WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey study participants

  1. Communicating serum chemical concentrations to study participants: follow up survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Germaine M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A considerable literature now supports the importance of effective communication with study participants, including how best to develop communication plans focusing on the uncertainty of health risks associated with particular environmental exposures. Strategies for communicating individual concentrations of environmental chemicals in human biological samples in the absence of clearly established safe or hazardous levels have been discussed from a conceptual basis and to a lesser extent from an empirical basis. We designed and evaluated an empirically based communication strategy for women of reproductive age who previously participated in a prospective study focusing on persistent environmental chemicals and reproductive outcomes. Methods A cohort of women followed from preconception through pregnancy or up to 12 menstrual cycles without pregnancy was given their individual serum concentrations for lead, dichloro-2,2-bisp-chlorophenyl ethylene, and select polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Two versions of standardized letters were prepared depending upon women's exposure status, which was characterized as low or high. Letters included an introduction, individual concentrations, population reference values and guidance for minimizing future exposures. Participants were actively monitored for any questions or concerns following receipt of letters. Results Ninety-eight women were sent letters informing them of their individual concentrations to select study chemicals. None of the 89 (91% participating women irrespective of exposure status contacted the research team with questions or concerns about communicated exposures despite an invitation to do so. Conclusions Our findings suggest that study participants can be informed about their individual serum concentrations without generating unnecessary concern.

  2. Cancer patients' participation in population-based health surveys: findings from the HUNT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosså, Sophie D; Dahl, Alv A; Langhammer, Arnulf; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald

    2015-11-05

    The magnitude of participation bias due to non-participation should be considered for cancer patients invited to population-based surveys. We studied participation rates among persons with and without cancer in a large population based study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Citizens 20 years or above living in the Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway have been invited three times to comprehensive health surveys. The invitation files with data on sex, invitation date and participation were linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. In a first step unadjusted crude participation rates (participants/invited persons) were estimated for cancer patients (CaPts) and non-cancer persons (NonCaPers), followed by logistic regression analyses with adjustment for age and sex. To evaluate the "practical" significance of the estimated odds ratios in the cancer diagnosis group, relative risks were also estimated comparing the observed rates to the estimated rates under the counterfactual assumption of no earlier cancer diagnosis among CaPts. Overall 3 % of the participants in the three HUNT studies were CaPts and 59 % of them had been diagnosed with their first life-time cancer >5 years prior to each survey. In each of the three HUNT surveys crude participation rates were similar for CaPts and NonCaPers. Adjusted for sex and age, CaPts' likelihood to participate in HUNT1 (1984-86) and HUNT2 (1995-97), but not in HUNT3 (2006-2008), was statistically significantly reduced compared to NonCaPers, equaling a relative risk of 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. The lowest odds ratio emerged for CaPts diagnosed during the last 2 years preceding a HUNT invitation. Only one-third of CaPts participating in a survey also participated in the subsequent survey compared to approximately two-thirds of NonCaPers, and 11 % of CaPts participated in all three HUNT surveys compared to 37 % of NonCaPers. In the three HUNT surveys no or only minor participation bias exist as to CaPts' participation rates

  3. Perception of Employment by the Veterans Participating in the National Veterans Wheelchair Games: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, William; Lee, Leah; Lans, Daniel; Tostenrude, David; Lee, Kenneth

    2017-09-20

    Employment in those with disability is an important rehabilitation goal, along with achieving some measure of functional independence and is at the same time one of the most difficult goals to achieve. The number of people with disabilities participating in adaptive sports has been increasing steadily over the years. A few studies have looked at the relationship between physical fitness and employment status in those with disability, but there have been no studies that focused on the results of organized adaptive sports events affecting employment outcome. To determine whether participation in the National Veterans Wheelchair Games (NVWG) has a positive impact on employment in those with disability. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. 2015 NVWG in Dallas, Texas (nonclinic setting). A total of 338 survey participants; 36 surveys were excluded due to incompletion. Veterans who participated at the 2015 NVWG were given the opportunity to complete a 2-page survey. Survey participants received $5.00 gift card as compensation. Percentage of those who perceived NVWG made a difference in attaining employment, risk ratio analyses. A total of 50% of the participants stated that the NVWG made a difference in attaining employment. Those currently working were 1.5 times more likely to say that the NVWG had a positive effect on employment than those not currently working (P Likert scale distribution. Our study suggests that participating in the NVWG provides psychosocial support to the veterans and may have a positive influence in employment outcomes. To be determined. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recruitment challenges in clinical research: Survey of potential participants in a diagnostic study of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Gilbert, Lucy; Ciampi, Antonio; Basso, Olga

    2017-09-01

    Recruiting participants in clinical research is challenging. Certain groups, such as older adults, rural residents, and individuals with lower socio-economic status, are typically underrepresented. Here, we explore perceived motivators and barriers among potential participants in a diagnostic study of ovarian cancer. Women aged 50 and older who answered a mail survey in Montreal, Canada, were asked to assess their eligibility to participate in the ongoing Diagnosing Ovarian cancer Early (DOvE) Study. If 'eligible', they were asked whether they planned to participate in DOvE. Using modified Poisson regression, we examined responders' self-assessment of eligibility, intention to participate, and reasons for why or why not, as a function of socio-demographic and health indicators. Of 826 responders, 33.1% misclassified themselves with respect to eligibility. Among 532 self-assessed eligible women, 56.4% planned to participate in the study. The majority of women not planning to participate preferred to be assessed by their physicians (a reason more commonly reported by those with lower education or income) or believed they were not at risk of ovarian cancer (despite having no fewer risk factors). "Inconvenience" was also a commonly reported reason, especially among rural residents. Women who planned to participate often perceived a benefit (e.g. to rule out ovarian cancer, or to receive a quick check-up). Recruitment, particularly of underrepresented groups, in clinical studies may be enhanced by involving primary care providers, facilitating access to study sites, and providing clear information about the disease under study (including risk factors) and eligibility criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Participation in an Intensive Longitudinal Study with Weekly Web Surveys Over 2.5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Schulz, Paul

    2016-06-23

    Technological advances have made it easier for researchers to collect more frequent longitudinal data from survey respondents via personal computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices. Although technology has led to an increase in data-intensive longitudinal studies, little is known about attrition from such studies or the differences between respondents who complete frequently administered surveys in a timely manner, and respondents who do not. We examined respondent characteristics and behaviors associated with continued and on-time participation in a population-based intensive longitudinal study, using weekly web-based survey interviews over an extended period. We analyzed data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, an intensive longitudinal study that collected weekly web-based survey interviews for 2.5 years from 1003 18- and 19-year-olds to investigate factors shaping the dynamics of their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancies. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses showed background respondent characteristics measured at baseline were associated with the number of days respondents remained enrolled in the study, the number of interviews they completed, and the odds that they were late completing interviews. In addition, we found that changes in pregnancy-related behaviors reported in the weekly interviews were associated with late completion of interviews. Specifically, after controlling for sociodemographic, personality, contact information, and prior experience variables, we found that weekly reports such as starting to have sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32, P=.01), getting a new partner (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.53-2.03, Psurvey completion. However, young women who reported changes in pregnancy-related behaviors also had lower levels of study attrition, and completed more interviews overall, than did their counterparts. We found that measures of participation in a longitudinal study with weekly web

  6. Participant dropout as a function of survey length in internet-mediated university studies: implications for study design and voluntary participation in psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Internet-mediated research has offered substantial advantages over traditional laboratory-based research in terms of efficiently and affordably allowing for the recruitment of large samples of participants for psychology studies. Core technical, ethical, and methodological issues have been addressed in recent years, but the important issue of participant dropout has received surprisingly little attention. Specifically, web-based psychology studies often involve undergraduates completing lengthy and time-consuming batteries of online personality questionnaires, but no known published studies to date have closely examined the natural course of participant dropout during attempted completion of these studies. The present investigation examined participant dropout among 1,963 undergraduates completing one of six web-based survey studies relatively representative of those conducted in university settings. Results indicated that 10% of participants could be expected to drop out of these studies nearly instantaneously, with an additional 2% dropping out per 100 survey items included in the study. For individual project investigators, these findings hold ramifications for study design considerations, such as conducting a priori power analyses. The present results also have broader ethical implications for understanding and improving voluntary participation in research involving human subjects. Nonetheless, the generalizability of these conclusions may be limited to studies involving similar design or survey content.

  7. A Survey Study on Customer Experience in Banking Cash Management Products and, Participation Banking Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt DİRİCAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Banking as a safe bridge of risk management balances relation between deposit and loan. In the growing trend of interest-free banking Turkey practice, Participation Banking is working to fix the expectations of customers with reasonable solutions. For corporate customers with comprehensive cash management expectations, producing appropriate and fast solutions are important for a positive and sustainable customer experience. Cash Management covers collection of trade receivables and short -term debt payments. In this study, in the light of the financial ratios of participation banking within the banking industry, a participation bank customers' experiences and expectations in cash management products and services were evaluated with the survey methodology and its importance were also examined.

  8. A survey of climate change beliefs : a case study of the Canada Country Study participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortsch, L. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada); Bradley, B.; Andrey, J. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Warriner, K. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Sociology; Fisher, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This survey of the Canada Country Study (CCS) highlighted some beliefs of an informed group of climate change experts that can be used to develop communication strategies on this issue. The CCS was a national assessment of the social, economic and ecological impacts of climate change. It focused on 12 economic factors, 5 geographical regions and several related issues. The CCS provided useful information on what is known about climate change impacts in Canada, but it did not explore what scientists and researchers believe about climate change, including the certainty of climate change, causes, impacts, responsibility for action and future information needs. The beliefs of the highly educated are critical because they play a major role in risk communication, policy development and research. For that reason, a symposium was held in November 1997 in which Canadian climate change experts and stakeholders gathered to address the issues of awareness, understanding and actions. More than 80 per cent of the participants suggested that climate change was certain, or likely, to occur along with impacts of sea level rise and increases in droughts, floods and insect infestations. Two per cent of the respondents felt that an increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius in the next 50 years was very unlikely, 7 per cent felt it was somewhat unlikely. While the respondents recognized negative impacts, they were perceived to be more likely to occur elsewhere and not likely to pose personal threats. The issue which had the greatest ambivalence in terms of being a cause of climate change or not, was the depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere. Survey respondents felt they were less informed about adaptation, limitation strategies and climate change detection and wanted more information on the consequences of changes to temperature and precipitation as well as social and economic impacts. It was concluded that industry/business, as well as governments are accountable for taking action on

  9. FACEBOOK ADVERTISEMENTS FOR SURVEY PARTICIPANT RECRUITMENT: CONSIDERATIONS FROM A MULTI-NATIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Thomson; Naoya Ito

    2014-01-01

    Facebook’s global reach suggests good potential for recruiting research participants and collecting objective behavioral data for cross-cultural research. Previous literature suggests the usefulness of Facebook advertisements to recruit participants in single-country studies. However, Facebook advert use in multi-country studies has not yet been reported. Nor are there any reports about soliciting Facebook user data (via Facebook applications) using Facebook advertisements. This paper contrib...

  10. The Effects of Cash Management Services in Participation Bankingand Employee Perception Analysis With the Help of Survey Study

    OpenAIRE

    DİRİCAN, Cüneyt

    2016-01-01

    Participation Banking fills an important gap in the financialservices by increasing its share in Turkey. Cash Management ingeneral covers collections and payments transactions derivingfrom receivables and short term debts in the balance sheet ofthe companies. Cash Management in banking covers payments,transfers and collection services. In this study, the perception ofa participation bank employees on cash management services isexamined by survey-study under the general performance ratios ofpa...

  11. A Survey Study on Customer Experience in Banking Cash Management Products and, Participation Banking Example

    OpenAIRE

    DİRİCAN, Cüneyt

    2016-01-01

    Banking as a safe bridge of risk management balances relation between deposit and loan. In the growing trend of interest-free banking Turkey practice, Participation Banking is working to fix the expectations of customers with reasonable solutions. For corporate customers with comprehensive cash management expectations, producing appropriate and fast solutions are important for a positive and sustainable customer experience. Cash Management covers collection of trade receivables and short -ter...

  12. Rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury: A survey in 70 European neurotrauma centres participating in the center-TBI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Cnossen (Maryse); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); O. Tenovuo (Olli); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew I.R.); D.K. Menon (David ); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G.M. Ribbers (Gerard); S. Polinder (Suzanne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe variation in structural and process characteristics of acute in-hospital rehabilitation and referral to post-acute care for patients with traumatic brain injury across Europe. Design: Survey study, of neurotrauma centres. Methods: A 14-item survey about in-hospital

  13. Effect of survey instrument on participation in a follow-up study: a randomization study of a mailed questionnaire versus a computer-assisted telephone interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocheleau Carissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological and public health surveys report increasing difficulty obtaining high participation rates. We conducted a pilot follow-up study to determine whether a mailed or telephone survey would better facilitate data collection in a subset of respondents to an earlier telephone survey conducted as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Methods We randomly assigned 392 eligible mothers to receive a self-administered, mailed questionnaire (MQ or a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI using similar recruitment protocols. If mothers gave permission to contact the fathers, fathers were recruited to complete the same instrument (MQ or CATI as mothers. Results Mothers contacted for the MQ, within all demographic strata examined, were more likely to participate than those contacted for the CATI (86.6% vs. 70.6%. The median response time for mothers completing the MQ was 17 days, compared to 29 days for mothers completing the CATI. Mothers completing the MQ also required fewer reminder calls or letters to finish participation versus those assigned to the CATI (median 3 versus 6, though they were less likely to give permission to contact the father (75.0% vs. 85.8%. Fathers contacted for the MQ, however, had higher participation compared to fathers contacted for the CATI (85.2% vs. 54.5%. Fathers recruited to the MQ also had a shorter response time (median 17 days and required fewer reminder calls and letters (median 3 reminders than those completing the CATI (medians 28 days and 6 reminders. Conclusions We concluded that offering a MQ substantially improved participation rates and reduced recruitment effort compared to a CATI in this study. While a CATI has the advantage of being able to clarify answers to complex questions or eligibility requirements, our experience suggests that a MQ might be a good survey option for some studies.

  14. What do parents of children with autism expect from participation in research? A community survey about early autism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Larsen, Kenneth; Salomone, Erica

    2017-11-01

    Engagement with stakeholders is an essential part of the research process. This is particularly the case for early autism research with infant cohorts and their families, where a range of ethical issues are pertinent. Here, we report on a large survey of parents who have a child on the autism spectrum (n = 1040) which specifically probed attitudes to early autism research. The large majority of parents showed positive attitudes overall, and these were associated with greater access to services, higher service quality ratings and higher rates of intellectual disability among their children. Parents valued the scientific goals of research, but half of parents also reported that an intervention component would be an essential prerequisite for them to participate in research. If enrolled in a study, parents were positive about most commonly used measures though less favourably disposed towards brain scans for children. They valued direct contact with the research team and openness in data sharing. We interpret our findings in terms of lessons for the early autism research community and for stakeholder engagement projects.

  15. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on

  17. A Survey Study of PREPaRE Workshop Participants' Application of Knowledge, Confidence Levels, and Utilization of School Crisis Response and Recovery Training Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    This survey study investigated the effects of the National Association of School Psychologists PREPaRE Workshop 2 training on workshop participants. PREPaRE is a comprehensive crisis prevention and intervention model that is specifically designed for schools. This study evaluated the impact of the PREPaRE model and the training of school…

  18. Challenges in Cultivating EOSDIS User Survey Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquist, C. L.; Sofinowski, E. J.; Walter, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004 NASA has surveyed users of its Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to determine user satisfaction with its services. The surveys have been conducted by CFI Group under contract with the Federal Consulting Group, Executive Agent in government for the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The purpose of these annual surveys is to help EOSDIS and the data centers assess current status and improve future services. The survey questions include demographic and experiential questions in addition to the ACSI and EOSDIS specific rating questions. In addition to customer satisfaction, analysis of each year's results has provided insight into the survey process. Although specific questions have been added, modified, or deleted to reflect changes to the EOSDIS system and processes, the model rating questions have remained the same to ensure consistency for evaluating cross year trends. Working with the CFI Group, we have refined the invitation and questions to increase clarity and address the different ways diverse groups of users access services at EOSDIS data centers. We present challenges in preparing a single set of questions that go to users with backgrounds in many Earth science disciplines. These users may have contacted any of the 12 EOSDIS data centers for information or may have accessed data or data products from many kinds of aircraft and satellite instruments. We discuss lessons learned in preparing the invitation and survey questions and the steps taken to make the survey easier to complete and to encourage increased participation.

  19. Survey Probability and Factors affecting Farmers Participation in Future and Option Markets Case Study: Cotton product in Gonbad kavos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. sakhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Farmers are facing with a variety of natural and unnatural risks in agricultural activities, and thus their income is unstable. A wide range of risks such as risks of production, price risk, financial and human risks, influence the income of agricultural products. One of the major risks that farmers faced is the risk of price volatility of agricultural products. Cotton is one of the agricultural products with high real price volatility. Numerous tools for marketing and risk management for agricultural products in the face of price risks are available. Futures and options contracts may be the most important available tools (to reduce price volatility in agricultural products. The purpose of the current study was to look at the possibility of farmers participations in the future and option markets that presented as a means to reduce the cotton prices volatility. The dependent variable for this purpose had four categories and these included: participate in both the market, participation in the future market, participation in the option market and participation in both future and option markets. Materials and Methods: data gathered with interview and completing 200 questionnaires of cotton growers using simple random sampling. Multinomial Logit Regression Model was used for data analysis. Results and Discussion: To measure content validity of the preliminary study the validity of confirmatory factor analysis were used. For calculating reliability, the pre-test done with 30 questionnaires and reliability, coefficient Cronbach alpha was 0.79. The independence of dependent variables categories was confirmed by Hausman test results. The Likelihood ratio and Wald showed these categories are not combinable. Results indicated into period 2014 -2015 and the sample under study, 35% of cotton growers unwilling to participate in future and option markets. Farmers willingness to participate in future and option market was 19% and %21

  20. Toxic ignorance and right-to-know in biomonitoring results communication: a survey of scientists and study participants

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    Altman Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure assessment has shifted from pollutant monitoring in air, soil, and water toward personal exposure measurements and biomonitoring. This trend along with the paucity of health effect data for many of the pollutants studied raise ethical and scientific challenges for reporting results to study participants. Methods We interviewed 26 individuals involved in biomonitoring studies, including academic scientists, scientists from environmental advocacy organizations, IRB officials, and study participants; observed meetings where stakeholders discussed these issues; and reviewed the relevant literature to assess emerging ethical, scientific, and policy debates about personal exposure assessment and biomonitoring, including public demand for information on the human health effects of chemical body burdens. Results We identify three frameworks for report-back in personal exposure studies: clinical ethics; community-based participatory research; and citizen science 'data judo.' The first approach emphasizes reporting results only when the health significance of exposures is known, while the latter two represent new communication strategies where study participants play a role in interpreting, disseminating, and leveraging results to promote community health. We identify five critical areas to consider in planning future biomonitoring studies. Conclusion Public deliberation about communication in personal exposure assessment research suggests that new forms of community-based research ethics and participatory scientific practice are emerging.

  1. Toxic ignorance and right-to-know in biomonitoring results communication: a survey of scientists and study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Brown, Phil; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Rudel, Ruthann A; Pérez, Carla

    2009-02-28

    Exposure assessment has shifted from pollutant monitoring in air, soil, and water toward personal exposure measurements and biomonitoring. This trend along with the paucity of health effect data for many of the pollutants studied raise ethical and scientific challenges for reporting results to study participants. We interviewed 26 individuals involved in biomonitoring studies, including academic scientists, scientists from environmental advocacy organizations, IRB officials, and study participants; observed meetings where stakeholders discussed these issues; and reviewed the relevant literature to assess emerging ethical, scientific, and policy debates about personal exposure assessment and biomonitoring, including public demand for information on the human health effects of chemical body burdens. We identify three frameworks for report-back in personal exposure studies: clinical ethics; community-based participatory research; and citizen science 'data judo.' The first approach emphasizes reporting results only when the health significance of exposures is known, while the latter two represent new communication strategies where study participants play a role in interpreting, disseminating, and leveraging results to promote community health. We identify five critical areas to consider in planning future biomonitoring studies. Public deliberation about communication in personal exposure assessment research suggests that new forms of community-based research ethics and participatory scientific practice are emerging.

  2. Participation rates, response bias and response behaviours in the community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Segerer, Wolfgang; Gemperli, Armin; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2015-10-08

    Surveying persons with disabilities is challenging, as targeted subjects may experience specific barriers to survey participation. Here we report on participation rates and response behaviour in a community survey of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland. The cross-sectional survey was implemented as part of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI) and represents the largest population-based SCI survey in Europe including nearly 2000 persons. Design features to enhance participation rates included the division of the questionnaire volume over three successive modules; recurrent and mixed-mode reminding of non-responders; and mixed-mode options for response. We describe participation rates of the SwiSCI community survey (absolute and cumulative cooperation, contact, response, and attrition rates) and report on response rates in relation to recruitment efforts. Potential non-response bias and the association between responders' characteristics and response behaviour (response speed: reminding until participation; response mode: paper-pencil vs. online completion) were assessed using regression modelling. Over the successive modules, absolute response rates were 61.1, 80.6 and 87.3% which resulted in cumulative response rates of 49.3 and 42.6% for the second and third modules. Written reminders effectively increased response rates, with the first reminder showing the largest impact. Telephone reminders, partly with direct telephone interviewing, enhanced response rate to the first module, but were essentially redundant in subsequent modules. Non-response to the main module was related to current age, membership of Swiss Paraplegic Association (SPA) and time since injury, but not to gender, lesion level and preferred language of response. Response speed increased with household income, but was not associated to other sociodemographic factors, lesion characteristics or health indicators. We found significant associations between online completion

  3. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishiro, Izumi; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-10-05

    Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies.

  4. Do incentives exert undue influence on survey participation? Experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Eleanor; Couper, Mick P

    2008-09-01

    MONETARY INCENTIVES ARE INCREASINGLY used to help motivate survey participation. Research Ethics Committees have begun to ask whether, and under what conditions, the use of monetary incentives to induce participation might be coercive. The article reports research from an online vignette-based study bearing on this question, concluding that at present the evidence suggests that larger incentives do not induce research participants to accept higher risks than they would be unwilling to accept with smaller ones.

  5. Reasons for non-participation and ways to enhance participation in health examination surveys-the Health 2011 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Lundqvist, Annamari; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-10-01

    High-participation rates to the health examination surveys are needed to obtain representative information about population health. This study aimed to examine reasons for non-participation and factors that could enhance participation using data from the Health 2011 Survey, conducted in 2011-12 in Finland (N = 8135). The most common reason for non-participation was unsuitable timing or location of the health examinations. Older persons also reported that they were too sick to participate. Flexibility on selection of examination times and places and getting feedback on the measurements were most often mentioned as factors which would increase willingness to participate in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. The Participation Decision Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Y. Ficaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 participation decision study involved exploration into the impact of the external education environment on the decision for private school participation in Federal funding, one deliberately declining player in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB choice and competition equation. In the qualitative collective case, three religiously triangulated Michigan private school decision-makers submitted to semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the external environmental factors was through the lens of Gould and Eldredge’s (1977 environmentally oriented theory, punctuated equilibria philosophy of change. Analysis involved layering, direct interpretation, categorical aggregation, and cross-comparison of two external environmental categories identified at literature review (NCLB-content and privatization-dynamic with numerous major and sub-groupings and space for newly emergent material. The category privatization-dynamics emerged as significant influence, as did the major theme trust and the sub-themes motivational intent, competency, consistency, grapevine, creativity or inspiration, restrictions on curriculum, lack of awareness of opportunities available, and fear of failure. The study included five specific recommendations for leaders of change to explain, predict, and improve organizational performance toward greater synchronization in operation of the NCLB choice and competition mechanisms.

  7. Variation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury: a survey in 66 neurotrauma centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnossen, Maryse C; Huijben, Jilske A; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Volovici, Victor; van Essen, Thomas; Polinder, Suzanne; Nelson, David; Ercole, Ari; Stocchetti, Nino; Citerio, Giuseppe; Peul, Wilco C; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Lingsma, Hester F

    2017-09-06

    No definitive evidence exists on how intracranial hypertension should be treated in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is therefore likely that centers and practitioners individually balance potential benefits and risks of different intracranial pressure (ICP) management strategies, resulting in practice variation. The aim of this study was to examine variation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in patients with TBI. A 29-item survey on ICP monitoring and treatment was developed on the basis of literature and expert opinion, and it was pilot-tested in 16 centers. The questionnaire was sent to 68 neurotrauma centers participating in the Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. The survey was completed by 66 centers (97% response rate). Centers were mainly academic hospitals (n = 60, 91%) and designated level I trauma centers (n = 44, 67%). The Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines were used in 49 (74%) centers. Approximately 90% of the participants (n = 58) indicated placing an ICP monitor in patients with severe TBI and computed tomographic abnormalities. There was no consensus on other indications or on peri-insertion precautions. We found wide variation in the use of first- and second-tier treatments for elevated ICP. Approximately half of the centers were classified as using a relatively aggressive approach to ICP monitoring and treatment (n = 32, 48%), whereas the others were considered more conservative (n = 34, 52%). Substantial variation was found regarding monitoring and treatment policies in patients with TBI and intracranial hypertension. The results of this survey indicate a lack of consensus between European neurotrauma centers and provide an opportunity and necessity for comparative effectiveness research.

  8. Advantages of asynchronous online focus groups and face-to-face focus groups as perceived by child, adolescent and adult participants: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-24

    Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants' opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants' preference for participation in an OFG or a face-to-face focus group (FTF), as well as their perceptions of the advantages of both methods. We also investigated whether any differences exist between the perceptions of child, adolescent, and adult participants. Participants' opinions were studied by means of a questionnaire completed by 284 persons (aged 8-72 years) after their participation in one of 50 OFGs. The OFGs were conducted between December 2005 and December 2013 as part of 19 separate studies. Chi square tests with p advantages of OFGs and FTFs between children, adolescents and adults. The most important advantage of OFGs as perceived by OFG participants was the possibility to participate at a moment most convenient to them. Adolescents and adults (90.5% and 95.9%) more often reported this as an advantage than children did (30.8%, p advantages of OFGs as a research method. Whereas respondents generally value the convenience of participating at their own time and place, the anonymity of OFGs and the increased ease to discuss personal issues were mentioned less often as advantages by the participants. An aspect that may need more attention when conducting an OFG, is the absence of a fluid discussion, which is, according to our respondents, easier to achieve in an FTF. This underlines the importance of the moderator in enabling a constructive discussion.

  9. Who participates in communal violence? Survey evidence from South Africa

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    Christopher Claassen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the thousands of people who take part in communal violence. Existing research is largely based on interviews, impressionistic accounts and government records of arrestees. In contrast, this paper examines data from a novel survey of a representative sample of residents of Alexandra, a township in South Africa where a 2008 nation-wide wave of anti-immigrant riots began. Data on participation in the attacks were collected using a method ensuring the privacy of responses, thus potentially reducing response bias. In contrast to the conclusions of existing research, which emphasize the participation of young males, the survey data reveal that a significant number of participants were female and participants were not particularly young, being 34 years old on average. Participants are more likely to support an opposition party, attend community policing meetings and have a high-school education.

  10. Gambling Participation and Problem Gambling Severity in a Stratified Random Survey: Findings from the Second Social and Economic Impact Study of Gambling in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Darren R; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-12-01

    Demographic characteristics associated with gambling participation and problem gambling severity were investigated in a stratified random survey in Tasmania, Australia. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in March 2011 resulting in a representative sample of 4,303 Tasmanian residents aged 18 years or older. Overall, 64.8% of Tasmanian adults reported participating in some form of gambling in the previous 12 months. The most common forms of gambling were lotteries (46.5%), keno (24.3%), instant scratch tickets (24.3%), and electronic gaming machines (20.5%). Gambling severity rates were estimated at non-gambling (34.8%), non-problem gambling (57.4%), low risk gambling (5.3%), moderate risk (1.8%), and problem gambling (.7%). Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher annual participation rates were reported by couples with no children, those in full time paid employment, and people who did not complete secondary school. Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher gambling frequencies were reported by males, people aged 65 or older, and people who were on pensions or were unable to work. Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher gambling expenditure was reported by males. The highest average expenditure was for horse and greyhound racing ($AUD 1,556), double the next highest gambling activity electronic gaming machines ($AUD 767). Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole problem gamblers were significantly younger, in paid employment, reported lower incomes, and were born in Australia. Although gambling participation rates appear to be falling, problem gambling severity rates remain stable. These changes appear to reflect a maturing gambling market and the need for population specific harm minimisation strategies.

  11. [Utilization of CAP Survey, Based on Questionnaire Results from Survey Participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Akiko; Ohno, Hiroie

    2015-08-01

    The survey provided by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) is chosen as one of the proficiency testing programs in Japan, and, recently, the numbers of participating facilities have increased. CAP provides 754 programs, and more than 1,000 tests were provided in 2014. Materials are translated as the "CAP global inter-laboratory comparison program" under the instruction of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine (JSLM) selected from CAP surveys in Japan, and 68 programs and 261 items are provided. The total number of participating facilities was 174. CAP itself and the other services CAP provides are not well-known, while recognition of "the CAP survey as the proficiency test" has increased. The question "What is CAP and the CAP survey" was analyzed as a result of the questionnaire surveys conducted in 2014, and the advantage of the CAP survey and how to utilize it were considered. A questionnaire survey was conducted about the CAP survey for Japanese participants in 2014. Fifty-three questions were asked about their satisfaction level, intended use, and improvement. Eighty replies were analyzed. As a result, most CAP survey participants are satisfied. They intend to mainly use the CAP survey for their quality control. Furthermore, they can continuously monitor their systems throughout all testing phases as the survey has numbers of shipments a year and several specimens per each mailing. This helps in laboratory performance improvement. The Evaluation and Participant Summary (PSR) also effectively improves the laboratories' performance. CAP-accredited laboratories are required to participate in all survey programs concerning the test menu which they provide. Therefore, they have become accustomed to reviewing the evaluation and performing self-evaluation with a high usage rate of the Evaluation and PSR of the CAP survey. The questionnaire proved that performing the CAP survey properly enhanced the laboratories' quality control, and this meets the

  12. A survey of optometry leadership: participation in disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoter, Walter J; Glotzer, David L; Weiserbs, Kera Fay; Baek, Linda S; Karloopia, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    A study was completed to assess the academic and state-level professional optometry leadership views regarding optometry professionals as surge responders in the event of a catastrophic event. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 21-question, self-administered, structured questionnaire. All U.S. optometry school deans and state optometric association presidents were mailed a questionnaire and instructions to return it by mail on completion; 2 repeated mailings were made. Descriptive statistics were produced and differences between deans and association presidents were tested by Fisher exact test. The questionnaire response rate was 50% (25 returned/50 sent) for the state association presidents and 65% (11/17) for the deans. There were no statistically significant differences between the leadership groups for any survey questions. All agreed that optometrists have the skills, are ethically obligated to help, and that optometrists should receive additional training for participation in disaster response. There was general agreement that optometrists should provide first-aid, obtain medical histories, triage, maintain infection control, manage a point of distribution, prescribe medications, and counsel the "worried well." Starting intravenous lines, interpreting radiographs, and suturing were less favorably supported. There was some response variability between the 2 leadership groups regarding potential sources for training. The overall opinion of optometry professional leadership is that with additional training, optometrists can and should provide an important reserve pool of catastrophic event responders. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advantages of asynchronous online focus groups and face-to-face focus groups as perceived by child, adolescent and adult participants: a survey study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants’ opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants’ preference for participation in an OFG or

  14. Language as a determinant of participation rates in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2017-08-01

    A high participation rate is considered as a prerequisite for representative survey results, especially when it is known that non-participation is selective. In many countries migration is increasing and the proportion of people speaking other language(s) than the official language(s) of the country is also increasing. How does this affect survey participation rates? Data from four cross-sectional health examination surveys (the FINRISK Study) were used to evaluate the effect of the registered mother tongue to participation in the survey. Finland has two official languages (Finnish and Swedish). Between 1997 and 2012, the proportion of the population with some other language as their registered mother tongue has increased significantly. Participation rates in the health surveys have been highest among the Finnish language group (68% in men in 1997 and 76% in women in 1997), while lowest among the foreign language group (43% in men in 1997 and 57% in women in 1997). In 2012, the participation rates had declined in all language groups: for men, 58%, 62% and 41% for Finnish, Swedish and foreign groups respectively, and for women 68%, 75% and 56%. The participation rate for the foreign language group was significantly lower than for the Finnish and Swedish groups. In future surveys it will be important to include actions to promote participation, e.g. providing survey material in several languages. These actions will increase costs but will be essential to ensure high participation rates and reliable results for the total population.

  15. General Practitioners’ Participation in a Large, Multicountry Combined General Practitioner-Patient Survey: Recruitment Procedures and Participation Rate

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    Peter P. Groenewegen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The participation of general practitioners (GPs is essential in research on the performance of primary care. This paper describes the implementation of a large, multicountry study in primary care that combines a survey among GPs and a linked survey among patients that visited their practice (the QUALICOPC study. The aim is to describe the recruitment procedure and explore differences between countries in the participation rate of the GPs. Methods. Descriptive analyses were used to document recruitment procedures and to assess hypotheses potentially explaining variation in participation rates between countries. Results. The survey was implemented in 31 European countries. GPs were mainly selected through random sampling. The actual implementation of the study differed between countries. The median participation rate was 30%. Both material (such as the payment system of GPs in a country and immaterial influences (such as estimated survey pressure are related to differences between countries. Conclusion. This study shows that the participation of GPs may indeed be influenced by the context of the country. The implementation of complex data collection is difficult to realize in a completely uniform way. Procedures have to be tuned to the context of the country.

  16. Survey of upper extremity injuries among martial arts participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesselhorst, Matthew M; Rayan, Ghazi M; Pasque, Charles B; Peyton Holder, R

    2013-01-01

    To survey participants at various experience levels of different martial arts (MA) about upper extremity injuries sustained during training and fighting. A 21-s question survey was designed and utilised. The survey was divided into four groups (Demographics, Injury Description, Injury Mechanism, and Miscellaneous information) to gain knowledge about upper extremity injuries sustained during martial arts participation. Chi-square testing was utilised to assess for significant associations. Males comprised 81% of respondents. Involvement in multiple forms of MA was the most prevalent (38%). The hand/wrist was the most common area injured (53%), followed by the shoulder/upper arm (27%) and the forearm/elbow (19%). Joint sprains/muscle strains were the most frequent injuries reported overall (47%), followed by abrasions/bruises (26%). Dislocations of the upper extremity were reported by 47% of participants while fractures occurred in 39%. Surgeries were required for 30% of participants. Females were less likely to require surgery and more likely to have shoulder and elbow injuries. Males were more likely to have hand injuries. Participants of Karate and Tae Kwon Do were more likely to have injuries to their hands, while participants of multiple forms were more likely to sustain injuries to their shoulders/upper arms and more likely to develop chronic upper extremity symptoms. With advanced level of training the likelihood of developing chronic upper extremity symptoms increases, and multiple surgeries were required. Hand protection was associated with a lower risk of hand injuries. Martial arts can be associated with substantial upper extremity injuries that may require surgery and extended time away from participation. Injuries may result in chronic upper extremity symptoms. Hand protection is important for reducing injuries to the hand and wrist.

  17. Changing nursing student attitudes to consumer participation in mental health services: a survey study of traditional and lived experience-led education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Louise; Platania-Phung, Chris; Happell, Brenda; Harris, Scott; Sci, Dip Health; Hlth Nurs, M Ment; Bradshaw, Julie

    2014-09-01

    Mental health policy emphasises the importance of consumer participation in mental health services. To align education with policy and orient future healthcare services to active consumer involvement, the potential of academics with a lived experience of mental illness to impact on student attitudes towards consumer participation needs to be examined. A cohort comparative study was undertaken comparing attitudinal change between undergraduate nursing students undertaking two different mental health courses, one nurse-led (n  =  61) and one lived experience-led. Attitudes were measured through the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire. Within-cohort change was assessed via dependent sample t-tests, and degree of change was observed in each cohort, by comparing effect sizes. For the nurse-led course, attitudes on consumer involvement t (60)  =  -1.79, p experience-led course, attitudes on consumer capacity t (109)  =  -3.63, p participation. Lived experience-led education was more beneficial in changing attitudes to consumer capacity and both types of education had similar positive effects on attitudes to consumers as staff.

  18. Can incentives undermine intrinsic motivation to participate in epidemiologic surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenemark, Marika; Vernby, Asa; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2010-04-01

    Response rates to surveys are decreasing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of lottery tickets as incentives in an epidemiologic control group. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents in the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden, who were to be used as a control group in a study addressing stress in parents of children with cancer. A stratified random sample of 450 parents were randomized into three incentive groups: (a) no incentive; (b) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply; (c) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply and an additional lottery ticket upon reply within 1 week. The overall response rate across the three groups was 65.3%. The response rate was highest in the no incentive group (69.3%) and lowest in the one plus one lottery ticket group (62.0%). In a survival analysis, the difference between the two response curves was significant by the log-rank test (P = 0.04), with the no incentive group having a shorter time to response than the incentive group. Our findings suggest that the use of lottery tickets as incentives to increase participation in a mail questionnaire among parents may be less valuable or even harmful. Incentives may undermine motivation in studies in which the intrinsic motivation of the respondents is already high.

  19. Recruitment of mental health survey participants using Internet advertising: content, characteristics and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    Postal and telephone survey research is threatened by declining response rates and high cost. Online recruitment is becoming more popular, although there is little empirical evidence about its cost-effectiveness or the representativeness of online samples. There is also limited research on optimal strategies for developing advertising content for online recruitment. The present study aimed to assess these aspects of online recruitment. Two mental health surveys used advertisements within a social network website (Facebook) to recruit adult Australian participants. The initial survey used advertisements linking directly to an external survey website, and recruited 1283 participants at $9.82 per completed survey. A subsequent survey used advertisements linking to a Facebook page that featured links to the external survey, recruiting 610 participants at $1.51 per completion. Both surveys were more cost-effective than similar postal surveys conducted previously, which averaged $19.10 per completion. Online and postal surveys both had somewhat unrepresentative samples. However, online surveys tended to be more successful in recruiting hard-to-reach populations. Advertising using "problem" terminology was more effective than "positive" terminology, while there was no significant effect of altruistic versus self-gain terminology. Online recruitment is efficient, flexible and cost-effective, suggesting that online recruitment has considerable potential for specific research designs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Political participation in Hong Kong: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S W; Cheng, B S

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate nurses' level of political participation and their perception of political efficacy. This is a descriptive study. A self-completed questionnaire survey was conducted. Some items in the adopted questionnaire were modified to suit the Hong Kong situation. A convenience sample was used. Three hundred and fifty registered nurses that were studying nursing degree programmes in the three universities in Hong Kong were invited to participate in the study. Three hundred and eleven registered nurses completed the questionnaire. The findings showed that there were some positive signs of both political awareness and participation in nurses. However, political activities were mainly confined to voting in general elections. Attempts to influence politicians were not evident. Subjects generally have low political efficacy, and they did not feel that nurses had the power to influence the government's policy. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the barriers to nurses' political participation and the recommendations for nursing professional development.

  1. Participation rates by educational levels have diverged during 25 years in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Tolonen, Hanna; Borodulin, Katja; Härkänen, Tommi; Jousilahti, Pekka; Karvanen, Juha; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Männistö, Satu; Rissanen, Harri; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2017-10-03

    Declining participation rates in health examination surveys may impair the representativeness of surveys and introduce bias into the comparison of results between population groups if participation rates differ between them. Changes in the characteristics of non-participants over time may also limit comparability with earlier surveys. We studied the association of socio-economic position with participation, and its changes over the past 25 years. Occupational class and educational level are used as indicators of socio-economic position. Data from six cross-sectional FINRISK surveys conducted between 1987 and 2012 in Finland were linked to national administrative registers, which allowed investigation of the differences between survey participants and non-participants. Our results show that individuals with low occupational class or low level of education were less likely to participate than individuals with high occupational class or high level of education. Participation rates decreased in all subgroups of the population but the decline was fastest among those with low level of education. The differences in participation rates must be taken into account to avoid biased estimates because socio-economic position has also been shown to be strongly related to health, health behaviour and biological risk factors. Particular attention should be paid to the recruitment of the less-educated population groups.

  2. Barriers to participation in a patient satisfaction survey: who are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Agoritsas, Thomas; Schiesari, Laura; Kolly, Véronique; Perneger, Thomas V

    2011-01-01

    A common weakness of patient satisfaction surveys is a suboptimal participation rate. Some patients may be unable to participate, because of language barriers, physical limitations, or mental problems. As the role of these barriers is poorly understood, we aimed to identify patient characteristics that are associated with non-participation in a patient satisfaction survey. At the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, a patient satisfaction survey is regularly conducted among all adult patients hospitalized for >24 hours on a one-month period in the departments of internal medicine, geriatrics, surgery, neurosciences, psychiatry, and gynaecology-obstetrics. In order to assess the factors associated with non-participation to the patient satisfaction survey, a case-control study was conducted among patients selected for the 2005 survey. Cases (non respondents, n = 195) and controls (respondents, n = 205) were randomly selected from the satisfaction survey, and information about potential barriers to participation was abstracted in a blinded fashion from the patients' medical and nursing charts. Non-participation in the satisfaction survey was independently associated with the presence of a language barrier (odds ratio [OR] 4.53, 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 2.14-9.59), substance abuse (OR 3.75, CI95%: 1.97-7.14), cognitive limitations (OR 3.72, CI95%: 1.64-8.42), a psychiatric diagnosis (OR 1.99, CI95%: 1.23-3.23) and a sight deficiency (OR 2.07, CI95%: 0.98-4.36). The odds ratio for non-participation increased gradually with the number of predictors. Five barriers to non-participation in a mail survey were identified. Gathering patient feedback through mailed surveys may lead to an under-representation of some patient subgroups.

  3. Barriers to participation in a patient satisfaction survey: who are we missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Gayet-Ageron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common weakness of patient satisfaction surveys is a suboptimal participation rate. Some patients may be unable to participate, because of language barriers, physical limitations, or mental problems. As the role of these barriers is poorly understood, we aimed to identify patient characteristics that are associated with non-participation in a patient satisfaction survey. METHODOLOGY: At the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, a patient satisfaction survey is regularly conducted among all adult patients hospitalized for >24 hours on a one-month period in the departments of internal medicine, geriatrics, surgery, neurosciences, psychiatry, and gynaecology-obstetrics. In order to assess the factors associated with non-participation to the patient satisfaction survey, a case-control study was conducted among patients selected for the 2005 survey. Cases (non respondents, n = 195 and controls (respondents, n = 205 were randomly selected from the satisfaction survey, and information about potential barriers to participation was abstracted in a blinded fashion from the patients' medical and nursing charts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-participation in the satisfaction survey was independently associated with the presence of a language barrier (odds ratio [OR] 4.53, 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 2.14-9.59, substance abuse (OR 3.75, CI95%: 1.97-7.14, cognitive limitations (OR 3.72, CI95%: 1.64-8.42, a psychiatric diagnosis (OR 1.99, CI95%: 1.23-3.23 and a sight deficiency (OR 2.07, CI95%: 0.98-4.36. The odds ratio for non-participation increased gradually with the number of predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Five barriers to non-participation in a mail survey were identified. Gathering patient feedback through mailed surveys may lead to an under-representation of some patient subgroups.

  4. Differences in participation rates and lessons learned about recruitment of participants--the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ahonen, Sanna; Jentoft, Susie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Heldal, Johan

    2015-03-01

    In the 1980s, participation rates in health interview and health examination surveys were around 80% while now they are around 50-60%. There is also evidence that non-participation is selective. Low participation rates and selective non-participation may cause bias to our survey results based on participants alone. We aim to increase knowledge on cultural differences in acceptance and feasibility of different recruitment methods. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project, conducted in 2009-2012, included pilot surveys in 12 countries among people aged 25-64 years. Information about recruitment methods and participation rates in these surveys was collected. Participation rates ranged from 16% to 57% for men and from 31% to 74% for women, where in most surveys women had higher participation rates than men. A variety of recruitment and promotion methods were used to obtain as high participation rates as possible. Combinations of phone calls, invitation letter and home visits were used to recruit invitees. Obtaining valid phone numbers for survey invitees was difficult in several countries. Incentives, websites and promotion in local media were used to promote the surveys. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot surveys showed that obtaining a participation rate above 50% for a representative population sample is possible but it requires hard work and a well-planned recruitment strategy. Recruitment methods used in one country may not be possible to use in another country due to cultural norms and national regulations. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Development of a risk-screening tool for cancer survivors to participate in unsupervised moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise: results from a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Ko, Emily M; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2015-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise increase in dose-response fashion among cancer survivors. However, it is unclear how to identify cancer survivors who may require a pre-exercise evaluation before they progress from the common recommendation of walking to unsupervised moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. To clarify how to identify cancer survivors who should undergo a pre-exercise evaluation before they progress from the common recommendation of walking to unsupervised moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. Electronic survey. Forty-seven (n = 47) experts in the field of exercise physiology, rehabilitation medicine, and cancer survivorship. Not applicable. We synthesized peer-reviewed guidelines for exercise and cancer survivorship and identified 82 health factors that may warrant a pre-exercise evaluation before a survivor engages in unsupervised moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. The 82 health factors were classified into 3 domains: (1) clinical health factors; (2) comorbidity and device health factors; and (3) medications. We surveyed a sample of experts asking them to identify which of the 82 health factors among cancer survivors would indicate the need for a pre-exercise evaluation before they engaged in moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. The response rate to our survey was 75% (n = 47). Across the 3 domains of health factors, acute symptoms, comorbidities, and medications related to cardiovascular disease were agreed on to indicate a pre-exercise evaluation for survivors before they engaged in unsupervised moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. Other health factors in the survey included hematologic, musculoskeletal, systemic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and neurological symptoms and comorbidities. Eighteen experts (38%) said it was difficult to provide absolute answers because no 2 patients are alike, and their decisions are made on a case-by-case basis. The results from this expert survey will help to identify which cancer survivors

  6. Identifying obstacles to participation in a questionnaire survey on widowers' grief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine if Icelandic widowers might foresee obstacles to responding to a questionnaire on bereavement. Also, we sought to compare the proportion of men reporting obstacles in a telephone interview to the actual response rate in the questionnaire survey. Methods The study was part of a nation-wide survey of widowers who lost their wives in 1999, 2000, and 2001. This included all widowers born in Iceland 1924-1969 (aged 30-75 years who were alive, and residing in Iceland at the time of the study. A telephone poll was conducted prior to sending out a questionnaire to determine if the widowers would be interested in responding, or if they could see obstacles, which could affect their willingness to respond to a subsequent questionnaire survey. The telephone poll was repeated five years later with a random sample of the original study base to determine if views initially expressed towards the questionnaire survey, had changed over time. Results Of the 357 eligible widowers, 11 had died prior to the first telephone interview, yielding a study population of 346 widowers. Of those, 296 (86% were reachable and all of these (100% were willing to participate in the telephone survey. Of them, 55% identified obstacles to participation in the questionnaire survey. Men under 60 years were less likely to identify obstacles. Years from loss (second through fourth years were not associated with reporting obstacles to participation. The response rate in the epidemiological questionnaire survey following the telephone interview was 62% (216/346. Of those who did identify obstacles 23%, did not did not identify any particular obstacle, but 33% stated that "they felt bad" or that it would be "a painful experience" or that they felt "uncomfortable" talking about their grief. About 18% stated their grief was "a private matter"; 6% stated that they did not want to be "stuck with their grief"; 9% said that it was "too

  7. Perceptions and experiences of research participants on gender-based violence community based survey: implications for ethical guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandisa Sikweyiya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore how survey respondents perceived their experiences and the impact of participating in a survey, and to assess adverse consequences resulting from participation. DESIGN: Qualitative study involving purposefully selected participants who had participated in a household-based survey. METHODS: This qualitative study was nested within a survey that investigated the prevalence of gender-based violence perpetration and victimization with adult men and women in South Africa. 13 male- and 10 female-in-depth interviews were conducted with survey respondents. RESULTS: A majority of informants, without gender-differences, perceived the survey interview as a rare opportunity to share their adverse and or personal experiences in a 'safe' space. Gender-differences were noted in reporting perceptions of risks involved with survey participation. Some women remained fearful after completing the survey, that should breach of confidentiality or full survey content disclosure occur, they may be victimized by partners as a punishment for survey participation without men's approval. A number of informants generally discussed their survey participation with others. However, among women with interpersonal violence history or currently in abusive relationships, full survey content disclosure was done with fear; the partner responses were negative, and few women reported receiving threatening remarks but none reported being assaulted. In contrast no man reported adverse reaction by others. Informants with major life adversities reported that the survey had made them to relive the experiences causing them sadness and pain at the time. No informant perceived the survey as emotionally harmful or needed professional support because of survey questions. Rather the vast majority perceived benefit from survey participation. CONCLUSION: Whilst no informant felt answering the survey questions had caused them emotional or physical harm, some were distressed

  8. Barriers to school sport participation: A survey among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to determine factors affecting sport participation among 197 (103 females and 94 males) students aged 15–18 years (mean age: 16.5 years; s = 0.8 years) who were drawn from three secondary schools in Pretoria, South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.

