Particularly relevant are the searches for Dark Matter: the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome that of existing direct-detection experiments. The recent results, widely discussed in dedicated presentations during the 7th edition of the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope Workshop (VLVνT-2015, are highlighted in this paper.

  3. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  4. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  5. Simulators, Remote Labs and Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folhas, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing gap between students of the twenty-first century and the teaching methodology still stuck in the past century. The myriad stimuli that involve our students, immediate consumption of information, and the availability of resources, should cast the teacher in search methodologies that encourage the student to learn. The simulators, virtual laboratories and remote controlled robotic equipment are examples of high didactic potential resources, created by scientific organizations and universities, to be used in education, providing a direct interaction with science and motivating our students to a future career in science. It is up to us to take advantage of that work, and those resources, to light the sparkle in the eyes of our students. In Astronomy Club I've developed with high school students some practical projects in science, using, over the web, the robotic telescopes through which the students are studying and photographing deep sky objects; or the European network of radio telescope, measuring the speed of the arms of our galaxy in our galactic dance, their temperatures showing where it is more likely to form new stars. Students use these tools, engaging in their own knowledge construction, and forego their Friday afternoons without a hurry to go home for the weekend. That's the spirit we want for the school.

  6. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  7. Data analysis challenges for the Einstein Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Leone; Porter, Edward K.

    2011-02-01

    The Einstein Telescope is a proposed third generation gravitational wave detector that will operate in the region of 1 Hz to a few kHz. As well as the inspiral of compact binaries composed of neutron stars or black holes, the lower frequency cut-off of the detector will open the window to a number of new sources. These will include the end stage of inspirals, plus merger and ringdown of intermediate mass black holes, where the masses of the component bodies are on the order of a few hundred solar masses. There is also the possibility of observing intermediate mass ratio inspirals, where a stellar mass compact object inspirals into a black hole which is a few hundred to a few thousand times more massive. In this article, we investigate some of the data analysis challenges for the Einstein Telescope such as the effects of increased source number, the need for more accurate waveform models and the some of the computational issues that a data analysis strategy might face.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, J. R.; Pendleton, S. C.; Salmanoff, J.; Blount, G. J.; Mathews, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a solar array damper that will be built into each of two new solar arrays to be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during Servicing Mission 3. On this mission, currently scheduled for August, 2000, two "rigid" solar array wings will replace the "flexible" wings currently providing power for HST. Dynamic interaction of these wings with the telescope spacecraft can affect the Pointing Control System. The damper, which is integral to the mast of the solar array, suppresses the fundamental bending modes of the deployed wings at 1.2 Hz (in-plane) and 1.6 Hz (out-of-plane). With the flight version of the damper, modal damping of 2.3% of critical is expected over the temperature range of -4 C to 23 C with a peak damping level of 3.9%. The unique damper design is a combination of a titanium spring and viscoelastic-shear-lap dashpot. The damper was designed using a system finite element model of the solar array wing and measured viscoelastic material properties. Direct complex stiffness (DCS) testing was performed to characterize the frequency- and temperature-dependent behavior of the damping prior to fixed-base modal testing of the wing at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC).

  9. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  10. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator- NB38 -Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Pictured is MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) that served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown are astronauts Bruce McCandless and Sharnon Lucid being fitted for their space suits prior to entering the NBS to begin training on the space telescope axial scientific instrument changeout.

  11. The High Energy Telescope for STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Reames, D. V.; Baker, R.; Hawk, J.; Nolan, J. T.; Ryan, L.; Shuman, S.; Wortman, K. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cook, W. R.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2008-04-01

    The IMPACT investigation for the STEREO Mission includes a complement of Solar Energetic Particle instruments on each of the two STEREO spacecraft. Of these instruments, the High Energy Telescopes (HETs) provide the highest energy measurements. This paper describes the HETs in detail, including the scientific objectives, the sensors, the overall mechanical and electrical design, and the on-board software. The HETs are designed to measure the abundances and energy spectra of electrons, protons, He, and heavier nuclei up to Fe in interplanetary space. For protons and He that stop in the HET, the kinetic energy range corresponds to ˜13 to 40 MeV/n. Protons that do not stop in the telescope (referred to as penetrating protons) are measured up to ˜100 MeV/n, as are penetrating He. For stopping He, the individual isotopes 3He and 4He can be distinguished. Stopping electrons are measured in the energy range ˜0.7 6 MeV.

