WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey study participants

  1. Survey nonresponse among ethnic minorities in a national health survey - a mixed-method study of participation, barriers, and potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Algren, Maria Holst; Holmberg, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    , to alienation generated by the questions' focus on disease and cultural assumptions, or mistrust regarding anonymity. Ethnic minorities seem particularly affected by such barriers. To increase survey participation, questions could be sensitized to reflect multicultural traditions, and the impact of sender......Objectives. The participation rate in the Danish National Health Survey (DNHS) 2010 was significantly lower among ethnic minorities than ethnic Danes. The purpose was to characterize nonresponse among ethnic minorities in DNHS, analyze variations in item nonresponse, and investigate barriers...... and incentives to participation. Design. This was a mixed-method study. Logistic regression was used to analyze nonresponse using data from DNHS (N = 177,639 and chi-square tests in item nonresponse analyses. We explored barriers and incentives regarding participation through focus groups and cognitive...

  2. Participant dropout as a function of survey length in internet-mediated university studies: implications for study design and voluntary participation in psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Internet-mediated research has offered substantial advantages over traditional laboratory-based research in terms of efficiently and affordably allowing for the recruitment of large samples of participants for psychology studies. Core technical, ethical, and methodological issues have been addressed in recent years, but the important issue of participant dropout has received surprisingly little attention. Specifically, web-based psychology studies often involve undergraduates completing lengthy and time-consuming batteries of online personality questionnaires, but no known published studies to date have closely examined the natural course of participant dropout during attempted completion of these studies. The present investigation examined participant dropout among 1,963 undergraduates completing one of six web-based survey studies relatively representative of those conducted in university settings. Results indicated that 10% of participants could be expected to drop out of these studies nearly instantaneously, with an additional 2% dropping out per 100 survey items included in the study. For individual project investigators, these findings hold ramifications for study design considerations, such as conducting a priori power analyses. The present results also have broader ethical implications for understanding and improving voluntary participation in research involving human subjects. Nonetheless, the generalizability of these conclusions may be limited to studies involving similar design or survey content.

  3. A Survey Study on Customer Experience in Banking Cash Management Products and, Participation Banking Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt DİRİCAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Banking as a safe bridge of risk management balances relation between deposit and loan. In the growing trend of interest-free banking Turkey practice, Participation Banking is working to fix the expectations of customers with reasonable solutions. For corporate customers with comprehensive cash management expectations, producing appropriate and fast solutions are important for a positive and sustainable customer experience. Cash Management covers collection of trade receivables and short -term debt payments. In this study, in the light of the financial ratios of participation banking within the banking industry, a participation bank customers' experiences and expectations in cash management products and services were evaluated with the survey methodology and its importance were also examined.

  4. Prospective evaluation of direct approach with a tablet device as a strategy to enhance survey study participant response rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators conduct survey studies for a variety of reasons. Poor participant response rates are common, however, and may limit the generalizability and utility of results. The objective of this study was to determine whether direct approach with a tablet device enhances survey study participant response rate and to assess participants’ experiences with this mode of survey administration. Findings An interventional study nested within a single center survey study was conducted at McMaster Children’s Hospital. The primary outcome was the ability to achieve of a survey study response rate of 70% or greater. Eligible participants received 3 email invitations (Week 0, 2, 4 to complete a web-based (Survey Monkey survey. The study protocol included plans for a two-week follow-up phase (Phase 2 where non-responders were approached by a research assistant and invited to complete an iPad-based version of the survey. The Phase 1 response rate was 48.7% (56/115. Phase 2 effectively recruited reluctant responders, increasing the overall response rate to 72.2% (83/115. On a 7-point Likert scale, reluctant responders highly rated their enjoyment (mean 6.0, sd 0.83 [95% CI: 5.7-6.3] and ease of use (mean 6.7, sd 0.47 [95% CI: 6.5-6.9] completing the survey using the iPad. Reasons endorsed for Phase 2 participation included: direct approach (81%, immediate survey access (62%, and the novelty of completing a tablet-based survey (54%. Most reluctant responders (89% indicated that a tablet-based survey is their preferred method of survey completion. Conclusions Use of a tablet-based version of the survey was effective in recruiting reluctant responders and this group reported positive experiences with this mode of survey administration.