  9. A survey on the participation of optometric practices in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optometric services are well integrated in health insurance programs in the developed world. This study was designed to assess the level of participation of optometric practices in health insurance systems in Nigeria. By convenience, 40 optometric practices in the country were interviewed directly, or by telephone or email ...

  10. Factors associated with self-reported HBV vaccination among HIV-negative MSM participating in an online sexual health survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Matthews

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States remain unvaccinated against hepatitis B. We sought to understand which factors are associated with vaccination among HIV-negative MSM.Data were from a 2010 web-based survey of adult MSM. We calculated the prevalence of self-reported hepatitis B vaccination among 1,052 HIV-negative or HIV-untested men who knew their hepatitis B vaccination status, and used multivariate logistic regression to determine associated factors. 679 (64.5% MSM reported being vaccinated. Younger men were more likely to report being vaccinated than older men, and there was a significant interaction between age and history of hepatitis B testing. Men with at least some college education were at least 2.1 times as likely to be vaccinated as men with a high school education or less (95% CI = 1.4-3.1. Provider recommendation for vaccination (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.4-7.4 was also significantly associated with receipt of vaccination.Providers should assess sexual histories of male patients and offer those patients with male sex partners testing for hepatitis infection and vaccinate susceptible patients. There may be particular opportunities for screening and vaccination among older and more socioeconomically disadvantaged MSM.

  11. Identifying Barriers to Study Abroad Program Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    University administrators, industry professionals, and government leaders encourage college students to participate in study abroad programs. Despite an increase in the number of students going abroad, the percentage of students participating in global programs remain low. This study identified barriers to study abroad program participation at a…

  12. A follow-up study on removable partial dentures in undergraduate program: part I. participants and denture use by telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Eiko; Fueki, Kenji; Igarashi, Yoshimasa

    2011-07-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of removable partial dentures (RPDs) designed to minimize denture mobility during function. Using archived files of the undergraduate program between 2003 and 2005 at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, a list of 169 patients treated with 184 RPDs was created. The RPDs had either an acrylic resin-base or a cobalt-chrome framework-base. Two examiners telephoned all the listed patients and interviewed 118 patients (70%) regarding the use of their RPDs. Of 118 patients, 42 (36%) had stopped using, mainly due to problems with abutment teeth in resin-based dentures, and replacement in cobalt-chrome-based dentures. There was no significant difference in mean age, gender distribution, mean number of remaining/abutment teeth, distribution of denture arch, and Kennedy classification between denture use and nonuse groups (p>0.05). The nonuse group showed a significantly higher percentage of resin-base compared to the use group (p = 0.006). Logistic regression analysis indicated that resin-base was a significant risk factor for nonuse (p = 0.008). The present findings suggest that abutment teeth should be selected carefully, especially in this type of resin-based RPDs, and that the denture base material may be a critical factor which determines denture use.

  13. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the 'new ParticipACTION': A quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauman Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity (PA communications and social marketing organization that was relaunched in 2007 after a six-year hiatus. This study assesses the baseline awareness and capacity of Canadian organizations that promote physical activity, to adopt, implement and promote ParticipACTION's physical activity campaign. The three objectives were: (1 to determine organizational awareness of both the 'original' and 'new' ParticipACTION; (2 to report baseline levels of three organizational capacity domains (i.e., to adopt, implement and externally promote physical activity initiatives; and, (3 to explore potential differences in those domains based on organizational size, sector and primary mandate. Methods Organizations at local, provincial/territorial, and national levels were sent an invitation via email prior to the official launch of ParticipACTION to complete an on-line survey. The survey assessed their organization's capacity to adopt, implement and externally promote a new physical activity campaign within their organizational mandates. Descriptive statistics were employed to address the first two study objectives. A series of one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine the third objective. Results The response rate was 29.7% (268/902. The majority of responding organizations had over 40 employees and had operated for over 10 years. Education was the most common primary mandate, followed by sport and recreation. Organizations were evenly distributed between government and not-for-profits. Approximately 96% of respondents had heard of the 'original' ParticipACTION while 54.6% had heard of the 'new' ParticipACTION (Objective 1. Findings indicate good organizational capacity in Canada to promote physical activity (Objective 2 based on reported means of approximately 4.0 (on 5-point scales for capacity to adopt, implement, and externally promote new physical activity campaigns. Capacity to

  14. Understanding Why Students Participate in Multiple Surveys: Who are the Hard-Core Responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at survey response across multiple surveys to understand who the hard-core survey responders and non-responders are. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use the number of surveys…

  15. [Participation of migrants in health surveys conducted by telephone: potential and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, L; Neuhauser, H

    2005-10-01

    Migrants living in Germany are a both large and vulnerable population subgroup. They are not easily induced to participate in health surveys, Hence, achieving high participation rates of migrants in health surveys and avoiding selection bias is a difficult task. In this study, we report on the participation of migrants in the German National Health Telephone Survey 2003 (GSTel03), the first comprehensive national health survey conducted by telephone in Germany. Three migrant groups were identified: individuals with non-German citizenship (foreigners), naturalized migrants, and ethnic German immigrants (Spätaussiedler). The aim of this study is to evaluate the degree to which the GSTel03 subsample of foreigners is representative for foreigners living in Germany. We compare the prevalence of sociodemographic characteristics and selected health indicators of foreigners in the GNTel03 subsample with prevalences from national statistics and from a large national household survey ("Mikrozensus 2003"). The proportion of participants with non-German nationality in the overall GSTel03 sample was significantly lower than the proportion of foreigners in the residential population in Germany (3.7 % vs. 8.9 %). While there was no evidence of selection bias with regard to age and sex distribution, we found significant differences with regard to other factors, including nationality, length of stay in Germany, unemployment rate and education. The comparison of health indicators showed only moderate differences between GSTel03 sample and "Mikrozensus" results. However, these differences did not consistently point to a better or worse health status in the GSTel03 sample of foreigners and should therefore not be generalised in respect of other health indicators. Our study emphasises the importance of a continuous effort to improve migrant participation in health studies and of a thorough analysis of selection bias when interpreting results.

  16. School Administrators Skills in Organizing the Parent Participation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albez, Canan; Ada, Sükrü

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain administrator, teacher and parent opinions on the level of school administrators' skills of organising parent participation efforts. The study group of the study conducted according to the descriptive survey model using the quantitative method consists of 273 school administrators, 916 teachers and 395…

  17. Gender Influences on Students' Study Abroad Participation and Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Amanda; Cook, Trevor; Miller, Emily; LePeau, Lucy A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of gender in study abroad participation rates and intercultural competence. The researchers aimed to identify the differences in intercultural competence between men and women and those who have and have not studied abroad. A mixed methods survey indicated there are significant…

  18. Choir of believers? Longitudinal evidence on public service motivation and survey participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; De Lorent Gad, Mette; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    the methodological critique of survey participation bias raised against the public service motivation literature and examines whether public service motivation increases the propensity to respond to surveys. By tracking more than 3,000 public service providers’ participation in a three-wave panel survey, our...

  19. 75 FR 78225 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Minority-Owned Business Participation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Minority Business Development Agency Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Minority-Owned Business Participation, Opportunities and Barriers to Global Commerce AGENCY: Minority Business... global commerce. The survey will provide valuable information on the markets minority businesses are...

  20. Sport participation and subjective well-being: instrumental variable results from German survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruseski, Jane E; Humphreys, Brad R; Hallman, Kirstin; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    A major policy goal of many ministries of sport and health is increased participation in sport to promote health. A growing literature is emerging about the benefits of sport participation on happiness. A challenge in establishing a link between sport participation and happiness is controlling for endogeneity of sport participation in the happiness equation. This study seeks to establish causal evidence of a relationship between sport participation and self reported happiness using instrumental variables (IV). IV estimates based on data from a 2009 population survey living in Rheinberg, Germany indicate that individuals who participate in sport have higher life happiness. The results suggest a U-shaped relationship between age and self-reported happiness. Higher income is associated with greater self-reported happiness, males are less happy than females, and single individuals are less happy than nonsingles. Since the results are IV, this finding is interpreted as a causal relationship between sport participation and subjective well-being (SWB). This broader impact of sport participation on general happiness lends support to the policy priority of many governments to increase sport participation at all levels of the general population.

  1. [Participation and representation of the immigrant population in the Spanish National Health Survey 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rábago, Yolanda; La Parra, Daniel; Martín, Unai; Malmusi, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Population health surveys have been the main data source for analysis of immigrants' health status in Spain. The aim of this study was to analyze the representation of this population in the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012. We analyzed methodological publications and data from the SNHS 2011-2012 and the population registry. Differences in the participation rate between the national and foreign populations and the causes for these differences were analyzed, as well as the representation of 11 countries of birth in the survey with respect to the general population, with and without weighting. Households with any foreign person had a lower participation rate, either due to a higher error in the sampling frame or to a higher non-response rate. In each country of birth, the sample was smaller than would be expected according to the population registry, especially among the Chinese population. When we applied the sample weights to the 11 countries of birth, the estimated population volume was closer to the estimated volume of the population registry for all the countries considered, although globally both the underrepresentation and the intranational bias remained. The lower participation of the immigrant population and differences in participation depending on the country of origin suggest the existence of a potential bias in the SNHS, which should be taken into account in studies analyzing the health of this population. The lower participation rate should be studied in greater depth in order to take appropriate measures to increase the representativeness of health surveys. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of refusal to participate: a longitudinal health survey of the elderly in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of participants in longitudinal studies due to non-contact, refusal or death can introduce bias into the results of such studies. The study described here examines reasons for refusal over three waves of a survey of persons aged ≥ 70 years. Methods In a longitudinal study involving three waves, participants were compared to those who refused to participate but allowed an informant to be interviewed and to those who refused any participation. Results At Wave 1 both groups of Wave 2 non-participants had reported lower occupational status and fewer years of education, had achieved lower verbal IQ scores and cognitive performance scores and experienced some distress from the interview. Those with an informant interview only were in poorer physical health than those who participated and those who refused. Depression and anxiety symptoms were not associated with non-participation. Multivariate analyses found that verbal IQ and cognitive impairment predicted refusal. Results were very similar for refusers at both Waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Longitudinal studies of the elderly may over estimate cognitive performance because of the greater refusal rate of those with poorer performance. However, there is no evidence of bias with respect to anxiety or depression.

  3. Participant Retention in a Longitudinal National Telephone Survey of African American Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Le, Daisy; Calvanelli, Joe; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M; Roth, David L; Williams, Beverly; Schulz, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe participant demographic factors related to retention, and to report on retention strategies in a national study of African Americans re-contacted 2.5 years after an initial baseline telephone interview. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study was originally developed as a cross-sectional telephone survey to examine relationships between religious involvement and health-related factors in a national sample of African Americans. The cohort was re-contacted on average of 2.5 years later for a follow-up interview. RHIAA participants were 2,803 African American men (1,202) and women (1,601). RHIAA used retention strategies consistent with recommendations from Hunt and White. Participants also received a lay summary of project findings. Retention at the follow-up interview. Retention rates ranged from 39%- 41%. Retained participants tended to be older and female. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, retained participants were more educated, single, and in better health status than those not retained. There was no difference in religious involvement in adjusted analyses. Although overall retention rates are lower than comparable longitudinal studies, RHIAA was not originally designed as a longitudinal study and so lacked a number of structures associated with long-term studies. However, this project illustrates the feasibility of conducting lengthy cold call telephone interviews with an African American population and helps to identify some participant factors related to retention and study strategies that may aid in retention.

  4. Correlates of Individual Versus Joint Participation in Online Survey Research with Same-Sex Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Millar, Brett M; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based surveys are commonly utilized as a cost-effective mechanism for data collection in social and health psychology research. Little is known about the differences between partnered gay men who participate alone compared to those with partners who also agree to participate. A sample of 260 partnered gay/bisexual men from New York City completed an online survey covering demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, substance use, and relationship satisfaction. Upon completion, they had the option to send the study link to their partner. In total, 104 (40 %) participants successfully recruited their partners, 90 (34.6 %) were unsuccessful, and 66 (25.4 %) declined the option to refer their partners. Men who did not refer their partners were significantly older, in relationships longer, and reported higher personal income. Participants who successfully recruited partners reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction. While generalizability is limited given the diversity of methodological factors that influence research participation, these data provide an initial insight into the effects on sample composition imposed by the implementation of dyadic (vs. unpaired) designs in online studies.

  5. A Survey of Teen Museum Education Participants and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Jenny; Bobick, Bryna

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss a museum program for teens located in an urban environment. The participants were high school students from public, private, religious and home schools. The program allowed learning to occur in an informal setting and united teens from one city through a common interest in visual art. Also, it was an opportunity for the…

  6. Association of Gly972Arg polymorphism of IRS1 gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus in lean participants of a national health survey in Mexico: a candidate gene study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguete-Garcia, Ana I; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Cortina, Bernardo; Gómez, Rosa E; Velasco-Mondragón, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a main public health problem in the Mexican population. It is characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and a relative deficiency in the pancreatic beta-cell functions. Diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IRS1 gene have been associated with insulin resistance and T2D risk. The aim of this study was to identify the association between known IRS1 polymorphisms (Pro512Ala, Asn1137Asp, Gly972Arg, and Arg158Pro) in a sample of diabetic patients compared with healthy controls selected from Mexico's 2000 National Health Survey, both with normal body mass index (BMI). We identified 444 diabetes cases that were age matched with the same number of controls. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were evaluated, and conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the SNPs and diabetes risk. Of the 4 SNPs studied, only Gly972Arg showed significant differences between cases and controls, with allele frequency of 2.6% in controls as compared with 7.9% in cases. Subjects with at least 1 copy of the Gly972Arg polymorphism of the IRS1 gene showed a greater risk for diabetes, with a crude odds ratio of 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 2.00-5.33); after adjusting for BMI, age, family history of T2D, and sex, the odds ratio was 2.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.73-4.90). Our results suggest the participation of Gly972Arg polymorphism of IRS1 in the genetic susceptibility to TD2 in Mexican population. The restriction of including only participants with normal BMI might increase the power to detect genetic determinants of T2D.

  7. Using social media to improve continuing medical education: a survey of course participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Amy T; Sandhu, Nicole P; Wittich, Christopher M; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Beckman, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    To determine continuing medical education (CME) course participants' use of social media (SM) and their attitudes about the value of SM for enhancing CME education and to examine associations between participants' characteristics and attitudes toward SM. We conducted a cross-sectional survey and validation study of 539 participants at a Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine CME course in November 2011. The Social Media Use and Perception Instrument (SMUPI) consisted of 10 items (5-point Likert scales) and categorical response options. The main outcome measures were psychometric characteristics of the SMUPI scale, course participants' use of SM, and their attitudes regarding the importance of SM for enhancing CME. Of 539 CME course participants, 327 (61%) responded to the SMUPI survey. Most respondents (291 [89%]) reported using SM, with the most common types being YouTube (189 of the 327 participants [58%]) and Facebook (163 of 327 [50%]). Factor analysis revealed a 2-dimensional assessment of course participants' attitudes. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach α) was excellent for factor 1 (0.94), factor 2 (0.89), and overall (0.94). The CME course participants' favorable attitudes toward SM were associated with younger age (20-29 years, mean score 3.13; 30-39 years, 3.40; 40-49 years, 3.39; 50-59 years, 3.18; 60-69 years, 2.93; and ≥70 years, 2.92; P=.02), using SM frequently (never, mean score 2.49; less than once monthly, 2.75; once monthly, 3.21; weekly, 3.31; and daily, 3.81; PEducation and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Participating on Equal Terms? The Gender Dimensions of Direct Participation in Organisational Change: Findings from the EPOC Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Annette; Webster, Juliet

    The gender dimensions of direct participation in organizational change were examined in a survey of general managers at 32,582 workplaces in the following European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Responses were received from 5,786 managers (response rate,…

  9. Sample selection, recruitment and participation rates in health examination surveys in Europe--experience from seven national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Giampaoli, Simona; Goesswald, Antje; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Mann, Charlotte; Männistö, Satu; Morgan, Karen; Shelton, Nicola J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Tolonen, Hanna

    2015-10-05

    Health examination surveys (HESs), carried out in Europe since the 1950's, provide valuable information about the general population's health for health monitoring, policy making, and research. Survey participation rates, important for representativeness, have been falling. International comparisons are hampered by differing exclusion criteria and definitions for non-response. Information was collected about seven national HESs in Europe conducted in 2007-2012. These surveys can be classified into household and individual-based surveys, depending on the sampling frames used. Participation rates of randomly selected adult samples were calculated for four survey modules using standardised definitions and compared by sex, age-group, geographical areas within countries, and over time, where possible. All surveys covered residents not just citizens; three countries excluded those in institutions. In two surveys, physical examinations and blood sample collection were conducted at the participants' home; the others occurred at examination clinics. Recruitment processes varied considerably between surveys. Monetary incentives were used in four surveys. Initial participation rates aged 35-64 were 45% in the Netherlands (phase II), 54% in Germany (new and previous participants combined), 55% in Italy, and 65% in Finland. In Ireland, England and Scotland, household participation rates were 66%, 66% and 63% respectively. Participation rates were generally higher in women and increased with age. Almost all participants attending an examination centre agreed to all modules but surveys conducted in the participants' home had falling responses to each stage. Participation rates in most primate cities were substantially lower than the national average. Age-standardized response rates to blood pressure measurement among those aged 35-64 in Finland, Germany and England fell by 0.7-1.5 percentage points p.a. between 1998-2002 and 2010-2012. Longer trends in some countries show a more

  10. Forest Landowner Education Interests and Delivery Preferences: A Retrospective Look at Survey Results and Actual Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Kevin W.; Rozance, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article presents survey data on education interests and delivery preferences of small forest landowners in Washington and compares it to actual program participation over 6 years. The survey was conducted in late 2007 to guide development and implementation of a Extension forestry program. The survey found broad interest across many topics…

  11. Do people with risky behaviours participate in biomedical cohort studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis was undertaken on data from randomly selected participants of a bio-medical cohort study to assess representativeness. The research hypotheses was that there was no difference in participation and non-participations in terms of health-related indicators (smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, physical activity, blood pressure and cholesterol readings and overall health status and selected socio-demographics (age, sex, area of residence, education level, marital status and work status. Methods Randomly selected adults were recruited into a bio-medical representative cohort study based in the north western suburbs of the capital of South Australia – Adealide. Comparison data was obtained from cross-sectional surveys of randomly selected adults in the same age range and in the same region. The cohort participants were 4060 randomly selected adults (18+ years. Results There were no major differences between study participants and the comparison population in terms of current smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, overall health status and proportions with current high blood pressure and cholesterol readings. Significantly more people who reported a medium to very high alcohol risk participated in the study. There were some demographic differences with study participants more likely to be in the middle level of household income and education level. Conclusion People with risky behaviours participated in this health study in the same proportions as people without these risk factors.

  12. Groundwater studies: principal aquifer surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop nationally consistent long-term datasets and provide information about the quality of the Nation’s streams and groundwater. The USGS uses objective and reliable data, water-quality models, and systematic scientific studies to assess current water-quality conditions, to identify changes in water quality over time, and to determine how natural factors and human activities affect the quality of streams and groundwater. NAWQA is the only non-regulatory Federal program to perform these types of studies; participation is voluntary. In the third decade (Cycle 3) of the NAWQA program (2013–2023), the USGS will evaluate the quality and availability of groundwater for drinking supply, improve our understanding of where and why water quality is degraded, and assess how groundwater quality could respond to changes in climate and land use. These goals will be addressed through the implementation of a new monitoring component in Cycle 3: Principal Aquifer Surveys.

  13. Increasing health examination survey participation rates by SMS reminders and flexible examination times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Aistrich, Anna; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Declining participation rates are an increasing problem in population surveys. Different kinds of methods have been used to ensure participation rates as high as possible. Monetary incentives and reminders have been found to be effective ways to increase participation rates, but these are rather expensive to implement in large population surveys. There is a need for cheaper ways to motivate survey invitees to participate. The Kuusamo Health Examination Survey was conducted in May-June 2011. A random sample of 250 people was selected for the survey. Mobile phone numbers, when available, were obtained for people within the sample. For a random sample of 50% of survey invitees with a mobile phone number, a short message service (SMS) reminder was sent prior to their appointment. All survey participants were asked to fill in a feedback questionnaire. Participation rate was 58% for men and 74% for women. Mobile phone numbers were available for 66% of the sample. Among those receiving an SMS reminder about their appointment, participation rates were up to 25 percentage points higher than among the group not receiving a reminder. In the feedback questionnaire, 9% of the survey participants reported that they would not have participated without the SMS reminder they received. Participants preferred morning hours and Monday-Tuesday as time and day options for the examinations. SMS reminder about the appointment time was an effective way to increase participation rate, especially among the youngest age groups also, providing flexible office hours for the examination clinic may increase participation rate. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Modeling participation duration, with application to the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William; Sauer, John

    2014-01-01

    We consider “participation histories,” binary sequences consisting of alternating finite sequences of 1s and 0s, ending with an infinite sequence of 0s. Our work is motivated by a study of observer tenure in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). In our analysis, j indexes an observer’s years of service and Xj is an indicator of participation in the survey; 0s interspersed among 1s correspond to years when observers did not participate, but subsequently returned to service. Of interest is the observer’s duration D = max {j: Xj = 1}. Because observed records X = (X1, X2,..., Xn)1 are of finite length, all that we can directly infer about duration is that D ⩾ max {j ⩽n: Xj = 1}; model-based analysis is required for inference about D. We propose models in which lengths of 0s and 1s sequences have distributions determined by the index j at which they begin; 0s sequences are infinite with positive probability, an estimable parameter. We found that BBS observers’ lengths of service vary greatly, with 25.3% participating for only a single year, 49.5% serving for 4 or fewer years, and an average duration of 8.7 years, producing an average of 7.7 counts.

  15. Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Does Gender Influence Online Survey Participation? A Record-Linkage Analysis of University Faculty Online Survey Response Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between online survey non-response and various demographic factors, including gender. Studies have shown that trends exist with regard to who responds to surveys, at least with regard to traditional modes of survey administration. Reports suggest that many demographic and other correlates…

  17. Participation in introductory biology laboratories: An integrated assessment based on surveys, behavioral observations, and qualitative interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Connie Adelle

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, major, and prior knowledge of and attitude toward biology on participation in introductory biology laboratories. Subjects for this study were 3,527 students enrolled in college-level introductory biology courses. During the study, three introductory courses were replaced with one mixed-majors course. The new course adopted a different pedagological approach from the previous courses in that an inquiry-based approach was used in lectures and laboratories. All subjects completed a survey that measured content knowledge using the NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination Version 1990 and attitude using Russell and Hollander's Biology Attitude Scale. I used and discuss the merits of using ethological methods and data collection software, EthoScribeTM (Tima Scientific) to collect behavioral data from 145 students. I also evaluated participation using qualitative interviews of 30 students. I analyzed content knowledge and attitude data using ANOVA and Pearson correlation, and behavioral data using Contingency Table Analysis. I analyzed interviews following methods outlined by Rubin and Rubin. Findings. Course style and gender were the most useful variables in distinguishing differences among groups of students with regard to attitude, content knowledge, and participation in laboratories. Attitude toward biology and achievement measured by the surveys were found to be positively correlated; however, gender, major, class standing, course style and interactions between these variables also had effects on these variables. I found a positive association among attitude, achievement and participation in hands-on activities in laboratories. Differences in participation also were associated group type. In a traditional introductory biology course, females in single-gender groups, gender-equal, or groups in which females were the majority spent more time performing hands-on science

  18. What is a non-user? An analysis of Danish surveys on cultural habits and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Gitte; Kann-Christensen, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses surveys of cultural participation and discusses how they convey certain concepts of users and culture. The article aims to develop a more nuanced and contemporary picture of cultural participation and notions of the non-user. The article shows a shift in how the user is const...

  19. Evaluating respondent-driven sampling in a major metropolitan area: Comparing injection drug users in the 2005 Seattle area National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system survey with participants in the RAVEN and Kiwi Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Richard D.; Hagan, Holly; Sabin, Keith; Thiede, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To empirically evaluate Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) recruitment methods, which have been proposed as an advantageous means of surveying hidden populations. Methods The National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system used RDS to recruit 370 IDU in the Seattle area in 2005 (NHBS-IDU1). We compared the NHBS-IDU1 estimates of participants’ area of residence, age, race, sex and drug most frequently injected to corresponding data from two previous surveys, RAVEN and Kiwi, and to persons newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and reported 2001–2005. Results The NHBS-IDU1 population was estimated to be more likely to reside in downtown Seattle (52%) than participants in the other data sources (22%–25%), be over 50 years old (29% vs. 5%–10%) and report multiple races (12% vs. 3%–5%). The NHBS-IDU1 population resembled persons using the downtown needle exchange in age and race distribution. An examination of cross-group recruitment frequencies in NHBS-IDU1 suggested barriers to recruitment across different areas of residence, races and drugs most frequently injected. Conclusions The substantial differences in age and area of residence between NHBS-IDU1 and the other data sources suggest that RDS may not have accessed the full universe of Seattle area injection networks. Further empirical data is needed to guide the evaluation of RDS-generated samples. PMID:20123167

  20. Participant recruitment in sensitive surveys: a comparative trial of ‘opt in’ versus ‘opt out’ approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Katherine J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although in health services survey research we strive for a high response rate, this must be balanced against the need to recruit participants ethically and considerately, particularly in surveys with a sensitive nature. In survey research there are no established recommendations to guide recruitment approach and an ‘opt-in’ system that requires potential participants to request a copy of the questionnaire by returning a reply slip is frequently adopted. However, in observational research the risk to participants is lower than in clinical research and so some surveys have used an ‘opt-out’ system. The effect of this approach on response and distress is unknown. We sought to investigate this in a survey of end of life care completed by bereaved relatives. Methods Out of a sample of 1422 bereaved relatives we assigned potential participants to one of two study groups: an ‘opt in’ group (n=711 where a letter of invitation was issued with a reply slip to request a copy of the questionnaire; or an ‘opt out’ group (n=711 where the survey questionnaire was provided alongside the invitation letter. We assessed response and distress between groups. Results From a sample of 1422, 473 participants returned questionnaires. Response was higher in the ‘opt out’ group than in the ‘opt in’ group (40% compared to 26.4%: χ2 =29.79, p-value2=28.60, p-value Conclusion Given that the ‘opt out’ method of recruitment is associated with a higher response than the ‘opt in’ method, seems to have no impact on complaints or distress about the survey, and there are differences in the patterns of responses between groups, the ‘opt out’ method could be recommended as the most efficient way to recruit into surveys, even in those with a sensitive nature.

  1. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  2. Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: development and validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of Experts on Climate Change Awareness and Public Participation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold Kuhn; Freie Universität Berlin; Yangyong Zhang; Xiamen University

    2014-01-01

    "Climate protection issues are receiving more attention in China. Responding to this survey, 133 environmental and climate protection experts indicated that the government is a key factor in raising awareness of climate protection in China. Experts participating in the survey also referred to the role of the media - in particular social media - NGOs and educational institutions in spreading climate protection awareness. Additionally, interviews were carried out with 40 of the experts, who wer...

  4. Public Participation in Classical Ballet: A Special Analysis of the Ballet Data Collected in the 1982 and 1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Carol

    The 1982 and 1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) produced a national audience profile for classical ballet and explored factors that predispose participation in this art form. This monograph analyzed data from these surveys in terms of: (1) audience size and composition for live ballet performances; (2) television's role in…

  5. [Evaluation of an established course of hospital management through structured telephone survey of former participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, I H; Schubert, H M; Lirk, P; Moser, P L; Hohlrieder, M; Schlimp, C; Hackl, J M; Kolbitsch, C

    2003-05-01

    Participation in courses for health and hospital management is increasingly becoming a conditio sine qua non for candidates for executive positions in the health professions. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate the two-semester university course for health and hospital management offered by the University of Innsbruck since 1994. A structured telephone survey was conducted to poll the participants (n = 184) of previous courses concerning time invested, cost-benefit ratio, quality of the course as well as implementation of course content. The university courses (n = 7) for health and hospital management of the University of Innsbruck evaluated in this study were rated in the upper half of the of the five-part scale (scores 2 to 3) for overall quality, cost-benefit ratio and implementation of course content. Only approx. 25 % of the course participants reported that the course had a positive influence on their career. The relatively high course fee was borne in part by the local hospital operator, a fact that had a certain influence on the selection of course participants. Participation in the course was largely made possible by exemptions from job duties (approx. 75 %) and to a lesser extent by vacation time (approx. 20 %) or time off for overtime (approx. 5 %). Of total absences from the course (3.18 +/- 3.41 d) 75 % was for job-related reasons, 6 % for illness and 19 % for other reasons. Overall, participants were absent more often, the larger the number of personnel in their department or clinic. All in all, the courses were considered important and recommendable, particularly with regard to communication, organization, time management and cost awareness. Streamlining (i. e. more content in less time), stronger practical orientation and a switch from mainly local to more international speakers would be important steps toward improving course quality. Thanks to its demonstrated quality, it can be said that the university course for health and hospital

  6. Practices of Parental Participation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    The nature of parental participation in children's education is changing rapidly. A growing body of research points to the positive effect that parental involvement has on outcomes of schooling and on children's well-being. This paper examines parental participation practices in terms of parents working together with a range of professionals,…

  7. Participants' preference for type of leaflet used to feed back the results of a randomised trial: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Stephen; Andronis, Lazaros; Dennis, Laura; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona; Gillan, Maureen; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian; Wilkinson, Clare

    2010-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of volunteers take part in medical research, but many will never hear from researchers about what the study revealed. There is a growing demand for the results of randomised trials to be fed back to research participants both for ethical research practice and for ensuring their co-operation in a trial. This study aims to determine participants' preferences for type of leaflet (short versus long) used to summarise the findings of a randomised trial; and to test whether certain characteristics explained participants' preferences. 553 participants in a randomised trial about General Practitioners' access to Magnetic Resonance Imaging for patients presenting with suspected internal derangement of the knee were asked in the final follow-up questionnaire whether they would like to be fed back the results of the trial. Participants who agreed to this were included in a postal questionnaire survey asking about their preference, if any, between a short and a long leaflet and what it was about the leaflet that they preferred. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test whether certain demographics of responding participants along with treatment group explained whether a participant had a preference for type of leaflet or no preference. Of the participants who returned the final follow-up questionnaire, 416 (88%) agreed to receive the results of the trial. Subsequently 132 (32%) participants responded to the survey. Most participants preferred the longer leaflet (55%) and the main reasons for this were the use of technical information (94%) and diagrams (89%). There was weak evidence to suggest that gender might explain whether participants have a preference for type of leaflet or not (P = 0.084). Trial participants want to receive feed back about the results and appear to prefer a longer leaflet. Males and females might require information to be communicated to them differently and should be the focus of further research. The trial is registered

  8. Random sample community-based health surveys: does the effort to reach participants matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuna, Juan M

    2014-12-15

    Conducting health surveys with community-based random samples are essential to capture an otherwise unreachable population, but these surveys can be biased if the effort to reach participants is insufficient. This study determines the desirable amount of effort to minimise such bias. A household-based health survey with random sampling and face-to-face interviews. Up to 11 visits, organised by canvassing rounds, were made to obtain an interview. Single-family homes in an underserved and understudied population in North Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Of a probabilistic sample of 2200 household addresses, 30 corresponded to empty lots, 74 were abandoned houses, 625 households declined to participate and 265 could not be reached and interviewed within 11 attempts. Analyses were performed on the 1206 remaining households. Each household was asked if any of their members had been told by a doctor that they had high blood pressure, heart disease including heart attack, cancer, diabetes, anxiety/ depression, obesity or asthma. Responses to these questions were analysed by the number of visit attempts needed to obtain the interview. Return per visit fell below 10% after four attempts, below 5% after six attempts and below 2% after eight attempts. As the effort increased, household size decreased, while household income and the percentage of interviewees active and employed increased; proportion of the seven health conditions decreased, four of which did so significantly: heart disease 20.4-9.2%, high blood pressure 63.5-58.1%, anxiety/depression 24.4-9.2% and obesity 21.8-12.6%. Beyond the fifth attempt, however, cumulative percentages varied by less than 1% and precision varied by less than 0.1%. In spite of the early and steep drop, sustaining at least five attempts to reach participants is necessary to reduce selection bias. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Can smartphones measure momentary quality of life and participation? A proof of concept using experience sampling surveys with university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jacki; Wishink, Anna; Springfield, Liz; Gustafsson, Louise; Ireland, David; Silburn, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Understanding quality of life and participation is a key aspect of occupational therapy research. The use of smartphones to deliver experience-sampling surveys may provide an accessible way to monitor these outcomes. This study used smartphone-based experience sampling methods (ESM) to investigate factors influencing momentary quality of life (mQOL) of university students. A convenience sample of students at an Australian university participated. Using a custom smartphone application, ESM surveys were sent six to eight times, every second day, over a week. Participants indicated their mQOL, occupational participation, occupational enjoyment, social context and location via surveys and provided demographic and health information in a single self-report questionnaire. The relationship between mQOL and variables was analysed at the survey level using logistic regression. Forty students completed 391 surveys. Higher mQOL was significantly related to participation in productive occupations (z = 3.48; P = 0.001), moderate (z = 4.00; P < 0.001) or high occupational enjoyment (z = 7.06; P < 0.001), being with someone (z = 2.15, P = 0.031), being at home (z = 2.49; P = 0.013) and an excellent self-rated health status (z = 2.35; P = 0.019). The magnitude of differences in mQOL was small. This study suggests that mQOL amongst university students relates to personal, environmental and occupational factors. The use of smartphone-based ESM appears to be a practical approach for investigating participation and QOL. Further research utilising a more diverse sample, analysing at the individual level, and using ESM in conjunction with other methodologies is recommended. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Nurses' participation in audit: a regional study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheater, F. M.; Keane, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To find out to what extent nurses were perceived to be participating in audit, to identify factors thought to impede their involvement, and to assess progress towards multidisciplinary audit. RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative. METHODS: Focus groups and interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs of audit groups and audit support staff in hospital, community and primary health care and audit leads in health authorities in the North West Region. RESULTS: In total 99 audit le...

  11. Characteristics of students participating in collegiate recovery programs: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B; Harris, Kitty; Kimball, Thomas; Winters, Ken C; Moberg, D Paul

    2015-04-01

    Relapse rates are high among individuals with substance use disorders (SUD), and for young people pursuing a college education, the high rates of substance use on campus can jeopardize recovery. Collegiate Recovery Programs (CRPs) are an innovative campus-based model of recovery support that is gaining popularity but remains under-investigated. This study reports on the first nationwide survey of CRP-enrolled students (N = 486 from 29 different CRPs). Using an online survey, we collected information on background, SUD and recovery history, and current functioning. Most students (43% females, mean age =26) had used multiple substances, had high levels of SUD severity, high rates of treatment and 12-step participation. Fully 40% smoke. Many reported criminal justice involvement and periods of homelessness. Notably, many reported being in recovery from, and currently engaging in multiple behavioral addictions-e.g., eating disorders, and sex and love addiction. Findings highlight the high rates of co-occurring addictions in this under-examined population and underline the need for treatment, recovery support programs and college health services to provide integrated support for mental health and behavioral addictions to SUD--affected young people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Habitat use and abundance of goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara in Brazil: a participative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius J. Giglio

    Full Text Available Developing survey strategies for threatened species is often limited by access to sufficient individuals to acquire information needed to design appropriate conservation measures. The goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara is a large reef fish, globally classified as critically endangered. In Brazil, fishing has been prohibited since 2002. Herein we investigated habitat use and abundance of E. itajara in Brazil drawn from a participative survey, which engaged volunteer divers in data-collection. A total of 188 reports were recorded between 2005 to 2011 throughout 13 Brazilian states. Our results revealed that habitat type influenced the relationship between total length and depth of occurrence of E. itajara. We observed a significant difference between habitats, artificial presented a nonlinear and natural an asymptotic relationship. This study underscores the importance of developing conservation measures addressing specific habitats and locations to enhance population recovery. Artificial structures (shipwrecks and manmade reefs are critical habitats that must be considered as highly sensitive areas to E. itajara strategic conservation policies. We suggest the creation and implementation of marine protected areas, as key strategies for E. itajaraconservation, especially for artificial habitats and aggregation sites.

  13. The Non-Participation Survey: Understanding Why High School Students Choose Not to Eat School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this project was to develop and validate a survey that will enable school nutrition (SN) directors and managers to identify and address issues affecting the non-participation of high school students in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Methods: The research was conducted in two phases. Qualitative data…

  14. Characterization of injuries during hardcourt bike polo participation: a descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Maureen Y; Laker, Scott R; Vincent, Heather K

    2011-06-01

    To describe injury rates and patterns in the emerging sport of hardcourt bike polo (HBP). Descriptive survey. HBP playing areas (urban flat concrete surfaces). Twenty-two adult (≥18 years) HBP players who presented to a routine thrice-weekly playing site completed the survey. Participants completed a survey that was used to evaluate demographics; frequency of play; rate, localization, and severity of injuries sustained in the past 1 year; and use of medical care. The incidence of sustaining an injury in 1 year was 0.86. The main sites of injury involved the knee, elbow, wrist, and hand. Medical attention was sought by 15% of the injured players. HBP is a rapidly evolving urban sport in which participants are at risk for trauma-related injury, some of which may be preventable by the addition of appropriate safety equipment. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspectives on marijuana use and effectiveness: A survey of NARCOMS participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofield, Stacey S; Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Crowe, Christina; Cutter, Gary R; Fox, Robert J; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2017-08-01

    Interest in and use of marijuana by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) has increased. While potential benefits have been reported, so have concerns about potential risks. Few large studies have been conducted about the perceptions and current usage of marijuana and medical cannabinoids in persons with MS. Participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry were surveyed in 2014 regarding legality and history of marijuana usage, both before and after diagnosis with MS. A total of 5,481 participants responded, with 78.2% female, 90% relapsing disease at onset, and a current mean age of 55.5 (10.2) years. Sixty-four percent had tried marijuana prior to their MS diagnosis, 47% have considered using for their MS, 26% have used for their MS, 20% have spoken with their physician about use, and 16% are currently using marijuana. Ninety-one percent think marijuana should be legal in some form. Men, those with higher disability, current and past nicotine smokers, and younger age were associated with a higher likelihood of current use. The majority of responders favor legalization and report high interest in the use of marijuana for treatment of MS symptoms, but may be reluctant to discuss this with health care providers. Health care providers should systematically inquire about use of marijuana.

  16. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  17. Using Online Social Media for Recruitment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Participants: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Patrick; Bare, Michael G; Johnson, Mallory O

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many challenges in recruiting and engaging participants when conducting research, especially with HIV-positive individuals. Some of these challenges include geographical barriers, insufficient time and financial resources, and perceived HIV-related stigma. Objective This paper describes the methodology of a recruitment approach that capitalized on existing online social media venues and other Internet resources in an attempt to overcome some of these barriers to research recruitment and retention. Methods From May through August 2013, a campaign approach using a combination of online social media, non-financial incentives, and Web-based survey software was implemented to advertise, recruit, and retain participants, and collect data for a survey study with a limited budget. Results Approximately US $5,000 was spent with a research staff designated at 20% of full-time effort, yielding 2034 survey clicks, 1404 of which met the inclusion criteria and initiated the survey, for an average cost of US $3.56 per survey initiation. A total of 1221 individuals completed the survey, yielding 86.97% retention. Conclusions These data indicate that online recruitment is a feasible and efficient tool that can be further enhanced by sophisticated online data collection software and the addition of non-financial incentives. PMID:24784982

  18. Leadership and Community Participation: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alison A.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature on systemic change and community participation. Explores leadership styles of principals in four community-minded middle schools. Administrators should be aware of their individual leadership styles and their effects on others' behavior. Principals wishing to foster empowerment in schools should move toward a…

  19. Asking to Speak to Another: A Skill for Soliciting Survey Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W; Hollander, Matthew M

    2014-01-01

    This paper is in the vein of applied conversation analysis, dealing with a problem of declining participation rates for survey interviews. When calling a household to request participation in a survey, interviewers may ask for a pre-selected "sample person." We first explore how interviewers design this request in a more or less presumptive way, depending on how and when they identify themselves. Secondly, we analyze different linguistic structures that embody degrees of entitlement. Thirdly, we examine greeting items for their degree of ceremoniousness and in terms of what work they do when not part of an explicit greeting sequence. We examine other features of asking to speak to another as well, including "please" and references to the sample person. Our strategy for analyzing survey interview data is to explore the design of "switchboard" requests in ordinary telephone calls. We relate our analysis to previous research that addresses whether the detailed practices for asking to speak to another matter for obtaining consent to do an interview. We draw implications for obtaining participation in the survey interview and other kinds of phone call solicitations. Data in American English.

  20. Student experiences of participating in five collaborative blended learning courses in Africa and Asia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Yan, Weirong; Meragia, Elnta; Mahomed, Hassan; Rosales-Klintz, Senia; Skinner, Donald; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2016-01-01

    As blended learning (BL; a combination of face-to-face and e-learning methods) becomes more commonplace, it is important to assess whether students find it useful for their studies. ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH (African Regional Capacity Development for Health Systems and Services Research; Asian Regional Capacity Development for Research on Social Determinants of Health) were unique capacity-building projects, focusing on developing BL in Africa and Asia on issues related to global health. We aimed to evaluate the student experience of participating in any of five ARCADE BL courses implemented collaboratively at institutions from Africa, Asia, and Europe. A post-course student survey with 118 students was conducted. The data were collected using email or through an e-learning platform. Data were analysed with SAS, using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. We focused on the associations between various demographic and experience variables and student-reported overall perceptions of the courses. In total, 82 students responded to the survey. In bivariate logistic regression, the course a student took [ p =0.0067, odds ratio (OR)=0.192; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.058-0.633], male gender of student ( p =0.0474, OR=0.255; 95% CI: 0.066-0.985), not experiencing technical problems ( p learning component to their studies. In contrast, perceiving the assessment as adequate was associated with a worse perception of overall usefulness. In a multiple regression, the course, experiencing no technical problems, and perceiving the discussion as adequate remained significantly associated with a more positively rated perception of the usefulness of the online component of the blended courses. The results suggest that lack of technical problems and functioning discussion forums are of importance during BL courses focusing on global health-related topics. Through paying attention to these aspects, global health education could be provided using BL approaches to student

  1. Student Active Participation in the Study of the Light Bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Ogrutan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an initiative approach to the study of light bulbs, involving active participation of the students engaged in interactive problem-/project-based learning of electromagnetic compatibility and energetic efficiency belonging to the environmental issues. The paper includes preliminary and complementary simulations of the hardware firmware-software-net ware development of a laboratory test bench for the study of conducted perturbations generated during the bulb firing sequence. This laboratory sub-system is useful both in association with traditional methods of learning as well as with e-Learning platforms. Finally, the paper presents the results of a concise survey of opinions on the outcomes of this research.

  2. Mode matters : Effects of survey modes on participation and answering behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    In survey research it is important to have a good representation of the population. However, it appears that young adults, full-time workers, inhabitants of large cities and ethnic minorities are difficult to survey. This research has studied how these groups can be reached better. In an experiment,

  3. Effects of Participation in the WIC Program on Birthweight: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Duncan, Greg J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to estimate the impact on birthweight of maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods. WIC estimates were based on sibling models incorporating data on children born between 1990 and 1996 to women taking part in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results. Fixed-effects estimates indicated that prenatal WIC participation was associated with a 0.075 unit difference (95% confidence interval [CI] = –0.007, 0.157) in siblings' logged birthweight. At the 88-oz (2464-g) low-birthweight cutoff, this difference translated into an estimated impact of 6.6 oz (184.8 g). Conclusion. Earlier WIC impact estimates may have been biased by unmeasured characteristics affecting both program participation and birth outcomes. Our approach controlled for such biases and revealed a significant positive association between WIC participation and birthweight. PMID:11988450

  4. Online registration of monthly sports participation after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a reliability and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2014-05-01

    The current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sports, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record the monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. To assess the reliability, content validity and concurrent validity of the survey and to evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. 145 consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed 2 days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients was included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the 12th postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was a substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ=0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire.

  5. Online registration of monthly sports participation after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a reliability and validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2013-01-01

    Background Current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sport, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. Objective To assess the reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity of the survey, and evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. Methods One hundred and forty-five consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed two days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients were included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the twelfth postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ = 0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. Conclusion The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. PMID:23645830

  6. Microfinance Participation and Domestic Violence in Bangladesh: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Akincigil, Ayse; Zippay, Allison

    2016-05-01

    This article examines domestic violence among women who participate in microfinance in Bangladesh. Secondary analysis of survey data from nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey was used to investigate the association between microfinance participation and domestic violence of 4,163 ever-married women between the ages of 18 and 49 years. Outcome measure is experience of domestic violence as measured by a modified Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) and predictor variables include microfinance, binary indicator of relatively better economic status, autonomy, decision-making power, and demographic variables. The likelihood of experiencing domestic violence was not found to vary with microfinance participation. However, the interaction effect of microfinance and better economic status was found to be significantly associated with domestic violence (9% increased probability). Experience of domestic violence was negatively associated with older age, higher education of the husband, and autonomy. In Bangladesh, microfinance participation may be associated with a higher probability of experiencing domestic violence for women with relatively better economic status, but not for the poorest of the poor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Consolation through music: A survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Hanser, W. E.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; van den Tol, Annemieke; Mark, R.E.; A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets

    2016-01-01

    Even though music is widely used as a source of solace, the question as to how and why music offers consolation remains largely unexplored. The aims of the present study are as follows: (a) to compare listening to music versus other self-soothing behaviors, (b) to explore when music is used as a means for solace, (c) to identify aspects of music that are important for providing solace, and (d) to explore behavior while listening to consoling music. Participants completed an internet survey di...

  8. The transnational perspective of political participation: linkages and differences between social movement and public participation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Amelung, N.; Baumgarten, B.

    2017-01-01

    WOS:000390125700001 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Although political participation is a major issue in the research on both social movements and public participation, until today these two fields remain largely unconnected. This introductory article aims to bring these fields together, exploring the linkages and differences between studies on public participation and social movements, by focusing on the term “political participation” and its varying meanings and implications. As a result o...

  9. Passive smoking assessed by salivary cotinine and self-report in relation to cause-specific mortality: 17-year follow-up of study participants in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, G David; Gale, Catharine R; Jefferis, Barbara; Kvaavik, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Evidence that passive smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and selected cancers is largely derived from studies in which this exposure is self-reported. Objective assessment using biochemical techniques may yield a more accurate estimate of risk, although each approach has its strengths and weaknesses. We examined the association of salivary cotinine, a widely utilised biomarker for passive smoking, and self-reported passive smoking in the home, with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and all cancers combined. In 1992, investigators on the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey collected data on salivary cotinine, self-reported smoking (direct and passive) and a range of covariates in 3731 men and women aged 25 years and over. Mortality was ascertained using linkage to national death records. Analyses were based on 2523 individuals (1433 [57%] women) who classified themselves as non-smokers (never and former). Seventeen years of follow-up gave rise to 588 deaths (253 from cardiovascular disease and 146 from cancer). In men, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the association between cotinine levels (1.3-15.0 [high] vs ≤0.3 [low] ng/mL) and the various mortality outcomes were weak for total mortality (HR; 95% CI: 1.22; 0.91 to 1.64) and cardiovascular disease (1.25; 0.78 to 1.99) and absent for all cancers combined (1.10; 0.61 to 2.00). Corresponding associations were generally stronger when self-reported passive smoking (some vs none) was the exposure of interest: 1.53 (1.12 to 2.08), 1.88 (1.20 to 2.96) and 1.58 (0.85 to 2.93). The pattern of association for women in both sets of analyses was less consistent. In men in the present study, compared with our biochemical marker of passive smoking, cotinine, mortality was generally more consistently associated with self-reported passive smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Craigslist versus print newspaper advertising for recruiting research participants for alcohol studies: Cost and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2016-03-01

    Technology has transformed our lifestyles in dramatic and significant ways, including new and less expensive options for recruiting study participants. This study examines cost and participant differences between two recruitment sources, Craigslist (CL), and print newspapers (PNs). This paper also reviewed and compared studies involving clinical trials published since 2010 that recruited participants using CL alone or in combination with other methods. Secondary data analyses from a parent study involving a randomized controlled trial of a mail-based intervention to promote self-change with problem drinkers. Significant differences were found between CL and PN participants on most demographic and pretreatment drinking variables. While all participants had AUDIT scores suggestive of an alcohol problem and reported drinking at high-risk levels, CL participants had less severe drinking problem histories, were considerably younger, and had a higher socioeconomic status than PN participants. The total advertising costs for the 65 CL ads ($275) were significantly less than the 69 PN ads ($33, 311). The recruiting cost per eligible participant was vastly less expensive using CL ($1.46) compared to print newspaper ads ($116.88). Using CL is a viable recruitment method for soliciting participants, particularly those that are younger, for alcohol intervention studies. It is also less expensive than newspaper ads. When CL participants were recruited, they reported being slightly more confident to change their drinking than PN participants. Limitations of using CL are discussed, including that some initial ad responders gave inconsistent answers to similar questions and a few tried to enter the study more than once. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding of Statistical Terms Routinely Used in Presentations: A Survey among Residents who participate at a Summer School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina-Ioana BONDOR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the understanding of statistical terms commonly used in lectures presented at summer schools for residents and young specialists. Material and Method: A survey was distributed to all the participants at the “Diabetic neuropathy from theory to practice” Summer School, 2014. The program was addressed to residents or young specialists in diabetes, neurology, surgery, and orthopedic from Romania. The survey consists of 6 multiple-choice questions and the first four questions evaluate the understanding of statistical terms. Results: There were 51 (42.5% participants who completed the questionnaires. From 204 total questions 81 (39.7% had correct answers. At the question 1, where relative risk was evaluated, only 3 (5.9% respondents answered correctly while at the question 2 (number need to treat about 78.4% (40 of answers were correct. At the question 3 (sensitivity, 22 (43.1% respondents answer correct while at the question 4 (Receiver Operating Characteristic curves only 16 (31.4% respondents provided a correct answer. The overall mean score of correct answers was 1.56±0.91. Conclusion: Our study showed that young specialists who participated to the survey were not familiarized with simple statistical terms commonly used in presentations.