  12. A demonstration device for cosmic rays telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    We describe a hands-on accurate demonstrator for cosmic rays realized by six high school students. The main aim is to show the relevance and the functioning of the principal parts of a cosmic ray telescope (muon detector), with the help of two large sized wooden artefacts. The first one points out how cosmic rays can be tracked in a muon telescope, while the other one shows the key avalanche process of electronic ionization that effectively allows muon detection through a photomultiplier. Incoming cosmic rays are visualized in terms of laser beams, whose 3D trajectory is highlighted by turning on LEDs on two orthogonal matrices. Instead the avalanche ionization process is demonstrated through the avalanche falling off glass marbles on an inclined plane, finally turning on a LED. A pictured poster accompanying the demonstrator is as effective in assisting cosmic ray demonstration and its detection. The success of the demonstrator has been fully proven by the general public during a science festival, in which the corresponding project won the Honorable Mention in a dedicated competition.

  13. First optical validation of a Schwarzschild Couder telescope: the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giro, E.; Canestrari, R.; Sironi, G.; Antolini, E.; Conconi, P.; Fermino, C. E.; Gargano, C.; Rodeghiero, G.; Russo, F.; Scuderi, S.; Tosti, G.; Vassiliev, V.; Pareschi, G.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) represents the most advanced facility designed for Cherenkov Astronomy. ASTRI SST-2M has been developed as a demonstrator for the Small Size Telescope in the context of the upcoming CTA. Its main innovation consists in the optical layout which implements the Schwarzschild-Couder configuration and is fully validated for the first time. The ASTRI SST-2M optical system represents the first qualified example of a two-mirror telescope for Cherenkov Astronomy. This configuration permits us to (i) maintain high optical quality across a large field of view; (ii) demagnify the plate scale; and (iii) exploit new technological solutions for focal plane sensors. Aims: The goal of the paper is to present the optical qualification of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope. The qualification has been obtained measuring the point spread function (PSF) sizes generated in the focal plane at various distances from the optical axis. These values have been compared with the performances expected by design. Methods: After an introduction on Gamma-ray Astronomy from the ground, the optical design of ASTRI SST-2M and how it has been implemented is discussed. Moreover, the description of the set-up used to qualify the telescope over the full field of view is shown. Results: We report the results of the first-light optical qualification. The required specification of a flat PSF of 10 arcmin in a large field of view ( 10°) has been demonstrated. These results validate the design specifications, opening a new scenario for Cherenkov Gamma-ray Astronomy and, in particular, for the detection of high-energy (5-300 TeV) gamma rays and wide-field observations with CTA.

  14. Measuring Earth’s axial tilt with a telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suat Isildak, R.; Asuman Küçüközer, H.; Isik, Hakan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a method to measure the Earth’s axial tilt is attempted by using a telescope. As a principal instrument, telescopes in astronomy courses are mostly to verify the astronomical objects in sky and not to make sense of astronomical events such as seasonal changes which is explained by the Earth’s axial tilt. This study outlines telescopic measurements to calculate the axial tilt at winter solstice.

  15. A Short and Personal History of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, born as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and later the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (still SIRTF), was under discussion and development within NASA and the scientific community for more than 30 years prior to its launch in 2003. This brief history chronicles a few of the highlights and the lowlights of those 30 years from the authors personal perspective. A much more comprehensive history of SIRTF/Spitzer has been written by George Rieke (2006).

  16. Segmented Mirror Telescope Laboratory Ribbon-cutting Ceremony

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Segmented Mirror Space Telescope (SMT) was developed by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) as a test bed for future imaging telescope technologies. The NRO, which designs, builds and operates the nation's reconnaissance satellites has completed development and testing of the telescope and has decided to transfer the test bed to the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to support academic research. NPS Has created a new lab fac...

  17. Indirect detection of Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Ardid Miguel

    2013-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the ANTARES neutrino telescope is the search for neutrinos produced in self-annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles. The analysis for different sources of DM (Sun, Galactic Center, Earth, ...) or DM models (SUSY, Secluded) will be described and the results presented. The specific advantages of neutrino telescopes in general and of ANTARES in particular will be explained. As an example, the indirect search for DM towards the Sun performed by neutrino telescopes...