  5. Incentives and participation in a medical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjøstein, Dagrun Kyte; Huitfeldt, Anders; Løberg, Magnus; Adami, Hans-Olov; Garborg, Kjetil; Kalager, Mette; Bretthauer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND Questionnaire surveys are important for surveying the health and disease behaviour of the population, but recent years have seen a fall in participation. Our study tested whether incentives can increase participation in these surveys.MATERIAL AND METHOD We sent a questionnaire on risk factors for colorectal cancer (height, weight, smoking, self-reported diagnoses, family medical history) to non-screened participants in a randomised colonoscopy screening study for colorectal cancer: participants who were invited but did not attend for colonoscopy examination (screening-invited) and persons who were not offered colonoscopy (control group). The persons were randomised to three groups: no financial incentive, lottery scratch cards included with the form, or a prize draw for a tablet computer when they responded to the form. We followed up all the incentive groups with telephone reminder calls, and before the prize draw for the tablet computer.RESULTS Altogether 3 705 of 6 795 persons (54.5  %) responded to the questionnaire; 43.5  % of those invited for screening and 65.6  % of the control group (p reminder calls, 39.2  % responded. A further 15.3  % responded following telephone reminder calls (14.1  % of the screening-invited and 16.5  % of the control group; p increase participation in this medical questionnaire survey. Use of telephone reminder calls and telephone interviews increased participation, but whether this is more effective than other methods requires further study.

  6. Survey nonresponse among ethnic minorities in a national health survey--a mixed-method study of participation, barriers, and potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Algren, Maria Holst; Holmberg, Teresa; Norredam, Marie Louise; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Blom, Astrid Benedikte; Bo, Anne; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    The participation rate in the Danish National Health Survey (DNHS) 2010 was significantly lower among ethnic minorities than ethnic Danes. The purpose was to characterize nonresponse among ethnic minorities in DNHS, analyze variations in item nonresponse, and investigate barriers and incentives to participation. This was a mixed-method study. Logistic regression was used to analyze nonresponse using data from DNHS (N = 177,639 and chi-square tests in item nonresponse analyses. We explored barriers and incentives regarding participation through focus groups and cognitive interviews. Informants included immigrants and their descendants of both sexes, with and without higher education. The highest nonresponse rate was for non-Western descendants (80.0%) and immigrants 25 (72.3%) with basic education. Immigrants and descendants had higher odds ratios (OR = 3.07 and OR = 3.35, respectively) for nonresponse than ethnic Danes when adjusted for sex, age, marital status, and education. Non-Western immigrants had higher item nonresponse in several question categories. Barriers to non-participation related to the content, language, format, and layout of both the questionnaire and the cover letter. The sender and setting in which to receive the questionnaire also influenced answering incentives. We observed differences in barriers and incentives between immigrants and descendants. Nonresponse appears related to linguistic and/or educational limitations, to alienation generated by the questions' focus on disease and cultural assumptions, or mistrust regarding anonymity. Ethnic minorities seem particularly affected by such barriers. To increase survey participation, questions could be sensitized to reflect multicultural traditions, and the impact of sender and setting considered.

  7. Negative and positive participant responses to the composite international diagnostic interview - Results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, R. de; Have, M.L. ten; Dorsselaer, S.A.F.M. van; Schoemaker, C.G.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the emotional responses of participants in community surveys to standardised psychiatric interviews like the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). This study investigates the proportion of subjects responding negatively or positively to the CIDI, and identifies