  12. Participants' preference for type of leaflet used to feed back the results of a randomised trial: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston Helen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of thousands of volunteers take part in medical research, but many will never hear from researchers about what the study revealed. There is a growing demand for the results of randomised trials to be fed back to research participants both for ethical research practice and for ensuring their co-operation in a trial. This study aims to determine participants' preferences for type of leaflet (short versus long used to summarise the findings of a randomised trial; and to test whether certain characteristics explained participants' preferences. Methods 553 participants in a randomised trial about General Practitioners' access to Magnetic Resonance Imaging for patients presenting with suspected internal derangement of the knee were asked in the final follow-up questionnaire whether they would like to be fed back the results of the trial. Participants who agreed to this were included in a postal questionnaire survey asking about their preference, if any, between a short and a long leaflet and what it was about the leaflet that they preferred. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test whether certain demographics of responding participants along with treatment group explained whether a participant had a preference for type of leaflet or no preference. Results Of the participants who returned the final follow-up questionnaire, 416 (88% agreed to receive the results of the trial. Subsequently 132 (32% participants responded to the survey. Most participants preferred the longer leaflet (55% and the main reasons for this were the use of technical information (94% and diagrams (89%. There was weak evidence to suggest that gender might explain whether participants have a preference for type of leaflet or not (P = 0.084. Conclusions Trial participants want to receive feed back about the results and appear to prefer a longer leaflet. Males and females might require information to be communicated to them differently and should

  13. Student experiences of participating in five collaborative blended learning courses in Africa and Asia: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Atkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As blended learning (BL; a combination of face-to-face and e-learning methods becomes more commonplace, it is important to assess whether students find it useful for their studies. ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH (African Regional Capacity Development for Health Systems and Services Research; Asian Regional Capacity Development for Research on Social Determinants of Health were unique capacity-building projects, focusing on developing BL in Africa and Asia on issues related to global health. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the student experience of participating in any of five ARCADE BL courses implemented collaboratively at institutions from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Design: A post-course student survey with 118 students was conducted. The data were collected using email or through an e-learning platform. Data were analysed with SAS, using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. We focused on the associations between various demographic and experience variables and student-reported overall perceptions of the courses. Results: In total, 82 students responded to the survey. In bivariate logistic regression, the course a student took [p=0.0067, odds ratio (OR=0.192; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.058–0.633], male gender of student (p=0.0474, OR=0.255; 95% CI: 0.066–0.985, not experiencing technical problems (p<0.001, OR=17.286; 95% CI: 4.629–64.554, and reporting the discussion forum as adequate for student needs (p=0.0036, OR=0.165; 95% CI: 0.049–0.555 were found to be associated with a more positive perception of BL, as measured by student rating of the overall helpfulness of the e-learning component to their studies. In contrast, perceiving the assessment as adequate was associated with a worse perception of overall usefulness. In a multiple regression, the course, experiencing no technical problems, and perceiving the discussion as adequate remained significantly associated with a more positively rated perception of the

  14. Participant recruitment to FiCTION, a primary dental care trial - survey of facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keightley, A; Clarkson, J; Maguire, A; Speed, C; Innes, N

    2014-11-01

    To identify reasons behind a lower than expected participant recruitment rate within the FiCTION trial, a multi-centre paediatric primary dental care randomised controlled trial (RCT). An online survey, based on a previously published tool, consisting of both quantitative and qualitative responses, completed by staff in dental practices recruiting to FiCTION. Ratings from quantitative responses were aggregated to give overall scores for factors related to participant recruitment. Qualitative responses were independently grouped into themes. Thirty-nine anonymous responses were received. Main facilitators related to the support received from the central research team and importance of the research question. The main barriers related to low child eligibility rates and the integration of trial processes within routine workloads. These findings have directed strategies for enhancing participant recruitment at existing practices and informed recruitment of further practices. The results help provide a profile of the features required of practices to successfully screen and recruit participants. Future trials in this setting should consider the level of interest in the research question within practices, and ensure trial processes are as streamlined as possible. Research teams should actively support practices with participant recruitment and maintain enthusiasm among the entire practice team.

  15. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silagy Chris

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent. Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112. The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent, lack of financial support (36 percent, methodological problems (23 percent and problems with group dynamics (10 percent. Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review.

  16. Survey of Endodontic Practice amongst Iranian Dentists Participating Restorative Dentistry Congress in Shiraz, November 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanshad, Shohreh; Sahraei, Saied; Khayat, Akbar

    2008-01-01

    General dental practitioners provide the majority of treatment in Iran. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists participated in 7(th) Congress of Iranian Academy of Restorative Dentistry in Shiraz /2007 in order to evaluate the quality of current practice. A questionnaire for this cross-sectional study was designed with the purpose of evaluating the routine endodontic treatment performed by Iranian dentists. The questionnaire made up of 24 questions with multiple-choice answers. Covering subjects are demographic and professional activity, root-canal preparation and instrumentation, choice of irrigants and disinfectants, and choice of obturation techniques. A total of 247 questionnaires (49.4%) were returned. Ninety-one percent of the respondents were general dental practitioners. The results indicate that there are discrepancies between daily practice and academic teaching, especially regarding the use of rubber dam (only 0.9 % report using it as a standard procedure). Most of practitioners used manual instruments manipulated with a filing technique and few used rotary for canal preparation. The majority of the respondents prepared root canals 0.5-1 mm short of the radiographic apex. The first-choice root-canal irrigant was normal saline (55%), followed by sodium hypochlorite. Approximately, 68% used intracanal medications. The most popular obturation technique was cold lateral condensation (90%) with zinc-oxide eugenol as sealer. Most practitioners performed treatment in two visits for teeth with two or more canals. Eighty-four percent of the dentists used radiograph for determining the working length, and only 2.7% used Apex-locator. The survey mentions the importance of continuing dental education for practitioners to update their knowledge.

  17. [Survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control measures in hospitals participating in the VINCat program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopena-Galindo, Nieves; Hornero-Lopez, Anna; Freixas-Sala, Núria; Bella-Cueto, Feliu; Pérez-Jové, Josefa; Limon-Cáceres, Enric; Gudiol-Munté, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    VINCat is a nosocomial infection surveillance program in hospitals in Catalonia. The aim of the study was to determine the surveillance and control measures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in these centres. An e-mail survey was carried out from January to March 2013 with questions related to the characteristics of the hospitals and their control measures for MRSA. A response was received from 53 hospitals (>500 beds: 7; 200-500 beds: 14;<200 beds: 32; had ICU: 29). Computer alert of readmissions was available in 63%. There was active surveillance of patients admitted from another hospital (46.2%) or a long-term-care centre (55.8%), both being significantly more common measures in hospitals with a rate of MRSA≤22% (global median). Compliance with hand hygiene was observed in 77.4% of the centres, and was greater than 50% in 69.7% of them. All hospitals had contact precautions, although 62.3% did not have exclusive frequently used clinical material in bedrooms. The room cleaning was performed more frequently in 54.7% of hospitals, and 67.9% of them had programs for the appropriate use of antibiotics. This study provides information on the implementation of measures to prevent MRSA in hospitals participating in the VINCat program. Most of the centres have an MRSA protocol, however compliance with it should be improved, especially in areas such as active detection on admission in patients at risk, hand hygiene adherence, cleaning frequency and optimising the use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  19. Participation in leisure activities after stroke: A survey of community-residing stroke survivors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Onabajo, Grace; Blasu, Cephas

    2016-01-01

    Leisure provides pleasure and relaxation, and has health benefits even after a stressful and life-changing event such as a stroke. This study examined leisure participation among a sample of community-residing stroke survivors in Nigeria. Fifty-five stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation were consecutively recruited from two government hospitals in Northern Nigeria. Data on pre- and post-stroke participation, and socio-demographic (age, sex, marital, employment, and educational status) and clinical (level of disability, post-stroke duration, stroke type and side of hemiplegia/hemiparesis) attributes of the stroke survivors were obtained. Leisure participation was assessed in four domains of recreational, social, cognitive, and productive/creative activities. Associations between leisure participation and the socio-demographic and clinical variables were examined using bivariate analysis. Mean (SD) age of the stroke survivors was 53.55 (14.39) years. Prevalence of leisure participation was 89.1%. Participation in specific leisure domains however varied thus: social (83.6%), cognitive (60%), recreational (41.8%), productive/creative activities (30.9%). Significant associations were observed between participation in cognitive, productive/creative, and recreational leisure activities, and specific socio-demographic and clinical attributes. Leisure participation was high in a general sense but marginal in recreational and productive/creative activities. The observed socio-demographic and clinical associations with post-stroke leisure participation may assist in providing effective leisure rehabilitation strategies.

  20. Motivations for participating in a non-interventional gender-based violence survey in a low-income setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandisa Sikweyiya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative study of motivations to participate in research into violence and other sensitive issues can help interpretation of findings from community based quantitative surveys. It is equally important to conduct research that may enable a deeper understanding on what motivates people to participate in GBV studies. To date, not much research has been conducted to investigate the factors that influence non-enrolment and enrolment in GBV studies from the viewpoint of the real participants. The present study sought to explore people’s reasons for participating in a non-intervention GBV community-based survey in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Twenty-two qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with adult black African men and women who had participated in a gender-based violence survey conducted in a low-income setting in South Africa. Results Some participants reported motives for survey participation which could be interpreted as altruistic. Their motives included a desire to contribute to advancement of knowledge and to share life experiences so that unknown others could learn from these experiences. Yet, some participants hoped their participation will result in personal benefit or that they may be helped with their socio-economic challenges. The analysis further revealed a complex relationship between altruism and self-interest motives for participating in the survey amongst some of the participants. Conclusion We conclude that it is difficult to discern which motive was primary or preceded the other. This is because such motives are not fixed, probably multiple and owing to their fluidity, may shift in people’s minds at different times and depending on the nature of the conversation. Moreover, there may be a shift in the weight given to different motives over time.

  1. The Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study 3: Study Design, Characteristics of Participants and Participating Institutions, and Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Maho; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the whole picture of Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study 3 (J-HOPE3 Study) including study design and demographic data. The aims of the J-HOPE3 study were to (1) evaluate the process, structure, and outcome of palliative care in the following care settings: acute hospitals, inpatient hospice/palliative care units (PCUs), and home hospice services; (2) examine bereaved family members' self-reported psychosocial conditions, such as grief and depression, as bereavement outcomes; (3) provide data to ensure and improve the quality of care provided by participating institutions through feedback concerning results for each institution; and (4) perform additional studies to explore specific clinical research questions. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous, self-report questionnaire survey involving patients' bereaved family members in 20 acute hospitals, 133 PCUs, and 22 home hospice services between May and July 2014. Two types of questionnaires were used: main and specific studies questionnaires. The questionnaire was sent to totally 13 584, and 10 157 returned the questionnaire. The analysis included 9126 family members' questionnaires from acute hospitals, PCUs, and home hospice services. Respondents' average age was 61.6 years, 55% were women, and 40% had been married to the deceased. With respect to the characteristics of participating institutions, most institutions did not have religious affiliations, and most PCUs and home hospice services provided bereavement care. These results of the analysis of common and additional questionnaires could play an important role in clinical settings, quality improvement, research, and public accountability.

  2. [Change in East Germany intergenerational relations in a large city. Results of the 4th survey phase of the Halle Longitudinal Study of participants of the 1994 senior college (HALSEKO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genz, M

    1996-01-01

    The fourth survey by standardized questionnaire in November 1994 (response rate: 71.6%, n = 308, mean age: 68.1 years) to identify effects of the changes in the eastern German cultural and social scene among senior students enrolled at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg since 1989 (HALSEKO) revealed a distinct deterioration in intergenerational relations which has been interpreted in terms of Mead's theoretical conception of the induction of intergenerational conflict by the abrupt change in cultural values in the new Federal states. Negative assessment were given by 69.5% (1992: 33.4%). Statistical analysis by bivariant contingency tables yielded an assessment pattern with two dimensions. These consisted personal discrimination by younger people and changes in intrafamilial intergenerational relations owing to fewer contacts, stress due to the job situation for children and grandchildren, tension within the family and anxiety at the thought of loneliness. The latter causes have a hurtfull effect. The list of possible causes for the deterioration in intergenerational relations that formed part of the questionnaire showed that most subjects considered unemployment (71.3%) and changes in interpersonal contact (71.1%) to be responsible, the latter being described as a situation in which people do not have time for each other. In view of the importance of social relations for the well-being of the elderly, relations between the generations should remain on the agenda as a subject for further research and preventive conceptions.

  3. Mobile Phone Ownership Is Not a Serious Barrier to Participation in Studies: Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Emily J; Rubin, Leslie F; Smiley, Sabrina L; Zhou, Yitong; Elmasry, Hoda; Pearson, Jennifer L

    2018-02-19

    Rather than providing participants with study-specific data collection devices, their personal mobile phones are increasingly being used as a means for collecting geolocation and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data in public health research. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents to an online survey screener assessing eligibility to participate in a mixed methods study collecting geolocation and EMA data via the participants' personal mobile phones, and (2) examine how eligibility criteria requiring mobile phone ownership and an unlimited text messaging plan affected participant inclusion. Adult (≥18 years) daily smokers were recruited via public advertisements, free weekly newspapers, printed flyers, and word of mouth. An online survey screener was used as the initial method of determining eligibility for study participation. The survey screened for twenty-eight inclusion criteria grouped into three categories, which included (1) cell phone use, (2) tobacco use, and (3) additional criteria. A total of 1003 individuals completed the online screener. Respondents were predominantly African American (605/1003, 60.3%) (60.4%), male (514/1003, 51.3%), and had a median age of 35 years (IQR 26-50). Nearly 50% (496/1003, 49.5%) were unemployed. Most smoked menthol cigarettes (699/1003, 69.7%), and had a median smoking history of 11 years (IQR 5-21). The majority owned a mobile phone (739/1003, 73.7%), could install apps (86.8%), used their mobile phone daily (89.5%), and had an unlimited text messaging plan (871/1003, 86.8%). Of those who completed the online screener, 302 were eligible to participate in the study; 163 were eligible after rescreening, and 117 were enrolled in the study. Compared to employed individuals, a significantly greater proportion of those who were unemployed were ineligible for the study based on mobile phone inclusion criteria (Pmobile phone inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria

  4. Predictors of Study Abroad Intent, Participation, and College Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiali; Jamieson-Drake, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined US undergraduate students' intent to study abroad upon college entry and their actual participation in study abroad during their undergraduate years, correlating the college outcomes of three cohorts to identify trends. The findings show that study abroad intent and participation are interrelated and shaped by an array of…

  5. A cross-sectional survey of participation of asthmatic children in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo-Li; Huang, Ying; Shu, Chang; Lou, Xiao-Li; Fu, Zhou; Zhao, Jing

    2010-08-01

    Physical exercise has been proven to be beneficial to children with asthma, but the traditional view in China is that asthmatic children should not take part in sports. This study was undertaken to investigate the current status of children with asthma taking part in exercise in China. One hundred and twenty-three asthmatic children (7-14 years old) who had visited our asthma control center between February 2009 and June 2009 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Each child had a pulmonary function test and his/her health-related quality of life was assessed. The children also finished a questionnaire about their physical activity. As a control group, 109 nonasthmatic children from a primary school were surveyed about their level of activity. Asthmatic children took part in less exercise than their healthy peers, and 62.6% (77/123) of the children with asthma never reached the criteria of exercise prescription for patients with asthma advised by the American College of Sports Medicine. The asthmatic children were divided into two groups based on the level of activity; compared with the group with a higher physical activity level, more children in the group with lower activity believed that exercise could make asthma worse, more parents and teachers restricted the children's exercise, and fewer doctors approved them participating in exercise. All of the parameters of basic lung function were higher in the group with higher activity level. Moreover, the children with a higher exercise level had a higher score on all parts of the pediatric asthma quality-of-life questionnaire. About 78.5% (96/123) of children ever experienced coughing, chest distress, dyspnea, or gasping during exercise, but 49.6% (61/123) had these symptoms occasionally. Our study reveals that children with asthma do not have enough exercise in China. The concept that children, parents, teachers and doctors have about exercise for patients with asthma is urgent to be updated. We need to

  6. Report of the Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Adam D.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleks; Gallagher, John S.; Gillespie, Bruce Andrew; Ho, Shirley; Kinemuchi, Karen; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Tremonti, Christina A.; Zasowski, Gail; SDSS-III Collaboration, SDSS-IV Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Committee on the Participation of Women in the SDSS (CPWS) was formed by the SDSS to evaluate the gender climate within the collaboration. The CPWS seeks to foster gender balance in our collaboration by fielding concerns from our members and by recommending best practices for establishing the SDSS leadership team. An important aspect of the mission of the CPWS is to regularly assess gender diversity and inclusiveness within the SDSS. Against the backdrop of the transition from SDSS-III to SDSS-IV, the CPWS has been collecting data relevant to gender issues through interviews and surveys. In April, 2014, the CPWS surveyed 251 SDSS-IV members (~50% of active membership) regarding gender and leadership. Broad findings from this survey include that the male-to-female ratio in SDSS-IV is about 3:1 and that the male-to-female ratio among those that identify themselves as being in an SDSS-IV leadership role is also close to 3:1. About 35% of those surveyed self-identify as an SDSS-IV "leader," though we recognize the possibility that active stakeholders might be more likely to respond to a demographics survey. About 80% of those that self-identify as leaders consider their leadership role within SDSS-IV to be officially acknowledged, regardless of gender. The fraction of women in SDSS leadership roles appears to be a weak function of current job position in that 6 of 32 (19%) senior faculty that are SDSS leaders are women, compared to 4 of 13 (31%) postdocs. Similarly, the fraction of SDSS leaders who are women is highest (32%) amongst those leaders who received their PhDs 6-10 years ago, while the fraction of female leaders amongst other age demographics is somewhat lower (20%). Although these are small sample sizes, this hints at a trend where women are most likely to fill SDSS leadership roles at certain stages of their lives and careers. The CPWS intends to use this initial survey data to establish a baseline for tracking SDSS-IV demographics, and thus hopes to

  7. Vulnerable Adolescent Participants' Experience in Surveys on Sexuality and Sexual Abuse: Ethical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…

  8. Participation Motivation for Extracurricular Activities: Study on Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Zeycan; Gündüz, Nevin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the participation motivation for extracurricular activities; study on primary school students. It also analysed whether such factors as age and sex change on the basis of their participation motivation. The population of the study is composed of 797 students in primary school and, the sample is composed of 513…

  9. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  10. A survey of referee participation, training and injury in elite Gaelic games referees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Blake, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Referees in Gaelic games are exposed to injury risk in match-play and training. Little is currently know about the degree of exposure or the prevalence of injury in this group. The aim of this study was to determine the time commitment to refereeing and training in elite-level Gaelic referees and to establish, for the first time, point and period (past 12 months) prevalence of Gaelic games injury in these officials. METHODS: A retrospective survey was posted to the complete list of 111 male referees who officiated in elite-level competition in Gaelic football and hurling at the end of the 2005 competition season. Data were summarised using percentages with 95% Confidence Intervals. RESULTS: The response rate was 80% (n = 89). Mean age was 42 +\\/- 6 years, ranging from 28-55 years. Forty eight percent were football referees, 25% were hurling referees and 27% refereed both football and hurling. Most referees (69%) officiated at 3-4 games weekly (range 1-6) and most (62%) trained 2-3 times per week (range 1-7). Fourteen percent (n = 12) were currently injured (95% CI 9-21%). Annual injury prevalence was 58% (95% CI 46 to 70%) for football, 50% (95% CI 33 to 67%) for hurling and 42% (95% CI 27 to 58%) for dual referee groups. Sixty percent of injuries were sustained while refereeing match play. The majority (83%, n = 40) were to the lower limb and the predominant (56%, n = 27) injury mechanism was running or sprinting. The most prevalent injuries were hamstring strain (n = 12, 25% of injuries) and calf strain (n = 9, 19% of injuries). Injury causing time off from refereeing was reported by 31% of all referees (95% CI 24 to 40%, n = 28), for a median duration of 3 weeks. CONCLUSION: Participation in official duties and training is high in elite Gaelic games referees, despite the amateur status of the sports. Gaelic games injury is common in the referee cohort, with lower limb injury predominating. These injuries have implications for both the referee and

  11. A survey of referee participation, training and injury in elite gaelic games referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissane Conor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Referees in Gaelic games are exposed to injury risk in match-play and training. Little is currently know about the degree of exposure or the prevalence of injury in this group. The aim of this study was to determine the time commitment to refereeing and training in elite-level Gaelic referees and to establish, for the first time, point and period (past 12 months prevalence of Gaelic games injury in these officials. Methods A retrospective survey was posted to the complete list of 111 male referees who officiated in elite-level competition in Gaelic football and hurling at the end of the 2005 competition season. Data were summarised using percentages with 95% Confidence Intervals. Results The response rate was 80% (n = 89. Mean age was 42 ± 6 years, ranging from 28–55 years. Forty eight percent were football referees, 25% were hurling referees and 27% refereed both football and hurling. Most referees (69% officiated at 3–4 games weekly (range 1–6 and most (62% trained 2–3 times per week (range 1–7. Fourteen percent (n = 12 were currently injured (95% CI 9–21%. Annual injury prevalence was 58% (95% CI 46 to 70% for football, 50% (95% CI 33 to 67% for hurling and 42% (95% CI 27 to 58% for dual referee groups. Sixty percent of injuries were sustained while refereeing match play. The majority (83%, n = 40 were to the lower limb and the predominant (56%, n = 27 injury mechanism was running or sprinting. The most prevalent injuries were hamstring strain (n = 12, 25% of injuries and calf strain (n = 9, 19% of injuries. Injury causing time off from refereeing was reported by 31% of all referees (95% CI 24 to 40%, n = 28, for a median duration of 3 weeks. Conclusion Participation in official duties and training is high in elite Gaelic games referees, despite the amateur status of the sports. Gaelic games injury is common in the referee cohort, with lower limb injury predominating. These injuries have implications for both

  12. A survey of referee participation, training and injury in elite gaelic games referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Catherine; Sherry, James; Gissane, Conor

    2009-06-22

    Referees in Gaelic games are exposed to injury risk in match-play and training. Little is currently know about the degree of exposure or the prevalence of injury in this group. The aim of this study was to determine the time commitment to refereeing and training in elite-level Gaelic referees and to establish, for the first time, point and period (past 12 months) prevalence of Gaelic games injury in these officials. A retrospective survey was posted to the complete list of 111 male referees who officiated in elite-level competition in Gaelic football and hurling at the end of the 2005 competition season. Data were summarised using percentages with 95% Confidence Intervals. The response rate was 80% (n = 89). Mean age was 42 +/- 6 years, ranging from 28-55 years. Forty eight percent were football referees, 25% were hurling referees and 27% refereed both football and hurling. Most referees (69%) officiated at 3-4 games weekly (range 1-6) and most (62%) trained 2-3 times per week (range 1-7). Fourteen percent (n = 12) were currently injured (95% CI 9-21%). Annual injury prevalence was 58% (95% CI 46 to 70%) for football, 50% (95% CI 33 to 67%) for hurling and 42% (95% CI 27 to 58%) for dual referee groups. Sixty percent of injuries were sustained while refereeing match play. The majority (83%, n = 40) were to the lower limb and the predominant (56%, n = 27) injury mechanism was running or sprinting. The most prevalent injuries were hamstring strain (n = 12, 25% of injuries) and calf strain (n = 9, 19% of injuries). Injury causing time off from refereeing was reported by 31% of all referees (95% CI 24 to 40%, n = 28), for a median duration of 3 weeks. Participation in official duties and training is high in elite Gaelic games referees, despite the amateur status of the sports. Gaelic games injury is common in the referee cohort, with lower limb injury predominating. These injuries have implications for both the referee and for organisation of the games.

  13. Using public participation to sample trace metals in lake surface sediments: the OPAL Metals Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S D; Rose, N L; Goldsmith, B; Bearcock, J M; Scheib, C; Yang, H

    2017-05-01

    Members of the public in England were invited in 2010 to take part in a national metals survey, by collecting samples of littoral sediment from a standing water body for geochemical analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first national sediment metals survey using public participation and reveals a snapshot of the extent of metals contamination in ponds and lakes across England. Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations exceeding sediment quality guidelines for the health of aquatic biota are ubiquitous in ponds and lakes, not just in areas with a legacy of industrial activity. To validate the public sampling approach, a calibration exercise was conducted at ten water bodies selected to represent a range of lakes found across England. Sediment concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were measured in samples of soil, stream and littoral and deep water sediment to assess inputs. Significant differences between littoral sediment metal concentrations occur due to local variability, but also organic content, especially in upland, peat soil catchments. Variability of metal concentrations between littoral samples is shown to be low in small (complex inputs and variation in organic content of littoral samples have a greater variability. Collection of littoral sediments in small lakes and ponds, with or without voluntary participation, can provide a reliable sampling technique for the preliminary assessment of metal contamination in standing waters. However, the heterogeneity of geology, soils and history/extent of metal contamination in the English landscape, combined with the random nature of sample collection, shows that systematic sampling for evaluating the full extent of metal contamination in lakes is still required.

  14. A survey of Effective Factors in Participation of Tehran University Students in Public and Recreational Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Gholipour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to examine those factors that are in- fluential in the participation of Tehran University students in physical activities. According to the results and goals, this study is applied and descriptive respectively and based on the data collection this is a field study. A community sample of 16000 of Tehran University students participated in this study. Using Morgan table, 377 students were selected with random stratified selection procedure. To evaluate the effective factors in physical activity participation a researcher-made questionnaire with a reliability of 0.84 was administered. To analyze the data after the non-confirmation of parametric conditions and the natural data distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, descriptive and deductive statistics including frequency and mean, Friedman test, Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallace test were used in SPSS with the significance of 0.05. The research findings have indicated that physical fitness, beauty and health have been more influential in physical activities and exercise participation than other factors. There was a significant difference in ranking the effective factors among male and female students. Gender, age and marital status were also among those factors contributing to the participation of students in exercises.

  15. Understanding the Impact of Lottery Incentives on Web Survey Participation and Response Quality: A Leverage-Salience Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Lonn, Steven; Teasley, Stephanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative evidence is mixed regarding the effect of lottery incentives on survey participation; little is known about why this strategy sometimes works and other times fails. We examined two factors that can influence the effectiveness of lottery incentives as suggested by leverage-salience theory: emphasis of survey attributes in invitations and…

  16. Social participation among older adults (55+): Results of a survey in the region of South Limburg in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvers, Nicole; Pavlova, Milena; Hajema, KlaasJan; Groot, Wim; Angeli, Federica

    2018-01-01

    Social participation may improve the health and well-being of older adults, and may increase the social and human capacity of their communities. This study investigates the level and forms of social participation among older adults (aged 55 years or older) in the region of South Limburg, the Netherlands, and their association with socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. The study provides evidence that can be used by policy makers to enhance social participation in the region. We use cross-sectional data collected in a survey in 2012 among a sample of older adults (aged 55 years or older) representative for the region of South Limburg. The results indicate that 56% (N = 16,291/weighted sample N = 213,332) of the older adults in the region participate in social activities. Specifically, 25.5% perform paid labour, 20% give informal care and 25% participate in volunteer work. Older adults with a higher education (OR = 2.49 for the highest education group) or higher income (OR = 1.70 for the highest income group) are significantly more likely to participate in social activities compared with the respective reference categories. Increased age (OR = 0.23 for the oldest age group), female gender (OR = 0.83), loneliness (OR = 0.75 for severe loneliness) and restrictions (OR = 0.78 for restrictions on the OECD scale, OR = 0.68 for restrictions on the HDL scale, OR = 0.52 for transportation restrictions) significantly hinder social participation. The lower social participation rate among older adults that we observe compared with the national statistics can be explained by the relatively higher proportion of people with low or average socioeconomic status in South Limburg. And as South Limburg is the unhealthiest region of the Netherlands, this also contributes to the low social participation. Prevention of poor physical and mental health, and provision of care services are important to encourage social participation among the older adults

  17. A Delphi survey of leadership attributes necessary for national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development: an East African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj Shariff, Nilufa

    2015-01-01

    Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health services are: safe, effective, available and inexpensive. Nursing history reveals several legendary nurse leaders who have influenced policy and the course of nursing and health care. In the recent times there have been concerns regarding the availability of effective leaders physically, symbolically and functionally at clinical, organizational and national levels, who can effectively influence health policy. Exerting influence in the policy arena requires that nurse leaders acquire attributes that enable them to be effective in policy development activity. This paper reports part of a larger study whose purpose included: "build consensus on leadership attributes necessary for nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in East Africa". A Delphi survey was utilized and included the following criteria: expert panelists, three iterative rounds, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and building consensus. The study included purposively selected sample of national nurse leaders (expert panelists) from the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. Seventy eight (78) expert panelists were invited to participate in the study and 37 (47%) participated in the first round of these; 24 (64.8%) participated in the second round and all invited in the third round 24 (100%) participated. Data collection was done using questionnaires and collected qualitative and quantitative data. Data analysis was done utilizing the principles of qualitative analysis in the first round and descriptive statistics in the second and third rounds. The study achieved consensus on the essential leadership attributes for nurse leaders' participation in health policy and include being able to: influence; communicate effectively; build relationships; feel empowered and demonstrate professional credibility. For nursing to participate in influencing the

  18. Does Low Participation in Cohort Studies Induce Bias?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2006-01-01

    Background: Participation rates in large cohort studies have dropped during the last two decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. Methods: The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from...... the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. Based on independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for three exposure-risk associations: a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, b) smoking during pregnancy...... intervals gave very similar results and a small simulation study showed that the coverage probabilities were close to the 95% nominal level Conclusion: For the three chosen associations the odds ratios were not biased by non-participation. The results are reassuring for studies based on the Danish cohort...

  19. Does Digital Competence and Occupational Setting Influence MOOC Participation? Evidence from a Cross-Course Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Muñoz, Jonatan; Kreijns, Karel; Kalz, Marco; Punie, Yves

    2017-01-01

    While MOOCs are recognized nowadays as a potential format for professional development and lifelong learning, little research has been conducted on the factors that influence MOOC participation of professionals and unemployed in MOOCs. Based on a framework developed earlier, we conducted a study, which focused on the influence of background…

  20. Does digital competence and occupational setting influence MOOC participation? Evidence from a cross-course survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño-Muñoz, Jonatan; Kreijns, Karel; Kalz, Marco; Punie, Yves

    2016-01-01

    While MOOCs are recognized nowadays as a potential format for professional development and lifelong learning, little research has been conducted on the factors that influence MOOC participation of professionals and unemployed in MOOCs. Based on a framework developed earlier, we conducted a study,

  1. Online consensus conferences for clinical guidelines development - a survey among participants from the International Guidelines for the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ricardo N; Jacobs, Anja; Rosumeck, Stefanie; Nast, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Guideline development requires considerable time and financial resources. New technical devices such as software for online conferences may help to reduce time and financial efforts of guidelines development. The present survey may serve as an explorative pilot for a future study to determine the technical feasibility, acceptability and possible weaknesses of online consensus conferences for clinical guidelines development. An anonymous online survey was conducted among participants in the online consensus conference of the International League of Dermatological Societies (ILDS) Guidelines for the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis. The majority of participants reported no technical problems with the participation in the online consensus conference; one participant had substantial technical problems accountable to a regional telephone breakdown. The majority of participants would not have preferred a traditional face-to-face conference, and all participants rated online consensus conferences for international guidelines as absolutely acceptable. Rates of acceptance were particularly high among those participants with prior experience with consensus conferences. Certain aspects, particularly the possibilities of debating, were rated as possibly superior in face-to-face conferences by some participants. The data from the online survey indicate that online consensus conferences may be an appropriate alternative to traditional face-to-face consensus conferences, especially within the frame of international guidelines that would require high travel costs and time. Further research is necessary to confirm the data from this explorative pilot study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Presilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Presilience (moderator effect). Resilience moderates the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Public Participation: Lessons from the Case Study Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beierle, Thomas C.; Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Public participation has received increasing attention in environmental policy making world wide. Yet research has been inadequate to answer fundamental questions about how successful past programs have been, what factors lead to success, and where efforts to improve public involvement should focus. To address these questions, we examine the case study record of public participation efforts in the United States over the last 30 years. We evaluate the success of numerous examples of public participation in environmental decision making and identify the factors that lead to success. The paper deals with a number of themes, including: The extent to which participation can incorporate public values into decision making, improve the substantive quality of decisions, reduce conflict, increase trust in institutions, and educate and inform the public; What can be expected from different approaches to public participation, such as public meetings, advisory committees, and mediation; The relative importance of the participatory process vs. the context in which participation takes place; Procedural features of particular importance; and The relationship between participation and implementation. The paper provides general results that can be used to guide the improvement of public participation programs, support assessment of innovative methods, and advance the theoretical understanding of public participation.

  4. Whatever Happened to Rural Women? A Comparative Study of Labor Force Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokemeier, Janet; And Others.

    A 1979 Kentucky study comparing rural farm and nonfarm women to each other and to women residing in metropolitan areas examined women's labor force participation. A statewide mail survey of Kentucky adults produced usable questionnaires from 3 groups of women: farm women (1,231), nonmetropolitan women (3,631), and metropolitan women (937).…

  5. Comparison of testosterone fractions between Framingham Heart Study participants and Japanese participants

    OpenAIRE

    Taya, Masaki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Kouji; Iijima, Masashi; Maeda, Yuji; Matsushita, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine testosterone fractions in Japanese men and to compare these values with those of Framingham Heart Study participants. Methods: We enrolled 498 healthy Japanese men. Total testosterone was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, sex hormone-binding globulin was assayed by immunoassay and free testosterone was calculated by a laboratory at the Boston Medical Center. Analog-based free testosterone and immunoassay-based total testosterone were determine...

  6. Quality of life and participation restrictions, a study in elderly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magalhães, Ruth; Iório, Maria Cecilia Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    According to the IBGE, Brazil had 21 million elderly persons in 2008. To study the effects of speech therapy - fitting of hearing aids - on the quality of life of elderly persons and restriction of participation according to sex and age...

  7. [Participation, knowledge production, and evaluative research: participation by different actors in a mental health study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Juarez Pereira; Campos, Rosana Onocko

    2008-11-01

    This article reflects on the interrelations between participation, knowledge production, and public policy evaluation in light of issues from our own experience with evaluative research on a municipal network of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) in Brazil. The article discusses the coordination of the complex process and the potentials and limits of partnerships for conducting qualitative evaluative studies in mental health with participation by different social actors. The authors conclude that qualitative evaluative research aligned with the perspective of including different points of view representing various segments is the best approach for understanding the numerous spin-offs from the implementation of services linked to the Brazilian psychiatric reform movement, given the inherent specificities of the mental health field.

  8. Study and Redefining Beneficiary Participation in Process Of House Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monshizadeh Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since housing has a special place in human life and his physical, psychological and interactions, so in addition the unity of humans, multiplicity and diversity of them must be considered. This possible only by beneficiary participation in the design process, but because society has different economic and social texture and classes; and settling suit because of the time and place of special indexes are entitled, so prepare a comprehensive model includes the testimony and circumstances; identify factors influencing participation optimum need to selection population and certain species of private construction. Standard tool to study topic does not exist, so in order to produce tools using qualitative research methods; interpretation - historical correlation to extract components and variables and their effects on each other and enjoyed target table Content consisting of four domains of general knowledge - specialized knowledge of participation - participation mechanisms and factors influencing participation achieved. Extracted factors are: the initial formation of partnership - partnership executive process - the role of participant - optimal participation; by study and analyze the theoretical model. Due to history and social aspects; cultural participation in Shiraz; promote scientific and participatory approach designed to make operating housing; bed and new horizons of development of facilities and areas in the design of residential environment created and due consultation and decision making in addition to beneficiary participation to promote optimum utility of space; mutual flexibility and utilization of space; increase fixation and motivation will lead beneficiary reside” and the main question: “how is the model of scientific position optimal participation planning instrument in private housing in the city of Shiraz, in the process of design, implementation and use”.

  9. Socio-demographic correlates of participation in mammography: a survey among women aged between 35- 69 in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Ahmadian, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The rates of breast cancer have increased over the past two decades, and this raises concern about physical, psychological and social well-being of women with breast cancer. Further, few women really want to do breast cancer screening. We here investigated the socio-demographic correlates of mammography participation among 400 asymptomatic Iranian women aged between 35 and 69. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the four outpatient clinics of general hospitals in Tehran during the period from July through October, 2009. Bi-variate analyses and multi-variate binary logistic regression were employed to find the socio- demographic predictors of mammography utilization among participants. The rate of mammography participation was 21.5% and relatively high because of access to general hospital services. More women who had undergone mammography were graduates from university or college, had full-time or part-time employment, were insured whether public or private, reported a positive family history of breast cancer, and were in the middle income level (P women was in the age range of 41 to 50 years. The results of multivariate logistic regression further showed that education (95%CI: 0.131-0.622), monthly income (95%CI: 0.038-0.945), and family history of breast cancer (95%CI: 1.97-9.28) were significantly associated (all P successful screening program is participation. Using a random sample, this study found that the potential predictor variables of mammography participation included a higher education level, a middle income level, and a positive family history of breast cancer for Iranian women after adjusting for all other demographic variables in the model.

  10. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation for women with chronic conditions in France: results from a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Panayotis; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2016-03-31

    Comorbidity at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival among women suffering from cervical or breast cancer. Although cancer screening practices have proven their efficacy for mortality reduction, little is known about adherence to screening recommendations for women suffering from chronic conditions. We investigated the association between eleven chronic conditions and adherence to cervical and breast cancer screening recommendations in France. Using data from a cross-sectional national health survey conducted in 2008, we analyzed screening participation taking into account self-reported: inflammatory systemic disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, osteoarthritis and thyroid disorders. We first computed age-standardized screening rates among women who reported each condition. We then estimated the effect of having reported each condition on adherence to screening recommendations in logistic regression models, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours, healthcare access and healthcare use. Finally, we investigated the association between chronic conditions and opportunistic versus organized breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were conducted among 4226 women for cervical cancer screening and 2056 women for breast cancer screening. Most conditions studied were not associated with screening participation. Adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations was higher for cancer survivors (OR = 1.73 [0.98-3.05]) and lower for obese women (OR = 0.73 [0.57-0.93]), when accounting for our complete range of screening determinants. Women reporting chronic respiratory disease or diabetes participated less in cervical cancer screening, except when adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations was lower for

  11. The impact on attitudes towards cultural difference of participation in a health focused study abroad program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, A; Rolls, C; Kristy, S

    2000-01-01

    The changes in attitudes towards cultural difference of seventeen participants in a three-week community health study abroad program to Nepal were compared with the changes in attitudes of a similar group who did not participate in the tour. Participants in the tour group were surveyed eight weeks prior to departure and in the last week of the tour using a twenty-six item questionnaire employing a six-point forced-choice response scale. The responses of participants in the tour group showed significant shifts in relation to eight items compared while the responses for the control group showed no significant shifts. Observed student advantages of participation in this study tour included the development of independent behaviour and positive cultural adjustment and adaptation.

  12. Sport Participation of Preschool Children and Parents Influence (2) : A Comparative Study on Sport-school Participants and Non-participants

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 富雄; Tomio, Maruyama; 仙台大学; SENDAI COLLEGE

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify a mechanism of sport participation of preschool children. Three items composed of parents' social achieved status, parents' interest in sport and parents' educational eagerness were investigated. Data were collected from 271 parents whose children attended kindergarten at Tokyo (sport-school participants 129, non-participants 142). As the results, participants' group was higher than non-participants' at all three items. Thus, it seems that sport partic...

  13. Practices of parental participation : a case study \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    The nature of parental participation in children's education is changing rapidly. A growing body of research points to the positive effect that parental involvement has on outcomes of schooling and on children's well-being. This paper examines parental participation practices in terms of parents working together with a range of professionals, exchanging knowledge and information regarding their child's SEN, challenging practices, and negotiating SEN provision. The parents in this study exerci...

  14. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  15. Participating in university entrance exam despite repeated failure: a qualitative study of participants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigh, Ruohollah; Abdollahpour, Esmat; Azarnik, Somayeh; Shariati, Behnam; Keshavarz-Akhlaghi, Amir-Abbas

    2016-10-22

    To explore the experiences of general practitioners who continue to sit a highly-competitive residency entrance examination, despite repeated failure. This qualitative, exploratory study employed semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 35 candidates of a residency entrance exam who had failed the examination at least twice and were preparing to sit it again. Interview questions addressed the challenges they faced and how they managed these challenges. Interview data were audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed to identify themes. The results demonstrated that more than 50% (n=19) of candidates struggled continuously and internally with different aspects of the exam. These include being under a great deal of pressure to succeed, failing to prioritize study materials, inefficient review during the final days  of preparation, and sitting the exam with an afflicted body. Furthermore, during the examination, they frequently used inefficient strategies to answer questions. Afterwards, they experienced feelings of freedom associated with having finished the exam. Participation in a highly-competitive examination exerts a considerable amount pressure on low-performing candidates. This climate not only results in burn out of participants, but it also influences their learning styles and identities as future physicians. It is therefore necessary to design a syllabus for both test candidates and policy makers, in order better to manage this environment. Candidates also should be aware of their individual weaknesses in order to improve their studying skills.

  16. Sport Participation and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Angela M; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Mann, Michael J; Smith, Megan L; Allegrante, John P

    2017-03-01

    We examined the relation- ship between sport participation and academic achievement in a sample of adolescents, while accounting for socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. We analyzed data from a cohort of 271 Mid-Atlantic high school students who participated in a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors for substance use, teen parenting, and school drop out. Sport participation at year one predicted academic achievement in English (p academic achievement at year one. In both instances over other independent variables and covariates in the models, sport participation explains almost 7% of additional variance in the outcomes variables. We also found a positive relationship for participants who reported parents with some college experience as opposed to parents with no college experience, between sport participation and grades in English (p academic achievement but the relationship diverges when students are compared across sex and by parental education. These findings suggest that the relation ship between sport participation and academic achievement may be influenced by SES and is related to sex.

  17. Who does not participate in telehealth trials and why? A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Alexis; Horspool, Kimberley A; Edwards, Louisa; Thomas, Clare L; Salisbury, Chris; Montgomery, Alan A; O'Cathain, Alicia

    2015-06-05

    Telehealth interventions use information and communication technology to provide clinical support. Some randomised controlled trials of telehealth report high patient decline rates. A large study was undertaken to determine which patients decline to participate in telehealth trials and their reasons for doing so. Two linked randomised controlled trials were undertaken, one for patients with depression and one for patients with raised cardiovascular disease risk (the Healthlines Study). The trials compared usual care with additional support delivered by the telephone and internet. Patients were recruited via their general practice and could return a form about why they were not participating. Of the patients invited, 82.9% (20,021/24,152) did not accept the study invite, either by returning a decline form (n = 7134) or by not responding (n = 12,887). In both trials patients registered at deprived general practices were less likely to accept the study invite. Decline forms were received from 29.5% (7134/24,152) of patients invited. There were four frequently reported types of reasons for declining. The most common was telehealth-related: 54.7% (3889/,7115) of decliners said they did not have access or the skills to use the internet and/or computers. This was more prevalent amongst older patients and patients registered at deprived general practices. The second was health need-related: 40.1% (n = 2852) of decliners reported that they did not need additional support for their health condition. The third was related to life circumstances: 27.2% (n = 1932) of decliners reported being too busy. The fourth was research-related: 15.3% (n = 1092) of decliners were not interested in the research. A large proportion of patients declining participation in these telehealth trials did so because they were unable to engage with telehealth or did not perceive a need for it. This has implications for engagement with telehealth in routine practice, as well as for trials, with a need

  18. Grandparenting and mothers' labour force participation: A comparative analysis using the Generations and Gender Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnstein Aassve

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is well known that the provision of public childcare plays an important role for women labour force participation and its availability varies tremendously across countries. In many countries, informal childcare is also important and typically provided by the grandparents, but its role on mothers' employment is not yet well understood. Understanding the relationship between labour supply decisions and grandparental childcare is complex. While the provision of grandparental childcare is clearly a function of the social and institutional context of a country, it also depends on family preferences, which are typically unobserved in surveys. OBJECTIVE We analyze the role of informal childcare provided by grandparents on mothers' labour force participation keeping unobserved preferences into account. METHODS Bivariate probit models with instrumental variables are estimated on data from seven countries (Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Russia and The Netherlands drawn from the Generations and Gender Survey. RESULTS We find that only in some countries mothers' employment is positively and significantly associated with grandparents providing childcare. In other countries, once we control for unobserved preferences, we do not find this effect. CONCLUSIONS The role of grandparents is an important element to reconcile work and family for women in some countries. Our results show the importance of considering family preferences and country differences when studying the relationship between grandparental childcare and mothers' labour supply. COMMENTS Our results are consistent with previous research on this topic. However, differently from previous studies, we conduct separate analyses by country and show that the effect of grandparental childcare varies considerably. The fact that we also include in the analyses Bulgaria, Hungary, Russia and Georgia is an important novelty as there are no studies on this issue

  19. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of American Indian Tribal College Students Participating in a Tribal College Tobacco and Behavioral Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won S; Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M; Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2016-06-01

    American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and

  20. Association between social participation and hypertension among older people in Japan: the JAGES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Aki; Inoue, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Takeo; Stickley, Andrew; Shirai, Kokoro; Amemiya, Airi; Kondo, Naoki; Watanabe, Chiho; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-11-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the world. Although previous studies have focused on individual-level behavioral risk factors associated with hypertension, there has been little research on how interacting with others, that is social participation, affects hypertension. To address this research gap, this study examined the association between social participation and hypertension in Japan, a country with a high prevalence of hypertension possibly linked to rapid population aging. Data were used from 4582 participants aged more than 65 years who participated in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Survey (JAGES) with blood pressure data collected during a health check-up. The frequency of participation in vertical organizations (characterized by hierarchical relationships) and horizontal organizations (characterized by non-hierarchical, egalitarian relationships) was measured by a questionnaire. In a Poisson regression analysis, participation in vertical organizations was not associated with hypertension, whereas participation in horizontal organizations at least once a month was inversely associated with hypertension (prevalence ratio: 0.941). This association remained significant after adjusting for social support variables, although further adjustment for health behaviors attenuated the association. As the frequency of going out and average time spent walking were both associated with hypertension, physical activity may be a possible pathway that connects social participation and hypertension. The results of this study suggest that expanding social participation programs, especially those involving horizontal organizations, may be one way to promote better health among older people in Japan.

  1. Participants' safety versus confidentiality: A case study of HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel; Feijoo-Cid, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Background When conducting qualitative research, participants usually share lots of personal and private information with the researcher. As researchers, we must preserve participants' identity and confidentiality of the data. Objective To critically analyze an ethical conflict encountered regarding confidentiality when doing qualitative research. Research design Case study. Findings and discussion one of the participants in a study aiming to explain the meaning of living with HIV verbalized his imminent intention to commit suicide because of stigma of other social problems arising from living with HIV. Given the life-threatening situation, the commitment related to not disclosing the participant's identity and/or the content of the interview had to be broken. To avoid or prevent suicide, the therapist in charge of the case was properly informed about the participant's intentions. One important question arises from this case: was it ethically appropriate to break the confidentiality commitment? Conclusion confidentiality could be broken if a life-threatening event is identified during data collection and participants must know that. This has to be clearly stated in the informed consent form.

  2. Low Rice Intake Is Associated with Proteinuria in Participants of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Jin; Lee, So Young; Sung, Su Ah; Chin, Ho Jun; Lee, Sung Woo

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of proteinuria in the Asian population. On the basis of the association between rice intake patterns and chronic diseases, we hypothesized that rice intake patterns are associated with proteinuria in the Asian population. Data, including data regarding rice intake frequency and dipstick urinalysis results, from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007 were analyzed. The study involved 19,824 participants who were older than 20 years of age. Low rice intake was defined as consumption of rice ≤ 1 time/day. Proteinuria was defined as dipstick urinalysis protein ≥ 1 positive. Among the 19,824 participants, the prevalence of low rice intake and proteinuria were 17.3% and 2.9%, respectively. The low rice intake group showed a higher rate of proteinuria than the non-low rice intake group did (3.8% vs. 2.7%, P proteinuria was 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-1.89; P proteinuria in the Asian population, which might have been affected by the associations of low rice intake with high blood pressure and diabetes. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.