  18. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope: Highlights of the GeV Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomspon, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays can be produced by processes that also produce neutrinos. the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of potenl ial targds for neutrino observations. Gamma-ray bursts. active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants are all sites where hadronic, neutrino-producing interactions are plausible. Pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and binary sources are all phenomena that reveal leptonic particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. \\Vhile important to gamma-ray astrophysics. such sources are of less interest to neutrino studies. This talk will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  19. The EXIST optical and infra-red telescope (IRT) and imager-spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, A. S.; Moseley, S. H.; Golisano, C.; Gong, Q.; Allen, B. T.; Gehrels, N.; Grindlay, J. E.; Hong, J. S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2009-08-01

    The EXIST (Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope) mission includes the 1.1 m optical Infra-Red Telescope (IRT) which provides the capability to locate, identify, and obtain spectra of transient events, in particular GRB afterglows at redshifts up to epoch of reionization. The instrument includes a high spatial resolution imager, low spectral resolution spectrometer (R~ 30) and high resolution slit spectrometer (R~ 3000). This instrument, with the observatory's rapid reaction response will quickly identify the GRB afterglow, measure its brightness curves, redshift, measure spectral characteristics of the afterglows and measure absorption spectra of the intervening intergalactic medium. With this instrument, high redshift GRBs become important tools for studying the growth of structure, observing the processes through which the universe is reionized.

  20. The design and capabilities of the EXIST optical and infra-red telescope (IRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, A. S.; Moseley, S. H.; Golisano, C.; Gong, Q.; Allen, B. T.; Gehrels, N.; Grindlay, J. E.; Hong, J. S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2010-07-01

    The Infra-Red Telescope is a critical element of the EXIST (Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope) observatory. The primary goal of the IRT is to obtain photometric and spectroscopic measurements of high redshift (>=6) gamma ray reaching to the epoque of reionization. The photometric and spectral capabilities of the IRT will allow to use GRB afterglow as probes of the composition and ionization state of the intergalactic medium of the young universe. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events in the infrared and optical wavelength, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories. We present the results of the mission study development on the IRT as part of the EXIST observatory.

  1. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  2. Spectroscopic observation of AT2016iyw and AT2016jal by NUTS (NOT Un-biased Transient Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, F.; Lundqvist, P.; Ergon, M.; Kangas, T.; Mattila, S.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Harmanen, J.; Somero, A.; Reynolds, T.; Stritzinger, M.; Dong, S.; Blay, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS; ATel #8992) reports the spectroscopic classification of two transients. The candidates were discovered by the ATLAS survey (Tonry et al., ATel #9685).

  3. Spectroscopic observation of Gaia17afo (AT 2017on) by NUTS (NOT Un-biased Transient Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Grafton, E.

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS; ATel #8992) reports the spectroscopic classification of Gaia17afo (AT 2017on). The candidate was discovered by the Gaia Photometric Science survey.

  4. The MEarth Project: Status Update and the Commissioning of a Brand New Telescope Array in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Dittmann, Jason

    2014-06-01

    The MEarth Project is an ongoing all-sky survey for Earth-like planets transiting the closest, smallest M dwarfs. MEarth aims to find good targets for atmospheric characterization with JWST and the next generation of enormous ground-based telescopes. MEarth's yearly data releases, containing precise light curves of nearby mid-to-late M dwarfs, provide a unique window into the photometric variability of the stars that will forever be among the most interesting targets in the search for potentially habitable exoplanets. We present a status update on the MEarth Project, including a detailed map of the progress we’ve made so far with 8 telescopes in the Northern hemisphere and promising early results from our new installation of 8 more telescopes in the Southern hemisphere.

  5. Progress report on the Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Michael W.; Treffers, Richard R.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    The Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope is designed to measure the brightness not only of isolated stars, but ones located in crowded fields (open and globular clusters). Stars considerably fainter than those observed with automatic photoelectric telescopes will be accessible. It will be possible to study the morphology and brightness of extended objects such as comets. The aim is to broaden the very successful mode of automatic observations to new classes of objects. The telescope mount and mirror set are still under construction, and a backup telescope has been almost completely automated. The autoguider is working efficiently, and first test images have been taken.

  6. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  7. Standardization of direct drive servos in telescope applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Pablo

    2003-02-01

    This paper explores the use of direct drive servos in telescopes applications in the quest of standardization key concepts that might push to more reliable and cheaper solutions for future complex motion systems. Considerations related to different PWM Frequencies, Motor Phasing, position feedback, CAN-bus interfaces, etc. A collection of data from the VLT experience is presented showing the particular needs of the modern telescope"s drives. Can an industry standard amplifier meet the telescope specifications, and therefore be easier to maintain and offer a cheaper solution?