  8. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Challenges in Cultivating EOSDIS User Survey Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquist, C. L.; Sofinowski, E. J.; Walter, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004 NASA has surveyed users of its Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to determine user satisfaction with its services. The surveys have been conducted by CFI Group under contract with the Federal Consulting Group, Executive Agent in government for the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The purpose of these annual surveys is to help EOSDIS and the data centers assess current status and improve future services. The survey questions include demographic and experiential questions in addition to the ACSI and EOSDIS specific rating questions. In addition to customer satisfaction, analysis of each year's results has provided insight into the survey process. Although specific questions have been added, modified, or deleted to reflect changes to the EOSDIS system and processes, the model rating questions have remained the same to ensure consistency for evaluating cross year trends. Working with the CFI Group, we have refined the invitation and questions to increase clarity and address the different ways diverse groups of users access services at EOSDIS data centers. We present challenges in preparing a single set of questions that go to users with backgrounds in many Earth science disciplines. These users may have contacted any of the 12 EOSDIS data centers for information or may have accessed data or data products from many kinds of aircraft and satellite instruments. We discuss lessons learned in preparing the invitation and survey questions and the steps taken to make the survey easier to complete and to encourage increased participation.

  10. Survey Probability and Factors affecting Farmers Participation in Future and Option Markets Case Study: Cotton product in Gonbad kavos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. sakhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Farmers are facing with a variety of natural and unnatural risks in agricultural activities, and thus their income is unstable. A wide range of risks such as risks of production, price risk, financial and human risks, influence the income of agricultural products. One of the major risks that farmers faced is the risk of price volatility of agricultural products. Cotton is one of the agricultural products with high real price volatility. Numerous tools for marketing and risk management for agricultural products in the face of price risks are available. Futures and options contracts may be the most important available tools (to reduce price volatility in agricultural products. The purpose of the current study was to look at the possibility of farmers participations in the future and option markets that presented as a means to reduce the cotton prices volatility. The dependent variable for this purpose had four categories and these included: participate in both the market, participation in the future market, participation in the option market and participation in both future and option markets. Materials and Methods: data gathered with interview and completing 200 questionnaires of cotton growers using simple random sampling. Multinomial Logit Regression Model was used for data analysis. Results and Discussion: To measure content validity of the preliminary study the validity of confirmatory factor analysis were used. For calculating reliability, the pre-test done with 30 questionnaires and reliability, coefficient Cronbach alpha was 0.79. The independence of dependent variables categories was confirmed by Hausman test results. The Likelihood ratio and Wald showed these categories are not combinable. Results indicated into period 2014 -2015 and the sample under study, 35% of cotton growers unwilling to participate in future and option markets. Farmers willingness to participate in future and option market was 19% and %21

  11. Toxic ignorance and right-to-know in biomonitoring results communication: a survey of scientists and study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure assessment has shifted from pollutant monitoring in air, soil, and water toward personal exposure measurements and biomonitoring. This trend along with the paucity of health effect data for many of the pollutants studied raise ethical and scientific challenges for reporting results to study participants. Methods We interviewed 26 individuals involved in biomonitoring studies, including academic scientists, scientists from environmental advocacy organizations, IRB officials, and study participants; observed meetings where stakeholders discussed these issues; and reviewed the relevant literature to assess emerging ethical, scientific, and policy debates about personal exposure assessment and biomonitoring, including public demand for information on the human health effects of chemical body burdens. Results We identify three frameworks for report-back in personal exposure studies: clinical ethics; community-based participatory research; and citizen science 'data judo.' The first approach emphasizes reporting results only when the health significance of exposures is known, while the latter two represent new communication strategies where study participants play a role in interpreting, disseminating, and leveraging results to promote community health. We identify five critical areas to consider in planning future biomonitoring studies. Conclusion Public deliberation about communication in personal exposure assessment research suggests that new forms of community-based research ethics and participatory scientific practice are emerging.

  12. Web sites survey for electronic public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Su; Lee, Young Wook; Kang, Chang Sun

    2004-01-01

    Public acceptance has been a key factor in nuclear industry as well as other fields. There are many ways to get public acceptance. Public participation in making a policy must be a good tool for this purpose. Moreover, the participation by means of internet may be an excellent way to increase voluntary participation. In this paper, the level of electronic public participation is defined and how easy and deep for lay public to participate electronically is assessed for some organization's web sites

  13. The socio-economic patterning of survey participation and non-response error in a multilevel study of food purchasing behaviour: area- and individual-level characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian; Gould, Trish; Roy, Marie-Andree