  3. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myroniuk, Tyler W; Anglewicz, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health and/or vice versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined. Little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2,328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15 to 80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  4. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingmar; Pawels, Marc; Küver, Claudia; Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no

  6. Emotion processing and social participation following stroke: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Clare L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF defines participation as a person’s performance in life situations, including the size of social networks, and satisfaction with social contacts. Stroke survivors are known to experience a reduction in the number of their social networks and contacts, which cannot be explained solely in terms of activity limitations caused by physical impairment. Problems of emotional processing, including impaired mood, emotion regulation and emotion perception, are known to occur following stroke and can detrimentally influence many aspects of social interaction and participation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether emotion processing impairments predict stroke survivors’ restricted social participation, independent of problems with activity limitation. Methods/design We aim to recruit 125 patients admitted to NHS Grampian with a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. All participants will be assessed on measures of emotion processing, social participation and activity limitation at approximately one month post stroke and again at approximately one year post stroke in order to assess change over time. Discussion It is important to develop a greater understanding of the emotional factors which may underlie key social deficits in stroke recovery in an ageing population where stroke is one of the leading causes of severe, complex disability. This research may enable us to identify those who are risk of participation restriction and target them in the acute stroke phase of stroke so that adverse outcome is avoided and rehabilitation potential is fulfilled.

  7. Baseline participation in a health examination survey of the population 65 years and older: who is missed and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Beate; Seitz, Ina; Fuchs, Judith; Busch, Markus A; Holzhausen, Martin; Martus, Peter; Scheidt-Nave, Christa

    2016-01-19

    Public health monitoring depends on valid health and disability estimates in the population 65+ years. This is hampered by high non-participation rates in this age group. There is limited insight into size and direction of potential baseline selection bias. We analyzed baseline non-participation in a register-based random sample of 1481 inner-city residents 65+ years, invited to a health examination survey according to demographics available for the entire sample, self-report information as available and reasons for non-participation. One year after recruitment, non-responders were revisited to assess their reasons. Five groups defined by participation status were differentiated: participants (N = 299), persons who had died or moved (N = 173), those who declined participation, but answered a short questionnaire (N = 384), those who declined participation and the short questionnaire (N = 324), and non-responders (N = 301). The results confirm substantial baseline selection bias with significant underrepresentation of persons 85+ years, persons in residential care or from disadvantaged neighborhoods, with lower education, foreign citizenship, or lower health-related quality of life. Finally, reasons for non-participation could be identified for 78% of all non-participants, including 183 non-responders. A diversity in health problems and barriers to participation exists among non-participants. Innovative study designs are needed for public health monitoring in aging populations.

  8. [Children's participation in biomedical research. A planned survey of 541 parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutertre, J P; Barbier, P; Jonville, A P; Granbastien, B; Pierre, F; Berger, C; Autret, E

    1993-01-01

    We have interviewed the parents of children born at two maternity hospitals to evaluate the knowledge of parents concerning the French Huriet law and their consent to the participation of their child in a randomized therapeutic trial. The inquiry was conducted between 15 February and 30 April 1991. Each couple of parents of whom the mother had given birth in one of the hospitals was sent an explanatory letter and a questionnaire on the second day after delivery. Parents who were unable to read adequately and those whose baby was ill were excluded from the study. The main questions were: age of parents, country of origin, education, profession, social insurance, frequency of medical consulting, their knowledge of the Huriet law, the source of that knowledge, their attitude to giving parental consent for their child to participate in a trial, the reasons for their consent or refusal. Five hundred and eighty two questionnaires were distributed but only 541 were used. 73% of the parents said they knew that drugs were tested on volunteers. 59% claimed to know of the Huriet law, through the media (75%), their practitionist (12%), their environment (8%). 21% of the parents would consent to one of their children participating in such trial; 74% would refuse. Both parents were in agreement in 79% of cases, 12% of them for consent. The main reasons for refusal were the risk for side-effects of the drug (75%), lack of proof for efficacy (49%), disagreement in principle (19%). The mothers who consented were older than those who refused. The members of the "consent" group were more highly educated. Law Huriet is still inadequately understood in France. Pediatricians should consider how best to provide parents and the media with better information before trying to obtain parental consent.

  9. Volunteer feedback and perceptions after participation in a phase I, first-in-human Ebola vaccine trial: An anonymous survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne Dayer

    Full Text Available The continued participation of volunteers in clinical trials is crucial to advances in healthcare. Few data are available regarding the satisfaction and impressions of healthy volunteers after participation in phase I trials, many of which lead to unexpected adverse events. We report feedback from over 100 adult volunteers who took part in a first-in-human trial conducted in a high-income country testing an experimental Ebola vaccine causing significant reactogenicity, as well as unexpected arthritis in one fifth of participants. The anonymous, internet-based satisfaction survey was sent by email to all participants upon their completion of this one-year trial; it asked 24 questions concerning volunteers' motivations, impressions of the trial experience, and overall satisfaction. Answers were summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 115 trial participants, 103 (90% filled out the survey. Fifty-five respondents (53% were male. Thirty-five respondents (34% were healthcare workers, many of whom would deploy to Ebola-affected countries. All respondents cited scientific advancement as their chief motivation for participation, while 100/103 (97% and 61/103 (59% reported additional "humanitarian reasons" and potential protection from Ebolavirus, respectively. Although investigators had documented adverse events in 97% of trial participants, only 74 of 103 respondents (72% recalled experiencing an adverse event. All reported an overall positive experience, and 93/103 (90% a willingness to participate in future trials. Given the high level of satisfaction, no significant associations could be detected between trial experiences and satisfaction, even among respondents reporting adverse events lasting weeks or months. Despite considerable reactogenicity and unexpected vaccine-related arthritis, all survey respondents reported overall satisfaction. While this trial's context was unique, the positive feedback is likely due at least in part to the

  10. Representativeness of participants in a lifestyle intervention study in obese pregnant women - the difference between study participants and non-participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesche, Joanna; Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the representativeness of participants attending a lifestyle intervention study addressing obese pregnant women. METHODS: Retrospective comparison of baseline data, attendance to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy, and pregnancy outcome in eligible women...... stratified according to study participation. Of 750 eligible women with a self-reported BMI > 30 kg/m(2), and a live singleton pregnancy, 510 were eligible for inclusion and 425 were randomized to either active intervention (n= 284) or to standard obstetric care (n= 141) including two standard OGTT. The 85......, gestational age as well as mode of delivery. CONCLUSION: Women declining participation in a randomized lifestyle intervention study in pregnancy have characteristics indicating they are those who might benefit the most from lifestyle intervention....

  11. Improving global monitoring of vaccine safety: a survey of national centres participating in the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Megan; Wells, George; Walop, Wikke; Duclos, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring (PIDM) was established in 1968 following the thalidomide disaster. The PIDM has had considerable success in analyzing drug-related adverse event reports, but more limited progress has been made in analyzing vaccine-related reports. In June 2005, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, acknowledging these limitations, called for a global consultation to address the need for improved monitoring and analysis of vaccine-related adverse event reports on an international level. In preparation for this consultation and as part of a larger study designed to evaluate the PIDM, a survey of the National Pharmacovigilance Centres of all 76 countries participating in the PIDM at the time the survey was conducted. Thirty-six countries (47%) responded. Of the 36 responding countries, 16 (44%) reported having a separate surveillance system for adverse events following immunizations (AEFIs) and 30 (83%) reported forwarding AEFI reports to the PIDM. Seven of the 36 countries (19%) indicated that one or more population subgroups are systematically excluded from their country's AEFI surveillance system. Five of the seven countries exclude reports concerning recipients of travellers' vaccines; three exclude recipients of vaccines administered by private physicians outside the national immunization programme and supply scheme; and five exclude reports from the military sector. Only half of the respondents knew of the Brighton Collaboration, a major international initiative aimed at the standardization of AEFI definitions. The survey identified critical elements that should be addressed quickly to improve global vaccine safety monitoring. Communication between national adverse drug reaction and AEFI surveillance authorities, ability to pay for advancing technology in developing countries, and proper use of services and terminologies are issues of concern.

  12. Participation and factors associated with late or non-response to an online survey in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny-Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; García-Riolobos, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    Online surveys have several advantages, but a low response rate is common and it is uncertain how results are affected. Response inducement techniques can be used to overcome this problem. The objectives of this study were to describe the percentage of change in the response rate after reminders and to analyse the characteristics associated with non-response and late response based on the survey results, as well as by applying archival and extrapolation techniques. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, an online questionnaire about cancer prevention was sent to a random sample of primary care health professionals (3586 physicians and nurses). Two reminders were sent later. The percentage of change in response rates after reminders, global and by demographic and health care characteristics of participants; and factors associated with non-response and late response were analysed using response rates and odds ratios (ORs). After the reminders, the response rate increased from 22.6% to 32.9% and to 39.4%. Non-response was associated with age [OR: 3.14; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 2.23-4.42 for aged >60 years], gender and functional area. Further, a higher response rate after reminders was observed in professionals with heavier workloads (OR: 1.46; CI 95%: 1.08-1.97) and in those who stated a lower relevance of cancer prevention in primary care. After electronic reminders, the response rate increased, especially among professionals with the highest workloads and a minor interest in the survey topic. However, possible bias associated with non-response remains and the factors behind this should be examined in future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards antenatal vaccines, group B Streptococcus and clinical trial participation in pregnancy: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Fiona; Jones, Christine; Stevens, Zoe; Plumb, Jane; Hughes, Rhona; Bedford, Helen; Voysey, Merryn; Heath, Paul T; Snape, Matthew D

    2016-04-20

    To explore factors influencing the likelihood of antenatal vaccine acceptance of both routine UK antenatal vaccines (influenza and pertussis) and a hypothetical group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in order to improve understanding of how to optimise antenatal immunisation acceptance, both in routine use and clinical trials. An online survey distributed to women of childbearing age in the UK. 1013 women aged 18-44 years in England, Scotland and Wales. Data from an online survey conducted to gauge the attitudes of 1013 women of childbearing age in England, Scotland and Wales to antenatal vaccination against GBS were further analysed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status, parity and age on attitudes to GBS immunisation, using attitudes to influenza and pertussis vaccines as reference immunisations. Factors influencing likelihood of participation in a hypothetical GBS vaccine trial were also assessed. Women with children were more likely to know about each of the 3 conditions surveyed (GBS: 45% vs 26%, pertussis: 79% vs 63%, influenza: 66% vs 54%), to accept vaccination (GBS: 77% vs 65%, pertussis: 79% vs 70%, influenza: 78% vs 68%) and to consider taking part in vaccine trials (37% vs 27% for a hypothetical GBS vaccine tested in 500 pregnant women). For GBS, giving information about the condition significantly increased the number of respondents who reported that they would be likely to receive the vaccine. Health professionals were the most important reported source of information. Increasing awareness about GBS, along with other key strategies, would be required to optimise the uptake of a routine vaccine, with a specific focus on informing women without previous children. More research specifically focusing on acceptability in pregnant women is required and, given the value attached to input from healthcare professionals, this group should be included in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  14. Neighborhood information exchange and voter participation: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Großer, J.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of social embeddedness on voter turnout by investigating the role of information about other voters' decisions. We do so in a participation game, in which we distinguish between early and late voters. Each late voter is told about one early voter's turnout decision. Cases are

  15. Participants' views of telephone interviews within a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kim; Gott, Merryn; Hoare, Karen

    2015-12-01

    To offer a unique contribution to the evolving debate around the use of the telephone during semistructured interview by drawing on interviewees' reflections on telephone interview during a grounded theory study. The accepted norm for qualitative interviews is to conduct them face-to-face. It is typical to consider collecting qualitative data via telephone only when face-to-face interview is not possible. During a grounded theory study, exploring users' experiences with overnight mask ventilation for sleep apnoea, the authors selected the telephone to conduct interviews. This article reports participants' views on semistructured interview by telephone. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on data pertaining to the use of the telephone interview in a grounded theory study. The data were collected during 4 months of 2011 and 6 months in 2014. The article presents an inductive thematic analysis of sixteen participants' opinions about telephone interviewing and discusses these in relation to existing literature reporting the use of telephone interviews in grounded theory studies. Overall, participants reported a positive experience of telephone interviewing. From each participants reports we identified four themes from the data: being 'phone savvy; concentrating on voice instead of your face; easy rapport; and not being judged or feeling inhibited. By drawing on these data, we argue that the telephone as a data collection tool in grounded theory research and other qualitative methodologies need not be relegated to second best status. Rather, researchers can consider telephone interview a valuable first choice option. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Methods to study mindful awareness and participation in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Svinth, Lone; Petersen, Freja Filine

    the question “how mindful awareness practices in educational settings influence participation and wellbeing?”, and we explore what kinds of knowledge different qualitative and quantitative research methods have produced in empirical studies of mindful awareness practices in education in Denmark....

  17. Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-03-24

    To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in 'missing' or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a

  18. Self-assessed health, perceived stress and non-participation in breast cancer screening: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    and subsequent non-participation in breast cancer screening. Methods This population-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who were also the target group (aged 50–69 years) for the first organised breast cancer screening programme -3 years later in the Central...

  19. Comparison of testosterone fractions between Framingham Heart Study participants and Japanese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Masaki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Kouji; Iijima, Masashi; Maeda, Yuji; Matsushita, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-07-01

    To determine testosterone fractions in Japanese men and to compare these values with those of Framingham Heart Study participants. We enrolled 498 healthy Japanese men. Total testosterone was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, sex hormone-binding globulin was assayed by immunoassay and free testosterone was calculated by a laboratory at the Boston Medical Center. Analog-based free testosterone and immunoassay-based total testosterone were determined by immunoassay. We compared mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone and calculated free testosterone values in the Japanese participants with values in the American Framingham Heart Study third generation cohort. The mean serum mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated free testosterone values were 439.4 ± 167 ng/dL, 65.34 ± 30.61 nmol/L, and 58.75 ± 20.0 pg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients with age for mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated free testosterone were 0.0010, 0.5041, and -0.496, respectively. There were no age-related changes in mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone values in healthy men (P = 0.981), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin and calculated free testosterone levels showed similar age-related changes (P free testosterone levels (8.24 ± 2.9 pg/mL) showed age-related changes (P testosterone levels (P = 0.828). Serum immunoassay-based total testosterone values (486.1 ± 162.5 ng/dL) correlated with serum mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone values (r = 0.740, 95% confidence interval 0.6965-0.7781, P free testosterone and calculated free testosterone values showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.706, 95% confidence interval 0.6587-0.7473, P free testosterone values were approximately 10% of the calculated free testosterone values. In contrast to the Framingham

  20. Civic Participation and Self-rated Health: A Cross-national Multi-level Analysis Using the World Value Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859. Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country.

  1. Civic participation and self-rated health: a cross-national multi-level analysis using the world value survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saerom; Kim, Chang-yup; You, Myung Soon

    2015-01-01

    Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859). People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country.

  2. Comparison of participants and non-participants to the ORISCAV-LUX population-based study on cardiovascular risk factors in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkerwi Ala'a

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response is a major concern in public health surveys. In a population-based ORISCAV-LUX study carried out in Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg to assess the cardiovascular risk factors, the non-response rate was not negligible. The aims of the present work were: 1 to investigate the representativeness of study sample to the general population, and 2 to compare the known demographic and cardiovascular health-related profiles of participants and non-participants. Methods For sample representativeness, the participants were compared to the source population according to stratification criteria (age, sex and district of residence. Based on complementary information from the "medical administrative database", further analysis was carried out to assess whether the health status affected the response rate. Several demographic and morbidity indicators were used in the univariate comparison between participants and non-participants. Results Among the 4452 potentially eligible subjects contacted for the study, there were finally 1432 (32.2% participants. Compared to the source population, no differences were found for gender and district distribution. By contrast, the youngest age group was under-represented while adults and elderly were over-represented in the sample, for both genders. Globally, the investigated clinical profile of the non-participants was similar to that of participants. Hospital admission and cardiovascular health-related medical measures were comparable in both groups even after controlling for age. The participation rate was lower in Portuguese residents as compared to Luxembourgish (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.48-0.69. It was also significantly associated with the professional status (P Conclusion The 32.2% participation rate obtained in the ORISCAV-LUX survey represents the realistic achievable rate for this type of multiple-stage, nationwide, population-based surveys. It corresponds to the expected rate upon which the

  3. Understandings of Participation in Behavioural Research: A Qualitative Study of Gay and Bisexual Men in Scotland.

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    Nicola Boydell

    Full Text Available An array of empirical research has emerged related to public participation in health research. To date, few studies have explored the particular perspectives of gay and bisexual men taking part in behavioural surveillance research, which includes the donation of saliva swabs to investigate HIV prevalence and rates of undiagnosed HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-nine gay and bisexual men in Scotland who had participated in a bar-based survey. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their motives for participation and their perceptions of not receiving individual feedback on HIV status suggested a shared understanding of participation in research as a means of contributing to 'community' efforts to prevent the spread of HIV. Most men expressed sophisticated understandings of the purpose of behavioural research and distinguished between this and individual diagnostic testing. Despite calls for feedback on HIV results broadly, for these men feedback on HIV status was not deemed crucial.

  4. Survey of SNMP performance analysis studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrey, Laurent; Festor, Olivier; Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Pras, Aiko; Schönwälder, Jürgen

    This paper provides a survey of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)-related performance studies. Over the last 10 years, a variety of such studies have been published. Performance benchmarking of SNMP, like all benchmarking studies, is a non-trivial task that requires substantial effort to be

  5. Community and social participation among adults with mobility impairments: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Vidya; Brucker, Debra L; Pollack, Megan A; Chang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Community and social participation is a complex phenomenon that is influenced by personal and environmental factors and is linked to a good quality of life and well-being. Individuals with mobility impairments are at risk of experiencing limitations in participating in community activities due to a wide range of factors. To understand community participation as defined by adults with mobility impairments and to examine relationships among factors that influence community participation. A mixed-methods study design was used. In-depth interviews of 13 adults with mobility impairments were conducted and themes related to community participation were identified. Data from the Americans' Changing Lives Survey were used to construct variables that mimic the themes from the qualitative phase and structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among those variables including community participation. Individuals with mobility impairments identified health and function, neighborhood factors and self-efficacy as possible factors influencing participation in community activities. Findings from the SEM suggest a strong causal pathway between health and function and community and social participation. Neighborhood factors and health and function had a significant impact on self-efficacy, and a possible indirect effect through self-efficacy on community and social participation. Our study provides new empirical evidence that health and function have a significant impact on community and social participation. Our quantitative findings did not support the direct influence of neighborhood factors in community and social participation, yet these factors may have an indirect role by influencing the self-efficacy of individuals with mobility impairments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of life and participation restrictions, a study in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ruth; Iório, Maria Cecilia Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    According to the IBGE, Brazil had 21 million elderly persons in 2008. To study the effects of speech therapy - fitting of hearing aids - on the quality of life of elderly persons and restriction of participation according to sex and age. 50 elderly subjects, 23 females and 27 males, were allocated to Group 1 and Group 2, and were assessed with questionnaires (HHIE and SF 36) before and one year after fitting hearing aids; subjects were monitored every two months. The HHIE Social and Emotional Scale was significant with regards to sex and age after fitting hearing aids. The SF 36 results after fitting hearing aids were significant in six of eight test aspects. Two test aspects were not significant after fitting hearing aids; pain, however, was significant in the elderly group 2. There is little awareness of participation restrictions after the HHIE intervention. There is improvement in quality of life after rehabilitation. Retrospective study.

  7. Non-participation modestly increased with distance to the examination clinic among adults in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Saarsalmi, Perttu; Härkänen, Tommi; Jousilahti, Pekka; Karvanen, Juha; Männistö, Satu; Tolonen, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Health examination surveys (HES) provide important information about population health and health-related factors, but declining participation rates threaten the representativeness of collected data. It is hard to conduct national HESs at examination clinics near to every sampled individual. Thus, it is interesting to look into the possible association between the distance from home to the examination clinic and non-participation, and whether there is a certain distance after which the participation activity decreases considerably. Data from two national HESs conducted in Finland in 2011 and 2012 were used and a logistic regression model was fitted to investigate how distance was related to non-participation. We found out that non-participation modestly increased with distance to the examination clinic. An additional analysis indicated that the option of having an examination at home may decrease the effect of distance to participation. Long distances from home to the examination clinic are one reason for low participation activity. Possible bias caused by these differences in participation could be decreased by providing the option of a home examination.

  8. Quality of life and participation restrictions, a study in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Ruth; Iório, Maria Cecilia Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    According to the IBGE, Brazil had 21 million elderly persons in 2008. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of speech therapy - fitting of hearing aids - on the quality of life of elderly persons and restriction of participation according to sex and age. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 50 elderly subjects, 23 females and 27 males, were allocated to Group 1 and Group 2, and were assessed with questionnaires (HHIE and SF 36) before and one year after fitting hearing aids; subjects were monitored every two month...

  9. The effect of student participation in international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDee, Lynda S; Stewart, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Comparative Nursing in England and France is taught at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh every winter interim, usually departing shortly after Christmas and returning the second week in January. A convenience sample of 38 nursing alumni who have completed the same 2-week international study tour during the past 5 years completed the International Education Survey (IES) developed at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire School of Nursing. The IES examines the impact of the international experience on the professional nurse role, international perspectives, personal development, and intellectual development.

  10. Survey of Participants in the Gulf of Mexico Grouper-Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data includes qualitative responses regarding participant satisfaction with the IFQ, changes in fishing operations due to IFQ, hiring crew, and availability of...

  11. "Telling" and assent: Parents' attitudes towards children's participation in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ri, Izen; Suda, Eiko; Yamagata, Zentaro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Muto, Kaori

    2018-02-01

    One of the ethical issues surrounding birth cohort studies is how to obtain informed assent from children as they grow up. What and how parents tell their children affects children's future choices about the study, yet few studies have focused on parents' influence on children. This study examines parents' attitudes towards telling their children about their participation in a specific birth cohort study. We conducted surveys and in-depth interviews with the parents of children who participated in the "Japan Environment and Children's Study" (JECS), which follows children from the foetal stage to age 13. Forty-four mothers and 23 fathers answered the survey, and 11 mothers and 3 fathers participated in in-depth interviews. Parents' attitudes towards "telling" were categorized into 3 communication styles depending on their perception of the risk/benefits for their children. Most parents predicted that the study would benefit their children and preferred "directive telling," which we divided into "empowered telling" (provides children with a positive identity as participants) and "persuasive telling" (attempts to persuade children even if they express reluctance as they grow). A few parents, weighing the study's potential risk, preferred "non-directive telling," which respects children's choices even if that means withdrawing from the study. While "directive telling" may lead children to have positive associations with the study, children should also be told about the risks. Investigators can provide materials that support parents and give children age-appropriate information about their participation, as well as ensure opportunities for children to express their feelings. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Participation in sports teams and suicidal behavior: an analysis of the 1995 national college health risk behavior survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2014-08-01

    A 1995 data set from a survey of college students carried out by the Centers for Disease Control was examined to explore whether participation in sports was associated with recent suicidal behavior. Overall, participation in college sports was associated with a reduced incidence of suicidal ideation in the past year, but had no association with attempted suicide in the past year. However, this protective effect was found for European American students, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans, but not for African Americans, and was stronger for male students than for female students.

  13. A survey of referee participation, training and injury in elite gaelic games referees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blake, Catherine; Sherry, James; Gissane, Conor

    2009-01-01

    ...) prevalence of Gaelic games injury in these officials. A retrospective survey was posted to the complete list of 111 male referees who officiated in elite-level competition in Gaelic football and hurling at the end of the 2005 competition season...

  14. Predictors of Participation of Sophomore Medical Students in a Health-Promoting Intervention: An Observational Study.

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    Thomas Kötter

    Full Text Available Medical students and doctors have to be particularly stress-resilient, as both medical education and practice are considered very stressful. Specific stressors can lead to increased risks of developing, for example, depression, anxiety and burnout. Relaxation techniques have proven to be effective for the prevention of these outcomes in student populations. However, only a very few medical students practice relaxation techniques regularly early on in their studies. Furthermore, it is unclear which students make use of stress-management offers and hence whether vulnerable students are generally reachable. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore predictors of participating in a voluntary stress management course for sophomore medical students. One cohort of freshmen at a German medical school was surveyed at the end of the freshman year [t1] and at the end of the sophomore year [t2]. In addition to sociodemographic information, we captured perceived study stress, self-rated general health and mental health and dimensions of study-related behaviour and experience as potential predictors of participation at t1. During the sophomore year, we offered the participants a progressive muscle relaxation (PMR beginners' course. At t2, we registered participation status. We used binary logistic regression analyses in order to assess correlations between potential predictors and participation. About one third of the whole class took part in the course. The main reason for non-participation was "no time". Being female and higher levels of anxiety were the strongest predictors of course participation. Career ambition (the higher, the less likely to participate and emotional distancing (the higher, the more likely to participate were further significant predictors. Future interventions should be attractive to both male and female medical students. Ideally, for every hour of stress management teaching, the curriculum should be cut by at least the same

  15. Changes in sport and physical activity participation for adolescent females: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Harvey, Jack T; Sawyer, Neroli A; Craike, Melinda J; Symons, Caroline M; Payne, Warren R

    2016-07-08

    Participation in sport and physical activity is reported to decline during adolescence, particularly for females. However we do not have a clear understanding of changes in the context (i.e., modes and settings) of participation throughout adolescence. This study investigated longitudinal changes in physical activity participation and the specific modes and settings of physical activity, together with cross-sectional comparisons, for two age cohorts of female adolescents. Survey of 729 adolescent girls (489 recruited in Year 7 and 243 in Year 11). Participation in eight different modes/settings was reported. PA was measured using 24-h recall diary and metabolic equivalent weighted energy expenditure (MET-min) in Leisure Time Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity (LTMVPA) on the previous day was calculated. There were no significant changes in duration or total MET-min of LTMVPA on previous day. However, there were significant changes in the modes/settings of participation across time. Participation in school physical education rose during early adolescence before decreasing significantly, and participation in competitive sport and club sport significantly decreased over time; however there were increases in non-competitive forms of physical activity. Overall levels of physical activity did not significantly decrease over adolescence, which is positive for physical health. However, the transition from structured sport to non-organised physical activity may effect social and psychological health, which needs to be further examined.

  16. Effects of participation in the WIC program on birthweight: evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Duncan, Greg J

    2002-05-01

    This study sought to estimate the impact on birthweight of maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). WIC estimates were based on sibling models incorporating data on children born between 1990 and 1996 to women taking part in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Fixed-effects estimates indicated that prenatal WIC participation was associated with a 0.075 unit difference (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.007, 0.157) in siblings' logged birthweight. At the 88-oz (2464-g) low-birthweight cutoff, this difference translated into an estimated impact of 6.6 oz (184.8 g). Earlier WIC impact estimates may have been biased by unmeasured characteristics affecting both program participation and birth outcomes. Our approach controlled for such biases and revealed a significant positive association between WIC participation and birthweight.

  17. How did partners experience cancer patients' participation in a phase I study? An observational study after a patient's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenberg, Simone M C H; Peters, Marlies E W J; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Wymenga, Anke N Machteld; Prins, Judith B; van Herpen, Carla M L

    2016-06-01

    It can be assumed that patients' participation in a phase I study will have an important impact on their partners' life. However, evaluation of partners' experiences while patients are undergoing experimental treatment and of their well-being after the patient's death is lacking. We aimed to explore partners' experience of patients' participation in phase I studies and to investigate their well-being after a patient's death. This was an observational study conducted after the patient's death. Partners of deceased patients who had participated in a phase I study completed a questionnaire designed by us for experience evaluation and the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Inventory of Traumatic Grief, and the RAND-36 Health Survey. The median age of the 58 participating partners was 58 years (range: 51-65), and 67% was female. Partners reported negative effects on patients' quality of life, but only 5% of partners regretted patients' participation. Approximately two years after the patients' death, 19% of partners scored for depression, 36% for psychological distress, and 46% for complicated grief, and partners generally scored significantly lower on social and mental functioning compared to normative comparators. Although partners reported negative consequences on patients' quality of life, most did not regret patients' participation in the phase I studies. Prevalence of depression, psychological distress, and complicated grief seemed important problems after a patient's death, and these must be considered when shaping further support for partners of patients participating in phase I trials.

  18. Does the sequence of data collection influence participants' responses to closed and open-ended questions? A methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya; Ritchie, Judith A

    2012-06-01

    The sequence used for collecting quantitative and qualitative data in concurrent mixed-methods research may influence participants' responses. Empirical evidence is needed to determine if the order of data collection in concurrent mixed methods research biases participants' responses to closed and open-ended questions. To examine the influence of the quantitative-qualitative sequence on responses to closed and open-ended questions when assessing the same variables or aspects of a phenomenon simultaneously within the same study phase. A descriptive cross-sectional, concurrent mixed-methods design was used to collect quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interview) data. The setting was a large multi-site health care centre in Canada. A convenience sample of 50 registered nurses was selected and participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two sequences for data collection, quantitative-qualitative or qualitative-quantitative. Independent t-tests were performed to compare the two groups' responses to the survey items. Directed content analysis was used to compare the participants' responses to the interview questions. The sequence of data collection did not greatly affect the participants' responses to the closed-ended questions (survey items) or the open-ended questions (interview questions). The sequencing of data collection, when using both survey and semi-structured interviews, may not bias participants' responses to closed or open-ended questions. Additional research is required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does health differ between participants and non-participants in the MRI-HUNT study, a population based neuroimaging study? The Nord-Trøndelag health studies 1984–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honningsvåg Lasse-Marius

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bias with regard to participation in epidemiological studies can have a large impact on the generalizability of results. Our aim was to investigate the direction and magnitude of potential bias by comparing health-related factors among participants and non-participants in a MRI-study based on HUNT, a large Norwegian health survey. Methods Of 14,033 individuals aged 50–65, who had participated in all three large public health surveys within the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT 1, 2 and 3, 1,560 who lived within 45 minutes of travel from the city of Levanger were invited to a MRI study (MRI-HUNT. The sample of participants in MRI-HUNT (n = 1,006 were compared with those who were invited but did not participate (n = 554 and with those who were eligible but not invited (n = 12,473, using univariate analyses and logistic regression analyses adjusting for age and education level. Results Self-reported health did not differ between the three groups, but participants had a higher education level and were somewhat younger than the two other groups. In the adjusted multivariate analyses, obesity was consistently less prevalent among participants. Significant differences in blood pressure and cholesterol were also found. Conclusion This is the first large population-based study comparing participants and non-participants in an MRI study with regard to general health. The groups were not widely different, but participants had a higher level of education, and were less likely to be obese and have hypertension, and were slightly younger than non-participants. The observed differences between participants and non-invited individuals are probably partly explained by the inclusion criterion that participants had to live within 45 minutes of transport to where the MRI examination took place. One will expect that the participants have somewhat less brain morphological changes related to cardiovascular risk factors than

  20. Dengue risk factors and community participation in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam, a household survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J.; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2008-01-01

    To look for risk factors for dengue and community participation in dengue control in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam, three communes with a low incidence of dengue and three with a high incidence, in Binh Thuan Province, were compared. Knowledge, perception and preventive practice of dengue were

  1. An ethnographic study of participant roles in school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, Thomas P; Zioni-Koren, Vered; Bekerman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    An ethnographic study in a 10th grade remedial class was undertaken in order to discern patterns of school bullying. Twenty 10th graders were observed over the course of one academic year as they interacted with their peers and teachers. The observations helped us identify dispositional and situational factors which influenced participant roles. In-depth interviews of students involved in school bullying showed how participants interpreted and explained their classroom behaviors. The analysis of the data gathered allowed the identification of four main actor roles recognized in the existing literature on bullying-the pure victim, the pure bully, the provocative-victim, and the bystander-as well as the differentiation between aggressive bullies and the bully managers. Most roles fluctuated according to specific circumstances and often appeared to be moderated by the teacher's management style and contextual variables. Some pupils assumed different roles in different contexts, sometimes changing roles within or between episodes. Teacher personality and style also had an impact on the frequencies and types of aggression and victimization. The use of an ethnographic research paradigm is discussed as an important supplement to positivistic studies of school bullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Recruiting participants to walking intervention studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Charlie E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Most researchers who are conducting physical activity trials face difficulties in recruiting participants who are representative of the population or from specific population groups. Participants who are often the hardest to recruit are often those who stand to benefit most (the least active, from ethnic and other minority groups, from neighbourhoods with high levels of deprivation, or have poor health. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature of walking interventions, in order to identify the impact, characteristics, and differential effects of recruitment strategies among particular population groups. Methods We conducted standard searches for studies from four sources, (i electronic literature databases and websites, (ii grey literature from internet sources, (iii contact with experts to identify additional "grey" and other literature, and (iv snowballing from reference lists of retrieved articles. Included studies were randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after experimental or observational qualitative studies, examining the effects of an intervention to encourage people to walk independently or in a group setting, and detailing methods of recruitment. Results Forty seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the descriptions of recruitment in the studies was poor with little detail reported on who undertook recruitment, or how long was spent planning/preparing and implementing the recruitment phase. Recruitment was conducted at locations that either matched where the intervention was delivered, or where the potential participants were asked to attend for the screening and signing up process. We identified a lack of conceptual clarity about the recruitment process and no standard metric to evaluate the effectiveness of recruitment. Conclusion Recruitment concepts, methods, and reporting in walking intervention trials are poorly developed, adding to

  3. Sequential recruitment of study participants may inflate genetic heritability estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, Damia; Gögele, Martin; Schwienbacher, Christine; Caprioli, Giulia; De Grandi, Alessandro; Foco, Luisa; Platzgummer, Stefan; Pramstaller, Peter P; Pattaro, Cristian

    2017-06-01

    After the success of genome-wide association studies to uncover complex trait loci, attempts to explain the remaining genetic heritability (h (2)) are mainly focused on unraveling rare variant associations and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Little attention is paid to the possibility that h (2) estimates are inflated as a consequence of the epidemiological study design. We studied the time series of 54 biochemical traits in 4373 individuals from the Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study, a pedigree-based study enrolling ten participants/day over several years, with close relatives preferentially invited within the same day. We observed distributional changes of measured traits over time. We hypothesized that the combination of such changes with the pedigree structure might generate a shared-environment component with consequent h (2) inflation. We performed variance components (VC) h (2) estimation for all traits after accounting for the enrollment period in a linear mixed model (two-stage approach). Accounting for the enrollment period caused a median h (2) reduction of 4%. For 9 traits, the reduction was of >20%. Results were confirmed by a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis with all VCs included at the same time (one-stage approach). The electrolytes were the traits most affected by the enrollment period. The h (2) inflation was independent of the h (2) magnitude, laboratory protocol changes, and length of the enrollment period. The enrollment process may induce shared-environment effects even under very stringent and standardized operating procedures, causing h (2) inflation. Including the day of participation as a random effect is a sensitive way to avoid overestimation.

  4. Applying the principles of knowledge translation and exchange to inform dissemination of HIV survey results to adolescent participants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Casale, Marisa; Flicker, Sarah; Rogan, Michael

    2013-06-01

    It is widely accepted that researchers have an obligation to inform survey participants of research results. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of various dissemination strategies. The emerging field of knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) may offer insight given its focus on techniques to enhance the effectiveness of communicating evidence-based information. To date, KTE has focused primarily on information exchange between researchers and policy-makers as opposed to study participants; however, there are principles that may be relevant in this new context. This gap in the literature becomes even more salient in the context of public health research where research results can reveal particular misunderstandings or shortcomings in knowledge that threaten to severely compromise participants' health. The objective of this article is to describe how KTE principles were used to inform dissemination of results of a self-administered sexual health survey to adolescent study participants in a resource-deprived, peri-urban area of South Africa. Strategies for enhancing two-way information exchange included constructing interactive dissemination sessions led by young, isiZulu fieldworkers. We also employed techniques to create a safe space for dialogue, encouraged the shared ownership of results and crafted targeted messages. Particularly noteworthy was the benefit accrued by the research team through this process of exchange, including novel explanations for study findings and new ideas for future research.

  5. Sports Participation in Youth as a Predictor of Physical Activity: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie Murphy, Michelle; Rowe, David Anthony; Woods, Catherine B

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of sports related factors to predicting long-term physical activity (PA) are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine tracking of PA during key transition periods in youth and to determine the longitudinal associations between sports club participation and PA. Participants (n = 873, baseline age 10 to 18 years) completed self-report surveys in 2009 and 2014 that included the PACE+ PA tool and sports club participation questions. Spearman correlations assessed PA tracking. ANCOVA analyses examined predictors (sports participation at baseline) of PA (follow-up), adjusting for (a) age and sex; and (b) age, sex, and baseline PA. Tracking of PA was weak-to-moderate (ρ = .16 to .47). Greater sports participation frequency at baseline significantly predicted PA at follow-up (P sports at an elite level had a medium-to-large effect on PA levels 5 years later [d = .75 adjusting for (a); d = .60 adjusting for (b)]. PA should be promoted in youth as tracking coefficients suggest it can, to an extent, continue into later life. The standard achieved in sport has a role in predicting later PA. PA promotion strategies should include frequent, high quality opportunities for sports participation.

  6. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. Methods: A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. Results: The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Conclusion: Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources. PMID:27226663

  7. High school athletic participation, sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy: a regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D F; Miller, K E; Farrell, M P; Melnick, M J; Barnes, G M

    1999-09-01

    To determine whether high school athletic participation among adolescents in Western New York was associated with reduced rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement. A secondary analysis of data from the Family and Adolescent Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of adolescents (ages 13-16 years) from 699 families living in households in Western New York. A general population sample was obtained with characteristics closely matching the census distributions in the area. Interview and survey methods provided data on athletic participation, frequency of sexual relations during the past year, and risk for pregnancy. Bivariate correlations were used to examine relationships among athletic participation, demographic and control variables, and measures of sexual behavior and pregnancy rates. Next, path analyses were done in order to test for hypothesized relationships between athletic participation, sexual behavior, and pregnancy involvement while controlling for age, race, income, family cohesion, and non-athletic forms of extracurricular activity. Variables that were significantly associated with sexual behavior and/or pregnancy involvement were presented for both sexes within the resulting multivariate models. Lower income and higher rates of sexual activity were associated with higher rates of pregnancy involvement for both sexes. Family cohesion was associated with lower sexual activity rates for both sexes. For girls, athletic participation was directly related to reduced frequency of sexual behavior and, indirectly, to pregnancy risk. Male athletes did not exhibit lower rates of sexual behavior and involvement with pregnancy than male non-athletes. Boys who participated in the arts, however, did report lower rates of sexual behavior and, indirectly, less involvement with pregnancy. Female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their non-athletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Among male

  8. Knowledge on Bone Banking among Participants in an Orthopaedic Conference: A Preliminary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, S; Yusof, N; Ramalingam, S; Ng, W M; Mansor, A

    2017-07-01

    Despite increasing use of bone graft in Malaysia, there was still lack of data to quantify knowledge level on bone banking among orthopaedic community who are involved in transplantation related work. Therefore, a survey on awareness in tissue banking specifically bone banking, usage and choice of bone grafts was conducted. From 80 respondents, 82.5% were aware about tissue banking however only 12.5% knew of the existence of tissue banks in Malaysia. Femoral head was the bone allograft most often used as a substitute to autograft. Only 34.8% respondents preferred irradiated bone grafts whilst 46.9% preferred nonirradiated, indicating the need to educate the importance of radiation for sterilising tissues. Exhibition was the most preferred medium for awareness programme to disseminate information about bone banking in the orthopaedic community. The professional awareness is necessary to increase the knowledge on the use of bone graft, hence to increase bone transplantation for musculoskeletal surgeries in the country.

  9. Temporal trends in adults' sports participation patterns in England between 1997 and 2006: the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, E; Chaudhury, M

    2008-11-01

    To examine temporal trends in participation in sport and exercise activities in England between 1997 and 2006 while taking into account wider societal changes. A series of annual cross-sectional surveys. Nationally representative samples of men (n = 27 217) and women (n = 33 721) aged >or=16 years. Any (more than once every 4 weeks) and regular (more than once a week) participation in overall sport and exercise and a number of sport and exercise groupings (eg cycling, swimming, gym and fitness club-based activities (G/FC), racquet sports). Time point (1997/98, 2003/04, 2006) was the main dependent variable. Age-standardised overall regular participation changed from 40.8% in 1997/98 to 41.2% in 2006 for men (multivariable-adjusted participation OR = 1.11 in 2006, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19, por=45 years) (1.25, 1.16 to 1.35, p1997 and 2006 as the result of increases among middle-aged and older adults and decreases among young men. There are no signs that the participation gap between less and more advantaged population groups is narrowing.

  10. Public participation in local alcohol regulation: Findings from a survey of New Zealand communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Maclennan, Brett

    2014-01-01

    In many high-income countries, the responsibility for alcohol regulation is being devolved from central to local governments. Although seeking public input is typically required by law, there remains little empirical evidence on whether and how the public is involved. We investigated public participation in local liquor licensing and related regulation in New Zealand. In 2007, we randomly sampled 2337 residents from the national electoral roll in seven communities and invited them to complete a postal questionnaire assessing their level of general community engagement, whether they had taken action on alcohol issues, and barriers to participation they perceived or encountered. A total of 1372 individuals responded (59% response). Fifty-two percent were current members of community organisations, and 40% had ever taken action on a local issue. Respondents considered alcohol to be a major problem locally, but only 4% had been involved in action to address a problem, whereas 18% had considered taking action. In their communities, 12% and 24%, respectively, felt they could influence the number or location of alcohol outlets. There was little variation across communities. Despite high levels of general community engagement and alcohol being widely regarded as a local problem, few community members reported acting on alcohol issues, and their self-efficacy to effect change was low. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Social participation among older adults (55+) : Results of a survey in the region of South Limburg in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvers, Nicole; Pavlova, Milena; Hajema, KlaasJan; Groot, Wim; Angeli, F.

    2017-01-01

    Social participation may improve the health and well-being of older adults, and may increase the social and human capacity of their communities. This study investigates the level and forms of social participation among older adults (aged 55 years or older) in the region of South Limburg, the

  12. Social participation among older adults (55+) : Results of a survey in the region of South Limburg in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvers, Nicole; Pavlova, Milena; Hajema, KlaasJan; Groot, Wim; Angeli, F.

    2018-01-01

    Social participation may improve the health and well-being of older adults, and may increase the social and human capacity of their communities. This study investigates the level and forms of social participation among older adults (aged 55 years or older) in the region of South Limburg, the

  13. Labor force participation in later life: Evidence from a cross-sectional study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonthorndhada Kusol

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The labor force participation rate is an important indicator of the state of the labor market and a major input into the economy's potential for creating goods and services. The objectives of this paper are to examine the prevalence of labor force participation among older people in Thailand and to investigate the factors affecting this participation. Methods The data for this study were drawn from the '2007 Survey of Older Persons' in Thailand. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with labor force participation. The variables were further examined using multivariate analysis in order to identify the significant predictors of the likelihood of older people participating in the labor force, after controlling for other variables. Results Overall, 30,427 elderly people aged 60 or above were interviewed. More than a third (35% of all respondents had participated in the labor force during the seven days preceding the survey. Respondents who were female (OR = 0.56, those who were older (OR = 0.47 for 70-79 and 0.21 for 80+ years, those who were widowed/divorced (OR = 0.85, those who were living with their children (OR = 0.69, those whose family income was relatively low, and those who worked in government sectors (OR = 0.33 were less likely to participate in the labor force than were their counterparts. On the other hand, those who lived in urban areas (OR = 1.2, those who had a low level of education (OR, secondary level 1.8, primary 2.4, and no schooling 2.5, those who were the head of the household (OR = 1.9, and those who were in debt (OR = 2.3 were more likely be involved in the labor force than their comparison groups. Furthermore, respondents who experienced greater difficulty in daily living, those who suffered from more chronic diseases, and those who assessed their health as poor were less likely to participate in the labor force than their counterparts. Conclusion Labor force participation in

  14. Health behaviors and their correlates among participants in the Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müllerová H

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hana Müllerová,1 Sarah H Landis,1 Zaurbek Aisanov,2 Kourtney J Davis,3 Masakazu Ichinose,4 David M Mannino,5 Joe Maskell,1 Ana M Menezes,6 Thys van der Molen,7 Yeon-Mok Oh,8 Maggie Tabberer,9 MeiLan K Han10 1GSK, Worldwide Epidemiology, Uxbridge, UK; 2Pulmonology Research Institute, Moscow, Russia; 3GSK, Worldwide Epidemiology, Upper Providence, PA, USA; 4Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 5University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Lexington, KY, USA; 6Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil; 7University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 8University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 9GSK, Value Evidence Outcomes, Uxbridge, UK; 10Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background and aims: We used data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey to test the hypothesis that patients with COPD who report less engagement with their disease management are also more likely to report greater impact of the disease. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 4,343 subjects aged ≥40 years from 12 countries, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. The impact of COPD was measured with COPD Assessment Test, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, and hospital admissions and emergency department visits for COPD in the prior year. The 13-item Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13 instrument and the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 were used to measure patient disease engagement and medication adherence, respectively. Results: Twenty-eight percent of subjects reported being either disengaged or struggling with their disease (low engagement: PAM-13 levels 1 and 2, and 35% reported poor adherence (MMAS-8 <6. In univariate analyses, lower PAM-13 and MMAS-8 scores were

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Dietary Index with Calorie-Based Standards in Equivalent Units: A Cross-Sectional Study with 24-Hour Dietary Recalls from Adult Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masako; Hurwitz, Eric L; Li, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    Dietary indexes to assess accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern are useful tools in studies with health-related outcomes. However, scoring algorithms of the dietary index can affect the range of its applications. The purposes of this study were to develop a DASH dietary index with calorie-based standards in equivalent units and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the index. Calorie-based standards for nine components were determined based on recommended intakes in the DASH eating plan and dietary intakes estimated from two 24-hour dietary recalls of adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008, 2009-2010 (n=9,720). Evaluation tests included descriptive analyses of index scores among US adults stratified by sex and smoking status. Spearman's rank correlations were used to examine the relationships among components and total scores. The developed index was compared with two DASH dietary indexes that use different scoring algorithms to examine the association between total scores and blood pressure status through multivariable regression models. The newly developed index consisted of seven food group and two nutrient components. The mean and median of total scores among US adults were 42.3 (95% CI 41.6 to 43.0) and 41.6 of 90 points, respectively. The mean total scores among adult women and non-current smokers were higher than their counterparts (P<0.001). The absolute correlation coefficients among the components and between each component and the sum of other components were ≤0.33 and ≤0.35, respectively. After adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, an association between total scores and blood pressure status was found in adult women (P<0.001), but not in adult men. The same pattern was found when the two indexes were used, but the strength of the association varied across the three indexes. The developed index appeared to measure accordance with the DASH dietary pattern

  16. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Yates

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL at an institutional level. The origins of EL are found in the work of Dewey (1938, later modified by Kolb and Fry (1975. Experiential methods include: experiential education, service learning problem-based learning and others such as action learning, enquiry-based learning, and case studies. Faculty currently involved in EL at the participating university were invited to complete an online survey about their teaching and assessment methods. This paper will share the results and analysis of the EL inventory survey.

  17. Social participation and risk of influenza infection in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobugawa, Yugo; Fujiwara, Takeo; Tashiro, Atsushi; Saito, Reiko; Kondo, Katsunori

    2018-01-24

    Influenza infection can cause severe pneumonia, which is sometimes fatal, particularly in older adults. Influenza results in 3-5 million cases of severe illness and about 250 000 to 500 000 deaths annually worldwide. Social participation in the context of influenza infection is controversial because, although social participation is beneficial in maintaining physical function and mental health, it also increases the risk of contact with infected people. This study examined the association between social participation and influenza infection in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older. Cross-sectional study. Japanese functionally independent adults aged 65 years or older. Among the respondents to the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2013 survey, which took place during the period from October to December 2013, 12 231 men and 14 091 women responded to questions on influenza vaccination and influenza infection. Using JAGES data for 12 231 men and 14 091 women aged ≥65 years, we examined the association between social participation and influenza infection. The association between influenza infection and number of groups in which respondents participated was investigated among adults aged≥65 years, stratified by vaccination status and sex. Unvaccinated women who participated in two or more social activities were 2.20 times (95% CI 1.47 to 3.29) as likely to report an influenza infection as those who reported no social participation. In contrast, vaccinated women who participated in two or more social groups had no additional risk of influenza infection as compared with female elders with no social participation. Among men, participation in social activities was not significantly associated with influenza infection, regardless of vaccination status. Social participation was associated with a higher risk of influenza infection among unvaccinated older women, which suggests a need for further efforts to promote influenza vaccination

  18. Factors Associated with Participation, Active Refusals and Reasons for Not Taking Part in a Mortality Followback Survey Evaluating End-of-Life Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Calanzani

    Full Text Available Examination of factors independently associated with participation in mortality followback surveys is rare, even though these surveys are frequently used to evaluate end-of-life care. We aimed to identify factors associated with 1 participation versus non-participation and 2 provision of an active refusal versus a silent refusal; and systematically examine reasons for refusal in a population-based mortality followback survey.Postal survey about the end-of-life care received by 1516 people who died from cancer (aged ≥18, identified through death registrations in London, England (response rate 39.3%. The informant of death (a relative in 95.3% of cases was contacted 4-10 months after the patient died. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with participation/active refusals and content analysis to examine refusal reasons provided by 205 nonparticipants.The odds of partaking were higher for patients aged 90+ (AOR 3.48, 95%CI: 1.52-8.00, ref: 20-49yrs and female informants (AOR 1.70, 95%CI: 1.33-2.16. Odds were lower for hospital deaths (AOR 0.62, 95%CI: 0.46-0.84, ref: home and proxies other than spouses/partners (AORs 0.28 to 0.57. Proxies of patients born overseas were less likely to provide an active refusal (AOR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32-0.77. Refusal reasons were often multidimensional, most commonly study-related (36.0%, proxy-related and grief-related (25.1% each. One limitation of this analysis is the large number of nonparticipants who did not provide reasons for refusal (715/920.Our survey better reached proxies of older patients while those dying in hospitals were underrepresented. Proxy characteristics played a role, with higher participation from women and spouses/partners. More information is needed about the care received by underrepresented groups. Study design improvements may guide future questionnaire development and help develop strategies to increase response rates.