  8. Shuttle orbiter with telescoping main propulsion unit and payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.

    1993-03-01

    An improved Space Shuttle with variable internal volume is provided. The Space Shuttle Orbiter includes a telescoping main propulsion unit. This main propulsion unit contains the main rocket engines and fuel tanks and telescopes into the Space Shuttle. A variable cavity is located between this unit and the crew compartment. Accordingly, the positioning of the telescoping main propulsion unit determines the volume of the variable cavity. Thus, the volume of the variable length of the entire Space Shuttle may be increased or decreased to achieve desired configurations for optimal storage. In one embodiment of the invention, the payload also telescopes within the variable cavity.

  9. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  10. Probing Galaxy Formation and Evolution with Space Born Sub-Millimeter Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Moseley, Harvey; Benford, Dominic; Shafer, Richard; Mather, John; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major unresolved question in cosmology is how the complex system of galaxies we see in the present universe evolved from an almost perfectly smooth beginning. Multiwavelength observations of galaxies have revealed that a significant fraction of their UV-visible starlight is absorbed and reradiated by dust at infrared JR) and submillimeter wavelengths. The cumulative IR-submm. emission from galaxies since the epoch of recombination, the cosmic IR background, has recently been recorded by the COBE satellite. The COBE observations in combination with recent submm surveys conducted with the SCUBA on the 15 m JCMT have shown that most of the radiation from star formation that has taken place in the early stages of galaxy evolution is reradiated by dust at submm wavelengths. Therefore, submm telescopes offer a unique probe of the early stages of galaxy formation and evolution. This talk will: (1) consider the impact of telescope diameter on the depth of the survey (what redshift can be probed) at different wavelengths; (2) discuss the relative scientific merits of high-resolution narrow-field surveys versus lower resolution deep surveys; and (3) show how both strategies offer complementary information crucial to our understanding of the structure and evolution of galaxies in the universe.

  11. Construction of a Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: status of the optical system

    OpenAIRE

    Rousselle, J.; Byrum, K.; Cameron, R.; Connaughton, V.; Errando, M.; Guarino, V.; Humensky, T.; Jenke, P.; Kieda, D.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; Okumura, A.; Petrashyk, A; Vassiliev, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the status of procurement of the optical system of the prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT), for which construction is scheduled to begin in fall at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA. The Schwarzschild-Couder telescope is a candidate for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, which utilizes imaging atmospheric Cherenkov techniques to observe gamma rays in the energy range of 60Gev-60TeV. The pSCT novel ap...

  12. EXO-ZODI MODELING FOR THE LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Panić, Olja; Shannon, Andrew [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Bailey, Vanessa; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip M.; Rieke, George H.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Su, Katherine Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bryden, Geoffrey; Mennesson, Bertrand; Morales, Farisa; Serabyn, Eugene [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Danchi, William C.; Roberge, Aki; Stapelfeldt, Karl R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Haniff, Chris [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Lebreton, Jérémy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Millan-Gabet, Rafael [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    Habitable zone dust levels are a key unknown that must be understood to ensure the success of future space missions to image Earth analogs around nearby stars. Current detection limits are several orders of magnitude above the level of the solar system's zodiacal cloud, so characterization of the brightness distribution of exo-zodi down to much fainter levels is needed. To this end, the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will detect thermal emission from habitable zone exo-zodi a few times brighter than solar system levels. Here we present a modeling framework for interpreting LBTI observations, which yields dust levels from detections and upper limits that are then converted into predictions and upper limits for the scattered light surface brightness. We apply this model to the HOSTS survey sample of nearby stars; assuming a null depth uncertainty of 10{sup –4} the LBTI will be sensitive to dust a few times above the solar system level around Sun-like stars, and to even lower dust levels for more massive stars.