    2003-04-01

    To undertake an assessment of survey participation and non-response error in a population-based study that examined the relationship between socio-economic position and food purchasing behaviour. The study was conducted in Brisbane City (Australia) in 2000. The sample was selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design. Respondents were recruited using a range of strategies that attempted to maximise the involvement of persons from disadvantaged backgrounds: respondents were contacted by personal visit and data were collected using home-based face-to-face interviews; multiple call-backs on different days and at different times were used; and a financial gratuity was provided. Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas that differed in their socio-economic characteristics. Rates of survey participation - measured by non-contacts, exclusions, dropped cases, response rates and completions - were similar across areas, suggesting that residents of socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged areas were equally likely to be recruited. Individual-level analysis, however, showed that respondents and non-respondents differed significantly in their sociodemographic and food purchasing characteristics: non-respondents were older, less educated and exhibited different purchasing behaviours. Misclassification bias probably accounted for the inconsistent pattern of association between the area- and individual-level results. Estimates of bias due to non-response indicated that although respondents and non-respondents were qualitatively different, the magnitude of error associated with this differential was minimal. Socio-economic position measured at the individual level is a strong and consistent predictor of survey non-participation. Future studies that set out to examine the relationship between socio-economic position and diet need to adopt sampling strategies and data collection methods that maximise the likelihood of recruiting

  14. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750 were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less

  15. Survey of public participation potential regarding the Muria NPP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarianto-SBS; Sri Hariani Syarif; Heni Susiati; Imam Hamzah; Fepriadi

    2003-01-01

    Socio-culture aspect is a part of site feasibility evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)program. Indonesia is under going democratization, therefore the paradigm of development has also been changed where the people have freedom or liberty and they can express their opinion independently. The people are significant factor that involving in the decision making of regional development.Even the socio-culture, such as social riot can reject the site. Therefore socio-culture aspect should be considered in the NPP site evaluation. The first step of the study,mapping of public participation potential should be conducted by field survey. The method used in there search is quantitative approach with field survey guided by questioner without any treatment of object sampled. Qualitative approach was also conducted by in-depth interview technique to collect more detailed information. Information were collected from general public without any stratification in the 10 km radius from NPP site. Sampling method used was full random sampling technique. The results of survey show that the most of the people have significant potential for participating in the NPP Program. Conducive atmosphere should be maintained by social setting, therefore the present good momentum will not be lost. (author)

  16. Implications of Attrition in a Longitudinal Web-Based Survey: An Examination of College Students Participating in a Tobacco Use Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bennett; Haardoerfer, Regine; Windle, Michael; Goodman, Michael; Berg, Carla

    2017-10-16

    Web-based survey research has several benefits, including low cost and burden, as well as high use of the Internet, particularly among young adults. In the context of longitudinal studies, attrition raises concerns regarding the validity of data, given the potential associations with individual and institutional characteristics, or the focal area of study (eg, cigarette use). The objective of this study was to compare baseline characteristics of nonresponders versus responders in a sample of young adult college students in a Web-based longitudinal study regarding tobacco use. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 3189 college students from seven Georgia colleges and universities in a 2-year longitudinal study. We examined baseline tobacco use, as well as individual- and institutional-level factors, as predictors of attrition between wave 1 (October and November 2014) and wave 2 (February and March 2015) using multilevel modeling. Results: A total 13.14% (419/3189) participants were lost to follow-up at wave 2. Predictors of nonresponse were similar in the models examining individual-level factors and institutional-level factors only and included being black versus white (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, CI 1.23-2.46); being male versus female (OR 1.41, CI 1.10-1.79); seeking a bachelor's degree versus advanced degree (OR 1.41, CI 1.09-1.83); not residing on campus (OR 0.62, CI 0.46-0.84); past 30-day tobacco use (OR 1.41, CI 1.10-1.78); attending a nonprivate college (OR 0.48, CI 0.33-0.71); and attending a college with ≤10,000 students (OR 0.56, CI 0.43-0.73). Future longitudinal studies should assess predictors of attrition to examine how survey topic and other individual and institutional factors might influence the response to allow for correction of selection bias. ©Bennett McDonald, Regine Haardoerfer, Michael Windle, Michael Goodman, Carla Berg. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 16.10.2017.