  19. Factors Associated with Participation, Active Refusals and Reasons for Not Taking Part in a Mortality Followback Survey Evaluating End-of-Life Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanzani, Natalia; Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan; Gomes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of factors independently associated with participation in mortality followback surveys is rare, even though these surveys are frequently used to evaluate end-of-life care. We aimed to identify factors associated with 1) participation versus non-participation and 2) provision of an active refusal versus a silent refusal; and systematically examine reasons for refusal in a population-based mortality followback survey. Methods Postal survey about the end-of-life care received by 1516 people who died from cancer (aged ≥18), identified through death registrations in London, England (response rate 39.3%). The informant of death (a relative in 95.3% of cases) was contacted 4–10 months after the patient died. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with participation/active refusals and content analysis to examine refusal reasons provided by 205 nonparticipants. Findings The odds of partaking were higher for patients aged 90+ (AOR 3.48, 95%CI: 1.52–8.00, ref: 20–49yrs) and female informants (AOR 1.70, 95%CI: 1.33–2.16). Odds were lower for hospital deaths (AOR 0.62, 95%CI: 0.46–0.84, ref: home) and proxies other than spouses/partners (AORs 0.28 to 0.57). Proxies of patients born overseas were less likely to provide an active refusal (AOR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32–0.77). Refusal reasons were often multidimensional, most commonly study-related (36.0%), proxy-related and grief-related (25.1% each). One limitation of this analysis is the large number of nonparticipants who did not provide reasons for refusal (715/920). Conclusions Our survey better reached proxies of older patients while those dying in hospitals were underrepresented. Proxy characteristics played a role, with higher participation from women and spouses/partners. More information is needed about the care received by underrepresented groups. Study design improvements may guide future questionnaire development and help develop strategies to increase

  20. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Virginia; Foley, Marian; Quirk, Alan; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-01-29

    The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants' experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption) and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants' relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. These participants described no dramatic impacts attributable to taking part in

  1. Participation in questionnaire studies among couples affected by breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Helene; Rottmann, Nina; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2015-01-01

    couples dealing with breast cancer. Participating couples (N = 792) were compared with non-participating couples (N = 1462) with regard to socioeconomic and health-related characteristics obtained from nationwide clinical and administrative registers. RESULTS: Associations were seen between various...

  2. Manipulation of pain catastrophizing: An experimental study of healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E Bialosky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel E Bialosky1*, Adam T Hirsh2,3, Michael E Robinson2,3, Steven Z George1,3*1Department of Physical Therapy; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology; 3Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAAbstract: Pain catastrophizing is associated with the pain experience; however, causation has not been established. Studies which specifically manipulate catastrophizing are necessary to establish causation. The present study enrolled 100 healthy individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to repeat a positive, neutral, or one of three catastrophizing statements during a cold pressor task (CPT. Outcome measures of pain tolerance and pain intensity were recorded. No change was noted in catastrophizing immediately following the CPT (F(1,84 = 0.10, p = 0.75, partial η2 < 0.01 independent of group assignment (F(4,84 = 0.78, p = 0.54, partial η2 = 0.04. Pain tolerance (F(4 = 0.67, p = 0.62, partial η2 = 0.03 and pain intensity (F(4 = 0.73, p = 0.58, partial η2 = 0.03 did not differ by group. This study suggests catastrophizing may be difficult to manipulate through experimental pain procedures and repetition of specific catastrophizing statements was not sufficient to change levels of catastrophizing. Additionally, pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ by group assignment. This study has implications for future studies attempting to experimentally manipulate pain catastrophizing.Keywords: pain, catastrophizing, experimental, cold pressor task, pain catastrophizing scale

  3. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  4. Not all patients want to participate in decision making. A national study of public preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Wendy; Kao, Audiey; Kuby, Alma; Thisted, Ronald A

    2005-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine calls for physicians to engage patients in making clinical decisions, but not every patient may want the same level of participation. 1) To assess public preferences for participation in decision making in a representative sample of the U.S. population. 2) To understand how demographic variables and health status influence people's preferences for participation in decision making. A population-based survey of a fully representative sample of English-speaking adults was conducted in concert with the 2002 General Social Survey (N= 2,765). Respondents expressed preferences ranging from patient-directed to physician-directed styles on each of 3 aspects of decision making (seeking information, discussing options, making the final decision). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationships of demographic variables and health status to preferences. Nearly all respondents (96%) preferred to be offered choices and to be asked their opinions. In contrast, half of the respondents (52%) preferred to leave final decisions to their physicians and 44% preferred to rely on physicians for medical knowledge rather than seeking out information themselves. Women, more educated, and healthier people were more likely to prefer an active role in decision making. African-American and Hispanic respondents were more likely to prefer that physicians make the decisions. Preferences for an active role increased with age up to 45 years, but then declined. This population-based study demonstrates that people vary substantially in their preferences for participation in decision making. Physicians and health care organizations should not assume that patients wish to participate in clinical decision making, but must assess individual patient preferences and tailor care accordingly.

  5. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  6. Major depression, fibromyalgia and labour force participation: A population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented an elevated frequency of depressive symptoms and disorders in fibromyalgia, but have not examined the association between this comorbidity and occupational status. The purpose of this study was to describe these epidemiological associations using a national probability sample. Methods Data from iteration 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS were used. The CCHS 1.1 was a large-scale national general health survey. The prevalence of major depression in subjects reporting that they had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia by a health professional was estimated, and then stratified by demographic variables. Logistic regression models predicting labour force participation were also examined. Results The annual prevalence of major depression was three times higher in subjects with fibromyalgia: 22.2% (95% CI 19.4 – 24.9, than in those without this condition: 7.2% (95% CI 7.0 – 7.4. The association persisted despite stratification for demographic variables. Logistic regression models predicting labour force participation indicated that both conditions had an independent (negative effect on labour force participation. Conclusion Fibromyalgia and major depression commonly co-occur and may be related to each other at a pathophysiological level. However, each syndrome is independently and negatively associated with labour force participation. A strength of this study is that it was conducted in a large probability sample from the general population. The main limitations are its cross-sectional nature, and its reliance on self-reported diagnoses of fibromyalgia.

  7. Men with disabilities - A cross sectional survey of health promotion, social inclusion and participation at community Men's Sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Parsons, Richard; Vaz, Sharmila; Buchanan, Angus

    2016-01-01

    The intersections between chronicity, disability and social inequality are well understood. Novel ways to counter the social determinants of health and disability are needed. Men's Sheds are a community space where men can participate in a range of shared activities and potentially experience a health and social benefits. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to inform future research by determining who attended Men's Sheds and the range of health, social, community, and educational activities undertaken there. This paper explores the membership of people with disabilities (PWD) at Men's Sheds and the factors that predict their membership. An online survey link was sent to all known Men's Sheds internationally in 2012. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (univariate and multivariate) statistics. 32.2% of international sheds and 29% of Australian sheds specifically targeted the inclusion of PWD. 80% of these sheds have significantly more members with disabilities than sheds who do no target PWD. Factors associated with greater membership of PWD included the provision of transport, social outings and promoting occupational skills. PWD are being encouraged to join and are joining Men's Sheds. This is significant as the value of participation and inclusion toward better health and wellbeing is well known. Men's Sheds offer a community space where the social determinants of chronicity and disability can potentially be countered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Students of Color Studying Abroad: A Qualitative Description of the Factors That Influence Participation and the Perceived Impact of Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Christel

    2017-01-01

    Research indicates that study abroad participation has many benefits, including increasing students' language proficiency, intercultural sensitivity and cross-cultural communication skills when compared with students who do not study abroad. Additionally, study abroad have been found to shape students' career paths, and academic pursuits. Despite…

  9. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia MacNeill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants’ experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Methods Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants’ relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. Conclusion These

  10. A survey of senior medical students' attitudes and awareness toward teaching and participation in a formal clinical teaching elective: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Hughes, J D; Azzi, Elise; Rose, Gregory Walter; Ramnanan, Christopher J; Khamisa, Karima

    2017-01-01

    To prepare for careers in medicine, medical trainees must develop clinical teaching skills. It is unclear if Canadian medical students need or want to develop such skills. We sought to assess Canadian students' perceptions of clinical teaching, and their desire to pursue clinical teaching skills development via a clinical teaching elective (CTE) in their final year of medical school. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study of Canadian senior medical students, using an online survey to gauge teaching experience, career goals, perceived areas of confidence, and interest in a CTE. Students at 13 of 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in the survey (4154 students). We collected 321 responses (7.8%). Most (75%) respondents expressed confidence in giving presentations, but fewer were confident providing bedside teaching (47%), teaching sensitive issues (42%), and presenting at journal clubs (42%). A total of 240 respondents (75%) expressed interest in participating in a CTE. The majority (61%) favored a two week elective, and preferred topics included bedside teaching (85%), teaching physical examination skills (71%), moderation of small group learning (63%), and mentorship in medicine (60%). Our study demonstrates that a large number of Canadian medical students are interested in teaching in a clinical setting, but lack confidence in skills specific to clinical teaching. Our respondents signaled interest in participating in an elective in clinical teaching, particularly if it is offered in a two-week format.

  11. Internet-based survey of the nature and perceived causes of injury to dogs participating in agility training and competition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kimberley L; Dickey, James P; Bent, Leah R; Thomason, Jeffrey J; Moëns, Noel M M

    2013-10-01

    To characterize injuries (on the basis of type and severity of injury and affected region of the body) among dogs participating in agility training and competition events and examine associations between injury characteristics and perceived causes of injury. Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey. 3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials. A retrospective electronic survey was developed to investigate demographic factors for dogs and handlers, frequency of participation in agility training and competition, and perceived causes and characteristics of injuries acquired by dogs during agility-related activities. Respondents were handlers recruited through member lists of large canine agility associations in Canada and the United Kingdom and through promotion on an agility blog site. Associations between cause and anatomic site or type of injury and between injury severity (mild vs severe) and setting (competition vs practice) were investigated. Surveys were received from 1,669 handlers of 3,801 agility dogs internationally. Handler-reported data indicated 1,209 of 3,801 (32%) dogs had ≥ 1 injury; of 1,523 analyzed injuries, the shoulder (349 injuries), back (282), and neck (189) regions and phalanges (202) were predominantly affected. Soft tissue injuries (eg, strain [muscle or tendon injury; 807], sprain [ligament injury; 312], and contusion [200]) were common. Injuries were most commonly incurred during interactions with bar jumps, A-frames, and dog walk obstacles (260, 235, and 177 of 1,602 injuries, respectively). Anatomic site and type of injury were significantly associated with perceived cause of injury. These findings provided a basis for further experimental studies to identify specific mechanisms of various types of injury in dogs that participate in agility activities.

  12. Factors influencing postpartum women's willingness to participate in a preventive pelvic floor muscle training program: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossdorff-Steinhauser, Heidi F A; Albers-Heitner, Pytha; Weemhoff, Mirjam; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Nieman, Fred H M; Berghmans, Bary

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy and delivery are the most prominent risk factors for the onset of pelvic floor injuries and - later-on - urinary incontinence. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training during and after pregnancy is proven effective for the prevention of urinary incontinence on the short term. However, only a minority of women do participate in preventive pelvic floor muscle training programs. Our aim was to analyze willingness to participate (WTP) in an intensive preventive pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) program and influencing factors, from the perspective of postpartum women, for participation. We included 169 three-month postpartum women in a web-based survey in the Netherlands. Demographic and clinical characteristics, knowledge and experience with PFMT and preconditions for actual WTP were assessed. Main outcome measures were frequencies and percentages for categorical data. Cross tabulations were used to explore the relationship between WTP and various independent categorical variables. A linear regression analysis was done to analyze which variables are associated with WTP. A response rate of 64% (n=169) was achieved. 31% of the women was WTP, 41% was hesitating, 12% already participated in PFMT and 15% was not interested (at all). No statistically significant association was found between WTP and risk or prognostic pelvic floor dysfunction factors. Women already having symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction such as incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse symptoms were more WTP (p=0.010, p=0.001, respectively) as were women perceiving better general health (ppelvic floor management. Further research should focus on strategies to tackle major barriers and to introduce facilitators for postpartum women to participate in PFMT programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of invitation to participate in health surveys on the incidence of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    random sample (n = 4789) was invited to up to three health checks, from 1982 to 1994 (intervention group). The remaining 12 994 persons were defined as the control group. Complete follow-up on mortality, emigration and fatal and non-fatal IHD and stroke until 31 December 2012 was obtained by linkage......BACKGROUND: The effects of health checks on reducing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in the general population have been questioned. There are few randomized studies with long-term follow-up. We used a cohort randomly selected from a general population as a randomized trial to study...... the effect of repeated general health checks on the 30-year incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), stroke and all-cause mortality. METHODS: The study included all persons (n = 17 845) aged 30, 40, 50 and 60 years living in 11 municipalities in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. An age- and gender-stratified...

  14. Los Angeles OneSource System Youth Participant Customer Satisfaction Survey, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisley, Deborah D.; Moore, Richard W.; Patch, Robin N.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Los Angeles OneSource Centers offer low-income youth ages 14-21 services aimed at improving educational achievement, enhancing job skills, and preparing for college. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the youths' satisfaction with services received at 14 OneSource Centers throughout…

  15. A Descriptive Survey of Weight Control Participants at a U.S. Army Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    onset diabetes mellitus; (2) problems with heart size and cardiac function; (3) arthritis; (4) gout ; and - - ~~~~ .114 JWV K’ UJ 1PU.. 7 KJ 9...major plans of action have been identified as facilitating weight reduction: exercise and behavior therapy . Exercise and its Relationship to Weight...weight loss during outpatient treatment occurs than following any other methods of therapy .1 7 After reviewing sixteen studies, Foreyt, Goodrick, and Gotto

  16. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  17. Participation in physical activity: An empirical study of working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As more women enter the work place and advance through the hierarchy in organisations, taking on new responsibilities and facing increased work demands, the need to balance their career, family and participation in physical activity arises. This has a direct bearing on their physical and mental well being, as well as their ...

  18. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Nasim A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Jina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  19. Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: a review of qualitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity...

  20. Survey-based analysis of risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility training and competition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kimberley L; Dickey, James P; Bent, Leah R; Thomason, Jeffrey J; Moëns, Noel M M

    2013-10-01

    To identify potential risk factors for agility-related injuries among dogs. Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey. 3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials. A retrospective electronic survey was used to investigate potential risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility-related activities. Respondents were handlers recruited through member lists of large canine agility associations in Canada and the United Kingdom and through promotion on an agility blog site. Variables evaluated included demographic information for handlers and dogs, exposure variables (eg, frequency of agility practice and competition in the past year), and use of preventive measures intended to keep dogs fit for agility (warmup, cooldown, or conditioning exercises; alternative therapeutic treatments [eg, acupuncture, massage, or chiropractic care]; or dietary supplement products). Data were collected from 1,669 handlers of 3,801 agility dogs internationally; 1,209 (32%) dogs incurred ≥ 1 injury. Previous injury (OR, 100.5), ≤ 4 years of agility experience for dogs (OR, 1.5), use of alternative therapeutic treatments (OR, 1.5), and Border Collie breed (OR, 1.7) were associated with increased odds of injury. Handlers having 5 to 10 or > 10 years of experience (OR, 0.8 and 0.6, respectively) and dogs having > 4 years of experience in the sport (OR, 0.6) were associated with decreased odds of injury. Specific factors were associated with agility-related injuries in dogs. Educational prevention strategies should target at-risk populations in an effort to reduce potential injuries. Future research should focus on the biomechanical factors associated with agility-related injuries.

  1. Sharing individual participant data from clinical trials: an opinion survey regarding the establishment of a central repository.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin Tudur Smith

    Full Text Available Calls have been made for increased access to individual participant data (IPD from clinical trials, to ensure that complete evidence is available. However, despite the obvious benefits, progress towards this is frustratingly slow. In the meantime, many systematic reviews have already collected IPD from clinical trials. We propose that a central repository for these IPD should be established to ensure that these datasets are safeguarded and made available for use by others, building on the strengths and advantages of the collaborative groups that have been brought together in developing the datasets.Evaluate the level of support, and identify major issues, for establishing a central repository of IPD.On-line survey with email reminders.71 reviewers affiliated with the Cochrane Collaboration's IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group were invited to participate.30 (42% invitees responded: 28 (93% had been involved in an IPD review and 24 (80% had been involved in a randomised trial. 25 (83% agreed that a central repository was a good idea and 25 (83% agreed that they would provide their IPD for central storage. Several benefits of a central repository were noted: safeguarding and standardisation of data, increased efficiency of IPD meta-analyses, knowledge advancement, and facilitating future clinical, and methodological research. The main concerns were gaining permission from trial data owners, uncertainty about the purpose of the repository, potential resource implications, and increased workload for IPD reviewers. Restricted access requiring approval, data security, anonymisation of data, and oversight committees were highlighted as issues under governance of the repository.There is support in this community of IPD reviewers, many of whom are also involved in clinical trials, for storing IPD in a central repository. Results from this survey are informing further work on developing a repository of IPD which is currently underway by our group.

  2. Smoking estimates from around the world: data from the first 17 participating countries in the World Mental Health Survey Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Carla L; Cheng, Hui; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Myer, Landon; Neumark, Yehuda; Posada-Villa, Jose; Watanabe, Makoto; Wells, J Elisabeth; Kessler, Ronald C; Anthony, James C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To contribute new multinational findings on basic descriptive features of smoking and cessation, based upon standardised community surveys of adults residing in seven low-income and middle-income countries and 10 higher-income countries from all regions of the world. Methods Data were collected using standardised interviews and community probability sample survey methods conducted as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys Initiative. Demographic and socioeconomic correlates of smoking are studied using cross-tabulation and logistic regression approaches. Within-country sample weights were applied with variance estimation appropriate for complex sample survey designs. Results Estimated prevalence of smoking experience (history of ever smoking) and current smoking varied across the countries under study. In all but four countries, one out of every four adults currently smoked. In higher-income countries, estimated proportions of former smokers (those who had quit) were roughly double the corresponding estimates for most low-income and middle-income countries. Characteristics of smokers varied within individual countries, and in relation to the World Bank's low-medium-high gradient of economic development. In stark contrast to a sturdy male-female difference in the uptake of smoking seen in each country, there is no consistent sex-associated pattern in the odds of remaining a smoker (versus quitting). Conclusion The World Mental Health Surveys estimates complement existing global tobacco monitoring efforts. The observed global diversity of associations with smoking and smoking cessation underscore reasons for implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provisions and prompt local adaptation of prevention and control interventions. PMID:19965796

  3. Study of compressed baryonic matter at FAIR: JINR participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenovskaya, O.; Kurilkin, P.; Gusakov, Yu.; Ivanov, V.; Ladygin, V.; Ladygina, N.; Malakhov, A.; Peshekhonov, V.; Zinchenko, A.

    2017-11-01

    The scientific goal of the CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) experiment at FAIR (Darmstadt) is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at highest baryon densities. The physics program of the CBM experiment is complimentary to the programs to be realized at MPD and BMN facilities at NICA and will start with beam derived by the SIS100 synchrotron. The results of JINR participation in the development of different sub-projects of the CBM experiment are presented.

  4. Factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in water allocation trading. A case study in southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoccaro, G.; Castillo, M.; Berbel, J.

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to uncover the factors that influence farmers’ attitudes towards water allocation trading. In the study, we simulate two water availability scenarios, an average year and a drought year, in a contingent valuation experiment with 241 farmers. A survey was held in the spring of 2012 in the Guadalquivir and Almanzora River Basins. First, we estimated a multinomial logit model to determine the factors that influence farmers to decide to participate in our hypothetical market. We then analysed the structural and socio-economic factors determining the monetary value of traded water using Heckman’s two-step model. Our results indicate that those farmers who are more innovative and have had agricultural training show a higher willingness to participate in water trading. Additionally, low water-supply guarantee and appropriate information about seasonal water availability increase the probability of participation. Higher willingness to pay (WTP) for water is found in horticulture and among farmers who grow citrus and other permanent crops; lower water selling value (WTA) is found in farms with extensive annual crops and traditional olive groves. However, monetary values (WTP/WTA) are strongly dependent on the current cost of irrigation water services. While findings of this research seem to support the idea of diffusion innovation theory, the existence of ethical concerns that might influence farmers’ acceptance of irrigation water markets needs further analysis. (Author)

  5. Factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in water allocation trading. A case study in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Giannoccaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to uncover the factors that influence farmers’ attitudes towards water allocation trading. In the study, we simulate two water availability scenarios, an average year and a drought year, in a contingent valuation experiment with 241 farmers. A survey was held in the spring of 2012 in the Guadalquivir and Almanzora River Basins. First, we estimated a multinomial logit model to determine the factors that influence farmers to decide to participate in our hypothetical market. We then analysed the structural and socio-economic factors determining the monetary value of traded water using Heckman’s two-step model. Our results indicate that those farmers who are more innovative and have had agricultural training show a higher willingness to participate in water trading. Additionally, low water-supply guarantee and appropriate information about seasonal water availability increase the probability of participation. Higher willingness to pay (WTP for water is found in horticulture and among farmers who grow citrus and other permanent crops; lower water selling value (WTA is found in farms with extensive annual crops and traditional olive groves. However, monetary values (WTP/WTA are strongly dependent on the current cost of irrigation water services. While findings of this research seem to support the idea of diffusion innovation theory, the existence of ethical concerns that might influence farmers’ acceptance of irrigation water markets needs further analysis.

  6. What trial participants need to be told about placebo effects to give informed consent: a survey to establish existing knowledge among patients with back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John; Greville-Harris, Maddy; Graham, Cynthia A; Lewith, George; White, Peter; Bishop, Felicity L

    2017-12-01

    Patients require an accurate knowledge about placebos and their possible effects to ensure consent for placebo-controlled clinical trials is adequately informed. However, few previous studies have explored patients' baseline (ie, pretrial recruitment) levels of understanding and knowledge about placebos. The present online survey aimed to assess knowledge about placebos among patients with a history of back pain. A 15-item questionnaire was constructed to measure knowledge about placebos. Additional questions assessed sociodemographic characteristics, duration and severity of back pain, and previous experience of receiving placebos. Participants recruited from community settings completed the study online. 210 participants completed the questionnaire. 86.7% had back pain in the past 6 months, 44.3% currently had back pain. 4.3% had received a placebo intervention as part of a clinical trial and 68.1% had previously read or heard information about placebos. Overall knowledge of placebos was high, with participants on average answering 12.07 of 15 questions about placebos correctly (SD=2.35). However, few participants correctly answered questions about the nocebo effect (31.9% correct) and the impact of the colour of a placebo pill (55.2% correct). The findings identified key gaps in knowledge about placebos. The lack of understanding of the nocebo effect in particular has implications for the informed consent of trial participants. Research ethics committees and investigators should prioritise amending informed consent procedures to incorporate the fact that participants in the placebo arm might experience adverse side effects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Impact of mixed survey modes on physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio R Nigg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is recommended that researchers who use mixed modal methods for data collection compare their impact on outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption behaviors of a multiethnic sample of adults, comparing participants who continued a telephone survey and those who transitioned from a telephone to a web-based survey for a follow-up data collection point. This longitudinal study used a random sample of 700 Hawaii residents (63.3% Female; Mean age=47, SD=17.1. At baseline, participants completed a computer-assisted telephone interview assessing the stage, behavior, and decisional balance of both physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption. For the three-month follow-up survey, participants were given the option of completing the survey either on the web or by phone. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was computed for related physical activity scales and fruit/vegetable consumption variables to compare the change in response across time between a web group and phone group. For both physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption, all mode-by-time interactions were significant. The participants who preferred the telephone survey maintained their levels, whereas those who preferred the web survey reported a decrease in each variable. These results suggest that changing the mode of a survey may introduce a systematic bias in data and that researchers should proceed with caution when using mixed modes of data collection.

  8. [Method and participation in a preschool immunization survey in Isère (France) during the 2010-11 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goirand, Laurence; Hauzanneau, Marianne; Hustache, Sarah; Boussuges, Simone; Girard-Blanc, Marie-Françoise; de Villemeur, Agathe Billette

    2015-01-01

    The Isère department has carried out a study on vaccination programmes and sites of vaccination among schoolchildren in Isère. The objective of this article is to present the original and robust method used in the study. We also describe the participation rate in the study. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 4-year-old children in 2010/2011 during nursery school checkups. One hundred schools were randomly selected according to a complex sampling plan. The vaccination records of all children examined at checkups were photographed and data were cleared and adjusted. The participation of children in the study was investigated by distinguishing the reasons for exclusion from the study due to the mode of data collection and due to factors specific to the checkups. The factors studied concerned the intrinsic characteristics of the schools as well as data on organisation of the checkups. A total of 2,588 children from the 100 schools surveyed were included in the study, corresponding to a participation rate of 85.1%. 9.6% of the children selected were excluded for reasons specific to the checkups and 5.3% for reasons related to the study. Participation was higher for children examined by a team from the Maternal and Child Protection Unit (PMI: Protection maternelle et infantile), specialised in checkups. This was the only factor that appeared to impact the typical attendance of children at in nursery school health checkups. This result can probably be generalised to the other tasks of the PMI and provides important information for the future organisation of the PMI's activities.

  9. National Survey of Water Exercise Participants. D.C., July 5-8, 1988). Papers by U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtlyng, Joanna; Nelson, C. Van Cleave

    This survey generated a profile of a typical water exercise participant. Data include: (1) subject's medical clearance for water exercise, swimming ability, physical and related problems, reasons for participation and perceived psycho-physical benefits of water exercise; (2) techniques of monitoring water exercise intensity: kinds of flotation…

  10. Firefighter willingness to participate in a stem cell clinical trial for burns: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, Jenny D; Carr, Eloise C J; Harasym, Patricia; Burnett, Lindsay; Biernaskie, Jeff; Gabriel, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Adult stem cells represent a potentially renewable and autologous source of cells to regenerate skin and improve wound healing. Firefighters are at risk of sustaining a burn and potentially benefiting from a split thickness skin graft (STSG). This mixed methods study examined firefighter willingness to participate in a future stem cell clinical trial, outcome priorities and factors associated with this decision. A sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used. The quantitative phase (online questionnaire) was followed by the qualitative phase (semi-structured interviews). A sample of 149 firefighters completed the online survey, and a purposeful sample of 15 firefighters was interviewed. A majority (74%) reported they would participate in a future stem cell clinical trial if they experienced burn benefiting from STSG. Hypothetical concerns related to receiving a STSG were pain, itch, scarring/redness and skin durability. Participants indicated willingness to undergo stem cell therapy if the risk of no improvement was 43% or less. Risk tolerance was predicted by perceived social support and having children. Interviews revealed four main themes: a desire to help others, improving clinical outcomes, trusting relationships, and a belief in scientific investigation. Many participants admitted lacking sufficient knowledge to make an informed decision regarding stem cell therapies. Firefighters indicated they were largely willing to participate in a stem cell clinical trial but also indicated a lack of knowledge upon which to make a decision. Public education of the role of stem cells in STSG will be increasingly important as clinical trials are developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Participants' perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Saldivar G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo González-Saldivar,1 René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez,2 José Luis Viramontes-Madrid,3 Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro,2 Kevin Erick Gabriel Carlos-Reyna,2 Andrés Marcelo Treviño-Alvarez,2 Neri Alejandro Álvarez-Villalobos,4 José Gerardo González-González2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Endocrinology Division, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, 3Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 4Medical Statistics Department, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico Background: There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials.Methods: To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases and 604 nonparticipants (controls of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico.Results: Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4% than controls (50.7% perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%. We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk

  12. [Psychiatric reform and social participation: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alice Guimarães Bottaro; Conciani, Marta Ester

    2009-01-01

    The psychiatric reform in Brazil articulates several dimensions - conceptual, technical, administrative, legislative and cultural. It is aimed at overcoming the psychiatric paradigm based on isolation and exclusion of the mentally ill. The Reform makes part of the Brazilian Health System and presupposes a hierarchical system, municipality, participation and social control. Besides the advances made in the administrative dimension, in the state of Mato Grosso the reform takes place in centralized management contexts, revealing an apparent contradiction. Analyzing the participative processes in the construction of the psychiatric reform in Cuiabá and in the state of Mato Grosso by means of analyses of documents of the Health Councils and Conferences held over the period 2000 to 2005. The fragility of the political processes of the Health Councils hampers their constitution as environments for articulating new practices. The process of changes toward the psychiatric reform is in accordance with a new management, determined by new financing models - reduction of hospitalizations and not hospital-centered care. This is possible because it is not a result of criticisms to the asylum logic represented in the analyzed dimensions of the Brazilian Health System.

  13. A Study to Examine Differences Between In Person and Online Survey Data Collection Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT CASE,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences between the results of an in person or face-to-face direct spending survey and a post-event online direct spending survey. Participants in a large annual marathon held in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States were used as subjects for the study. The research methodology selected for this study included an in person survey instrument administered to out-of-town marathon participants prior to the start of the event during the race number and race timing chip pick-up period. The same survey instrument was administered online four days after the conclusion of the marathon to the same group of out-of-town marathon participants who did not previously respond to the in person survey. Analysis of data and results revealed that average direct spending for the online respondents was consistently and significantly higher than spending for the in person respondents on direct spending questions. Spending on lodging for both groups showed no significant differences. It was recommended that the use of online survey methods be considered when conducting direct spending studies for participant oriented sporting events when adequate e-mail addresses are available and the potential respondents have a certain level of computer literacy.

  14. Identifying patterns of item missing survey data using latent groups: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwee, Paul; Nathan, Andrea; Burton, Nicola W; Turrell, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether respondents to a survey of health and physical activity and potential determinants could be grouped according to the questions they missed, known as ‘item missing’. Design Observational study of longitudinal data. Setting Residents of Brisbane, Australia. Participants 6901 people aged 40–65 years in 2007. Materials and methods We used a latent class model with a mixture of multinomial distributions and chose the number of classes using the Bayesian information criterion. We used logistic regression to examine if participants’ characteristics were associated with their modal latent class. We used logistic regression to examine whether the amount of item missing in a survey predicted wave missing in the following survey. Results Four per cent of participants missed almost one-fifth of the questions, and this group missed more questions in the middle of the survey. Eighty-three per cent of participants completed almost every question, but had a relatively high missing probability for a question on sleep time, a question which had an inconsistent presentation compared with the rest of the survey. Participants who completed almost every question were generally younger and more educated. Participants who completed more questions were less likely to miss the next longitudinal wave. Conclusions Examining patterns in item missing data has improved our understanding of how missing data were generated and has informed future survey design to help reduce missing data. PMID:29084795

  15. [An evaluation of the current status and the reported problems of the cancer support group "Hidamari" in our hospital-results of a questionnaire survey completed by group participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Ikuko; Tadokoro, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Akiko; Nagaeki, Minako; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Peer support is a very important support intervention for cancer patients and their families. Our hospital has offered cancer support in the form of a support group "Hidamari" to cancer patients and their families since February 2012. This study analyzed and examined the current group status and the results of a questionnaire survey completed by group participants in order, to evaluate the functioning of the group and identify problems. The current group status was determined as per the records of practice. A questionnaire survey that consisted of both multiple choice and open-ended questions was administered to the participants after the sessions. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The subjects were informed about the study purpose and confidentiality provisions in both oral and written forms, and return of the anonymous survey was considered to be consent. A group session was performed every 2 months(to date, a total of 4 sessions), and a total of 48 patients(68%)and 23 family members(32%)participated in the sessions. Each session included 9-25 subjects(mean: 17. 7 subjects/session). The response rate of the survey was 95. 8%. Responses to the question, "Are you satisfied with the sessions ?" were very satisfied, satisfied, dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied in 63%, 37%, 0%, and 0% of the participants, respectively. Responses to the question, "Do you wish to participate in further sessions ?" were yes, no, undecided, or gave no response in 94%, 0%, 2%, and 4% of the subjects, respectively. Reasons for satisfaction with the sessions were "It gives me courage and strength," "Useful information can be obtained," and "Good advice from nurses." All participants were satisfied with the sessions and most of the participants wished to participate in future sessions, indicating that the sessions had some positive effects. In future, we must consider initiatives covering the whole region, such as the implementation of a workshop that meets the needs of the participants and increases

  16. The study of university student's teacher efficacy and their images of teacher and children : Effects of participation in the Activity of Friendship at Hiroshima University

    OpenAIRE

    田崎, 慎治; 米沢, 崇

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the teacher efficacy and images of teacher and child on university students who participated in the Activity of Friendship at Hiroshima University. The survey was taken at the start and the end of an Activity of Friendship. And 86 students were participated in this survey. Results were that negative teacher and child images were significantly increased on the students in the first year and teacher efficacy was significantly increased on the student...

  17. Exploring the characteristics, global distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants: a literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Kamel, Mariam; Jin, Yanling; Xu, Michael Kuan; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Samaan, Zainab; Levine, Mitchell Ah; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-01-01

    Article retraction is a measure taken by journals or authors where there is evidence of research misconduct or error, redundancy, plagiarism or unethical research. Recently, the retraction of scientific publications has been on the rise. In this survey, we aimed to describe the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. We searched retracted articles on the PubMed database and Retraction Watch website from 1980 to February 2016. The primary outcomes were the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. The secondary outcomes included how article retractions were handled by journals and how to improve the journal practices toward article retractions. We included 1,339 retracted articles. Most retracted articles had six authors or fewer. Article retraction was most common in the USA (26%), Japan (11%) and Germany (10%). The main reasons for article retraction were misconduct (51%, n = 685) and error (14%, n = 193). There were 66% (n = 889) of retracted articles having male senior or corresponding authors. Of the articles retracted after August 2010, 63% (n = 567) retractions were reported on Retraction Watch. Large discrepancies were observed in the ways that different journals handled article retractions. For instance, articles were completely withdrawn from some journals, while in others, articles were still available with no indication of retraction. Likewise, some retraction notices included a detailed account of the events that led to article retraction, while others only consisted of a statement indicating the article retraction. The characteristics, geographic distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants were examined in this survey. More efforts are needed to improve the consistency and transparency of journal practices toward article retractions.

  18. Ecosystems Surveys Branch Gear Efficiency Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experiment aimed at quantifying the herding efficiency of flatfish for the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) survey trawl bridles was conducted during...

  19. The Effect of Student Participation in International Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDee, Lynda S.; Stewart, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Responses were received from 38 of 100 nursing graduates who completed a 2-week international study tour. International study had a significant impact on personal development, the nurse's role, international perspective, and intellectual development. (SK)

  20. High School Students Participate in a CAI Study Skills Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.

    A 10-module computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on study skills was field tested to determine its effectiveness with high school students, using 50 advanced seniors in a large Texas high school as subjects. The program consisted of a study skills pretest, the CAI modules, a notebook on study skills, and a posttest. The modules were…

  1. How Well Do Survey Studies Capture Alcohol's Harm to Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies assessing alcohol's harm to others very often rely on population survey data. This study addresses some of the problems and challenges in using survey data for this purpose. Such problems include the limited capacity of population surveys in identifying infrequent harm and long-term consequences of drinking. Moreover, the drinker may report the alcohol-related harm or the person being harmed may report the damage. However, irrespective of who reports the harm, causal attribution to drinking is problematic. Challenges for future population surveys to address alcohol's harm to others include the need for improved models and understanding of complex mechanisms to guide empirical studies within the broad range of harm. Study designs other than cross-sectional surveys, such as longitudinal study designs and combinations of population surveys and other data sources, are likely to overcome some of the identified problems in current population surveys of alcohol's harm to others.

  2. Participation, characteristics and retention rates of HIV-positive immigrants in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierfelder, C; Weber, R; Elzi, L; Furrer, H; Cavassini, M; Calmy, A; Bernasconi, E; Gutmann, C; Ledergerber, B

    2012-02-01

    Data from observational cohorts may be influenced by population structure and loss to follow-up (LTFU). Quality of care may be associated with participation in cohort networks. We aimed to study the participation, characteristics and retention rates of immigrants in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). We compared enrolment over time (1996-1999, 2000-2003 and 2004-2008) and LTFU between individuals from different geographical regions. In 2008, we performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the proportion of individuals not participating in the SHCS but who were in care at SHCS institutions. Predictors for LTFU were analysed using Cox proportional hazard models, and those for nonparticipation using logistic regression. A total of 7840 individuals entered the SHCS during the observation period. The proportion of immigrants increased over time, especially the proportion of women from sub-Saharan Africa, which increased from 21 to 48% during the observation period. Overall LTFU was 3.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.58-3.95]/100, with the highest hazard ratio in men from sub-Saharan Africa (2.82/100 patient-years; 95% CI 2.30-3.46/100), compared with men from northwestern countries. Other predictors for LTFU were age education, injecting drug use, and higher baseline CD4 cell counts. Participants taking antiretroviral therapy had reduced LTFU. The survey showed that 84% of HIV-infected patients in care at SHCS institutions were enrolled in the cohort. Nonparticipation was more likely among men from non-European regions (odds ratio 2.73; 95% CI 2.29-3.24), women from sub-Saharan Africa (odds ratio 3.01; 95% CI 2.40-3.77) and women from Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio 2.10; 95% CI 1.30-3.39). Numbers of HIV-infected immigrants are increasing but they are underrepresented in the SHCS, and immigrants are more likely to be lost to follow-up. © 2011 British HIV Association.

  3. Are participant characteristics from ISCOLE study sites comparable to the rest of their country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, A G; Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Harrington, D M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Tremblay, M S

    2015-12-01

    The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) provides robust, multi-national information on physical activity, diet and weight status in 9-11-year-old children around the world. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the similarities and differences between participant characteristics from ISCOLE sites and data from nationally representative surveys from ISCOLE countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, Kenya, India, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States). Distributions of characteristics were assessed within each ISCOLE country-level database, and compared with published data from national or regional surveys, where available. Variables of comparison were identified a priori and included body mass index (BMI), physical activity (accelerometer-determined steps per day) and screen time (child-report). Of 12 countries, data on weight status (BMI) were available in 8 countries, data on measured physical activity (steps per day) were available in 5 countries and data on self-reported screen time were available in 9 countries. The five ISCOLE countries that were part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (that is, Canada, Finland, Portugal, the United Kingdom (England) and the United States) also provided comparable data on self-reported physical activity. Available country-specific data often used different measurement tools or cut-points, making direct comparisons difficult. Where possible, ISCOLE data were re-analyzed to match country-level data, but this step limited between-country comparisons. From the analyses performed, the ISCOLE data do not seem to be systematically biased; however, owing to limitations in data availability, data from ISCOLE should be used with appropriate caution when planning country-level population health interventions. This work highlights the need for harmonized measurement tools around the world while accounting for culturally

  4. Women and Literacy in Rural Mali: A Study of the Socio-economic Impact of Participating in Literacy Programs in Four Villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, L.

    2003-01-01

    Women's literacy programs in rural Mali were studied through observation and surveys of 42 participants and 29 nonparticipants. Few participants acquired literacy skills, those that did rarely used them, and literacy acquisition had little socioeconomic impact on women's lives. General constraints on literacy usage in rural villages are discussed,…

  5. Patterns of patient and healthcare provider viewpoints regarding participation in HIV cure-related clinical trials. Findings from a multicentre French survey using Q methodology (ANRS-APSEC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Protière

    Full Text Available Despite huge advances in the fight against HIV concerning diagnosis, clinical efficacy of antiretroviral treatments (ART, patient survival and quality of life, there is still no cure. Recent developments in HIV cure research have opened the way for clinical trials which could lead to a temporary or definitive end to ART. However, ethical questions exist about related trial-participation risks. The main goal of the ANRS-APSEC survey was, using Q-methodology, to investigate the viewpoints of people living with HIV (PLWH and HIV healthcare providers (HHP regarding motivations for and barriers to participation in HIV Cure-related clinical trials (HCRCT.Thirty-three statements were defined encompassing seven dimensions: treatment and follow-up; risks; benefits; patient-physician relationship; beliefs and attitudes; information; target population. Forty-one PLWH and 41 HHP from five French HIV services were asked to rank-order the statements.Five main viewpoints were elicited from "the most motivated" to "the most reluctant" vis-à-vis HCRCT participation. All placed importance on the wish to participate in HIV research. This result is in line with the HIV-specific culture of joint mobilization. For some viewpoints, the motivation to participate in/propose HCRCT was primarily conditioned by side-effects and/or by constraints, which overall were more accepted by PLWH than HHP. Some viewpoints placed particular importance on HCRCT recruitment strategies. Finally, some expressed a high acceptance of risks and constraints but emphasized the need for information.HIV cure research clinical trials (HCRCT constitute a risky yet unavoidable step towards the goal of finding a cure. To improve future HCRCT and informed consent designs, based on PLWH and HHP preferences and expectations, we need greater knowledge about how these populations perceive the risks and the benefits of HCRCT. Our results confirmed the importance of careful, studied HCRCT design

  6. Children and Professionals Rights to Participation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita-Pires, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the process of praxiological transformation developed in an early childhood education institution, in Portugal, within four activity rooms. It is a single case study using action research, context-based staff development and participatory childhood pedagogy as means to change educational practices. It undertakes thorough…

  7. Participation in Tertiary Study Abroad Programs: The Role of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalis, Steve; Joiner, Therese A.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing trend for the globalisation of business has highlighted the need for a better understanding of the factors that influence levels of intercultural awareness within organisations. Within the higher education sector, one initiative that aims to address this issue is student study abroad programs. This paper reports on a study that…

  8. Effects of rapid aging and lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of physical activity in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Okuda, Nagako

    2017-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, has annually monitored two indicators of physical activity in adults. They are contrasting in the association with age; the prevalence of exercise habit is lower and step counts are higher among younger participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of two indicators of physical activity using tabulated data. The prevalence of exercise habit and step counts by age groups (≥20 years) from 2003 to 2010 were estimated using tabulated data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey by calculating sex-specific means weighted by age-specific Japanese population data for each year (population-weighted estimates) and for a fixed year (2005; age-standardized estimates). Linear regression analyses were used to test the statistical significance of their trends. Statistically significant increasing trends in the prevalence of exercise habit were observed for the crude means (P = 0.029), the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.007) and the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.016) only in men. Statistically significant decreasing trends in the step counts were observed for the crude means (P = 0.006 in men and P = 0.033 in women) and the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.008 in men and P = 0.049 in women) both in men and women, but for the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.039) only in men. The effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend are not small, and age-standardization is necessary to observe even the short-term trend of physical activity data. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1677-1682. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Learning from older peoples’ reasons for participating in demanding, intensive epidemiological studies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja M. Baczynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment rates of older people in epidemiological studies, although relatively higher than in clinical trials, have declined in recent years. This study aimed to explore motivating factors and concerns among older participants in an intensive epidemiological study (Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study - HSS and identify those that could aid future recruitment to epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Methods Participants of the HSS fasted overnight and travelled several hours each way to the research facility at an English hospital for extensive diet/lifestyle questionnaires and investigations to assess muscle including blood tests and a muscle biopsy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 participants (ten women at the research facility in May–October 2015. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically by three researchers. Results We identified personal motives for participation (potential health benefit for self and family; curiosity; comparing own fitness to others; socialising. Altruistic motives (benefit for other people; belief in importance of research were also important. Participants voiced a number of external motives related to the study uniqueness, organisation and safety record; family support; and just ‘being asked’. Anxiety about the biopsy and travel distance were the only concerns and were alleviated by smooth and efficient running of the study. Conclusions Personal and altruistic reasons were important motivators for these older people to participate in demanding, intensive research. They valued belonging to a birth cohort with previous research experience, but personal contact with the research team before and after consent provided reassurance, aided recruitment to HSS and could be readily replicated by other researchers. Any fears or concerns related to certain aspects of a demanding, intensive study should ideally be explored at an early visit

  10. Opioid use among interscholastic sports participants: an exploratory study from a sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Philip; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Austic, Elizabeth; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2015-06-01

    Involvement in sports increases the risk for injury and the risk for prescription opioid use and misuse. This was an exploratory retrospective study to examine if previous involvement in interscholastic sports was associated with a greater lifetime prevalence of medical prescription opioid use, lifetime risk for diverting prescribed opioids, and lifetime risk for nonmedical prescription opioid use. A Web-based survey was self-administered to a sample of 4,187 full-time undergraduate students at a large public university located in the Midwest. Student demographics, involvement in interscholastic sports during high school, lifetime medical prescription opioid use, lifetime risk for diverting prescribed opioids, and lifetime risk for nonmedical prescription opioid use were measured and analyzed for this study. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that those who participated in at least 1 interscholastic sport during high school had greater odds for lifetime medical prescription opioid use on multiple occasions and greater odds for being approached to divert their prescribed opioid medications on multiple occasions when compared with their peers who did not participate in interscholastic sports during high school. The findings indicate some association between previous involvement in interscholastic sports and prescription opioid use and misuse. These findings further suggest that greater awareness should be instilled in parents and coaches regarding this form of substance misuse.

  11. The current status of HIV screening laboratories in Korea assessed by a questionnaire survey of participants in the KCDC HIV EQAS (2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-S; Kee, M K; Kim, H-S; Choi, B-S; Suh, S-D; Kim, E-J; Kim, C-W; Kim, S S

    2010-05-01

    Using a questionnaire, we assessed the current status of the quality management systems at HIV screening laboratories in Korea. The Korea Centres for Disease Control and Prevention HIV external quality assurance scheme (EQAS) questionnaire includes 18 items divided into five groups related to HIV testing: personnel, HIV test processes, participation in the Quality Assurance programme and HIV testing equipment. Five hundred and sixty-one HIV screening laboratories participated in this questionnaire investigation; data were collected from 233 public health centres, 309 hospitals or clinics, eight blood centres and 11 commercial laboratories. The total number of HIV screening tests was about 5.5 million in 2005. The average number of HIV tests per institution was highest in blood centres (308 561), followed by commercial laboratories (56 084), hospital or clinic laboratories (6756), and public health centres (1751). Equipment and HIV test methods varied between HIV screening laboratories, and, to manage the quality of their HIV testing, most laboratories participated in several evaluation programmes such as EQAS or a laboratory accreditation programme. This study is the first questionnaire survey of HIV testing laboratories in Korea. The results could be used to evaluate and promote the quality management of HIV testing laboratories.

  12. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  13. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  14. A descriptive study of the middle school science teacher behavior for required student participation in science fair competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisanick, Laura M.

    This descriptive study explores three aspects of teacher behavior related to student participation in science fair competitions: teacher attitudes, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and teacher motives for required student participation. Teacher motives for required student participation may stem from curriculum and standardized test requirements, school administrators' expectations, teacher preference for a competitive student-learning mode, and teacher attitudes towards science fair competitions. Survey data collected for this study included teacher attitudes about science fair competitions, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and demographic data about middle school teachers who sponsor students in PJAS science fair competitions. The theoretical framework in this study is the theory of planned behavior proposed by Ajzen. The results from the analysis of data in this study showed that the majority of the teachers in this sample held positive attitudes towards science fair competitions and required their students to conduct science fair projects but did not require their students to participate in science fair competitions. The middle school science teachers in the sample would involve their students in PJAS competitions even if their districts did not require them to participate. The teachers in this study preferred the cooperative and individualistic student-learning modes. Teacher gender did not influence a preference for a particular student-learning mode. Using the theoretical framework from this study revealed teachers who required their students to participate in science fair competitions also required their students to conduct science fair projects.

  15. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some...... of medical research. They participated in the placenta perfusion study due to a belief that societal progress follows medical research. They also felt that participating was a way of giving something back to the Danish health care system. The participants have trust in medical science and scientists...

  16. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Trent A.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other…

  17. Public Interest in Medical Research Participation: Does It Matter if Patients or Community Members Have Helped Design the Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M

    2015-10-01

    We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Political Participation : A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Liza

    2006-01-01

    Abstract “Political participation” - A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong Thesis in Political Science, D-level Author: Liza Bergström Tutor: Michele Micheletti On July 1, 1997 China resumed its sovereignty over Hong Kong. Ever since long before the handover until today scholars ask whether and how the changes in Hong Kong’s political status are affecting politics in Hong Kong. This paper is situated in this on-going academic debate. Its purpose is to investigate whether system changes...