  13. Postdoctoral Mentoring at the Space Telescope Science Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeples, Molly

    2018-01-01

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has, on average, about 30 postdoctoral researchers. This groups is funded primarily by individual grants but includes independent Fellows (Giacconi, Lasker, and Hubble Fellows) and postdocs based at neighboring Johns Hopkins University but with supervisors based at STScI. Our mentoring program aims to support the intellectual and career development of this entire group, outside of the scientific and career mentoring they receive from their direct supervisors or fellowship sponsors. Our mentoring program consists of two parts. First and foremost, each postdoc has a mentor (someone on the research staff) with whom they meet regularly. Ideally, the mentor is not someone with whom the postdoc collaborates scientifically and can therefore provide an outside, independent, fresh perspective. As different postdocs require different kinds of mentoring, we try to best pair postdocs and mentors according to the postdocs’ needs and the mentors’ backgrounds, skills, and mentoring styles. Second, we conduct several career guidance seminars and related events throughout the year. These have included proposal writing workshops, formalized practice talks, academic job application seminars, and discussion sessions on career paths outside of academia (featuring colleagues who are no longer in academia). These workshops have the added benefit of providing the postdocs with a wider support network of staff members. Finally, we have begun to conduct an annual survey of the postdocs to gauge their experience and integration at STScI, the efficacy of the mentoring program, and to collect feedback on how to improve postdoctoral life at the Institute.

  14. XSPECT telescopes on the SRG: optical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Polny, Josef; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    The XSPECT, thin foil, multiply nested telescope on SRG has been designed to achieve a large effective area at energies between 6 and 15 keV. The design goal for the angular resolution is 2 arcmin (HPD). Results of foil figure error measurements are presented. A ray tracing analysis was performed...... including results of earlier scattering measurements and the foil determination. The results of the analysis are compared with test measurements with X rays and show that there is a larger spread in the PSF than the model can account for. The decrease in effective area due to scattering is estimated...... to be 30% when the photons that scatter more than 6 arcmin are regarded as lost. The vignetting at off-axis angles leads to an effective area at the edge of the FOV which is 15% of that of an on-axis source....

  15. Space Telescope - Eye on the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Space Telescope, which is to be put into orbit by the Space Shuttle in 1985, is described with attention to the design characteristics and fabrication processes of its optics and the five scientific instruments that will be mounted at the focal plane, behind the primary mirror. The primary mirror is fabricated from Ultra Low Expansion Glass, weighed 907 kg as a blank and took three and a half years to grind and polish to a deviation of no more than 0.000025 mm from the ideal surface. The instruments carried are the Wide Field Planetary Camera, which employs CCD detectors, the Faint Object Camera, the Faint Object Spectrograph, for use at visible and UV wavelengths, the UV High Resolution Spectrograph for 1100-2300 A wavelengths, and the High Speed Photometer for the study of time-dependent brightness fluctuations.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Spacecraft Overview Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This Kennedy Space Center video release presents the third part of a press conference held at Goddard Space Flight Center on Jan. 13, 1994. The session is moderated by Randee Exler (News Chief, GSFC) and includes presentations by Ken Ledbetter (HST Program Manager, NASA Headquarters), Frank Cepollina (HST Project Manager for Flight Systems and Servicing, GSFC) and Joe Rothenberg (Director, HST Flight Projects, GSFC) that discuss pre-flight testing and training, on-orbit servicing, highlights, and the status of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A question and answer period follows the presentations, after which three short highlight videos are presented that include actual footage of on-orbit servicing, galactic images taken by the HST, and pre-flight preparation and construction.

  17. Current status of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann-Godo, M. [Physics Institute 4, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The ANTARES collaboration is currently installing a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea close to the French coast at Toulon. The complete detector will consist of 900 photomultipliers arranged on 12 detector lines in 2500 m depth, thus instrumenting a volume of 0.01 km{sup 3} sea water as target material. The incident neutrinos are detected by collecting the Cherenkov light from charged secondary particles, which are emitted by neutrino interactions with the sea water or the rock of the sea bed beneath. By reconstructing the Cherenkov cone and therewith the direction of the incident neutrinos with high accuracy, the principal objective of ANTARES is the search for point sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos and dark matter. In this presentation, emphasis will be placed on the operation of the detector in the hostile deep sea environment and on the status of the project. Results of the first complete detector line will be shown.

  18. Hybrid analysis for the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes B.T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Telescope Array (TA experiment is the largest Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR hybrid detector which consists of three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs and 507 Surface Detectors (SDs. The coincidence events which observed both by FD and SD is referred as hybrid event. The geometry and energy of each extensive air shower observed by hybrid mode are reconstructed with much more accurate resolution than monocular reconstruction alone. The hybrid event candidates were searched for by comparison of the trigger times between FD and SD in the good weather days from May 2008 to September 2010. By this search, we found 1306 hybrid events for BR, 1051 events for LR and 905 events for MD. In this paper, the performance of the hybrid technique and the energy spectra measured by using hybrid events are presented.