  17. Advantages of asynchronous online focus groups and face-to-face focus groups as perceived by child, adolescent and adult participants: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-24

    Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants' opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants' preference for participation in an OFG or a face-to-face focus group (FTF), as well as their perceptions of the advantages of both methods. We also investigated whether any differences exist between the perceptions of child, adolescent, and adult participants. Participants' opinions were studied by means of a questionnaire completed by 284 persons (aged 8-72 years) after their participation in one of 50 OFGs. The OFGs were conducted between December 2005 and December 2013 as part of 19 separate studies. Chi square tests with p advantages of OFGs and FTFs between children, adolescents and adults. The most important advantage of OFGs as perceived by OFG participants was the possibility to participate at a moment most convenient to them. Adolescents and adults (90.5% and 95.9%) more often reported this as an advantage than children did (30.8%, p advantage of OFGs was the possibility to participate from home (69.1%). The most important advantage of FTFs was respondents' perception that it is easier to have a discussion with the whole group when there is personal contact with others (48.5%). This advantage was mentioned significantly more often by adults (78.4%) than by children and adolescents (4.8% and 17.7%, p advantages of OFGs as a research method. Whereas respondents generally value the convenience of participating at their own time and place, the anonymity of OFGs and the increased ease to discuss personal issues were mentioned less often as advantages by the participants. An aspect that may need more attention when conducting an OFG, is the absence of a fluid discussion, which is, according to our respondents, easier to achieve in an FTF. This underlines the importance of the moderator in enabling a constructive

  18. Third European Company Survey – Direct and indirect employee participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo

    2015-01-01

    This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between

  19. Choir of believers? Longitudinal evidence on public service motivation and survey participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; De Lorent Gad, Mette; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    The most widely used method to study individuals’ public service motivation is surveys. The validity and inferential power of such studies may, however, be harmed by survey participation bias, if highly public service motivated individuals are overrepresented among respondents. This paper examines...... the methodological critique of survey participation bias raised against the public service motivation literature and examines whether public service motivation increases the propensity to respond to surveys. By tracking more than 3,000 public service providers’ participation in a three-wave panel survey, our...... analysis shows that public service motivation does have a positive effect on survey participation. This suggests that future studies should pay attention to the characteristics of respondents/non-respondents and consider weighting the sample....

  20. Surveying Earth Science Users: Improvements Increase Participation and Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquist, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    NASA has surveyed users of its Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) for three years to determine user satisfaction with its services. The survey is being conducted by Claes Fornell International (CFI) under contract with the Department of Treasury's Federal Consulting Group, Executive Agent in government for the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The purpose of this survey is to help EOSDIS and the data centers assess current status and improve future services. Analysis of each year's results has led to refining, dropping, and adding questions that provide the basis of understanding satisfaction levels across data centers, and for functions within each center. This paper will present lessons learned in preparing the invitation and survey questions and the steps taken to make the survey easier to complete. Year three Indicators include increased participation and better identification with data center names and information services.

  1. A survey of optometry leadership: participation in disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoter, Walter J; Glotzer, David L; Weiserbs, Kera Fay; Baek, Linda S; Karloopia, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    A study was completed to assess the academic and state-level professional optometry leadership views regarding optometry professionals as surge responders in the event of a catastrophic event. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 21-question, self-administered, structured questionnaire. All U.S. optometry school deans and state optometric association presidents were mailed a questionnaire and instructions to return it by mail on completion; 2 repeated mailings were made. Descriptive statistics were produced and differences between deans and association presidents were tested by Fisher exact test. The questionnaire response rate was 50% (25 returned/50 sent) for the state association presidents and 65% (11/17) for the deans. There were no statistically significant differences between the leadership groups for any survey questions. All agreed that optometrists have the skills, are ethically obligated to help, and that optometrists should receive additional training for participation in disaster response. There was general agreement that optometrists should provide first-aid, obtain medical histories, triage, maintain infection control, manage a point of distribution, prescribe medications, and counsel the "worried well." Starting intravenous lines, interpreting radiographs, and suturing were less favorably supported. There was some response variability between the 2 leadership groups regarding potential sources for training. The overall opinion of optometry professional leadership is that with additional training, optometrists can and should provide an important reserve pool of catastrophic event responders. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey of upper extremity injuries among martial arts participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesselhorst, Matthew M; Rayan, Ghazi M; Pasque, Charles B; Peyton Holder, R