  19. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and nutritional factors: a study with participants of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juliana Rodrigues de; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between fat and fiber intakes and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). Cross-sectional survey conducted from the baseline of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health Adult (ELSA-Brasil). Anthropometric measurements were conducted and the body mass index was calculated (BMI). Participants were classified according to the presence of HWP when waist circumference ≥ 102 and ≥ 88 cm, respectively, in men and women, and triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL. Fat and fiber intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral variables were collected through a questionnaire. The χ² test, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression were performed with significance level of 5%. There was no association between fiber and fat intakes with HWP. A lower prevalence of HWP among men was observed (IRR = 0.959; 95%CI 0.948 - 0.969). A higher prevalence of HWP was observed in participants with low physical activity (OR = 1.039, 95%CI 1.021 - 1.057), smoking history (OR = 1.044, 95%CI 1.031 - 1.057), lower per capita income (IRR = 1.035; 95%CI 1.022 - 1.049) and obesity (OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.305 - 1.341). Fat and fiber intakes were not associated with HWP. A higher prevalence of HWP was found in obese, but no association was found between intake of fat and fiber and phenotype.

  20. When "no" might not quite mean "no"; the importance of informed and meaningful non-consent: results from a survey of individuals refusing participation in a health-related research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurdo Marion ET

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low participation rates can lead to sampling bias, delays in completion and increased costs. Strategies to improve participation rates should address reasons for non-participation. However, most empirical research has focused on participants' motives rather than the reasons why non-participants refuse to take part. In this study we investigated the reasons why older people choose not to participate in a research project. Methods Follow-up study of people living in Tayside, Scotland who had opted-out of a cross-sectional survey on activities in retirement. Eight hundred and eighty seven people aged 65–84 years were invited to take part in a home-based cross-sectional survey. Of these, 471 refused to take part. Permission was obtained to follow-up 417 of the refusers. Demographic characteristics of people who refused to take part and the reasons they gave for not taking part were collected. Results 54% of those invited to take part in the original cross-sectional survey refused to do so. However, 61% of these individuals went on to participate in the follow-up study and provided reasons for their original refusal. For the vast majority of people initial non-participation did not reflect an objection to participating in research in principle but frequently stemmed from barriers or misunderstandings about the nature or process of the project itself. Only 28% indicated that they were "not interested in research". The meaningfulness of expressions of non-consent may therefore be called into question. Hierarchical log-linear modelling showed that refusal was independently influenced by age, gender and social class. However, this response pattern was different for the follow-up study in which reasons for non-participation in the first survey were sought. This difference in pattern and response rates supports the likely importance of recruitment issues that are research and context specific. Conclusion An expression of non

  1. Population-Based Analysis of Hematologic Malignancy Referrals to a Comprehensive Cancer Center, Referrals for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and Participation in Clinical Trial, Survey, and Biospecimen Research by Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Alyssa; Peoples, Brittany; Zhang, Yali; Moysich, Kirsten; Ross, Levi; McCarthy, Philip; Hahn, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been reported in clinical trial/research participation, utilization of autologous and allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT), and availability of allogeneic donors. We performed a population-based cohort study to investigate adult hematologic malignancy referrals to a US tertiary cancer center, utilization of BMT, and participation in clinical trial, survey, and biospecimen research by race. US Census Data and the New York State Public Access Cancer Epidemiology Database identified the racial distribution of the general population and new hematologic malignancy cases in the primary catchment area. From 2005 to 2011, 1106 patients aged 18 to 75 years were referred for BMT consultation; although the rate of BMT among hematologic malignancy referrals did not differ by race, the reasons for not receiving a BMT did. Participation in biospecimen research did not vary by race; however, African Americans and other minorities were significantly less likely to participate in survey research than European Americans. Although rates of hematologic malignancy referrals and use of BMT for minorities appear to be low (race distribution of all hematologic malignancy cases and the western New York population. African Americans are equally likely as other races to participate in biospecimen banking, but further study is needed to understand reasons for lower participation in survey research. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ranking the participants of economic studies market in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balatsky Evgeny, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of rating the personal and institutional members of the Russian market for Economic Studies – economists and higher economic schools. Ranking the economists carried out in accordance with the Rating of academic activity and popularity, which is based on averaging three indicators of RISC – number of publications, number of citations and h-index. The quantitative results of the pilot empirical calculations have allowed to identify the main features of the model for academic success of economist, which includes factors such as mature age, high administrative status, attitudes to the leading scientific corporation and relevance of research subject. The paper also presents the rating of Russian universities engaged in economic studies. The rating is based on the account of two sides in the activities of universities – publication activity in the pages of the best economic journals, determined on the basis of special Ranking of economic journals, and human capacity, determined on the basis of Rating of academic activity and popularity of economists. The combination of these two factors for success has allowed to propose the classification of higher economic schools – emerging, mature, locally and globally active, locally and globally stagnating. It is shown that the additional data processing of system RISC allows to make a representative ratings that can serve as effective markers for Russian market of economic researches.

  3. Trends in Addressing Social Needs: A Longitudinal Study of Congregation-Based Service Provision and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Fulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When congregations seek to address social needs, they often pursue this goal through acts of service and political engagement. Over the past three decades, a tremendous amount of research has been dedicated to analyzing congregation-based service provision and political participation. However, little is known about how congregations’ involvement in these arenas has changed during this period. To help fill this gap, this study analyzes three waves of data from a national survey of congregations to assess how congregations’ participation patterns in service-related and political activities have been changing since the 1990s. It also examines trends among subpopulations of congregations grouped by their religious tradition, ethnoracial composition, and ideological orientation. Overall, this study finds that among most types of congregations, the percentage participating in service-related activities is substantial and increasing, while the percentage participating in political activities is less substantial and decreasing. This decline in political participation has implications for the role congregations play in addressing social needs. Relieving immediate needs through service provision without also pursuing long-term solutions through political participation can limit congregations’ ability to comprehensively address social needs. Among the few types of congregations that have high and/or increasing participation rates in both service-related and political activities are Catholic, predominantly Hispanic, and politically liberal congregations.

  4. Relationships Between Sport Participation, Problem Alcohol Use, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study of Young Adults in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kremer, Peter J; Toumbourou, John W

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting a link between sport participation and violent behavior outside of the sporting context. However, there have been few studies that have investigated the basis of this relationship. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between sport participation, problem alcohol use, and various violent behaviors, and whether sport participation moderates relationships between problem alcohol use and violence. The sample comprised 2,262 young adults (55% female, age range at Time 1 = 17-24 years) from Victoria, Australia, surveyed in 2010 and 2012. When controlling for common risk factors, substance use, and past violence, sport participation was not associated with any violent behaviors 2 years later. However, sport participation moderated the relationship between problem alcohol use and fighting, whereby problem alcohol use was associated with engaging in fights 2 years later for sport participants, but not for nonparticipants. These findings suggest that it is not sport participation per se that influences later violence but the drinking norms or culture embedded within certain sporting contexts. Prevention approaches that address the drinking culture and social approval of excessive alcohol consumption within sporting contexts may reduce the incidence of violent behavior in the community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Cortical Structures Associated With Sports Participation in Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Mónica; Tiemeier, Henning; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Sunyer, Jordi; White, Tonya

    2017-01-01

    We studied cortical morphology in relation to sports participation and type of sport using a large sample of healthy children (n = 911). Sports participation data was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired, and different morphological brain features were quantified. Global volumetric measures were not associated with sports participation. We observed thicker cortex in motor and premotor areas associated with sports participation. In boys, team sports participation, relative to individual sports, was related to thinner cortex in prefrontal brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviors. This study showed a relationship between sports participation and brain maturation.

  6. Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the

  7. A meta-study investigating the sources of protest behaviour in stated preference surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

      It is well known that some percentage of respondents participating in Stated Preference surveys will not give responses which reflect their true preferences. One reason is protest behaviour. If the distribution of protest responses is not independent of respondent demographics, the elicitation...... method, the question format, etc., then simply expelling protesters from surveys will lead to sample selection issues. Furthermore, WTP estimates will not be comparable across surveys. This paper seeks to explore potential causes of protest behaviour through a meta-study based on data from 10 different...... surveys. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of respondent specific variables as well as survey specific variables on protest behaviour. Our results suggest that some of the differences in WTP typically observed between different demographic groups, different elicitation formats...

  8. An Empirical Study Based on the SPSS Variance Analysis of College Teachers' Sports Participation and Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqiu Liang

    2013-01-01

    The study on University Teachers ' sports participation and their job satisfaction relationship for empirical research, mainly from the group to participate in sports activities situation on the object of study, investigation and mathematical statistics analysis SPSS. Results show that sports groups participate in job satisfaction higher than those in groups of job satisfaction; sports participation, different job satisfaction is also different. Recommendations for college teachers to address...

  9. Servicemembers and veterans with major traumatic limb loss from Vietnam war and OIF/OEF conflicts: survey methods, participants, and summary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Gayle E; McFarland, Lynne V; Hubbard, Sharon; Maynard, Charles; Blough, David K; Gambel, Jeffrey M; Smith, Douglas G

    2010-01-01

    Care of veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss from combat theaters is one of the highest priorities of the Department of Veteran Affairs. We achieved a 62% response rate in our Survey for Prosthetic Use from 298 Vietnam war veterans and 283 servicemembers/veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) who sustained major traumatic limb loss. Participants reported their combat injuries; health status; quality of life; and prosthetic device use, function, rejection, and satisfaction. Despite the serious injuries experienced, health status was rated excellent, very good, or good by 70.7% of Vietnam war and 85.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants. However, many health issues persist for Vietnam war and OIF/OEF survey participants (respectively): phantom limb pain (72.2%/76.0%), chronic back pain (36.2%/42.1%), residual-limb pain (48.3%/62.9%), prosthesis-related skin problems (51.0%/58.0%), hearing loss (47.0%/47.0%), traumatic brain injury (3.4%/33.9%), depression (24.5%/24.0%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (37.6%/58.7%). Prosthetic devices are currently used by 78.2% of Vietnam war and 90.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants to improve function and mobility. On average, the annual rate for prosthetic device receipt is 10.7-fold higher for OIF/OEF than for Vietnam war survey participants. Findings from this cross-conflict survey identify many strengths in prosthetic rehabilitation for those with limb loss and several areas for future attention.

  10. Assessment of participation bias in cohort studies: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.

  11. Assessment of participation bias in cohort studies: systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, Sérgio Henrique Almeida da; Santos, Simone M; Coeli, Cláudia Medina; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science) for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline) were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.

  12. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  13. A Study on the Barriers to Participation of Females in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education in Imo State the Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwu, R. U.; Azoro, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to ascertain the barriers to effective participation of females in surface-mount technology (SMT) in Imo State. Four purposes and four research questions guided the study. The study adopted the survey research design. The population of the study consists of all the female science students and lecturers in six tertiary…

  14. Do employees participate in workplace HIV testing just to win a lottery prize? A quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weihs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: To encourage workers to participate in workplace HIV testing, some SouthAfrican automotive companies use lotteries. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how lottery incentives may influence employees’ workplace HIV counselling and testing behaviour.Research purpose: Determine whether workers intend to test for HIV only to win a lottery prize.Motivation for the study: The positive and also negative influences of lotteries on workers’ HIV testing behaviour need to be understood to avoid undue coercion in workplace HIV testing participation.Research design, approach and method: Post-test only quasi-experimental studies were conducted the day HIV testing and lotteries were announced to staff in four companies using a cross-sectional, self-administered survey that measured workers’ workplace HIV testing behaviour intentions. Intention to participate in workplace HIV counselling and testing was used as the main outcome of respondents’ behaviour and investigated via the statement: ‘If the company would organise its on-site Wellness Day tomorrow, I would go testing for HIV tomorrow’. In a first setting, two companies’ workers had to test for HIV to be entered in the lottery (n = 198. In the second setting, two other companies’ workers did not have to test to be entered in the lottery (n = 316. Chi-square tests were conducted to measure significant differences between the two conditions distinguishing between permanent and non-permanent staff.Main findings: No significant association was found between behaviour intention in the two settings for permanent workers’ workplace HIV testing intention ( χ2 = 1.145, p = 0.285, phi = -0.097. However, a significant association with a small effect size was found for non-permanent workers ( χ2 = 8.04, p = 0.005, phi = -0.279.Practical/managerial implications: Results show that lotteries to encourage workplace HIV testing are very likely to help workers ‘do the right

  15. The Influence of Education and Age on Participation in Rural Adult Education. Special Study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Dean S.; Dickinson, Gary

    A study was made of differences between participants and nonparticipants in rural adult education in British Columbia. Interviews were held with 881 household heads (126 participants, 755 nonparticipants). In general, participants were younger, had a higher standard of living, were more active in formal organizations, had more education, worked in…

  16. The relationship between hand osteoarthritis and serum leptin concentration in participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massengale, Mei; Reichmann, William M; Losina, Elena; Solomon, Daniel H; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-05-31

    Leptin has been suspected to contribute to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this hypothesis has not been tested in large-scale hand OA cohorts. Our study aimed to determine whether there is a cross-sectional relationship between serum leptin levels and hand OA in a population-based sample of US adults. We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a national cross-sectional population-based survey, to study the relationship between hand OA and serum leptin concentration. We applied previously established classification criteria for hand OA. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Potential confounders included sex, body mass index, the presence of polyarticular OA, diabetes, and total cholesterol. We estimated unadjusted mean leptin concentration by hand OA status and by all confounders. We further developed a linear regression model to assess mean leptin levels, adjusted for appropriate confounders. Of 2,477 subjects in the NHANES III sample that had a hand examination and did not have rheumatoid arthritis, 1,056 (42.6%) had a leptin measurement and were included in the analysis. Subjects with and without leptin measurement had similar demographic characteristics. We did not find any significant differences in mean serum leptin levels in subjects with symptomatic hand OA (7.38 ng/ml in males (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.31, 9.46) and 21.55 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 17.08, 26.02)), asymptomatic hand OA (6.69 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 5.19, 8.18) and 17.09 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 15.00, 19.18)), and no hand OA (8.22 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 7.47, 8.97) and 20.77 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 18.01, 23.53)) in the unadjusted analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model that included variables of hand OA status, age, race/ethnicity, and obesity status, we found no statistically significant association between serum leptin and hand OA status. In this cross-sectional study of a large

  17. Altruism and participation in longitudinal health research? Insights from the Whitehall II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mein, Gill; Seale, Clive; Rice, Helen; Johal, Suneeta; Ashcroft, Richard E; Ellison, George; Tinker, Anthea

    2012-12-01

    Research that follows people over a period of time (longitudinal or panel studies) is important in understanding the ageing process and changes over time in the lives of older people. Older people may choose to leave studies due to frailty, or illness and this may diminish the value of the study. However, people also drop out of studies for other reasons and understanding the motivation behind participation or drop out may prevent further loss of valuable longitudinal information and assist the continuation of longitudinal studies. This paper examines qualitative data from interviews and focus groups in 2003/2008 with participants of the Whitehall II Study (based at UCL), and investigates reasons participants give for participating in longitudinal health studies, and recommendations they give for encouraging continued participation as they grow older. A total of 28 participants and 14 staff were interviewed, and 17 participants took part in focus groups. Our findings are discussed in the light of the debate between of altruism and reciprocity. Rather than being wholly motivated by altruism, as research staff had assumed, participants were motivated by the benefits they perceived, particularly the information and care received during the medical examinations and the sense of loyalty and membership associated with being part of the study. Our findings support the view that far from being primarily motivated by altruism, research participation in studies such as this may also involve a degree of implicit and explicit reciprocity. However, participants disliked the obligation to complete the study questionnaires--which may have influenced the expectation of payment or reciprocation, as participation was not wholly pleasing. To try and maintain participation in longitudinal health studies this project recommended gathering information from exit interviews as a way of preventing further withdrawals and closer involvement of participants through a user panel. Copyright

  18. Social participation, willingness and quality of life: A population-based study among older adults in rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qian; Cui, Yanjie; Liang, Ling; Zhong, Qi; Li, Jie; Li, Yuancheng; Lv, Xiaofeng; Huang, Fen

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to reflect the current situation of social participation in rural areas of China, willingness to participate in social activities, association between health-related quality of life and social participation, and factors related to social participation. A total of 2644 rural adults aged 60 years and older were randomly selected and surveyed with a self-rating questionnaire. We used the unified definition of social participation in our study. The Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey was used to measure health-related quality of life. The overall engagement of social activities was 26%. Those who participated in social activities were more likely to have high scores of health-related quality of life. Older men with a high educational level (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) living alone or with a spouse (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12), high objective social support (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17) and high support utilization (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21) were inclined to engage in social participation. Older women with high individual income (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25-2.43), single marital status (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.10), normal weight (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.10-3.34), overweight (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.24-4.19), living alone or with a spouse (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.00), objective social support (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18) and subjective social support (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) were more willing to engage in social participation. Engagement in social activities is relatively low in rural areas, and associations of willingness and health-related quality of life with social participation were found. Policy-makers and government workers should make appropriate types of encouragement policies around social participation for older adults in rural areas. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1593-1602. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Sports participation of Dutch lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragaru, Mihail; Meulenbelt, Hendrik; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H.B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze sports participation of Dutch lower limb amputees and factors influencing sports participation. Study design: A cross-sectional survey was performed. Dutch lower limb amputees (N = 2039) were invited to participate in a postal survey addressing personal and amputation

  20. Coming to Canada to Study: Factors that Influence Student's Decisions to Participate in International Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Burrow, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students are participating in study abroad programs. Outcomes associated with these programs have been studied extensively, but relatively little is known about what motivates and influences students to participate. This study investigated factors that motivate and influence students to study on exchange and explored how…

  1. Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    1. The fraction of sampling units in a landscape where a target species is present (occupancy) is an extensively used concept in ecology. Yet in many applications the species will not always be detected in a sampling unit even when present, resulting in biased estimates of occupancy. Given that sampling units are surveyed repeatedly within a relatively short timeframe, a number of similar methods have now been developed to provide unbiased occupancy estimates. However, practical guidance on the efficient design of occupancy studies has been lacking. 2. In this paper we comment on a number of general issues related to designing occupancy studies, including the need for clear objectives that are explicitly linked to science or management, selection of sampling units, timing of repeat surveys and allocation of survey effort. Advice on the number of repeat surveys per sampling unit is considered in terms of the variance of the occupancy estimator, for three possible study designs. 3. We recommend that sampling units should be surveyed a minimum of three times when detection probability is high (> 0.5 survey-1), unless a removal design is used. 4. We found that an optimal removal design will generally be the most efficient, but we suggest it may be less robust to assumption violations than a standard design. 5. Our results suggest that for a rare species it is more efficient to survey more sampling units less intensively, while for a common species fewer sampling units should be surveyed more intensively. 6. Synthesis and applications. Reliable inferences can only result from quality data. To make the best use of logistical resources, study objectives must be clearly defined; sampling units must be selected, and repeated surveys timed appropriately; and a sufficient number of repeated surveys must be conducted. Failure to do so may compromise the integrity of the study. The guidance given here on study design issues is particularly applicable to studies of species

  2. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sera from children 3 to 11 years of age participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Kato, Kayoko; Wong, Lee-Yang; Jia, Tao; Kalathil, Akil; Latremouille, John; Calafat, Antonia M

    2018-01-01

    Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014. We used on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; limits of detection were 0.1ng/mL for all analytes. We calculated geometric mean concentrations, determined weighted Pearson correlations, and used linear regression to evaluate associations of sex, age (3-5 vs 6-11 years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), household income, and body mass index with concentrations of PFAS detected in more than 60% of participants. We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in all children at concentrations similar to those of NHANES 2013-2014 adolescents and adults, suggesting prevalent exposure to these PFAS or their precursors among U.S. 3-11year old children, most of whom were born after the phase out of PFOS in the United States in 2002. PFAS concentration differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and age suggest lifestyle differences that may impact exposure, and highlight the importance of identifying exposure sources and of studying the environmental fate and transport of PFAS. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. A quantitative study of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability: Do stakeholders agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S

    2017-12-13

    Attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability inform research policy and practice, impact interest in and support for research participation, and promote or discourage the generation of new knowledge to promote health among adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about these beliefs among the public and the scientific community. We quantitatively studied attitudes among adults with intellectual disability, family and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members. We predicted that adults with intellectual disability, and researchers would espouse views most consistent with disability rights, whereas IRB members, and to a lesser degree family, friends, and service providers, would espouse more protective views. We surveyed five hundred and twelve members of the five participant stakeholder groups on their attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found broad support for research about people with intellectual disability, though slightly more tempered support for their direct participation therein. In general, IRB members and to some extent adults with intellectual disability endorsed direct participation less than others. We also found that adults with intellectual disability strongly believed in their consent capacity. Resources should be directed toward health-related research with adults with intellectual disability, and interventions should be pursued to address ethical challenges and promote beliefs consistent with human rights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. College Students' Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Participation in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kelly M.; Soria, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    College students in the U.S. are increasingly participating in study abroad opportunities; for example, from the 2010-2011 academic year, 273,996 U.S. students studied abroad, an increase of 1.3% from the previous year (Institute of International Education, 2012). Participation in study abroad has more than tripled over the past two decades…

  5. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  6. College Students' Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Participation in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kelly M.; Soria, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    College students in the U.S. are increasingly participating in study abroad opportunities; for example, from the 2010-2011 academic year, 273,996 U.S. students studied abroad, an increase of 1.3% from the previous year (Institute of International Education, 2012). Participation in study abroad has more than tripled over the past two decades…

  7. Facebook Enables Disaster Research Studies: The Use of Social Media to Recruit Participants in a Post-Disaster Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, Karin; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Gifford, Mervyn; Örtenwall, Per

    2017-01-19

    Disaster research entails several methodological challenges, given the context of a disaster. This article aims to describe and evaluate the use of Facebook as a tool to recruit participants for a self-selected Internet sample using a web-based survey in a post-disaster setting in the Philippines after the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the country in November 2013. An invitation to a web-based survey about health was posted on several Facebook pages during a ten-day period. In total, 443 individuals who had survived the Haiyan typhoon participated in the study. The demographics of the study sample were similar to the general demographics in the Philippines, considering gender, age distribution and level of education. The study showed that the use of social media to recruit participants for disaster research could limit several of the practical and ethical challenges connected to disaster research. However, the method demands access to the Internet and requires several strategic considerations, particularly concerning non-probability sample biases and generalization as well as an active approach from the researcher.

  8. Jet reliability study Survey and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.

    2015-07-01

    Culham Center for Fusion Energy (CCFE) in UK has been contracted to undertake a second Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE2) using Join European Torus (JET) in 2017, in support of technical developments for the ITER project. In order to manage risks of delay or early project termination CCFE has adopted a risk based inspection (RBI) process to identify the systems which could influence the successful delivery of DTE2 and in turn to identify by a basic risk assessment process those systems or components which require mitigating action in order to minimize risk. In this context, the primary purpose of the RBI is to address issues of reliability and satisfactory functionality in a similar way to that which a power plant operator would take to address its commercial risks in the event of loss of generating capacity. The objective of this presentation is describe the activities developed for Idom to deliver the survey, interviews and risk assessment of different systems of JET with the aim to identify the critical components and system that could affect the operation of JET during the DTE2 experiment. (Author)

  9. Participant-reported benefits of involvement in an adaptive sports program: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lape, Emma C; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena; Kerman, Hannah M; Gedman, Marissa A; Blauwet, Cheri A

    2017-10-27

    While participation in adaptive sports offers numerous benefits for persons with disabilities, a substantial number of eligible persons do not take part. Previous studies have identified personal and environmental factors that promote or inhibit adaptive sports participation. However, these studies have considered a relatively narrow range of factors. Use qualitative research techniques to identify novel factors that influence participation in a community-based adaptive sports program. Qualitative focus group study SETTING: Community-based adaptive sports programs affiliated with a rehabilitation hospital network PARTICIPANTS: Participants were recruited from among 134 adults who registered for the sports program in 2013-2014. We included participants with mobility or sensory impairment, absence of cognitive impairment, and English proficiency. We contacted the 91 former participants with adequate contact information; 17 participated in the focus groups. Two moderators led each of three audio-recorded focus groups utilizing a moderator's guide. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcript data to identify perceived benefits, barriers, and facilitators of participation. Our analysis identified five themes: physical well-being and health/safety; interpersonal and social relationships; intrapersonal and beliefs/attitudes; physical environment; and access. Participants experienced participation both as physically beneficial and as transformative in terms of how they view themselves. However, programs drew on limited personal resources and sometimes presented a perceived risk of injury. Finding information about and transportation to programs was a challenge. Participants formed an informal community that modeled what athletes with disabilities are capable of, helping to overcome initial doubts. To gain the benefits of participation, athletes overcame significant barriers, several of which may be modifiable, including transportation and hard-to-find information about

  10. Nursing students motivation toward their studies – a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Kerstin EL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focuses on Swedish nursing students' motivation toward their studies during their three year academic studies. Earlier studies show the importance of motivation for study commitment and result. The aim was to analyze nursing students' estimation of their degree of motivation during different semester during their education and to identify reasons for the degree of motivation. Methods A questionnaire asking for scoring motivation and what influenced the degree of motivation was distributed to students enrolled in a nursing programme. 315 students who studied at different semesters participated. Analyzes were made by statistical calculation and content analysis. Results The mean motivation score over all semesters was 6.3 (ranked between 0–10 and differed significantly during the semesters with a tendency to lower score during the 5th semester. Students (73/315 with motivation score 6 reported positive opinions to becoming a nurse (125/234, organization of the programme and attitude to the studies. The mean score value for the motivation ranking differed significantly between male (5.8 and female (6.8 students. Conclusion Conclusions to be drawn are that nursing students mainly grade their motivation positive distributed different throughout their entire education. The main motivation factor was becoming a nurse. This study result highlights the need of understanding the students' situation and their need of tutorial support.

  11. Nursing students motivation toward their studies - a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin El; Warrén Stomberg, Margareta I

    2008-04-25

    This study focuses on Swedish nursing students' motivation toward their studies during their three year academic studies. Earlier studies show the importance of motivation for study commitment and result. The aim was to analyze nursing students' estimation of their degree of motivation during different semester during their education and to identify reasons for the degree of motivation. A questionnaire asking for scoring motivation and what influenced the degree of motivation was distributed to students enrolled in a nursing programme. 315 students who studied at different semesters participated. Analyzes were made by statistical calculation and content analysis. The mean motivation score over all semesters was 6.3 (ranked between 0-10) and differed significantly during the semesters with a tendency to lower score during the 5th semester. Students (73/315) with motivation score motivation score >6 reported positive opinions to becoming a nurse (125/234), organization of the programme and attitude to the studies. The mean score value for the motivation ranking differed significantly between male (5.8) and female (6.8) students. Conclusions to be drawn are that nursing students mainly grade their motivation positive distributed different throughout their entire education. The main motivation factor was becoming a nurse. This study result highlights the need of understanding the students' situation and their need of tutorial support.

  12. Comparison of participants and non-participants in a randomized study of prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba; Hanash, Jamal A.; Rasmussen, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is higher than in the general population. In a study on prevention of post-ACS depression, more than half of eligible patients declined participation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate...... whether symptoms of depression and anxiety in participants and non-participants predicted participation in the study. Methods: This substudy was conducted between May 2005 and April 2007. Patients with ACS, eligible for the study (n=302) were asked four questions on depression and anxiety from the Primary...... (43.9%) participants and 55 (44%) non-participants were screened positive for anxiety (NS). Non-participants were older (P=0.002), while no significant differences in gender or cardiac diagnosis were found. Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in patients after ACS...

  13. Community sensitization and decision-making for trial participation: a mixed-methods study from The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Susan; O'Neill, Sarah; Gryseels, Charlotte; Immaculate Anyango, Edna; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Okebe, Joseph; Mwesigwa, Julia; Jaiteh, Fatou; Gerrets, René; Ravinetto, Raffaella; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2017-08-16

    Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia. Although 38.7% of the respondents were present during sensitization sessions, 91.1% of the respondents were inclined to participate in the trial when surveyed after the sensitization and prior to the informed consent process. This difference can be explained by the informal transmission of information within the community after the community sensitization, expectations such as the benefits of participation based on previous research experiences, and the positive reputation of the research institute. Commonly mentioned barriers to participation were blood sampling and the potential disapproval of the household head. Community sensitization is effective in providing first-hand, reliable information to communities as the information is cascaded to those who could not attend the sessions. However, further research is needed to assess how the informal spread of information further shapes people's expectations, how the process engages with existing social relations and hierarchies (e.g. local political power structures; permissions of heads of households) and how this influences or changes individual consent. © 2017 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. How Do Sociodemographics and Activity Participations Affect Activity-Travel? Comparative Study between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-travel behaviors of women and men are different because they have different social and household responsibilities. However, studies concerning gender differences are mainly limited in developed countries. This paper concentrates on gender role-based differences in activity-travel behavior in a typical developing country, namely, China. Using data from 3656 cases collected through surveys conducted in Shangyu, data processing, method choice, and descriptive analysis were conducted. Binary and ordered logistic regression models segmented by gender were developed to evaluate the mechanism through which individual sociodemographics, household characteristics, and activity participations affect the number of trip chain types and activities for women and men. The results show that women aged 30 to 50 perform less subsistence activities. However, the difference between the different age groups of men is not as significant. In addition, men with bicycles and electric bicycles have more subsistence and maintenance activities, whereas women do not have these attributes. Moreover, women with children under schooling age make more maintenance trip chains but less leisure trip chains and activities, whereas men are free from this influence. Furthermore, both women and men perform more subsistence activities if the duration increases, and men have less influences than women do.

  15. Who Participates? Longitudinal Retention in the MIDUS National Study of Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radler, Barry T.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article uses data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans (N = 7,108), to investigate factors that predict longitudinal retention. With its extensive age range (25–75 at Time 1) and long-term design (9- to 10-year survey interval), MIDUS is useful for investigating common sociodemographic and health predictors of continuing participation. Method The authors conducted logistic regression analyses of baseline sociodemographic and health variables predicting retention. Select interaction terms examined the interplay between targeted variables. Results Consistent with prior research, higher retention rates were found among Whites, females, and married individuals as well as those with better health and more education. Interaction analyses further clarified that (a) health status better predicted retention among older compared to younger respondents and among women compared to men, (b) marital status better predicted retention among Whites compared to non-Whites and among women compared to men, and (c) economic status better predicted retention among those with poorer functional health status. Discussion The authors’ analyses clarify that longitudinal retention varied depending on respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics and their health status. The unique contribution of this article is that factors predicting nonparticipation can be offset by, or compensated for, other factors. PMID:20103686

  16. Unemployment among Canadians with physical and a co-morbid mental disability: an examination of the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Erin; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Stuart, Heather

    2013-10-01

    Co-occurring disabilities are common and data indicate that those with both physical and mental disabilities face greater discrimination in the workforce. However, studies that consider disability type in determining labor market outcomes are needed; particularly in Canada. The objective was to examine the association of disability type and unemployment among working-aged Canadians using data from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS). The 2006 PALS is a post-censal sample survey of individuals whose everyday activities are limited due to a physical/mental condition. The study design is cross-sectional. Two groups were compared: persons with one or more physical disabilities exclusively vs. those with one or more physical disabilities and a mental disability. We calculated the prevalence of unemployment and used multiple logistic regression to measure the association between disability type and unemployment, while considering relevant covariates. The prevalence of unemployment was 20% overall; 35.4% in those with a co-morbid mental disability and 18.5% in those with exclusively physical disabilities. Those with a mental co-morbidity had approximately double the odds of being unemployed relative to those with exclusively physical disabilities and the effect remained significant (at p physical disabilities, individuals with co-morbid physical and mental disabilities were found to be at a significantly greater disadvantage when accessing employment. More research is needed to clarify whether these findings are indicative of discrimination and to proceed toward removing workplace barriers that persist in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The prevalence and socio-economic determinants of HIV among teenagers aged 15–18 years who were participating in a mobile testing population based survey in 2013–2014 in Zambia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Maddox, Nicole; Ngosa, William; Kapata, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    ... associated with being HIV positive. Methods A cross sectional population based survey of the prevalence of HIV among teenagers aged 15-18 years old who were also participants in a national Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey...

  18. A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.

  19. Patient participation in emergency care - a phenomenographic study based on patients' lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Catharina; Asp, Margareta; Dahlberg, Karin

    2009-01-01

    International guidelines promote patient participation in health care. When patients participate in their care they experience greater satisfaction. Studies have shown that patients in emergency departments express dissatisfaction with their care, and it was therefore important to study how patients understand and conceptualize their participation. The aim of this study was to describe patients' qualitatively different conceptions of patient participation in their care in an emergency department. Based on a lifeworld perspective, nine interviews were performed with patients in an emergency department. The phenomenographic analysis shows that participation by patients means contact with the emergency department staff in three categories of conceptions: being acknowledged; struggling to become involved; and having a clear space. The different conceptions of patient participation give us a deeper understanding of how patients may experience their care, and this result may provide a foundation for developing nursing practice and the quality of health care in line with international guidelines.

  20. Power and public participation in a hazardous waste dispute: a community case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Marci R; Hughey, Joseph

    2008-03-01

    Qualitative case study findings are presented. We examined whether public participation in a hazardous waste dispute manifested in ways consistent with theories of social power; particularly whether participatory processes or participants' experiences of them were consistent with the three-dimensional view of power (Gaventa, Power and powerlessness: quiescence and rebellion in an appalacian valley, 1980; Lukes, Power: A radical view, 1974; Parenti, Power and the powerless, 1978). Findings from four data sources collected over 3 years revealed that participatory processes manifested in ways consistent with theories of power, and participants' experiences reflected this. Results illustrated how participation was limited and how citizen influence could be manipulated via control of resources, barriers to participation, agenda setting, and shaping conceptions about what participation was possible. Implications for community research and policy related to participation in hazardous waste disputes are discussed.

  1. A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadigan, Kathleen Ann

    The purpose of this study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during their ninth and/or tenth grade years of high school. This study also attempts to determine how the WINS program affected the participants' educational and career choices in order to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. The research takes the form of a longitudinal, descriptive case study. The case is composed of 152 WINS participants who applied for, were accepted into, and completed at least one year of the program between 1992 and 1997. Data were drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews. Pre-WINS desired educational and career trajectory data were available for 152 participants. Post-WINS actual educational and career trajectory data were available for 101 of the young women in the sample. Seventy-eight women completed a WINS survey. The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 former participants. Findings revealed a 100 percent high school completion rate. A total of 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. Taking a greater number of advanced or honors level SMET high school courses was the only contextual variable showing a significant relationship to pursuing a career in SMET. The majority of participants perceived having the WINS staff as people you could talk to, the job skills learned in WINS, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career

  2. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  3. Youth Engagement: A Study of the Impact of Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Civic Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Fernandez, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation studies the impact of after school clubs and service learning activities on students' beliefs and attitudes towards citizenship (civic participation in a democracy), civic engagement, and political and social participation. This study focuses on two different organizations: Spectrum, a Gay-Straight alliance; and AMIGOS, a service…

  4. Theorizing E-Learning Participation: A Study of the HRD Online Communities in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study sets out to investigate the e-learning participation and completion phenomenon in the US corporate HRD online communities and to explore determinants of e-learning completion. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the HRD Learning Participation Theory (LPT), this study takes a two-stage approach. Stage one adopts an interview…

  5. Participant Preferences for Pharmacologic Chronic Pain Treatment Trial Characteristics: An ACTTION Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon M; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Kitt, Rachel A; Markman, John D; Vaughan, Janet A; Cowan, Penney; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; Sadosky, Alesia; Tive, Leslie; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-11-01

    Barriers to clinical trial recruitment can delay study completion, potentially resulting in increased costs and an unrepresentative sample. In the current study of 150 participants with chronic pain, we used a computerized adaptive choice-based conjoint survey that included 8 characteristics that may affect enrollment in pharmacologic pain treatment trials (ie, treatment allocation, frequency of pain ratings, treatment administration method, current medications, number of study visits, availability of evening and weekend visits, invasiveness of laboratory procedures, payment). These data were analyzed using Sawtooth Software ver. 8.4.8 (Sawtooth Software, Inc, Orem, UT), which identifies the characteristics that dominate participants' decisions across multiple sets of potential trials. Three characteristics had the largest relative importance in participants' trial preferences: 1) invasiveness of required laboratory procedures (ie, 22%), with no procedures or blood tests preferred over ice-water sensory testing or skin biopsy; 2) ability to continue current pain medications (21%); and 3) payment for study participation (21%), with higher payment preferred. The fourth most important characteristic was number of study visits (13%), with participants preferring fewer in-person visits and more phone contacts. Understanding the preferences of potential participants is an important step toward enhancing enrollment in pain treatment trials. This article presents the preferences of individuals with chronic pain conditions regarding modifiable pain treatment trial characteristics (eg, number of study visits, payment, treatment allocation). These findings may help to improve enrollment into analgesic clinical trials and in turn accelerate the development of new pain treatments. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design, methods, and participant characteristics of the Impact of Personal Genomics (PGen) Study, a prospective cohort study of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carere, Deanna Alexis; Couper, Mick P; Crawford, Scott D; Kalia, Sarah S; Duggan, Jake R; Moreno, Tanya A; Mountain, Joanna L; Roberts, J Scott; Green, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Designed in collaboration with 23andMe and Pathway Genomics, the Impact of Personal Genomics (PGen) Study serves as a model for academic-industry partnership and provides a longitudinal dataset for studying psychosocial, behavioral, and health outcomes related to direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (PGT). Web-based surveys administered at three time points, and linked to individual-level PGT results, provide data on 1,464 PGT customers, of which 71% completed each follow-up survey and 64% completed all three surveys. The cohort includes 15.7% individuals of non-white ethnicity, and encompasses a range of income, education, and health levels. Over 90% of participants agreed to re-contact for future research.

  7. Self-assessed health, perceived stress and non-participation in breast cancer screening: A Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Population-based cancer screening is offered in many countries to detect early stages of cancer and reduce mortality. Screening efficiency and equality is susceptible due to a group of non-participants. We investigated associations between self-assessed health, perceived stress and subsequent non-participation in breast cancer screening. This population-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who were also the target group (aged 50-69 years) for the first organised breast cancer screening programme -3 years later in the Central Denmark Region in 2008-2009. A U-shaped association was observed for physical health assessment as women with the highest (PR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), and the lowest (PR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.18-1.68) physical health scores were less likely to participate in the programme than women with physical health scores in the middle range. Women with low mental health assessment were more likely not to participate than women with mental health scores in the middle range (PR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.22-1.69). Higher non-participation propensity was also observed for women with the highest perceived stress scores (PR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.07-1.51) compared with women scoring in the middle range. Women with highest and lowest self-assessed physical health, with lowest mental health or highest perceived stress were significantly more likely not to participate in breast cancer screening 2-3 years later than women who reported average health. Interventions targeting these groups may promote equal participation in future breast cancer screening programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Satisfaction of Middle School Lunch Program Participants and Non-Participants with the School Lunch Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students' satisfaction with the school lunch experience, using two validated surveys; the Middle/Junior High School Student Participation Survey and the Middle/Junior High School Student Non-Participation Survey, both developed by the National Food Service Management…

  9. Monitoring of equine health in Denmark: a survey of the attitudes and concerns of potential database participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Wendy; Houe, Hans; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    2013-04-01

    At present Denmark has no central database holding records of equine health and disease. Nor have attitudes to the establishment of a national database, and the concerns it raises, been investigated in a systematic way. The objective of the present study was to assess the attitudes and concerns of potential database stakeholders. Attitudes to participation, and the location, financing and management of the proposed database, together with any concerns it raises, were investigated in a questionnaire study of 13 potential stakeholder groups in Denmark (in total, 1581 questionnaire recipients and 717 respondents): equine veterinarians, researchers, veterinary students, animal welfare organization representatives, horse owners, trainers, farriers, representatives from authorities, ordinary citizens, and representatives of laboratories, and insurance, medical equipment and pharmaceutical companies. Proportions were calculated for pre-categorised responses, and supplementary attitudes were extracted from qualitative responses. Eighty-six percent of respondents stated a positive interest in providing data for the database; the percentage for veterinarians was 90%. Data contribution was regarded as feasible by many of the stakeholder groups; this willingness to provide data, however, depended on the implementation of a very user-friendly system. Requirements included an electronic, simple, and time-efficient data reporting system. Most respondents felt the database should be financed via horse owners through mandatory contributions linked to each horse. Disagreement appeared to arise over data ownership, accessibility, and location. These and other issues need further elaboration in order to find a solution that is acceptable for all stakeholders. It may be advisable to collect and store data in more than one database. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between sports participation, motor competence and weight status: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Rafael S; Ré, Alessandro H N; Stodden, David F; Fransen, Job; Campos, Carolina M C; Queiroz, Daniel R; Cattuzzo, Maria T

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if baseline motor competence, weight status and sports participation in early childhood predict sports participation two years later. longitudinal study. In 2010, motor competence (object control and locomotor skills), weight status and sports participation were assessed in 292 children between three and five years-of-age. In 2012, sports participation was re-evaluated in 206 of the original 292 children. Logistic regression was implemented to examine if initial sports participation, motor competence and weight status would predict sports participation two years later. In the final model, sports participation in 2010 (OR=9.68, CI: 3.46 to 27.13) and locomotor skills (OR=1.21, CI: 1.01 to 1.46) significantly predicted sports participation after two years. These results suggest that initial sports participation and more advanced locomotor skills in preschool years may be important to promote continued participation in sports across childhood. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parents' labour market participation as a predictor of children's health and wellbeing: a comparative study in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. DESIGN: Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross...... sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. RESULTS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence...... of recurrent psychosomatic symptoms (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.16 to 2.40), chronic illness (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence intervals 1.00 to 1.84), and low wellbeing (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence intervals 1.12 to 1.94). Social class, family type, parents' immigrant status, gender...

  12. Reasons for non-participation in a parental program concerning underage drinking: a mixed-method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Charli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption among adolescents is a serious public health concern. Research has shown that prevention programs targeting parents can help prevent underage drinking. The problem is that parental participation in these kinds of interventions is generally low. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine non-participation in a parental support program aiming to prevent underage alcohol drinking. The Health Belief Model has been used as a tool for the analysis. Methods To understand non-participation in a parental program a quasi-experimental mixed-method design was used. The participants in the study were invited to participate in a parental program targeting parents with children in school years 7-9. A questionnaire was sent home to the parents before the program started. Two follow-up surveys were also carried out. The inclusion criteria for the study were that the parents had answered the questionnaire in school year 7 and either of the questionnaires in the two subsequent school years (n = 455. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine reasons for non-participation. The final follow-up questionnaire included an opened-ended question about reasons for non-participation. A qualitative content analysis was carried out and the two largest categories were included in the third model of the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results Educational level was the most important socio-demographic factor for predicting non-participation. Parents with a lower level of education were less likely to participate than those who were more educated. Factors associated with adolescents and alcohol did not seem to be of significant importance. Instead, program-related factors predicted non-participation, e.g. parents who did not perceive any need for the intervention and who did not attend the information meeting were more likely to be non-participants. Practical issues, like time demands, also seemed to

  13. Overview of the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was conducted over a five-year period from 1994-1998, to characterize determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant perceptions in representative public and commercial office buildings.

  14. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    This technical report comprises of two major aspects: (1) Surface positioning and (2) Sub-surface Positioning, which are followed for obtaining geographical positions while carrying out marine archaeological studies. Also, it analyses various survey...

  15. Cost shared wildfire risk mitigation in Log Hill Mesa, Colorado: Survey evidence on participation and willingness to pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Travis Warziniack; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia C. Falk

    2014-01-01

    Wildland-urban interface (WUI) homeowners who do not mitigate the wildfire risk on their properties impose a negative externality on society. To reduce the social costs of wildfire and incentivise homeowners to take action, cost sharing programs seek to reduce the barriers that impede wildfire risk mitigation. Using survey data from a WUI community in western Colorado...

  16. Social participation and the prevention of functional disability in older Japanese: the JAGES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Satoru; Kai, Yuko; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hirai, Hiroshi; Shirai, Kokoro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationship between incident functional disability and social participation from the perspective of number of types of organizations participated in and type of social participation in a prospective cohort study. The study was based on the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) Cohort Study data. We followed 13,310 individuals aged 65 years or older for 4 years. Analysis was carried out on 12,951 subjects, excluding 359 people whose information on age or sex was missing. Social participation was categorized into 8 types. Compared to those that did not participate in any organizations, the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73-0.95) for participation in one, 0.72 (0.61-0.85) for participation in two, and 0.57 (0.46-0.70) for participation in three or more different types of organizations. In multivariable adjusted models, participation in the following types of organization was protective for incident disability: local community organizations (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76-0.96), hobby organizations (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.87), and sports organizations (HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.81). Social participation may decrease the risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan. This effect may be strengthened by participation in a variety of different types of organizations. Participating in a local community, hobby, or sports group or organization may be especially effective for decreasing the risk of disability.

  17. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross–Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future

  18. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults' participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population-based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults' participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate the causal

  19. Social participation and the prevention of functional disability in older Japanese: the JAGES cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Kanamori

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between incident functional disability and social participation from the perspective of number of types of organizations participated in and type of social participation in a prospective cohort study.The study was based on the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES Cohort Study data. We followed 13,310 individuals aged 65 years or older for 4 years. Analysis was carried out on 12,951 subjects, excluding 359 people whose information on age or sex was missing. Social participation was categorized into 8 types.Compared to those that did not participate in any organizations, the hazard ratio (HR was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73-0.95 for participation in one, 0.72 (0.61-0.85 for participation in two, and 0.57 (0.46-0.70 for participation in three or more different types of organizations. In multivariable adjusted models, participation in the following types of organization was protective for incident disability: local community organizations (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76-0.96, hobby organizations (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.87, and sports organizations (HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.81.Social participation may decrease the risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan. This effect may be strengthened by participation in a variety of different types of organizations. Participating in a local community, hobby, or sports group or organization may be especially effective for decreasing the risk of disability.

  20. Physical activity and cognitive function of long-distance walkers: Studying Four Days Marches participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.J.P.; Aalbers, T.; Maessen, M.F.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Eijsvogels, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in participants of

  1. Physical Activity and Cognitive Function of Long-Distance Walkers : Studying Four Days Marches Participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; Aalbers, Teun; Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in participants of

  2. Mental health and social participation skills of wheelchair basketball players: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between competitive wheelchair basketball participants and those non-participants. Forty-six wheelchair participants, 24 Basketball players (aged 35.60 ± 7.56) and 22 non-players (aged 36.20 ± 6.23), completed three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale [PWBS] and Symptom Checklist 90 R [SCL-90-R]. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score, evaluated by PS, was significantly higher in the non-basketball participants (p=0.00001) than the basketball participants. The PWB Scale showed significant differences in all 6 dimensions: positive relations with others, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life and self-acceptance (pbasketball participants. The SCL-90-R scores were significantly lower for the basketball group in the following 6 symptomatic dimensions: depression, phobic anxiety, and sleep disorder (pwheelchair basketball participants showed better psychological well-being and social skills than those non-participants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Research of School Adaptation, Parent-child Relationship and Community Participation among Japanese-Brazilian Living in Japan : Comparative Study with Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    谷渕, 真也

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, the author has been providing community psychological support for Japanese-Brazilian living in Japan. The purposes of this study were to investigate the association of school adaptation with parent-child relationship, and that of school adaptation with community participation. 60 Japanese-Brazilian families and 600 Japanese families participated in this questionnaire survey. Results were as follows: (a) Japanese-Brazilian children felt that parents were overprotective, (b) there w...

  4. Consolation through music : A survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanser, Waldie E.; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Van den Tol, Annemieke J M; Mark, Ruth E.; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-01-01

    Even though music is widely used as a source of solace, the question as to how and why music offers consolation remains largely unexplored. The aims of the present study are as follows: (a) to compare listening to music versus other self-soothing behaviors, (b) to explore when music is used as a

  5. Space, Mobility and the Education of Minority Groups in Wales: The Survey Results. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Fevre, Ralph; Rees, Gareth; Furlong, John

    This study is part of a regional study in industrial South Wales on the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines contextual analysis of…

  6. A national study predicting licensed social workers' levels of political participation: the role of resources, psychological engagement, and recruitment networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jessica A

    2008-10-01

    The social work literature is replete with studies evaluating social workers' direct practice interventions, but strikingly few have assessed how well social workers are faring in the political arena. This study tests a major theoretical model, the civic voluntarism model, developed to explain why some citizens become involved in politics, whereas others do not. The study sample consisted of 396 randomly selected social workers licensed in 11 states, all of whom completed a 25-minute telephone survey. Social workers were surveyed to determine the role of the following variables in explaining social workers' political activity levels-resources needed to participate, psychological engagement, and attachment to recruitment networks. The results indicate that the civic voluntarism model was significant and accounted for 42 percent of the variance. The strongest predictors of social workers' political activity were NASW membership and political interest. This study provides empirical support for the idea that being connected to social networks and having a psychological engagement with politics are crucial factors in explaining social workers' political participation. Implications for social work education are included.