  19. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  20. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  1. The servo control system of KDUST telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhang; Du, Fujia

    2014-07-01

    The KDUST telescope would be installed in Antarctic Dome A, where is extremely cold, high, dry, but have a very stable, calm atmosphere for astronomical observation. According to project requirement, the position following error should be less than 1''. To achieve project target, a direct drive method is used in the project. Normal PID control algorithm is used in controller. It can meet the target in the room temperature. But the following error increased too significantly in the cryogenic environment. In this paper, the expert PID algorithm is applied to control system. The control parameter can be adjusted by amplitude and variation of following error. Experiment proved that expert PID has an obvious advantage in both start-up and tracking process under different temperature. Moreover expert PID also can improve the stability of whole system.

  2. A Plan for a New Generation 2-METER Class Telescope in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hucht, Karel A.

    1984-02-01

    Teknologi Bandung should participate from the very beginning in its design, construction and assembling, and the subsequent servicing; ITB could participate in the field of optics, mechanics, and electronics. Modern astronomy offers tremendous challenges to technology, which are of great interest to technological institutes. The new telescope should be computer controlled, and the spectrograph should have a modern digital read-out (Reticon, IPCS, or CCD). The telescope should have one of those recently becoming availablethin mirrors, allowing more mechanical freedom. It could be a telescope with a siderostat which feeds the light into a fixed telescope, thus improving both the stability of the telescope and that of the spectrograph. In this way the staff and students of ITB, as well as the technical staff of the Observatorium Bosscha will be drawn into modern techniques of many varieties. And for ITB such an enterprise may even have a spin-off into other fields than astronomy. One aspect which is of great importance for the new telescope is the selection of its site. The present site of the Observatorium Bosscha in Lembang is a good one, but for a new modern telescope one wants to make sure that it is going to be located at the most ideal site. Therefore an Indonesian site-survey should be initiated promptly. Site survey equipment is available at many big observatories and could be borrowed. The site survey should extend over at least 4 5 years to monitor the meteorological and environmental situation at many sites. In the meantime the design and fund rainsing can be considered. Modern day astronomy depends on financial support from governments and inter-governmental organizations. Therefore it is urged that a proposal for a new telescope as indicated above clearly describes the advantages of such a new telescope both for astrophysical research in Indonesia, and for the introduction of new technologies in Indonesian technological institutes. The recently formed Steering

  3. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  4. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Robert P.; Bulau, Scott E.; Shimko, Steve; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-08-01

    System safety for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the joint responsibility of a Maui-based safety team and the Tucson-based systems engineering group. The DKIST project is committed to the philosophy of "Safety by Design". To that end the project has implemented an aggressive hazard analysis, risk assessment, and mitigation system. It was initially based on MIL-STD-882D, but has since been augmented in a way that lends itself to direct application to the design of our Global Interlock System (GIS). This was accomplished by adopting the American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems (ANSI/RIA R15.06) for all identified hazards that involve potential injury to personnel. In this paper we describe the details of our augmented hazard analysis system and its use by the project. Since most of the major hardware for the DKIST (e.g., the enclosure, and telescope mount assembly) has been designed and is being constructed by external contractors, the DKIST project has required our contractors to perform a uniform hazard analysis of their designs using our methods. This paper also describes the review and follow-up process implemented by the project that is applied to both internal and external subsystem designs. Our own weekly hazard analysis team meetings have now largely turned to system-level hazards and hazards related to specific tasks that will be encountered during integration, test, and commissioning and maintenance operations. Finally we discuss a few lessons learned, describing things we might do differently if we were starting over today.

  5. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: melania@ifc.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2016-01-21

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  6. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Juërgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  7. Status of the large-size telescope prototyping for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Excellence Cluster ' ' Universe' ' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany); Teshima, Masahiro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo (Japan); Schweizer, Thomas; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Wetteskind, Holger; Jablonski, Christopher; Reimann, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Lorenz, Eckart [ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory aims at increasing the sensitivity of ground-based gamma-ray (GeV/TeV energies) observatories by a factor >10 compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred TeV, and to improve on other parameters like the energy and angular resolution. Sensitivity at the lowest possible energies is important for a variety of key physics goals, like the observation of distant active galactic nuclei or gamma-ray bursts, but also for measuring pulsar cutoffs. For this aim, CTA will incorporate a number of central large-size telescopes (LSTs of 23 m diameter). In this presentation, design considerations and the status of the LST prototyping are reported.