  7. The big picture unfolds: Using photovoice to study user participation in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jessica Pui-Shan; Tse, Samson; Davidson, Larry

    2016-12-01

    User participation is advocated on the basis that consumers know their own needs better than anyone else. Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers the grass-root population to give voice on concerned issues for eliciting social change. This study explores the experience and impact of user participation in mental health services (MHS) in Hong Kong through photovoice. It also examines the effects of this method in studying user participation. In this qualitative inquiry, authors, two peer researchers and three participants were involved in the various stages of research design, data collection and data analysis. Participants took photos showing their perception and experiences of being involved in different MHS systems. They shared their narratives through these images and reflected on the participatory experience of photovoice. User participation was experienced as a gradual process of assuming control that involved personal responsibility, connection with peers, collaboration with staff, redefinition of boundaries and social inclusion. Meaningful participation gave rise to a sense of contribution, interpersonal connection and self-worth and transformed one's identity. Participants enjoyed the mutual interaction and derived benefit from the photovoice process. Issues such as consent and confidentiality arose in implementation. Participation entails partnership among service users, providers and peers. Photovoice opens up new space for unfolding expert knowledge. Further application of this participatory approach with the local community is suggested in order to develop person-centered care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Optical study of the DAFT/FADA galaxy cluster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; Adami, C.

    2013-11-01

    DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a large survey of ˜90 high redshift (0.42×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with HST weak lensing oriented data, plus BVRIZJ 4m ground based follow up to compute photometric redshifts. The main goals of this survey are to constrain dark energy parameters using weak lensing tomography and to study a large homogeneous sample of high redshift massive clusters. We will briefly review the latest results of this optical survey, focusing on two ongoing works: the calculation of galaxy luminosity functions from photometric redshift catalogs and the weak lensing analysis of ground based data.

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of Suicide Ideation and Attempts Among Active Military and Veteran Participants in a National Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kerry L.; Piegari, Rebecca; Altieri, John; Kemp, Janet; Katz, Ira R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between military service and suicide are not clear, and comparatively little is known about the characteristics and correlates of suicide ideation and attempts among those with history of military service. We used data from a national health survey to estimate the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behaviors among veterans and service members in 2 states. The prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Veterans was similar to previous estimates of ideation and attempts among adults in the US general population. PMID:22390598

  10. Learning through Political Participation: A Case Study of Spanish Elders Involved in Political Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Petriwskyj, Andrea; Villar, Feliciano; Warburton, Jeni

    2016-01-01

    Older people's civic participation contributes to community development while at the same time providing opportunities for personal growth in later life. One important dimension of civic participation that has been largely underexplored is informal learning. The aim of this study is to explore the learnings experienced by Spanish older people…

  11. A study of the relationships of deer hunters participation intensity and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa S. Weddell; Denise M. Anderson; Ellen D. Rodgers; Brett A. Wright

    2007-01-01

    Declines in hunting participation are of concern to wildlife agencies and their ability to fund and manage wildlife populations as well as sustain local hunting traditions. To understand declines in participation, it is important to understand current hunters' perceptions of barriers and constraints that could lead to hunting desertion. This study examined hunting...

  12. Sports Participation and Academic Performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…

  13. The Effects of Sensory Processing and Behavior of Toddlers on Parent Participation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaLomba, Elaina; Baxter, Mary Frances; Fingerhut, Patricia; O'Donnell, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Occupational therapists treat children with sensory processing and behavioral concerns, however, little information exists on how these issues affect parent participation. This pilot study examined the sensory processing and behaviors of toddlers with developmental delays and correlated these with parents' perceived ability to participate in…

  14. Civic Participation among Seventh-Grade Social Studies Students in Multi-User Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Laura; Farber, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances on the Internet now enable students to develop participation skills in virtual worlds. Similar to controlling a character in a video game, multi-user virtual environments, or MUVEs, allow participants to interact with others in synchronous, online settings. The authors of this study created a link between MUVEs and…

  15. Socioeconomic position and participation in baseline and follow-up visits: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Anne M; Jørgensen, Torben; Helbech, Bodil; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify the extent of socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. The Inter99 study is a randomized intervention with the aim of investigating the effects of an individualized lifestyle consultation on ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The study comprised 61,301 persons of which 13,016 were assigned to the intervention group. The rest formed the control group. All those in the intervention group were invited to participate in health examinations, risk assessments, and lifestyle consultations. Participants at high risk of IHD were invited to follow-up visits after 1, 3, and 5 years. Data on five socioeconomic factors were retrieved from nationwide registers. For each socioeconomic factor we estimated the relative risks and relative index of inequality of participation at the baseline visit and among high-risk participants at follow-up visits. In addition, we conducted analyses of trends in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. Participation rates were 53% at baseline and 61-65% at the three follow-up visits. There was strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline, with increasing probability of participation found with increasing level of socioeconomic position. This was smaller at follow-up visits. Except for education and housing tenure, there was an increase in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. We found strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. Effort should be made to increase participation in individualized lifestyle interventions among persons of low socioeconomic position. Otherwise, the consequence may be increased socioeconomic inequality in IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. The Aalborg Survey / Part 4 - Literature Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    ) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 4 - Literature Study The 4th part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the spring 2012 and consists primarily of a literature search and bibliographical listings of literature by the three...... specific authors: William Hollingsworth Whyte (1917-1999), Jan Gehl (b. 1936) and Erving Goffman (1922-1982), as well as literature on the topics of ‘plazas’, ‘squares’, ‘parks’, ‘young people’s use of urban space’ and ’GPS’. Secondarily, there has been made a bibliographical listing of publications...

  17. Patient participation in patients with heart failure receiving structured home care--a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsström, Lena; Jaarsma, Tiny; Idvall, Ewa; Årestedt, Kristofer; Strömberg, Anna

    2014-12-18

    Patient participation is important for improving outcomes, respect for self-determination and legal aspects in care. However, how patients with heart failure view participation and which factors may be associated with participation is not known. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the influence of structured home care on patient participation over time in patients diagnosed with heart failure, and to explore factors associated with participation in care. The study had a prospective pre-post longitudinal design evaluating the influence of structured home care on participation in patients at four different home care units. Patient participation was measured using 3 scales and 1 single item. Self-care behavior, knowledge, symptoms of depression, socio- demographic and clinical characteristics were measured to explore factors associated with patient participation. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to describe change over time, and stepwise regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with patient participation. One hundred patients receiving structured heart failure home care were included. Mean age was 82 years, 38 were women and 80 were in New York Heart Association functional class III. One aspect of participation, received information, showed a significant change over time and had increased at both six and twelve months. Better self-care behavior was associated with all four scales measuring different aspects of participation. Experiencing lower degree of symptoms of depression, having better knowledge, being of male sex, being of lower age, cohabiting and having home help services were associated with one or two of the four scales measuring different aspects of participation. Patients experienced a fairly high level of satisfaction with participation in care at baseline, and there was a significant improvement over time for participation with regard to received information after being admitted to structured home care. Higher level of

  18. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  19. Comparison of participants and non-participants in a randomized study of prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba; Hanash, Jamal A.; Rasmussen, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is higher than in the general population. In a study on prevention of post-ACS depression, more than half of eligible patients declined participation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate...... (43.9%) participants and 55 (44%) non-participants were screened positive for anxiety (NS). Non-participants were older (P=0.002), while no significant differences in gender or cardiac diagnosis were found. Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in patients after ACS...

  20. Motives For and Against Participating: a Hermeneutical Study of Media Participation in Norway and Ireland, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nyre, Lars; O'Neill, Brian

    2010-01-01

    There is a tension between consumer and citizen motives for participating in media and the internet. The first is oriented to personal gain and self-fulfillment, while the second is oriented to long-term collective goals of a political nature. People are in the process of adopting these motives to the social media and their participatory requirements, and tensions run high. This chapter discusses two forms of motivation; enjoyment and engagement, and we define them normatively to inform ou...

  1. Self-perceived participation among adults with spinal cord injury: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, J D; Woodgate, R L

    2012-12-01

    A grounded theory study of 19 adults with spinal cord injury was conducted. Participants engaged in individual in-depth interviews, and took photographs of aspects of their environment that promoted and restricted participation. Analysis consisted of an inductive process of constant comparison. A focus group with participants was held to discuss and contribute to the credibility of findings. To develop a theoretical understanding of the influences on self-perceived participation for individuals with SCI. Manitoba, Canada. The constructed grounded theory model is summarized as follows: negotiating the body-environment interface is a continuous process for those living with a SCI. Despite the relative stability of their changed body, they live in a changed world, one that is perceived differently after SCI. People use various strategies to interact within their environment, to engage in a process of participation. Intervening conditions are the environmental aspects that serve as barriers or facilitators to this process of participation. Study findings lend support to the need for a self-perceived definition of participation. The theory constructed in this study can be used to target interventions intended to improve the participation experiences of individuals with SCI.

  2. Palliative Cancer Patients' Experiences of Participating in a Lifestyle Intervention Study While Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Hilde Elisabeth Timenes; Brovold, Karianne Vassbakk; Berntsen, Sveinung; Kersten, Christian; Fegran, Liv

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions have promise in terms of their potential health benefits and as an empowerment tool for cancer patients. Nevertheless, documentation of palliative cancer patients experiences of participating in lifestyle interventions remains poor. The objective of this study was to explore how palliative cancer patients experience participation in a feasibility study focusing on multiple lifestyle interventions (physical, nutritional, smoking cessation, and stress management) while receiving chemotherapy. This was a qualitative design with semistructured interviews of 9 palliative cancer patients 3 to 4 months after inclusion to the lifestyle intervention. Data were analyzed according to a qualitative content analysis within a hermeneutic approach. Three main themes emerged: (1) adopting a healthier lifestyle, (2) taking on a more active role, and (3) boosting confidence. Participation made some participants feel guilty when they were not able to reach their own lifestyle goals. Participation in lifestyle interventions is valued by palliative cancer patients and may strengthen their coping abilities. However, some of the participants also expressed feelings of guilt and inadequacy. Thus, the organizational aspects of interventions need to be considered carefully to minimize the possibility of causing increased strain on the participants, who already experience the burden of coping with their disease. This study provides a unique insight into the palliative cancer patients experiences of participating in a trial focusing on multiple lifestyle interventions while receiving chemotherapy. The results may provide guidance for healthcare professionals in their efforts to help palliative cancer patients adopt a healthier lifestyle and to help patients increase their coping abilities.

  3. Predictors of participation in a telephone-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for smoking cessation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Yim Wah; Lee, Paul H; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-12-23

    Little is known about factors that influence participation in smoking cessation trials among Chinese populations. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of individuals who chose to participate and those who chose not to participate in a proactive telephone-based acceptance and commitment therapy program for smoking cessation within a Chinese sample, and to identify predictors of program participation. Understanding the factors that predict participation in smoking cessation trials may allow researchers and healthcare professionals to target their recruitment efforts to increase the enrollment of smokers in smoking cessation programs. Participants were proactively recruited from six primary healthcare centers. Current cigarette smokers were screened for eligibility and then invited to complete a baseline questionnaire for the trial. The differences in characteristics between participants and non-participants as well as factors predictive of participation were analyzed using Chi-square tests and logistics regression. A total of 30,784 clinic attendees were approached. From these, 3,890 (12.6%) smokers were screened and identified. Of the 3,890 smokers, 420 (10.8%) were eligible to participate and completed the baseline questionnaires. The analysis showed that participants (n = 142) and non-participants (n = 278) differed significantly in terms of demographics, smoking-related, and psychological variables. The following characteristics were found to predict program participation: those with a relatively high level of dependence on nicotine (OR = 3.75; 95% CI = 1.25-11.23), those in the contemplation (OR = 7.86; 95% CI = 2.90-21.30) or preparation (OR = 24.81; 95% CI = 8.93-68.96) stages of change, and those who had abstained for one month or less in a previous attempt at quitting (OR = 3.77; 95% CI = 1.68-8.47). The study shed light on the factors predictive of participation in a counseling-based smoking cessation program among a Chinese population

  4. Substance Use and Exercise Participation Among Young Adults: Parallel Trajectories in a National Cohort-Sequential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study examined the extent to which the trajectory of participation in sports, athletics or exercising (PSAE) co-varied with substance use in early adulthood controlling for team sports participation using parallel process latent growth curve modeling. Design, setting, and participants Analysis of data collected from a series of panel studies using a cohort-sequential design. Specifically, the analyses used longitudinal data from 11,741 individuals from the graduating classes of 1986-2001, first surveyed as seniors in American high schools. Up to four additional follow-up surveys were administered through age 26. Data were collected using in-school and mailed self-administered questionnaires. Measurements Level of PSAE, past-30-day alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use frequency, and any past-30-day use of illicit drugs other than marijuana (IOTM) were the main processes of interest. Self-reported race/ethnicity, college status at age 19/20, parental education, gender, and team sports participation during high school were included as covariates. Findings Results indicate that higher initial levels of PSAE related to lower initial substance use prevalence rates other than alcohol, and lower initial prevalence rates of substance use then corresponded with lower substance use rates throughout early adulthood. Further, as individuals increased PSAE levels throughout early adulthood, the frequency of their use of cigarettes, marijuana, and IOTM correspondingly decreased. Conclusions Increased PSAE related to significantly lower substance use frequency at modal age 18 and through significantly and negatively correlated growth trajectories through early adulthood. Encouraging PSAE among adolescents and early adults may relate to lower substance use levels throughout early adulthood. PMID:21561496

  5. The association between social participation and cognitive function in community-dwelling older populations: Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study at Taisetsu community Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ai; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Okada, Emiko; Sasaki, Sachiko; Zhao, Wenjing; Kishi, Tomoko; Kondo, Katsunori; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-10-01

    To study the association between the number of area-level and individual-level social participation items and cognitive function in the community-dwelling older populations of three towns in Hokkaido, Japan. A survey on the frequency of social participation was mailed to those in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2013 who were aged ≥65 years, were not certified as needing long-term care, and lived in Higashikawa, Higashikagura, or Biei. A subset of participants aged 70-74 years completed the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in a home visit survey. Both the area-level and individual-level social participation and demographic information were obtained on the self-administered questionnaire. A multilevel analysis using a generalized linear mixed-effects model was used to examine the association between variables in the area-level and individual-level social participation items and cognitive function. Out of 4042 respondents, data from 2576 were used in the area-level analysis. Of those, 180 were aged 70-74 years and completed the home visit survey for the individual-level analysis. A greater number of higher social participation items at the individual level was associated with higher cognitive function scores after adjusting for area-level social participation variables and confounders (regression coefficient: 0.19; 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.35). There were no significant associations between area-level social participation item averages and individual-level cognitive function scores. Older populations participating in many kinds of social activities exhibited preserved cognitive function even after adjusting for area-level social participation variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Patient participation in general practice based undergraduate teaching: a focus group study of patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sophie E; Allfrey, Caroline; Jones, Melvyn M; Chana, Jasprit; Abbott, Ciara; Faircloth, Sofia; Higgins, Nicola; Abdullah, Laila

    2017-04-01

    Patients make a crucial contribution to undergraduate medical education. Although a national resource is available for patients participating in research, none is as yet available for education. This study aimed to explore what information patients would like about participation in general practice based undergraduate medical education, and how they would like to obtain this information. Two focus groups were conducted in London-based practices involved in both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Patients both with and without teaching experience were recruited using leaflets, posters, and patient participation groups. An open-ended topic guide explored three areas: perceived barriers that participants anticipated or had experienced; patient roles in medical education; and what help would support participation. Focus groups were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Patients suggested ways of professionalising the teaching process. These were: making information available to patients about confidentiality, iterative consent, and normalising teaching in the practice. Patients highlighted the importance of relationships, making information available about their GPs' involvement in teaching, and initiating student-patient interactions. Participants emphasised educational principles to maximise exchange of information, including active participation of students, patient identification of student learner needs, and exchange of feedback. This study will inform development of patient information resources to support their participation in teaching and access to information both before and during general practice based teaching encounters. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  7. Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilljam, Britt-Mari; Arvidsson, Susann; Nygren, Jens M; Svedberg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Children's right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children's participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children's participation, but research from the children's own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children's opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children's perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, "Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation," and the categories related to the core category are, "surrounded by a sense of security and comfort," and "strengthened and supported to become involved." In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations.

  8. Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Mari Gilljam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Children's right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children's participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children's participation, but research from the children's own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children's opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children's perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, “Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation,” and the categories related to the core category are, “surrounded by a sense of security and comfort,” and “strengthened and supported to become involved.” In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations.

  9. Reviewing the Research on Mail Survey Response Rates: Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    One approach to examining the findings of multiple studies is descriptive. This descriptive review of the research on increasing the response rates to mail surveys is based on studies also subjected to a meta-analysis. An initial narrative review identified the studies to be used in both analyses, and results will allow the possibility of…

  10. Chronically homeless persons' participation in an advance directive intervention: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K; Nayyar, Dhruv; Sachdeva, Manisha; Song, John; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Chronically homeless individuals have high rates of hospitalization and death, and they may benefit from the completion of advance directives. To determine the rate of advance directive completion using a counselor-guided intervention, identify characteristics associated with advance directive completion, and describe end-of-life care preferences in a group of chronically homeless individuals. Participants completed a survey and were offered an opportunity to complete an advance directive with a trained counselor. A total of 205 residents of a shelter in Canada for homeless men (89.1% of those approached) participated from April to June 2013. Duration of homelessness was ⩾12 months in 72.8% of participants, and 103 participants (50.2%) chose to complete an advance directive. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status, and health care use were not associated with completion of an advance directive. Participants were more likely to complete an advance directive if they reported thinking about death on a daily basis, believed that thinking about their friends and family was important, or reported knowing their wishes for end-of-life care but not having told anyone about these wishes. Among individuals who completed an advance directive, 61.2% named a substitute decision maker, and 94.1% expressed a preference to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the event of a cardiorespiratory arrest if there was a chance of returning to their current state of health. A counselor-guided intervention can achieve a high rate of advance directive completion among chronically homeless persons. Most participants expressed a preference to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the event of a cardiorespiratory arrest. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Community Willingness to Participate in a Dengue Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harapan, Harapan; Anwar, Samsul; Bustaman, Aslam; Radiansyah, Arsil; Angraini, Pradiba; Fasli, Riny; Salwiyadi, Salwiyadi; Bastian, Reza Akbar; Oktiviyari, Ade; Akmal, Imaduddin; Iqbalamin, Muhammad; Adil, Jamalul; Henrizal, Fenni; Darmayanti, Darmayanti; Pratama, Rovy; Fajar, Jonny Karunia; Setiawan, Abdul Malik; Imrie, Allison; Kuch, Ulrich; Groneberg, David Alexander; Sasmono, R Tedjo; Dhimal, Meghnath; Müller, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the willingness of healthy community members in Aceh province, Indonesia, to participate in dengue research that would require phlebotomy...

  12. Child labour, education, participation and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa : an empirical study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukherjee, Jaydeep

    2008-01-01

    .... This calls for serious introspection. The present study examines the interaction between child labour, education participation and per capita economic growth for Sub-Saharan Africa in a holistic framework using two-stage least squares (2SLS...

  13. How do French GPs consider participating in primary care research: the DRIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supper, Irène; Ecochard, René; Bois, Christophe; Paumier, Françoise; Bez, Nicole; Letrilliart, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Recruiting GPs is an issue faced by most research teams in primary care. To assess GPs' willingness and expectations with regard to research in French primary care and to identify factors that may increase their participation in research projects. Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 452 GPs from the Rhone-Alpes region in France. Among 284 GPs (63%) who participated, 85 [29.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 26.4-35.3%] were willing to participate in research as investigators and 83 (29.2%, 95% CI: 23.9-34.5%) had already participated in research projects. Multivariate analysis showed that an earlier participation in research projects [odds ratio (OR) = 3.3], a training practice (OR = 2.3), membership in a research network (OR = 2.1) and younger age (OR = 1.9 for 10 years less) were associated with the willingness to participate in future research projects. Whereas 55% of practitioners who already had an experience in research had participated in a therapeutic trial, those willing to participate in the future preferred to participate in descriptive (26%) or etiologic (22%) studies. Preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and quality of care were the domains, which interested GPs most. The most expected clinical themes concerned cardiovascular, metabolic, musculoskeletal and respiratory problems. To meet the expectations of French GPs willing to participate in primary care research, it is advisable to diversify studies with respect to their types, domains and themes. Linkage to universities and research networks should also be encouraged.

  14. Factors impacting participation in sports for children with limb absence: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmed, Batoul; Lamy, Marena; Cameron, Debra; Artero, Lisa; Ramdial, Sandra; Leineweber, Matthew; Andrysek, Jan

    2017-03-12

    Individuals with limb absence benefit from participating in sports. While barriers and facilitators affecting sport participation are well documented for adults, they have not been explored for children with limb absence. To identify the perceived factors impacting participation in sports according to children with limb absence and their parents. This study uses a descriptive qualitative study design. Nineteen participants, consisting of children and their parents, were recruited from an outpatient hospital clinic for semi-structured interviews. The 11 interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were then coded and analyzed using the DEPICT model. The thematic analysis was guided by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Analysis of our participant interviews identified six themes as having an influence on sport participation: "functionality of prosthesis", "plan in advance", "know what I can do" (understanding capabilities), "it's like every stroke, 2 million questions" (stigma and the social environment), "love for the game" (love for sport), and "these things are an investment" (the investment involved). The findings have the potential to inform the development and implementation of strategies to increase levels of participation in sports among children with limb absence. Information from this study may help to deepen the rehabilitation team's understanding of factors that impact engagement in sports among children with limb absence. Implications for Rehabilitation Children with limb absence present with unique barriers and facilitators to participating in sports, thus, what may be a facilitator or barrier for one child may not for another. Strategies to increase a child's participation in sports should consider both person and environmental factors. Rehabilitation professionals can play a crucial role in educating both families and the community on living and coping with a limb difference, services and

  15. Community and research staff collaboration for development of materials to inform microbicide study participants in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodsong, Cynthia; Mutsambi, John Michael; Ntshele, Smangalisa; Modikoe, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials of new vaginal products require careful communication with participants about trial requirements. Most microbicide trials have been multi-site studies conducted among women in sub-Saharan Africa, where literacy levels and understanding of scientific methods differ from those designing and conducting the trials. Microbicide trials require women to insert objects in their vagina and ensure they are present in the vagina during sex. For many women, this is a novel behaviour. These behaviours take place within the context of clinical trial participation, which is an additional novelty. Research teams must develop informational materials to help participants understand the clinical trial and input from local research staff and community members can improve the content and format of these materials. This paper discusses the development of illustrated materials developed for microbicide trial participants, presenting examples from two studies. In both studies, research staff and community advisory groups collaborated to review and revise materials. Collaborative efforts revealed insights about how to convey information about clinical trial participation and microbicide use. These insights highlighted realities of the local context, details that might be misunderstood, illustrations of a sensitive nature and concerns about blood testing. In particular, information about blood testing and product use instructions required careful consideration. Although the research team anticipated needing advice on how best to convey information on these topics to participants, some aspects of potential participant concerns about these topics were also new to the research team. Community advisors and local research staff suggested better ways to convey this information, and provided guidance on how to use the materials. The collaboration served to develop informational materials for microbicide trial participants. Furthermore, staff gained a better understanding of issues

  16. A STUDY ON VARIOUS FACTORS PRESCRIBING THE PARTICIPATION IN SPORT CLUB

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 秀人; 川西, 正志; 前川, 峯雄; H., Yamamoto; M., Kawanishi; M., Maekawa; 中京大学社会体育研究室

    1980-01-01

    According to "the public-opinion poll on Sport" published by the Prime Minister's office in 1976, about 13% of the total population joined in sport clubs in Japan. Moreover, about 21% of non-participated wished to take part in any sport club. This indicates that the numbers of participation in sport club may be increasing in the near future, and the proper sport clubs for participation may be required. However, few fact-finding studies on sport club are presented. The purpose of this study is...

  17. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  18. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  19. An Investigation of Factors Associated with Student Participation in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Stephanie; Gendall, Philip; Meyer, Luanna H.; Hoek, Janet; Tait, Carolyn; McKenzie, Lynanne; Loorparg, Avatar

    2010-01-01

    International student exchange programs are widely promoted in higher education as a means of developing desirable intercultural skills and understanding among students. This multimethod study employed data from student surveys, tertiary institution case studies, and interviews with key stakeholders to identify factors that inhibited or promoted…

  20. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury among adolescents participating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. Findings The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females reported having sustained serious injury (SSI. Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Conclusions Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.

  1. Study on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyography of ACL deficient knee participants wearing a functional knee brace during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théoret, Daniel; Lamontagne, Mario

    2006-06-01

    This investigation examined the muscular activity and 3D knee joint kinematic changes of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient (ACLD) participants in the involved leg under bracing condition during running. Different adaptation strategies have been found between patients who can cope with the injury and patients who cannot. One of the expected changes can be the muscle activation characteristic of the injured knee during strenuous activity with and without a functional knee brace. Three-dimensional kinematic and electromyographical (EMG) data were collected from 11 participants for 10 consecutive gait cycles during running on a treadmill under both braced and unbraced conditions. Participants were administered the "Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale" to distinguish functional and non-functional candidates. No significant differences on 3D kinematics and EMG data were noted between functional and non-functional participants, thus data analysis focused on comparisons of bracing conditions for one combined group. Bracing significantly reduced total range of motion in the frontal and transverse planes (Pbraced condition when compared to the unbraced condition. Our findings indicate that bracing the ACLD knee alters the kinematics of the injured leg while running. Tendencies toward reductions in quadriceps and increases in hamstrings activity at heel-strike indicate that bracing might have resulted in added stability of the injured knee. The adaptations to bracing found in this preliminary study further support the potential mechanical and proprioceptive contributions of the functional knee brace to protect the ACLD knee.

  2. Study protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  3. The SDSS-IV in 2015: Report of the Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Lucatello, Sara; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Cherinka, Brian; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Gillespie, Bruce Andrew; Hagen, Alex; Jones, Amy; Kinemuchi, Karen; Lundgren, Britt; Myers, Adam D.; Roman, Alexandre; Zasowski, Gail; SDSS-IV Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Given that many astronomers now participate in large international scientific collaborations, it is important to examine whether these structures foster a healthy scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the climate and demographics within the SDSS collaboration and to make recommendations for how best to establish the scientific and technical leadership team for SDSS-IV. Building on the work described in Lundgren et al. (2015), the CPWS conducted a demographic survey in Spring 2015 that included questions about career and leadership status, racial / ethnic identity, gender identity, identification with the LGBT community, disability, partnership status, and level of parental education. For example, 71% of survey respondents identify as male and 81% do not identify as a racial or ethnic minority at their current institution. This reflects the under-representation of women and men from minority groups (e.g., people of color in the United States) and women from majority groups (e.g., white women in the United States) in the field of astronomy. We have focused our analysis on the representation of scientists from these groups among the SDSS-IV leadership and the full collaboration. Our goal is to use these quantitative data to track the demographics of SDSS-IV membership and leadership over time as we work to assess and improve the climate of SDSS-IV.

  4. Quality of Life Among Dental Students: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Amanda; Pierre, Gaelle C; McAndrew, Maureen

    2017-10-01

    Quality of life is a complex construct that affects the overall life satisfaction, emotional well-being, and functioning of individuals. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life of dental students at one U.S. dental school, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF, a multi-dimensional, cross-cultural, validated, and reliable survey instrument. Of the 1,437 students invited to participate, 401 students responded, but 17 were excluded because of missing data. The final sample consisted of 384 students for an overall response rate of 27%: response rates by year were first year 32.6%, second year 16.9%, third year 26.6%, and fourth year 24.0%. The results showed that the responding students rated their overall quality of life as good. The Physical Health domain had the highest mean score, while the Psychological domain had the lowest. Females reported higher quality of life than males in the Social Relationships domain. Single students were found to have a lower perceived quality of life than married students. Older students were found to have lower perceived quality of life in the Physical Health and Environment domains. Physical Health domain scores were significantly higher for fourth-year than first-year respondents, while Psychological domain scores were significantly lower for third-year than first-year respondents. Further research is needed to explore the effect of dental school on the quality of life of dental students. Targeted programs to impact students' quality of life at various points in the curriculum may be beneficial.

  5. Analysis of motivations that lead women to participate (or not) in a newborn cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Montico, Marcella; Russian, Stefano; Tognin, Veronica; Bin, Maura; Barbone, Fabio; Volpi, Patrizia; Ronfani, Luca

    2013-04-11

    Little is known about reasons that influence parents' decision to participate in studies enrolling healthy children. The aim of this observational study was to verify the reasons that lead pregnant women to give their consent or to refuse participation to a newborn cohort study with a long follow up time. To prospectively investigate the reasons that lead women to participate, to refuse the participation or to withdraw from a newborn cohort study, three different questionnaires were administered to pregnant women contacted or enrolled in the Phime cohort study, carried out in an Italian Hospital from 2007 to 2010. Phime study participation was refused by 304 women and 145 withdrew their consent during the follow up. All these women filled in the related questionnaires. Within 632 mothers in follow up at 18 months, 430 filled in the questionnaire on motivation to participate: 97% stated that the main reason was to contribute to research; 96% and 90% stated that they wanted to benefit future babies' and mothers' health. Ninety-six percent of women would appreciate to know the results of analysis carried out on biological samples collected and of the overall study results. One third of the mothers (37%) wanted to be involved in the definition of future similar studies, bringing their experience and their views. Within the 304 women who refused participation, 56% stated that the study was too demanding, 26% was not interested in participating and 18% was concerned about the need to collect biological samples and to be submitted to neurocognitive tests. Fifty-two percent of 145 women who withdrew after enrollment stated that the study was too demanding (52%), and 6% was concerned about the biological samples collection. The altruistic reason appears to be the main reported by women to decide to participate in a newborn cohort study. The fact that the study was too demanding and the need to collect biological samples are important reasons that lead women to refuse

  6. Community Willingness to Participate in a Dengue Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harapan, Harapan; Anwar, Samsul; Bustaman, Aslam; Radiansyah, Arsil; Angraini, Pradiba; Fasli, Riny; Salwiyadi, Salwiyadi; Bastian, Reza Akbar; Oktiviyari, Ade; Akmal, Imaduddin; Iqbalamin, Muhammad; Adil, Jamalul; Henrizal, Fenni; Darmayanti, Darmayanti; Pratama, Rovy; Fajar, Jonny Karunia; Setiawan, Abdul Malik; Imrie, Allison; Kuch, Ulrich; Groneberg, David Alexander; Sasmono, R Tedjo; Dhimal, Meghnath; Müller, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease in the world. Essential research on dengue virus transmission and its prevention requires community participation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that are associated with the willingness of communities in high prevalence areas to participate in dengue research. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the willingness of healthy community members in Aceh province, Indonesia, to participate in dengue research that would require phlebotomy. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in nine regencies and municipalities of Aceh from November 2014 to March 2015. Interviews using a set of validated questionnaires were conducted to collect data on demography, history of dengue infection, socioeconomic status, and knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever. Two-step logistic regression and Spearman's rank correlation (rs) analysis were used to assess the influence of independent variables on dependent variables. Among 535 participants, less than 20% had a good willingness to participate in the dengue study. The factors associated with good willingness to participate were being female, working as a civil servant, private employee or entrepreneur, having a high socioeconomic status and good knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue. Good knowledge and attitude regarding dengue were positive independent predictors of willingness to participate (OR: 2.30 [95% CI: 1.36-3.90] and 3.73 [95% CI: 2.24-6.21], respectively). The willingness to participate in dengue research is very low among community members in Aceh, and the two most important associated factors are knowledge and attitude regarding dengue. To increase participation rate, efforts to improve the knowledge and attitude of community members regarding dengue fever and dengue-related research is required before such studies are launched.

  7. Participant retention practices in longitudinal clinical research studies with high retention rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Abshire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for improving cohort retention in longitudinal studies. Our objective was to identify cohort retention strategies and implementation approaches used in studies with high retention rates. Methods Longitudinal studies with ≥200 participants, ≥80% retention rates over ≥1 year of follow-up were queried from an Institutional Review Board database at a large research-intensive U.S. university; additional studies were identified through networking. Nineteen (86% of 22 eligible studies agreed to participate. Through in-depth semi-structured interviews, participants provided retention strategies based on themes identified from previous literature reviews. Synthesis of data was completed by a multidisciplinary team. Results The most commonly used retention strategies were: study reminders, study visit characteristics, emphasizing study benefits, and contact/scheduling strategies. The research teams were well-functioning, organized, and persistent. Additionally, teams tailored their strategies to their participants, often adapting and innovating their approaches. Conclusions These studies included specialized and persistent teams and utilized tailored strategies specific to their cohort and individual participants. Studies’ written protocols and published manuscripts often did not reflect the varied strategies employed and adapted through the duration of study. Appropriate retention strategy use requires cultural sensitivity and more research is needed to identify how strategy use varies globally.

  8. Flipping the Script in Study Abroad Participation: The Influence of Popular Culture and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Shelbee; Coryell, Joellen E.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores primary perceptions of and motivations to study abroad for adult and higher education learners. A large Hispanic-serving Southwestern university serves as the context of this study where undergraduate students and one graduate student were enrolled in an Italian urbanism study abroad program. The age of the participants ranged…

  9. The association between sport participation and dietary behaviors among fourth graders in the school physical activity and nutrition survey, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Katherine Skala; Gay, Jennifer; Springer, Andrew; Kohl, Harold W; Sharma, Shreela; Saxton, Debra; Wilson, Kim; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between youth sport team participation and dietary behaviors among elementary school-aged children. Cross-sectional survey. Public schools in Texas during 2009-2010. A total of 5035 ethnically diverse fourth graders. Participation in organized sports teams, consumption of select food items (fruits, vegetables, beverages, sweets/snacks). Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between each food item (eaten at least once on the previous day) and number of sports teams as the independent class variable (0, 1 ,2, ≥3), adjusting for body mass index physical activity, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Significant dose-response associations were observed between number of sports teams and consumption of fruits and vegetables. For boys, the likelihood of eating fruit and fruit-flavored drinks was significantly higher and the odds of drinking soda were lower with the number of teams. For girls, the likelihood of consuming green vegetables increased as sports teams participation increased, and participation was positively associated with diet soda consumption. A positive association was observed between the number of sports teams and scores on the Healthy Food Index for boys and girls. The findings that sports participation is associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of soda suggest that efforts should be focused on supporting youth team sports to promote healthier food choices. Since sports are available to all ages, sports may be an important venue for promoting healthier dietary behaviors.

  10. Real World Evidence: A Quantitative and Qualitative Glance at Participant Feedback from a Free-Response Survey Investigating Experiences of a Structured Exercise Intervention for Men with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fox

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore patient experiences of a structured exercise intervention for men with prostate cancer (PCa. Sample. 41 men with either localised or advanced PCa who had been referred for a structured exercise programme by their physician and then subsequently consented to a telephone survey. Method. Participants underwent a 10-week supervised exercise programme within a large cancer centre hospital consisting of 8 sessions. They then completed a short multiple choice telephone survey, elaborating on their responses where appropriate. Views expressed by participants were analysed using an affinity diagram and common themes were identified. Results. Feedback from our telephone surveys was consistently positive and suggests that the structured exercise intervention provides exercise confidence, motivation to exercise, and social support and promotes positive health behaviour change in the context of exercise. Individual differences arose amongst participants in their perceived utility of the intervention, with 73.3% expressing a preference for structured exercise classes and 19.5% expressing a preference for exercising independently. Conclusion. Design of a structured exercise intervention for patients with PCa should embrace the positive aspects outlined here but consider patients’ individual differences. Ongoing feedback from patients should be utilised alongside traditional study designs to inform intervention design in this area.

  11. Suitability of customer relationship management systems for the management of study participants in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, J; Rienhoff, O; Schulze, T G; Nussbeck, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal biomedical research projects study patients or participants over a course of time. No IT solution is known that can manage study participants, enhance quality of data, support re-contacting of participants, plan study visits, and keep track of informed consent procedures and recruitments that may be subject to change over time. In business settings management of personal is one of the major aspects of customer relationship management systems (CRMS). To evaluate whether CRMS are suitable IT solutions for study participant management in biomedical research. Three boards of experts in the field of biomedical research were consulted to get an insight into recent IT developments regarding study participant management systems (SPMS). Subsequently, a requirements analysis was performed with stakeholders of a major biomedical research project. The successive suitability evaluation was based on the comparison of the identified requirements with the features of six CRMS. Independently of each other, the interviewed expert boards confirmed that there is no generic IT solution for the management of participants. Sixty-four requirements were identified and prioritized in a requirements analysis. The best CRMS was able to fulfill forty-two of these requirements. The non-fulfilled requirements demand an adaption of the CRMS, consuming time and resources, reducing the update compatibility, the system's suitability, and the security of the CRMS. A specific solution for the SPMS is favored instead of a generic and commercially-oriented CRMS. Therefore, the development of a small and specific SPMS solution was commenced and is currently on the way to completion.

  12. 城市社区老年妇女社会参与的现状及影响因素研究—以河北省保定市为例%A survey on social participation of urban community older women ——an empirical study of Hebei Baoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静

    2012-01-01

      Based on the sample of the elderly women in Baoding City, Hebei Province, the research on elderly women's social participation in economic activities, leisure activities and volunteer work, political activity, culture education activity, interpersonal and religious activities was conducted by considering the variables of age, physical condition, political affiliation, income, character and the life style and values of their middle age. It is found that elderly women tend to choose the recreation activities such as singing, dancing and physical fitness, which not only lead them to exert less physical and psychological pressure, but also cost them less money. It is suggested in the paper that the communities should take care of the older women by organizing appropriate activities, calling for the social virtues of respecting and caring for the elderly, and strengthening the comprehensive understandings of the values of elderly women through the media.%  通过对河北省保定市的老年妇女进行抽样调查,选取年龄、身体状况、政治面貌、经济收入、性格的影响及中年时期的生活方式和观念等变量分析其对老年妇女参与经济活动、娱乐休闲活动、志愿活动、政治活动、文化教育活动、人际交往以及宗教信仰的影响,发现目前老年妇女最喜爱的社会活动是娱乐休闲类活动,例如唱歌跳舞和体育健身等对身体和心理压力较小、花费较低的活动。建议以社区为单位关心老年妇女的生活,为老年妇女组织适宜的活动;弘扬尊老爱老的社会风尚,通过媒体加强社会对老年妇女价值的全面认识。

  13. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Saloranta, Seppo

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability education (SE) is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD) into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in…

  14. Women's political participation and health: a health capability study in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Candace H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between women's political participation and health has eluded researchers and cannot be adequately studied using traditional epidemiological or social scientific methodologies. We employed a health capability framework to understand dimensions of health agency to illuminate how local political economies affect health. Exploiting a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavior change management intervention in northern India, we conducted a qualitative study with semistructured, in-depth focus groups in both intervention and nonintervention villages. We presented scenarios to each group regarding the limitations and motivations involved in women's political participation and health. Thematic analysis focused on four domains of health agency -- participation, autonomy, self-efficacy, and health systems -- relevant for understanding the relationship between political participation and health. Elder women demonstrated the greatest sense of self-efficacy and as a group cited the largest number of successful health advocacy efforts. Participation in an associated community-based neonatal intervention had varying effects, showing some differences in self-efficacy, but only rare improvements in participation, autonomy, or health system functioning. Better understanding of cultural norms surrounding autonomy, the local infrastructure and health system, and male and female perceptions of political participation and self-efficacy are needed to improve women's health agency. For a community-based participatory health intervention to improve health capability effectively, explicit strategies focused on health agency should be as central as health indicators. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  15. Mexican-American perspectives on participation in clinical trials: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arevalo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are essential to advancing knowledge to reduce disease morbidity and mortality; however, ethnic and racial minorities remain under-represented in those studies. We explored knowledge and perceptions of clinical trials among Mexican-Americans in Texas. We conducted focus groups (N = 128 stratified by gender, language preference, and geographical location. This paper presents four emergent, primary themes: 1 knowledge and understanding of clinical trials, 2 fears and concerns about participating, 3 perceived benefits of participating, and 4 incentives to participate. Results suggest that lack of knowledge and understanding of clinical trials leads to misunderstanding about research, including fears and lack of trust. Participants indicated that fears related to perceived experimentation, harm, immigration status, and lack of clinical trial opportunities within their communities were barriers to participation. On the other hand, free healthcare access, helping family members in the future, and monetary incentives could facilitate participation. We also found differences across themes by language, gender, and place of residence. Findings from our study could inform the development of interventions to enhance recruitment of Mexican-American participants into clinical trials.

  16. Management and Encouragement of Pupil Participation in Primary Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Pérez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our work focuses on the participation of students of primary education in decision-making. We carried out a qualitative case study of two public Primary schools with the aim of illustrating good models of student participation. On the one hand, our results highlight the opportunities resulting from the creation of specific structures of student participation, such as class and student councils, because they allow students to participate in collective rule-making, conflict management and the planning and evaluation of school and class activities. On the other hand, the results emphasize the contributions derived from the use of teaching methods that enhance student participation in decision making on academic issues by selecting contents, the inclusion of self-assessment processes and the self-organization of work time. Overall, the results obtained point out that it is feasible to organize the activity of a Primary Education center encouraging students to participate in decision making and they add evidence supported in the practice of two schools to progress in the study and promotion of school participation.

  17. Individual- and County-Level Religious Participation, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse of Children: An Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy Jo

    2016-10-01

    Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. In addition, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual- and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings.

  18. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....

  19. Guidelines for uncertainty analysis developed for the participants in the BIOMOVS II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeverstam, U.; Davis, P.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Henrich, E.; Koch, J

    1993-07-01

    This report has been produced to provide guidelines for uncertainty analysis for use by participants in the BIOMOVS II study. It is hoped that others with an interest in modelling contamination in the biosphere will also find it useful. The report has been prepared by members of the Uncertainty and Validation Working Group and has been reviewed by other BIOMOVS II participants. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the views of the BIOMOVS II sponsors or other BIOMOVS Il participating organisations.

  20. The impact of a dedicated training program for oral examiners at a medical school in Germany: a survey among participants from operative and non-operative disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsner, Wolfgang; Geiler, Sandra; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2013-07-03

    Oral examinations have been a crucial format in ancient and modern assessment to evaluate and guarantee quality of medical education and thereby to secure patient safety. To achieve a high level of quality in the oral part of the final examination of medical students, a training program for oral examiners at the Medical Faculty of Ulm (Germany) has been established since 2007.However, little is known about the attitude of the examiners in regard to the impact of this training program and of oral examinations as instruments to ensure patient safety. All 367 academic clinicians from operative and non-operative disciplines, attending the one-day examiner training program at the University of Ulm between 2007 and 2012 have been asked to answer an online survey (EvaSys 5.0). Focus of the survey was to find out in which respect the examiners profited from the trainings, if the training effects were discipline-dependent, and to which degree the oral examinations could contribute to patient safety. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for independent samples. Results were considered statistically significant when p exam successfully. The majority of participants were convinced that oral examinations using concrete clinical cases could significantly contribute to patient safety, if grading is based on clear criteria and if examinations as well as grading are performed more critically. The impact of the training program was rated significantly stronger by surgeons than by non-surgeons in several categories. These categories included "strengths and weaknesses of oral examinations", "reliability", "validity", "competence in grading", "critical grading", and "departmental improvements" concerning oral examinations. In respect to patient safety, it seems crucial to prevent incompetent candidates from passing the oral examination. The present study indicates the importance to continue and to develop our examiner trainings, with main emphasis on concrete clinical

  1. Clinical trials of medicinal cannabis for appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer: a survey of preferences, attitudes and beliefs among patients willing to consider participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, T; Phillips, J; Lintzeris, N; Allsop, D; Lee, J; Solowij, N; Martin, J; Lam, L; Aggarwal, R; McCaffrey, N; Currow, D; Chye, R; Lovell, M; McGregor, I; Agar, M

    2016-11-01

    Australian clinical trials are planned to evaluate medicinal cannabis in a range of clinical contexts. To explore the preferences, attitudes and beliefs of patients eligible and willing to consider participation in a clinical trial of medicinal cannabis for poor appetite and appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered from July to December 2015 online and in eight adult outpatient palliative care and/or cancer services. Respondents were eligible if they were ≥18 years, had advanced cancer and poor appetite/taste problems/weight loss and might consider participating in a medicinal cannabis trial. Survey items focused on medicinal rather than recreational cannabis use and did not specify botanical or pharmaceutical products. Items asked about previous medicinal cannabis use and preferences for delivery route and invited comments and concerns. There were 204 survey respondents, of whom 26 (13%) reported prior medicinal cannabis use. Tablets/capsules were the preferred delivery mode (n = 144, 71%), followed by mouth spray (n = 84, 42%) and vaporiser (n = 83, 41%). Explanations for preferences (n = 134) most commonly cited convenience (n = 66; 49%). A total of 82% (n = 168) of respondents indicated that they had no trial-related concerns, but a small number volunteered concerns about adverse effects (n = 14) or wanted more information/advice (n = 8). Six respondents volunteered a belief that cannabis might cure cancer, while two wanted assurance of efficacy before participating in a trial. Justification of modes other than tablets/capsules and variable understanding about cannabis and trials will need addressing in trial-related information to optimise recruitment and ensure that consent is properly informed. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. 'Silent voices' in health services research: ethnicity and socioeconomic variation in participation in studies of quality of life in childhood visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerie; Hamblion, Esther Louise; Keeley, Sarah; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To investigate patterns of participation of visually impaired (VI) children and their families in health services research. Methods. The authors compared clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of children and their families who participated with those who did not participate in two studies of quality of life (QoL) of VI children. In Study 1, the authors interviewed VI children and adolescents, aged 10 to 15 years, about their vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) as the first phase of a program to develop a VRQoL instrument for this population. One hundred seven children with visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye LogMar worse than 0.51) were invited to participate in the interviews. Study 2 investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of VI children using an existing generic instrument, administered in a postal survey. 151 VI children and adolescents, aged 2 to 16 years, with hereditary retinal disorders were invited to participate in the survey. Results. The overall participation level was below 50%. In both studies, participants from white ethnic and more affluent socioeconomic backgrounds were overrepresented. Participation did not vary by age, sex, or clinical characteristics. Conclusions. The authors suggest that there are barriers to participation in child- and family-centered research on childhood visual disability for children from socioeconomically deprived or ethnic minority groups. They urge assessment and reporting of participation patterns in further health services research on childhood visual disability. Failure to recognize that there are "silent voices" is likely to have important implications for equitable and appropriate service planning and provision for VI children.

  3. The use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide with computer assisted learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, M

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide to enhance the learning experience when using a computer assisted learning (CAL) program. Forty-eight students were asked to complete a CAL program on resin bonded bridges in groups of 2-4 with an enquiry-based study guide. An evaluation questionnaire of the learning experience was included with the study guide with paired positive and negative questions and open-ended questions for students to complete and return. The responses were collated and the nature of the comments qualitatively analysed. Thirty-two questionnaires were returned. There were almost three times the numbers of positive to negative responses relating to the usefulness of the enquiry based study guide, group participation and the CAL program. The majority of these positive responses related to the usefulness of the study guide and group participation in highlighting and guiding learning and creating opportunities for discussion, problem solving and peer teaching. A small number of negative responses cited the target-orientated nature of the study guide and the longer time needed for group work, due to the varying learning abilities of the participants and the need for discussion. The use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide was reported to enhance the learning experience of CAL.

  4. Barriers and Facilitators of Participation in Sports : A Qualitative Study on Dutch Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim: To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design: Qualitative study. Participants:

  5. How needs and preferences of employees influence participation in health promotion programs: A six-month follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rongen (Anne); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); W. van Ginkel (Wouter); D. Lindeboom; M. Pet (Martin); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Low participation in health promotion programs (HPPs) might hamper their effectiveness. A potential reason for low participation is disagreement between needs and preferences of potential participants and the actual HPPs offered. This study aimed to investigate employees'

  6. Uniformity in physics courses and student diversity : A study of learning to participate in physics

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This licentiate thesis describes an investigation of participation and achievement in undergraduate physics courses with a discourse analytical lens. Issues of unequal participation have been a growing concern for the physics education research community. At the same time, these issues have not been explored to any large extent using already developed theoretical tools from fields of social science and humanities. This thesis builds on earlier studies in physics education research but crosses...

  7. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    OpenAIRE

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...

  8. Indonesian EFL Teachers Professional Knowledge Development during Their Participation in TSG: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munifatullah, Feni; Musthafa, Bachrudin; Sundayana, Wachyu

    2016-01-01

    The study examines three new EFL teachers professional knowledge development through discussion in a "Teacher Study Group" ("TSG") in Indonesian (Asian) context. These three participants have less than five year-teaching experience and teach junior high schools in Bandarlampung in the time of the study. The data were collected…

  9. Protocol for a prospective longitudinal study investigating the participation and educational trajectories of Australian students with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline Margaret Anne; Adams, Dawn; Heussler, Helen; Keen, Deborah; Paynter, Jessica; Trembath, David; Westerveld, Marleen; Williams, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Autism is associated with high cost to individuals, families, communities and government. Understanding educational and participation trajectories during the school years, and factors influencing these, is fundamental to reducing financial and personal costs. The primary aim of this study is to document the trajectories of Australian students with autism during their education. The secondary aim is to examine personal (eg, student skills) and environmental (eg, school setting) factors associated with differing trajectories and outcomes. Methods and analysis The cross-sequential longitudinal study will recruit two cohorts of 120 parents/caregivers of children with autism. Cohort 1 aged between 4 and 5 years and cohort 2 between 9 and 10 years to start the study. Information will be gathered from parents, teachers and school principals at six annual time points (T1 to T6). Parents will be emailed a link to an online initial questionnaire (T1) and then contacted annually and asked to complete either an extended questionnaire (T3, T5 and T6) or an abbreviated questionnaire (T2, T4). Where consent is given, the child’s current school will be contacted annually (T1 to T6) and teacher and school principal asked to complete questionnaires about the child and school. Parent and school questionnaires are comprised of questions about demographic and school factors that could influence trajectories and a battery of developmental and behavioural assessment tools designed to assess educational and participation trajectories and outcomes. Surveys will provide longitudinal data on educational and participation trajectories for children and adolescents with autism. In addition cross-sectional comparisons (within or between age groups) at each time point and cohort effects will be explored. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for this study by all recruiting sites and universities in the project. Study findings will inform policy and practice

  10. Psychological resilience and active social participation among older adults with incontinence: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kyo; Sase, Eriko; Kato, Atsushi; Igari, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-11-01

    Incontinence restricts participation in social activities among older adults. However, some older adults participate in social activities despite this condition. This study aimed to describe how older adults with incontinence could be resilient and actively participate in social activities. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 socially active older adults with incontinence (age 70-90; nine women and two men) at their homes or in private areas of day-service centres in Chiba, Japan. We coded salient narratives by using thematic analysis and extracted themes. Finally, we developed a conceptual model and illustrated the interactions among themes. We identified seven themes that affected active social participation; five of these pertained to psychological characteristics ('motivation to be socially active', 'psychological stress of incontinence', 'desire to interact with others', 'willingness to perform physical exercise', and 'confidence in managing incontinence') and the remaining two pertained to supporting environmental factors ('assistive devices' and 'accessible toilet'). Three psychological themes ('desire to interact with others', 'willingness to perform physical exercise', and 'confidence in managing incontinence') were intertwined with supporting environmental factors and increased the participants' 'motivation to be socially active'. Older adults with incontinence can actively participate in the society when they have desire to interact with others, willingness to perform physical exercise, and confidence in managing incontinence. These psychological characteristics are important for being resilient in the face of incontinence and for active social participation.

  11. A National Study of Veterans Treatment Court Participants: Who Benefits and Who Recidivates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Finlay, Andrea; Flatley, Bessie; Kasprow, Wesley J; Clark, Sean

    2017-07-21

    Although there are now over 400 veterans treatment courts (VTCs) in the country, there have been few studies on participant outcomes in functional domains. Using national data on 7931 veterans in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Veterans Justice Outreach program across 115 VA sites who entered a VTC from 2011 to 2015, we examined the housing, employment, income, and criminal justice outcomes of VTC participants; and identified veteran characteristics predictive of outcomes. VTC participants spent an average of nearly a year in the program and 14% experienced a new incarceration. From program admission to exit, 10% more participants were in their own housing, 12% more were receiving VA benefits, but only 1% more were employed. Controlling for background characteristics, a history of incarceration predicted poor criminal justice, housing, and employment outcomes. Participants with property offenses or probation/parole violations and those with substance use disorders were more likely to experience a new incarceration. Participants with more mental health problems were more likely to be receiving VA benefits and less likely to be employed at program exit. Together, these findings highlight the importance of proper substance abuse treatment as well as employment services for VTC participants so that they can benefit from the diversion process.

  12. Am I a control?: Genotype-driven research recruitment and self-understandings of study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Marsha; Cadigan, R Jean; Henderson, Gail; Beskow, Laura M

    2012-12-01

    Genotype-driven research recruitment complicates traditional study roles and may leave those recruited worried about unwelcome surprises from their DNA. This study investigated the ways that individuals experience genotype-driven recruitment, and conceptualize their roles as research participants. Individual interviews were conducted with the participants of a genotype-driven study on cystic fibrosis. The eligibility criteria included the presence of one of two genetic variants. We interviewed 24 of these participants: 9 had cystic fibrosis and 15 had been selected from a biobank as "healthy volunteers." Participants with cystic fibrosis expressed no concerns about the eligibility criteria and saw themselves as part of a close-knit research community. However, biobank participants were unsure about why they had been selected and how they should think about themselves relative to the study. They sometimes reacted with anxiety to genetic information that they perceived to connect them with cystic fibrosis. Being recruited for a study on the basis of one's genotype may raise uncertainties about the meaning and implications of the genotypic information. People without the disease under study may require especially clear and detailed explanations of what researchers already know about their genetic makeup, in terms of future risk for themselves or their children.

  13. Use of food labels, awareness of nutritional programmes and participation in the special supplemental program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2013-07-01

    Use of nutritional labels in choosing food is associated with healthier eating habits including lower fat intake. Current public health efforts are focusing on the revamping of nutritional labels to make them easier to read and use for the consumer. The study aims to assess the frequency of use of nutritional labels and awareness of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional programmes by low-income women including those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as surveyed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Many low-income women do not regularly use the nutrition facts panel information on the food label and less than half had heard of the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (38.9%). In multivariate logistic regression, we found that WIC participation was associated with reduced use of the nutrition facts panel in choosing food products [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.91], the health claims information (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.28) and the information on carbohydrates when deciding to buy a product (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) in comparison with WIC eligible non-participants. Any intervention to improve use of nutritional labels and knowledge of the USDA's nutritional programmes needs to target low-income women, including WIC participants. Future studies should evaluate possible reasons for the low use of nutrition labels among WIC participants in comparison with eligible non-participants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Children's participation in school: a cross-sectional study of the relationship between school environments, participation and health and well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Akinola, Yetunde O; Nic-Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2014-09-17

    Schools are a key setting for health promotion and improvement activities and the psycho-social environment of the school is an important dimension for promoting the health and well-being of children. The development of Health Promoting Schools (HPS) draws on the settings-based approach to health promotion and includes child participation as one of its basic values. This paper investigates the relationships between child participation, the school environment and child outcomes. Study participants were recruited from nine primary schools, three of which were designated as Health Promoting Schools (HPS). Each HPS was matched with two non-HPS (NHPS) with similar characteristics. Two hundred and thirty-one pupils in the 4th-6th class groups completed self-report questionnaires to document their perspectives on the school socio-ecological environment, how they take part in school life, school processes and their health and well-being. School participation was measured with four scales: participation in school decisions and rules, school activities, school events and positive perception of school participation. The differences in the reported mean score for three of the four scales were marginal and not statistically significant. However, the mean score for reported positive perception of school participation was significantly lower (χ2 = 5.13, df =1, p well-being outcomes for all pupils. Logistic regression analyses indicated positive associations between school participation and school socio-ecological environment. These findings suggest that school participation is important for children in schools and is relevant for improved school environment, relationships and positive health and well-being outcomes. The positive associations between school participation and school socio-ecological environment and health and well-being outcomes suggests that pupil health and well-being and school relationships could be improved or sustained by providing or supporting an

  15. Enabling the participation of marginalized populations: case studies from a health service organization in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanti, Stephanie R; Abelson, Julia; Lavis, John N; Dunn, James R

    2017-08-01

    We examined efforts to engage marginalized populations in Ontario Community Health Centers (CHCs), which are primary health care organizations serving 74 high-risk communities. Qualitative case studies of community participation in four Ontario CHCs were carried out through key informant interviews with CHC staff to identify: (i) the approaches, strategies and methods used in participation initiatives aimed specifically at engaging marginalized populations in the planning of and decision making for health services; and (ii) the challenges and enablers for engaging these populations. The marginalized populations involved in the community participation initiatives studied included Low-German Speaking Mennonites in a rural town, newcomer immigrants and refugees in an urban downtown city, immigrant and francophone seniors in an inner city and refugee women in an inner city. Our analysis revealed that enabling the participation of marginalized populations requires CHCs to attend to the barriers experienced by marginalized populations that constrain their participation. Key informants outlined the features of a 'community development approach' that they rely on to address the barriers to marginalized peoples' involvement by strengthening their skills, abilities and leadership in capacity-building activities. The community development approach also shaped the participation methods that were used in the engagement process of CHCs. However, key informants also described the challenges of applying this approach, influenced by the cultural values of some groups, which shaped their willingness and motivation to participate. This study provides further insight into the approach, strategies and methods used in the engagement process to enable the participation of marginalized populations, which may be transferable to other health services settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Design, methodological issues and participation in a multiple sclerosis case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Marrie, R A; Ashley-Koch, A; Schiffer, R; Trottier, J; Wagner, L

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) was associated with certain environmental exposures or genetic factors previously reported to influence MS risk. This paper describes the methodological issues, study design and characteristics of the study population. Individuals with definite MS were identified from a prevalence study conducted in three geographic areas. The target number of cases was not reached, so an additional study area was added. Identifying clinic controls was inefficient, so controls were recruited using random digit dialing. All study participants completed a detailed questionnaire regarding environmental exposures using computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and blood was collected for genetic analysis. In total, 276 cases and 590 controls participated, but participation rates were low, ranging from 28.4% to 38.9%. Only one-third (33.6%) of individuals identified in the prevalence study agreed to participate in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be non-Hispanic white and older than their source populations as identified in the preceding prevalence study (P issues arise in every study, and investigators need to be able to detect, respond to and correct problems in a timely and scientifically valid manner. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa’s constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs) as the principal institutions of community participation. Formally recognized in the National Health Act of 2003, the National Health Act deferred to provincial governments in establishing the specific roles and functions of HCs. As a result, stakeholders developed a Draft Policy Framework for Community Participation in Health (Draft Policy) to formalize participatory institutions in the Western Cape province. Methods With the Draft Policy as a frame of analysis, the researchers conducted documentary policy analysis and semi-structured interviews on the evolution of South African community participation policy. Moving beyond the specific and unique circumstances of the Western Cape, this study analyzes generalizable themes for rights-based community participation in the health system. Results Framing institutions for the establishment, appointment, and functioning of community participation, the Draft Policy proposed a formal network of communication – from local HCs to the health system. However, this participation structure has struggled to establish itself and function effectively as a result of limitations in community representation, administrative support, capacity building, and policy commitment. Without legislative support for community participation, the enactment of superseding legislation is likely to bring an end to HC structures in the Western Cape. Conclusions Attempts to realize community participation have not adequately addressed the underlying factors crucial to promoting effective participation, with

  18. Recruiting and Surveying Catholic Parishes for Cancer Control Initiatives: Lessons Learned From the CRUZA Implementation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Tom, Laura S; Leyva, Bryan; Rustan, Sarah; Ospino, Hosffman; Negron, Rosalyn; Torres, Maria Idalí; Galeas, Ana V

    2015-09-01

    We describe activities undertaken to conduct organizational surveys among faith-based organizations in Massachusetts as part of a larger study designed to promote parish-based cancer control programs for Latinos. Catholic parishes located in Massachusetts that provided Spanish-language mass were eligible for study participation. Parishes were identified through diocesan records and online directories. Prior to parish recruitment, we implemented a variety of activities to gain support from Catholic leaders at the diocesan level. We then recruited individual parishes to complete a four-part organizational survey, which assessed (A) parish leadership, (B) financial resources, (C) involvement in Hispanic Ministry, and (D) health and social service offerings. Our goal was to administer each survey component to a parish representatives who could best provide an organizational perspective on the content of each component (e.g., A = pastors, B = business managers, C = Hispanic Ministry leaders, and D = parish nurse or health ministry leader). Here, we present descriptive statistics on recruitment and survey administration processes. Seventy-five percent of eligible parishes responded to the survey and of these, 92% completed all four components. Completed four-part surveys required an average of 16.6 contact attempts. There were an average of 2.1 respondents per site. Pastoral staff were the most frequent respondents (79%), but they also required the most contact attempts (M = 9.3, range = 1-27). While most interviews were completed by phone (71%), one quarter were completed during in-person site visits. We achieved a high survey completion rate among organizational representatives. Our lessons learned may inform efforts to engage and survey faith-based organizations for public health efforts. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Factors Affecting the Participation of Social Studies Teacher Candidates in Discussions on Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Figen ERSOY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social studies teachers employ discussions about controversial issues in their classrooms as an effective instructional tool in order to improve citizenship education. Therefore, teaching about controversial issues in preservice social studies programs is important for improving pre-service teachers’ understanding of their own abilities to teach about citizenship issues and their skills to teach about controversial issues in their classrooms as well. Preservice teachers ought to be encouraged to participate more in classroom discussions about controversial issues. Therefore, this study aim to understand and explain factors that affect social studies teacher candidates’ participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and suggest how this process might be more efficient and effective in Turkey. 1957 pre-service social studies teachers from 12 different universities in Turkey participated in this study. A questionaire was used to collect data for this research. The questionaire included likert type 16 items regarding students’ personal information and factors that affect the level of participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and one open-ended question regarding implications on how discussions can be improved in a way that help the discussions more effective and efficient. Chi-Square, frequency, and percentange tests were used to analyze the quantitative data. Inductive content analysis method was employed to analyze and code the qualitative data. The findings of the study showed that while 92.2 % pre-service social studies teachers stated that they participate in the dicussions on controversial issues when they only find it interested, 79.4 % participant pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions, if they believe they do not have enough knowledge about the topic of the dicussion. In addition, 47.5% of the participants stated that they do not want to participate in the discussions

  20. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  1. Coherent Power Analysis in Multilevel Studies Using Parameters from Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Researchers designing multisite and cluster randomized trials of educational interventions will usually conduct a power analysis in the planning stage of the study. To conduct the power analysis, researchers often use estimates of intracluster correlation coefficients and effect sizes derived from an analysis of survey data. When there is…

  2. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  3. A Comparative Study on American and Turkish Students? Self Esteem in Terms of Sport Participation: A Study on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted in order to compare self-esteem of American students with Turkish students in terms of the sport participation at the universities. For this purpose, a total of 460 students (M age = 19,61 ± 1,64) voluntarily participated in the study from two universities. As data collection tool, Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem…

  4. Participation of adolescent girls in a study of sexual behaviors: balancing autonomy and parental involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mary B; Wiemann, Constance; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2009-04-01

    The process of research with adolescents should balance parental involvement and adolescent autonomy. The attendance of parents and peers at research study visits of girls participating in a 6-month study of topical microbicide acceptability is described, as well as the participants' conversations with their parents. Girls, 14 through 21 years, were recruited from previous studies (3%), advertisements (14%), clinics (17%), and recommendations by friends (66%) to participate. Girls under 18 years were required to have parental consent, but parents could provide verbal phone consent as long as a signed consent form was returned before participation. The 208 participants were 41% African-American, 30% Hispanic, and 29% Caucasian. Girls averaged 18 years of age, and 95 (46%) were under 18. Seventeen percent of parents attended the first visit; only 1 parent attended with a daughter older than 18 years of age. The mothers of older adolescents were less likely to attend the appointment with them. More Caucasian than African-American girls came with a mother. Parental attendance decreased at follow-up visits. Thirty-seven percent of girls brought a peer to the first visit; there were no age or race/ethnic differences. There was no relationship between attending with a parent or peer and talking to a parent about the study. Some adolescents obtained parental consent to participate in the study while keeping their sexual behaviors private. Parental attendance at study visits may not be marker of parental involvement with the study. Creative ways for balancing concerns about confidentiality, promotion of autonomy, and adult involvement should be considered.

  5. Career College Governance: A Study of the Faculty's Propensity to Participate

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated faculty perceptions of and propensity to participate in shared governance activities in proprietary, post-secondary educational institutions. The sample population for this study (n = 22) included adjunct and full-time faculty members and administrators selected through a snowball sampling method and initially inclusive of…

  6. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk : individual participant meta-analysis of 52 epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gapstur, S. M.; Patel, A. V.; Banks, E.; Dal Maso, L.; Talamini, R.; Chetrit, A.; Hirsh-Yechezkel, G.; Lubin, F.; Sadetzki, S.; Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Cairns, B.; Crossley, B.; Gaitskell, K.; Goodill, A.; Green, J.; Hermon, C.; Key, T.; Moser, K.; Reeves, G.; Sitas, F.; Collins, R.; Peto, R.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Lee, N.; Marchbanks, P.; Ory, H. W.; Peterson, H. B.; Wingo, P. A.; Martin, N.; Silpisornkosol, S.; Theetranont, C.; Boosiri, B.; Chutivongse, S.; Jimakorn, P.; Virutamasen, P.; Wongsrichanalai, C.; Goodman, M. T.; Lidegaard, O.; Kjaer, S. K.; Morch, L. S.; Kjaer, S. K.; Tjonneland, A.; Byers, T.; Rohan, T.; Mosgaard, B.; Vessey, M.; Yeates, D.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Titus, L. J.; Chang-Claude, J.; Kaaks, R.; Anderson, K. E.; Lazovich, D.; Robien, K.; Hampton, J.; Newcomb, P. A.; Rossing, M. A.; Thomas, D. B.; Weiss, N. S.; Lokkegaard, E.; Riboli, E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Cramer, D.; Hankinson, S. E.; Tamimi, R. M.; Tworoger, S. S.; Franceschi, S.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Adami, H. O.; Magnusson, C.; Riman, T.; Weiderpass, E.; Wolk, A.; Schouten, L. J.; van den Brandt, P. A.; Chantarakul, N.; Koetsawang, S.; Rachawat, D.; Palli, D.; Black, A.; Brinton, L. A.; Freedman, D. M.; Hartge, P.; Hsing, A. W.; Jnr, J. V. Lacey; Lissowska, J.; Hoover, R. N.; Schairer, C.; Babb, C.; Urban, M.; Graff-Iversen, S.; Selmer, R.; Bain, C. J.; Green, A. C.; Purdie, D. M.; Siskind, V.; Webb, P. M.; Moysich, K.; McCann, S. E.; Hannaford, P.; Kay, C.; Binns, C. W.; Lee, A. H.; Zhang, M.; Ness, R. B.; Nasca, P.; Coogan, P. F.; Palmer, J. R.; Rosenberg, L.; Whittemore, A.; Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Tzonou, A.; Dabancens, A.; Martinez, L.; Molina, R.; Salas, O.; Lurie, G.; Carney, M. E.; Wilkens, L. R.; Hartman, L.; Manjer, J.; Olsson, H.; Kumle, M.; Grisso, J. A.; Morgan, M.; Wheeler, J. E.; Edwards, R. P.; Kelley, J. L.; Modugno, F.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Casagrande, J.; Pike, M. C.; Wu, A. H.; Canfell, K.; Miller, A. B.; Gram, I. T.; Lund, E.; McGowan, L.; Shu, X. O.; Zheng, W.; Farley, T. M. M.; Holck, S.; Meirik, O.; Risch, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on

  7. Participation in development activities at the local level : case studies from a Sri Lankan village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study is a sociological analysis of popular participation in local level development activities in Tegashena village in the Matara District, Sri Lanka. Social, economic, political and administrative factors that influence this process are identified.

    The study discusses how the

  8. Survival of participating and nonparticipating limb amputees in prospective study : Consequences for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.C.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified selection by analyzing the survival rate of the participants and nonparticipants in a 4-year prospective, multicenter cohort study. In addition, the differences between these groups were analyzed. Surgeons of six hospitals in the northern Netherlands referred, in total, 225

  9. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  10. Participation in the Virtual Environment of Blended College Courses: An Activity Study of Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Cathy; Hargis, Jace; Mayberry, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a study of success factors in the introductory semester of liberal studies blended courses offered at the bachelor of science level. The influence of student participation in the online course environment was examined, as measured by the number of times students logged into the learning management system (LMS) and average…

  11. HRD Learning Participation: An Empirical Study of E-Learning Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Foucar-Szocki, Diane; Griffin, Oris

    2006-01-01

    This study offers empirical evidence in HRD e-learning completion. Based on the Learning Participation Theory (LPT) (Wang & Wang, 2004), a study was conducted with U.S. corporate e-learners to explore the determinants of e-learning completion. The results generally confirmed the hypothesis by the LPT that individual, learning process, and…

  12. The Nature of Leadership: A Case Study of Distributed Leadership amidst a Participative Change Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of distributed leadership at the University of ABC's SCPS, as the School worked to transform itself through reorganization. The study examined the perceptions of key leaders and members of the implementation team as they sought to understand the implementation of a more participative approach to…

  13. Internationalizing Business Education: Factors Affecting Student Participation in Overseas Study Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlak, Roger J.; Jones, Raymond M.

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated factors encouraging and inhibiting business administration students' participation in study abroad. Subjects were 128 undergraduate and graduate students at a large urban state university. Results indicated personal factors were the strongest encouraging variables, while financial considerations were the most limiting, and a…

  14. MyVoice National Text Message Survey of Youth Aged 14 to 24 Years: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJonckheere, Melissa; Nichols, Lauren P; Moniz, Michelle H; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Zhao, Xinyan; Guetterman, Timothy C; Chang, Tammy

    2017-12-11

    There has been little progress in adolescent health outcomes in recent decades. Researchers and youth-serving organizations struggle to accurately elicit youth voice and translate youth perspectives into health care policy. Our aim is to describe the protocol of the MyVoice Project, a longitudinal mixed methods study designed to engage youth, particularly those not typically included in research. Text messaging surveys are collected, analyzed, and disseminated in real time to leverage youth perspectives to impact policy. Youth aged 14 to 24 years are recruited to receive weekly text message surveys on a variety of policy and health topics. The research team, including academic researchers, methodologists, and youth, develop questions through an iterative writing and piloting process. Question topics are elicited from community organizations, researchers, and policy makers to inform salient policies. A youth-centered interactive platform has been developed that automatically sends confidential weekly surveys and incentives to participants. Parental consent is not required because the survey is of minimal risk to participants. Recruitment occurs online (eg, Facebook, Instagram, university health research website) and in person at community events. Weekly surveys collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data are analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data are quickly analyzed using natural language processing and traditional qualitative methods. Mixed methods integration and analysis supports a more in-depth understanding of the research questions. We are currently recruiting and enrolling participants through in-person and online strategies. Question development, weekly data collection, data analysis, and dissemination are in progress. MyVoice quickly ascertains the thoughts and opinions of youth in real time using a widespread, readily available technology-text messaging. Results are disseminated to researchers, policy makers, and

  15. A longitudinal study of maternal labour force participation and child academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M

    1999-10-01

    The associations between maternal labour force participation and child academic achievement were examined in a birth cohort of New Zealand children who have been studied from birth to age 18. The results of this analysis suggested the presence of small associations between the extent of maternal labour force participation and scores on standardised tests of word recognition, reading comprehension, and mathematical reasoning. Similar associations were found between maternal labour force participation and success in school leaving examinations. These associations arose predominantly because children whose mothers worked had better performance than children whose mothers who had not worked in paid employment. However, patterns of maternal labour force participation were also related to a series of family and child factors including: maternal education, family socioeconomic status, race, birth order, family composition, early mother-child interaction, and child IQ. Adjustment for these factors reduced associations between maternal labour force participation and academic achievement to the point of practical and statistical nonsignificance. These results were found to be robust and similar conclusions were found for (1) a range of measures of maternal labour force participation, and (2) subgroups of the cohort defined by gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or family type.

  16. Reporting and referring research participants: ethical challenges for investigators studying children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B

    1994-01-01

    Researchers studying at-risk and socially disenfranchised child and adolescent populations are facing ethical dilemmas not previously encountered in the laboratory or the clinic. One such set of ethical challenges involves whether to: (a) share with guardians research-derived information regarding participant risk, (b) provide participants with service referrals, or (c) report to local authorities problems uncovered during the course of investigation. The articles assembled for this special section address the complex issues of deciding if, when, and how to report or provide referrals for research participants who are minors (referred to hereafter as minor research participants). This paper focuses on two factors underlying these decisions: the validity of risk estimates and meta-ethical positions on scientific responsiblity. It is suggested that, before sharing information about minor research participants investigators should do the following: critically examine the diagnostic validity of developmental measures, include the scope and limitations of information sharing in informed consent procedures, and become familiar with state reporting laws. I discuss the impact of the traditionally accepted act utilitarian meta-ethical position on the investigator-participant relationship, and I recommend consideration of alternative positions as a step toward developing a research ethic of scientific responsibility and care.

  17. Successful participation of patients in interprofessional team meetings: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; Habets, Iris Gerarda Josephine; Beurskens, Anna; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia

    2017-08-01

    The number of people with multiple chronic conditions increases as a result of ageing. To deal with the complex health-care needs of these patients, it is important that health-care professionals collaborate in interprofessional teams. To deliver patient-centred care, it is often recommended to include the patient as a member of the team. To gain more insight into how health-care professionals and patients, who are used to participate in interprofessional team meetings, experience and organize patient participation in the team meetings. A qualitative study including observations of meetings (n=8), followed by semi-structured interviews with participating health-care professionals (n=8), patients and/or relatives (n=11). Professionals and patients were asked about their experiences of patient participation immediately after the team meetings. Results from both observations and interviews were analysed using content analysis. The findings show a variety of influencing factors related to patient participation that can be divided into five categories: (i) structure and task distribution, (ii) group composition, (iii) relationship between professionals and patients or relatives, (iv) patients' characteristics and (v) the purpose of the meeting. Patient participation during team meetings was appreciated by professionals and patients. A tailored approach to patient involvement during team meetings is preferable. When considering the presence of patients in team meetings, it is recommended to pay attention to patients' willingness and ability to participate, and the necessary information shared before the meeting. Participating patients seem to appreciate support and preparation for the meeting. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Attitudes of Patients in Developing Countries Toward Participating in Clinical Trials: A Survey of Saudi Patients Attending Primary Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateefa O. Al-Dakhil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical trials are experimental projects that include patients as subjects. A number of benefits are directly associated with clinical trials. Healthcare processes and outcomes can be improved with the help of clinical trials. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and beliefs of patients about their contribution to and enrolment in clinical trials. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used for data collection and analysis. A questionnaire was developed with six categories to derive effective outcomes. Results: Of the 2000 participants approached to take part in the study, 1081 agreed. The majority of the study population was female, well educated, and unaware of clinical trials. Only 324 subjects (30.0% had previously agreed to participate in a clinical trial. The majority (87.1% were motivated to participate in clinical trials due to religious aspects. However, fear of any risk was the principal reason (79.8% that reduced their motivation to participate. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that patients in Saudi Arabia have a low awareness and are less willing to participate in clinical trials. Different motivational factors and awareness programs can be used to increase patient participation in the future.

  19. Initial experience with a group presentation of study results to research participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Stephen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating with each participant after publication of the results. Methods Following the closeout and publication of a randomized clinical trial of saw palmetto for treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, patients were invited back to the research center to participate in a group presentation of the study results. Results Approximately 10% of participants attended one of two presentation sessions. Reaction to the experience of the group presentation was very positive among the attendees. Conclusion A group presentation to research participants is an efficient method of communicating study results to those who desire to be informed and was highly valued by those who attended. Prospectively planning for such presentations and greater scheduling flexibility may result in higher attendance rates. Trial Registration Number Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00037154

  20. [A case management programme for women with breast cancer: results of a written survey of participating medical and non-medical networking-partners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büscher, C; Thorenz, A; Grochocka, A; Koch, U; Watzke, B

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer patients are as a rule in need of a multiple sequential in-patient, day-patient and out-patient permanent treatment. The required care demands a trans-sectoral networking of all multi-professional persons involved in diagnostics, therapies, rehabilitation and aftercare. A method to develop the integration of treatment processes, as well as thereby resulting in increased effectiveness and efficiency, can constitute the concept of case management. A prerequisite for an effective implementation of case management and thus the starting point of the present survey is a well-functioning network encompassing optimal cooperation. Within the framework of the evaluation of the case management-based integrated care model "mammaNetz" for women with mamma carcinoma as a whole and against the background of the potential for innovation and improvement of case management on the one hand as well as the existence of only few empirical data otherwise, the present survey of members of a trans-sectoral network of the service centre was accomplished. Medical and non-medical networking partners of the service centre (N=168) were questioned by regular mail about different aspects of the cooperation. Identical items in both surveys were compared. The return rate for the medical networking partners is about 59% (n=35), whereby only medical network partners in private practice participated in the survey. For the non-medical networking partners about 60% (n=66) participated. Medical networking partners assess the cooperation with the service centre in reference to the exchange of information slightly more positively (66%) than the non-medical networking partners (59%). Medical networking partners are in significantly more frequent contact with the service centre and see in the cooperation significantly more advantages for their own office/facility (each with p=0.001) than non-medical networking partners. Overall the results suggest that medical as well as non-medical networking

  1. A qualitative study of citizens' experience of participating in health counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Andersen, Stinne Sonne; Muurholm, Britt

    2014-01-01

    Individual health counseling is a form of intervention designed to minimize the effects of chronic health disease and to offer a path towards good health practices. The aim of the present study was to explore the experiences of those persons who participated in health counseling in order to assess...... the psychosocial significance of the counseling upon their health behavior. In addition the study was concerned with the factors which underlay peoples' decision to sign up for health counseling. The research involved 11 semi-structured interviews with individuals who had participated in a municipality based...

  2. Survey non-response in an internet-mediated, longitudinal autism research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Luther G; Cohen, Cheryl; Lehmann, Harold; Law, Paul

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate non-response rates to follow-up online surveys using a prospective cohort of parents raising at least one child with an autism spectrum disorder. A secondary objective was to investigate predictors of non-response over time. Data were collected from a US-based online research database, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). A total of 19,497 youths, aged 1.9-19 years (mean 9 years, SD 3.94), were included in the present study. Response to three follow-up surveys, solicited from parents after baseline enrollment, served as the outcome measures. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were then used to examine predictors of non-response. 31,216 survey instances were examined, of which 8772 or 28.1% were partly or completely responded to. Results from the multivariate model found non-response of baseline surveys (OR 28.0), years since enrollment in the online protocol (OR 2.06), and numerous sociodemographic characteristics were associated with non-response to follow-up surveys (all p<0.05). Consistent with the current literature, response rates to online surveys were somewhat low. While many demographic characteristics were associated with non-response, time since registration and participation at baseline played the greatest role in predicting follow-up survey non-response. An important hazard to the generalizability of findings from research is non-response bias; however, little is known about this problem in longitudinal internet-mediated research (IMR). This study sheds new light on important predictors of longitudinal response rates that should be considered before launching a prospective IMR study.

  3. Employee participation, performance metrics, and job performance: A survey study based on self-determination theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Bianca A.C.; Wouters, Marc J.F.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    Suitable and valid operational performance metrics are important means to translate an organization’s strategy into action. However, developing high-quality operational metrics is challenging because such metrics need the right degree of context specificity to be meaningful to the managers and

  4. Employee participation, performance metrics, and job performance : A survey study based on self-determination theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.A.C.; Wouters, M.J.F.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Suitable and valid operational performance metrics are important means to translate an organization’s strategy into action. However, developing high-quality operational metrics is challenging because such metrics need the right degree of context specificity to be meaningful to the managers and

  5. Validating self-report of diabetes use by participants in the 45 and up study: a record linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence studies usually depend on self-report of disease status in survey data or administrative data collections and may over- or under-estimate disease prevalence. The establishment of a linked data collection provided an opportunity to explore the accuracy and completeness of capture of information about diabetes in survey and administrative data collections. Methods Baseline questionnaire data at recruitment to the 45 and Up Study was obtained for 266,848 adults aged 45 years and over sampled from New South Wales, Australia in 2006–2009, and linked to administrative data about hospitalisation from the Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) for 2000–2009, claims for medical services (MBS) and pharmaceuticals (PBS) from Medicare Australia data for 2004–2009. Diabetes status was determined from response to a question ‘Has a doctor EVER told you that you have diabetes’ (n = 23,981) and augmented by examination of free text fields about diagnosis (n = 119) or use of insulin (n = 58). These data were used to identify the sub-group with type 1 diabetes. We explored the agreement between self-report of diabetes, identification of diabetes diagnostic codes in APDC data, claims for glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in MBS data, and claims for dispensed medication (oral hyperglycaemic agents and insulin) in PBS data. Results Most participants with diabetes were identified in APDC data if admitted to hospital (79.3%), in MBS data with at least one claim for HbA1c testing (84.7%; 73.4% if 2 tests claimed) or in PBS data through claim for diabetes medication (71.4%). Using these alternate data collections as an imperfect ‘gold standard’ we calculated sensitivities of 83.7% for APDC, 63.9% (80.5% for two tests) for MBS, and 96.6% for PBS data and specificities of 97.7%, 98.4% and 97.1% respectively. The lower sensitivity for HbA1c may reflect the use of this test to screen for diabetes suggesting that it is less useful in identifying

  6. Research Participation for Bereaved Family Members: Experience and Insights From a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; McAdam, Jennifer L; Kouki, Sonia; Cohen-Solal, Zoé; Chaize, Marine; Galon, Marion; Souppart, Virginie; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Azoulay, Elie

    2015-09-01

    Research has highlighted potential negative health outcomes for bereaved family members after loss of a loved one in the ICU and has helped identify areas for intervention. The findings exist because these family members agreed to participate in research studies; but little is known about their experience of research participation. To understand why family members participate in bereavement research and the benefits of participating in such research. Qualitative study using interviews with bereaved family members as well as letters written by bereaved family members. Forty-one ICUs in France. Family members who lost a loved one in the ICU. Thematic analysis was used and was based on 54 narratives, 52 letters, and written annotations on 150 questionnaires. Regarding reasons to participate and benefits of research participation, 6 themes emerged: 1) to say thank you to the ICU team, 2) to help other bereaved family members, 3) to express myself from a distance, 4) to not feel abandoned, 5) to share difficult emotions and to help make meaning of the death, and 6) to receive support and care. Bereavement research is possible after loss of a loved one in the ICU and may even be beneficial for family members. Exploring families' experiences of research participation helps define specific family needs in this setting. After the loss of a loved one in the ICU, bereaved families need opportunities to voice their feelings about their experience in the ICU and to give meaning to the end-of-life process; families also need to feel that they are still cared for. Support for the family may need to be developed after loss of a loved one in the ICU in the form of condolence letters, phone calls, or postintensive care meetings.

  7. Assessing Patient Organization Participation in Health Policy: A Comparative Study in France and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Even though there are many patient organizations across Europe, their role in impacting health policy decisions and reforms has not been well documented. In line with this, the present study endeavours to fill this gap in the international literature. To this end, it aims to validate further a previously developed instrument (the Health Democracy Index - HDI measuring patient organization participation in health policy decision-making. In addition, by utilizing this tool, it aims to provide a snapshot of the degree and impact of cancer patient organization (CPO participation in Italy and France. Methods A convenient sample of 188 members of CPOs participated in the study (95 respondents from 10 CPOs in Italy and 93 from 12 CPOs in France. Participants completed online a self-reported questionnaire, encompassing the 9-item index and questions enquiring about the type and impact of participation in various facets of health policy decisionmaking. The psychometric properties of the scale were explored by performing factor analysis (construct validity and by computing Cronbach α (internal consistency. Results Findings indicate that the index has good internal consistency and the construct it taps is unidimensional. The degree and impact of CPO participation in health policy decision-making were found to be low in both countries; however in Italy they were comparatively lower than in France. Conclusion In conclusion, the HDI can be effectively used in international policy and research contexts. CPOs participation is low in Italy and France and concerted efforts should be made on upgrading their role in health policy decision-making.

  8. Should consent forms used in clinical trials be translated into the local dialects? A survey among past participants in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Frank; Akazili, James; Chatio, Samuel; Achana, Fabian Sebastian; Oduro, Abraham Rexford; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Hodgson, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining informed consent is part of the expression of the principle of participant autonomy during clinical trials. It is critical that participants understand the content of informed consent forms and remain in a position to seek independent advice on its content. We conducted a survey among past participants of a clinical trial in the Kassena-Nankana Districts of rural northern Ghana about the usefulness of informed consent forms that are written in the local dialects. The written forms of local dialects are largely undeveloped. We contacted a randomly selected sample of caregivers whose children were enrolled in a completed clinical trial and interviewed them using a structured questionnaire. Analysis sought to determine participants' preference and whether or not they were likely to find confidants who will be able to read, understand and give advice on the content of the informed consent form to them when they take the informed consent forms home. We interviewed 394 caregivers, 88.6% of whom were women. About half (54%) of the respondents wanted the informed consent forms to be in the English language. Caregivers with higher than primary level education were more likely to prefer the informed consent form to be in English than those with no formal education (74% versus 26%, p = 0.04). The majority (85%) indicated that they would be able to find close confidants who would be able to read and explain it to them if it is in English. In contrast, only 8% thought they would be able to do the same if the informed consent form was written in the local language. Respondents were more likely to find close confidants to read and explain the informed consent form if it were written in English than if it were written in the local language (94% versus 19%, p value literacy is low, the use of local dialect versions of informed consent forms could ironically enhance the vulnerability of trial participants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Private landowners and environmental conservation: a case study of social-psychological determinants of conservation program participation in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drescher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiversity and continued provision of ecosystem services increasingly relies on environmental conservation on private lands. Despite a multitude of past studies, our knowledge of the motives, opportunities, and challenges of private land conservation, especially on nonworking lands, where financial incentives are less relevant, remains incomplete. A key reason is that a variety of theoretical approaches, resulting in diverging study results, have been used to investigate private land conservation. To help remedy this problem, the current study rigorously examined several established social-psychological determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and developed a comprehensive model, which merged elements from previous studies, to investigate landowner participation in a government-sponsored private land conservation program for nonworking lands. The results are based on analysis of a mailed survey of 800 program-eligible landowners. Contrasting program participants with nonparticipants, we elicited information such as about values, worldviews, socio-demographic characteristics, and property attributes that led landowners to participate in this conservation program. The results of our study illustrate the complex relationships among values, worldviews, norms, attitudes, and behaviors emphasizing the importance of proenvironmental worldviews and of formal education for increasing the likelihood of enrollment in this government-sponsored private land conservation program. Against expectation, neither personal norms, household income, political leaning, nor the size of the eligible property area were found to be important in directly determining the decision to enroll in this conservation program. However, an association of political leaning with stated personal obligation for private land conservation was found. Our results highlight the relationship between formal education and achievement of private land conservation goals

  10. Usage of CISS and Conlon surveys in eye accommodation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panke, Karola; Svede, Aiga; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-08-01

    To date, there is no assessment of more than one survey used for a clinical research study that address subjects with and without symptoms related to accommodative or binocular vision disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate two different surveys - CISS and Conlon for the same subject group and analyse also critical visual function parameters. Monocular and binocular accommodative response for 20 subjects was measured for dominant eye with openfield infrared autorefractometer (Shin-Nippon SRW-5000) at three distances (24 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). Subjects were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic group using cut off score 21 for CISS and 20 for Conlon survey. We found positive exponential growth relationship between CISS and Conlon scores (R² = 0.7), but separation between symptomatic and asymptomatic group differed significantly depending on which survey was used. We found positive correlation between Conlon score and exophoria at 30 cm (r=0.41, p=0.01) and 24 cm (r=0.27, p=0.03). Relationship between subjective symptoms and following clinical parameters - accommodation lag (r history and tool to measure patient satisfaction and results of treatment effectiveness instead of using them for clinical trials as a criteria to divide symptomatic and asymptomatic group.

  11. The lived experience of participation in student nursing associations and leadership behaviors: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus-Graham, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to obtain vivid descriptions of the lived experience of nurses who participated in a student nursing association (SNA) as students. Nursing graduates from five nursing programs in Long Island, New York were identified using a purposive sampling strategy. During individual interviews, the themes of the lived experiences of the participants emerged: (1) leadership: communication, collaboration and resolving conflict, (2) mentoring and mutual support, (3) empowerment and ability to change practice, (4) professionalism, (5) sense of teamwork, and (6) accountability and responsibility. Recommendations from the study included an orientation and mentoring of new students to the SNA by senior students and faculty. Additionally, nursing faculty could integrate SNA activities within the classroom and clinical settings to increase the awareness of the benefits of participation in a student nursing organization. Recommendations for future research include a different sample and use of different research designs.

  12. "Socio-Economic Studies on Suicide: A Survey"

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we review economic theories and empirical studies on the socioeconomic aspects of suicide. Through our survey, we would like to emphasize the importance of studying suicide by employing a "rational" approach that complements the medical perspective on suicide, which assumes suicide to be the result of "irrational" behavior arising from mental illnesses such as depression and other psychiatric disorders. We first introduce major economic theories of suicide, followed by a summ...

  13. Nurse Managers’ Work Life Quality and Their Participation in Knowledge Management: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Dehnavi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between quality of work life and participation in knowledge management is unknown. Objectives: This study aimed to discover the association between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management. Materials and Methods: This was a correlational study. All nurse managers (71 people) from 11 hospitals affiliated with the Social Security Organization in Tehran, Iran, were included. They were asked to rate their participation in knowledge management and their quality of work life. Data was gathered by a researcher-made questionnaire (May-June 2012). The questionnaire was validated by content and construct validity approaches. Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate reliability. Finally, 50 questionnaires were analyzed. The answers were scored and analyzed using mean of scores, T-test, ANOVA (or nonparametric test, if appropriate), Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression. Results: Nurse managers’ performance to implement knowledge management strategies was moderate. A significant correlation was found between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management strategies (r = 0.82; P knowledge management and participation of nurse managers in decision making (r = 0.82; P knowledge management. PMID:25763267

  14. Nurse managers' work life quality and their participation in knowledge management: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Dehnavi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The association between quality of work life and participation in knowledge management is unknown. This study aimed to discover the association between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management. This was a correlational study. All nurse managers (71 people) from 11 hospitals affiliated with the Social Security Organization in Tehran, Iran, were included. They were asked to rate their participation in knowledge management and their quality of work life. Data was gathered by a researcher-made questionnaire (May-June 2012). The questionnaire was validated by content and construct validity approaches. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability. Finally, 50 questionnaires were analyzed. The answers were scored and analyzed using mean of scores, T-test, ANOVA (or nonparametric test, if appropriate), Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression. Nurse managers' performance to implement knowledge management strategies was moderate. A significant correlation was found between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management strategies (r = 0.82; P knowledge management and participation of nurse managers in decision making (r = 0.82; P knowledge management.

  15. Participation in modified sports programs: a longitudinal study of children's transition to club sport competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Young, Janet A; Payne, Warren R

    2015-07-14

    Many children are not physically active enough for a health benefit. One avenue of physical activity is modified sport programs, designed as an introduction to sport for young children. This longitudinal study identified trends in participation among children aged 4-12 years. Outcomes included continuation in the modified sports program, withdrawal from the program or transition to club sport competition. De-identified data on participant membership registrations in three popular sports in the Australian state of Victoria were obtained from each sport's state governing body over a 4-year period (2009-2012 for Sport A and 2010-2013 for Sports B and C). From the membership registrations, those who were enrolled in a modified sports program in the first year were tracked over the subsequent three years and classified as one of: transition (member transitioned from a modified sport program to a club competition); continue (member continued participation in a modified sport program; or withdraw (member discontinued a modified program and did not transition to club competition). Many modified sports participants were very young, especially males aged 4-6 years. More children withdrew from their modified sport program rather than transitioning. There were age differences between when boys and girls started, withdrew and transitioned from the modified sports programs. If we can retain children in sport it is likely to be beneficial for their health. This study highlights considerations for the development and implementation of sport policies and programming to ensure lifelong participation is encouraged for both males and females.

  16. Educational Participation of Families in a Valencian Public School. A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Payà Rico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we carry out a field study in a state school located in Carcaixent (from Valencia about the different perceptions, reflections and impressions of the faculty, management team, Parents Association (AMPA and parents from the political and critical reflection about the active participation of families. Thanks to a set of semi-structured interviews, its transcription and further analysis of its contents, we have obtained valuable conclusions and reflections which indicate the importance that families give to participation, to the point that they are immerse in the process of transformation in a learning community (CdA. Among the conclusions obtained in the mentioned qualitative study, we have been able to observe the familiar perceptions about participation, the existing obstacles and determinants for it, the relationship between the different members of the educational community, the channels of participation, etc.; a whole range of considerations which provide useful information of political and pedagogical character. These considerations can orientate the implementation of school participation policies and the construction of a cohesive and active educational community.

  17. Political Regime and Learning Outcomes of Stakeholder Participation: Cross-National Study of 81 Biosphere Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Mohedano Roldán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in natural resource management has spread widely, even to nondemocracies, driven by expectations of beneficial outcomes such as multidirectional learning. However, can we expect participation to be equally effective in achieving multidirectional learning in democracies and nondemocracies? Unsurprisingly, previous studies indicate the relevance of power distribution for learning. Higher levels of repression and accumulation of political capital in nondemocracies should limit the distribution of power across stakeholders. Yet, the relationship between political regime, participation, and learning has rarely been studied empirically. I address this gap by analysing multidirectional learning in stakeholder participation in 81 Man and the Biosphere reserves across 35 countries using ordinary least squares regression, Firth logistic regression, and heat maps. The results suggest that the amount of stakeholders sharing knowledge and learning is similar in both regimes. However, a closer analysis reveals differences in the impact different stakeholders have on the learning process. More concretely, local actors share knowledge more often and have a greater impact on stakeholders’ learning in democracies, while state actors display similar behavior across regimes in terms of learning and sharing knowledge. Thus, although there are notable similarities across regimes, multidirectional learning through stakeholder participation is influenced by the political context.

  18. Cardiovascular evaluation, including resting and exercise electrocardiography, before participation in competitive sports: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Capalbo, Andrea; Pucci, Nicola; Giuliattini, Jacopo; Condino, Francesca; Alessandri, Flavio; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Califano, Sergio

    2008-07-03

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of complete preparticipation cardiovascular screening in a large cohort of sports participants. Cross sectional study of data over a five year period. Institute of Sports Medicine in Florence, Italy. 30,065 (23,570 men) people seeking to obtain clinical eligibility for competitive sports. Results of resting and exercise 12 lead electrocardiography. Resting 12 lead ECG patterns showed abnormalities in 1812 (6%) participants, with the most common abnormalities (>80%) concerning innocent ECG changes. Exercise ECG showed an abnormal pattern in 1459 (4.9%) participants. Exercise ECG showed cardiac anomalies in 1227 athletes with normal findings on resting ECG. At the end of screening, 196 (0.6%) participants were considered ineligible for competitive sports. Among the 159 participants who were disqualified at the end of the screening for cardiac reasons, a consistent proportion (n=126, 79.2%) had shown innocent or negative findings on resting 12 lead ECG but clear pathological alterations during the exercise test. After adjustment for possible confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that age >30 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of being disqualified for cardiac findings during exercise testing. Among people seeking to take part in competitive sports, exercise ECG can identify those with cardiac abnormalities. Follow-up studies would show if disqualification of such people would reduce the incidence of CV events among athletes.

  19. Cohort profiles of the cross-sectional and prospective participant groups in the second Diabetes MILES-Australia (MILES-2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Ventura, Adriana D

    2017-01-01

    and social aspects of diabetes. The aim of the MILES-2 study was to provide a (1) longitudinal follow-up of the original MILES 2011 study cohort; (2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were English-speaking Australians with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, aged 18....... The final sample included N=2342 eligible respondents (longitudinal cohort: n=504; 2015 new cohort: n=1838); 54% had type 2 diabetes. FINDINGS TO DATE: Survey respondents were from an advantaged socioeconomic background compared to the general population. Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over...

  20. Methods to identify, study and understand end-user participation in HIT development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstgaard, Anna Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille; Nøhr, Christian

    2011-09-28

    Experience has shown that for new health-information-technology (HIT) to be suc-cessful clinicians must obtain positive clinical benefits as a result of its implementation and joint-ownership of the decisions made during the development process. A prerequisite for achieving both success criteria is real end-user-participation. Experience has also shown that further research into developing improved methods to collect more detailed information on social groups participating in HIT development is needed in order to support, facilitate and improve real end-user participation. A case study of an EHR planning-process in a Danish county from October 2003 until April 2006 was conducted using process-analysis. Three social groups (physicians, IT-professionals and administrators) were identified and studied in the local, present perspective. In order to understand the interactions between the three groups, the national, historic perspective was included through a literature-study. Data were collected through observations, interviews, insight gathered from documents and relevant literature. In the local, present perspective, the administrator's strategy for the EHR planning process meant that there was no clinical workload-reduction. This was seen as one of the main barriers to the physicians to achieving real influence. In the national, historic perspective, physicians and administrators have had/have different perceptions of the purpose of the patient record and they have both struggled to influence this definition. To date, the administrators have won the battle. This explains the conditions made available for the physicians' participation in this case, which led to their role being reduced to that of clinical consultants--rather than real participants. In HIT-development the interests of and the balance of power between the different social groups involved are decisive in determining whether or not the end-users become real participants in the development process. Real

  1. Methods to identify, study and understand End-user participation in HIT development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nøhr Christian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience has shown that for new health-information-technology (HIT to be suc-cessful clinicians must obtain positive clinical benefits as a result of its implementation and joint-ownership of the decisions made during the development process. A prerequisite for achieving both success criteria is real end-user-participation. Experience has also shown that further research into developing improved methods to collect more detailed information on social groups participating in HIT development is needed in order to support, facilitate and improve real end-user participation. Methods A case study of an EHR planning-process