  8. Okayama optical polarimetry and spectroscopy system (OOPS) III. Distributed control system of the 91 cm telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutani, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Kurakami, T.; Sasaki, T.

    Telescope control system of the 91 cm telescope at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory was renewed to be composed of a sequencer, which controls devices of the telescope, and an operational computer. Message-based communication was introduced to perform an organized and scheduled observation with the telescope, an autoguider, and an observing instrument OOPS, whose control computers are distributed in the telescope control network.

  9. Technical description of the Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffers, Richard R.; Richmond, Michael W.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    The control system and computer configuration of the Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope (BAIT) are discussed. The system uses three IBM PCs to control the telescope, the CCD camera, and the autoguider, while a workstation running UNIX is the master control computer. The design of the camera back and autoguider is also discussed.

  10. Long term performance evaluation of the TACTIC imaging telescope ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The TeV atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with imaging camera (TACTIC) -ray telescope has been in operation at Mt. Abu, India since 2001 to study TeV -ray emission from celestial sources. During the last 10 years, apart from consistently detecting a steady signal from the Crab Nebula above ∼1.2 TeV energy, at a ...

  11. Solar Telescope Control with the CAN-Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettauer, T. V.

    The real time behavior, error handling and its simplicity makes CAN a preferable bus protocol to interconnect the various modules of a tower telescope. A schematic description of the control bus for the Kanzelhöhe Vakuum Telescope is given.

  12. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification...

  13. STS-31: Hubble Space Telescope Lift to Vertical

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The footage shows the lifting of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to a vertical position in the Kennedy Space Center. HST is a 2.4-meter reflecting telescope that will be deployed in low-Earth orbit (600 kilometers) by the crew of the space shuttle Discovery (STS-31) on 25 April 1990.

  14. Lessons Learned from the Kepler Mission and Space Telescope Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned over the course of several space telescope mission and instrument developments spanning two decades. These projects involved astronomical telescopes developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and were designed to further our understanding of the Universe. It is hoped that the lessons drawn from these experiences may be of use to future mission developers.

  15. Balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Satoru; Group, for the Emulsion Gamma-ray Telescope

    2010-01-01

    By detecting the beginning of electron pairs with nuclear emulsion, precise gamma-ray direction and gamma-ray polarization can be detected. With recent advancement in emulsion scanning system, emulsion analyzing capability is becoming powerful. Now we are developing the balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion. Overview and status of our telescope is described.

  16. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to an October 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST occurred in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing.

  17. The Polarization Optics for the European Solar Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, F.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304846228; Collados, M.; Feller, A.; Gelly, B. F.; Keller, C.U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824550; Kentischer, T. J.; López Ariste, A.; Pleier, O.; Snik, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832154; Socas-Navarro, H.

    2010-01-01

    EST, the European Solar Telescope, is a 4-m class solar telescope, which will be located at the Canary Islands. It is currently in the conceptual design phase as a European funded project. In order to fulfill the stringent requirements for polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy, the polarimetry has

  18. Determination of the Effective Areas of the Decameter Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkovskiy, S. L.; Shepelev, V. A.; Inyutin, G. A.; Vashchshin, R. V.

    A method of a calibration of arrays of the URAN radio telescopes is presented. A number of powerful discrete radio sources located on different declinations were observed with the radio telescopes to obtain dependence of their normalized affective area from a beam orientation. Absolute value of the effective area of each antenna was found by observations of the calibrator 3C405.

  19. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy ...

  20. An optics education program designed around experiments with small telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance E.; Dokter, Erin F. C.

    2010-08-01

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has led the development of a new telescope kit for kids as part of a strategic plan to interest young children in science. This telescope has been assembled by tens of thousands of children nationwide, who are now using this high-quality telescope to conduct optics experiments and to make astronomical observations. The Galileoscope telescope kit and its associated educational program are an outgrowth of the NSF sponsored "Hands-On Optics" (HOO) project, a collaboration of the SPIE, the Optical Society of America, and NOAO. This project developed optics kits and activities for upper elementary students and has reached over 20,000 middle school kids in afterschool programs. HOO is a highly flexible educational program and was featured as an exemplary informal science program by the National Science Teachers Association. Our new "Teaching with Telescopes" program builds on HOO, the Galileoscope and other successful optical education projects.