    2013-01-01

    To survey participants at various experience levels of different martial arts (MA) about upper extremity injuries sustained during training and fighting. A 21-s question survey was designed and utilised. The survey was divided into four groups (Demographics, Injury Description, Injury Mechanism, and Miscellaneous information) to gain knowledge about upper extremity injuries sustained during martial arts participation. Chi-square testing was utilised to assess for significant associations. Males comprised 81% of respondents. Involvement in multiple forms of MA was the most prevalent (38%). The hand/wrist was the most common area injured (53%), followed by the shoulder/upper arm (27%) and the forearm/elbow (19%). Joint sprains/muscle strains were the most frequent injuries reported overall (47%), followed by abrasions/bruises (26%). Dislocations of the upper extremity were reported by 47% of participants while fractures occurred in 39%. Surgeries were required for 30% of participants. Females were less likely to require surgery and more likely to have shoulder and elbow injuries. Males were more likely to have hand injuries. Participants of Karate and Tae Kwon Do were more likely to have injuries to their hands, while participants of multiple forms were more likely to sustain injuries to their shoulders/upper arms and more likely to develop chronic upper extremity symptoms. With advanced level of training the likelihood of developing chronic upper extremity symptoms increases, and multiple surgeries were required. Hand protection was associated with a lower risk of hand injuries. Martial arts can be associated with substantial upper extremity injuries that may require surgery and extended time away from participation. Injuries may result in chronic upper extremity symptoms. Hand protection is important for reducing injuries to the hand and wrist.

  3. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective

  4. Recruitment of mental health survey participants using Internet advertising: content, characteristics and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    Postal and telephone survey research is threatened by declining response rates and high cost. Online recruitment is becoming more popular, although there is little empirical evidence about its cost-effectiveness or the representativeness of online samples. There is also limited research on optimal strategies for developing advertising content for online recruitment. The present study aimed to assess these aspects of online recruitment. Two mental health surveys used advertisements within a social network website (Facebook) to recruit adult Australian participants. The initial survey used advertisements linking directly to an external survey website, and recruited 1283 participants at $9.82 per completed survey. A subsequent survey used advertisements linking to a Facebook page that featured links to the external survey, recruiting 610 participants at $1.51 per completion. Both surveys were more cost-effective than similar postal surveys conducted previously, which averaged $19.10 per completion. Online and postal surveys both had somewhat unrepresentative samples. However, online surveys tended to be more successful in recruiting hard-to-reach populations. Advertising using "problem" terminology was more effective than "positive" terminology, while there was no significant effect of altruistic versus self-gain terminology. Online recruitment is efficient, flexible and cost-effective, suggesting that online recruitment has considerable potential for specific research designs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Study of the Utility of a Participative Approach to Employee Attitude Surveys as a Management Tool at the Audie L. Murphy Memorial VA Hospital in San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    Classification) A Study of the Utility of a Participative Approach to Employee Attitude Surveys as a Management Tool at the Audie L. Murphy Memoria VA...Engineering-49, Medical-38, Laboratory-32, Social Work-23, and RMS-19.) The responses of employees in all other services would be collectively identified...Laboratory 47 Social Work 78 All Others 50 TABLE 3 Positive Responses to Question Thirteen By Service Comparing responses by salary level the average positive

  6. Impact of participant incentives and direct and snowball sampling on survey response rate in an ethnically diverse community: results from a pilot study of physical activity and the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Daniel F; Nie, Jason X; Ardern, Chris I; Radhu, Natasha; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Community-wide efforts to encourage healthy behaviours must respond to the needs of existing neighbourhoods, especially those where low physical activity (PA) is associated with social, economic, and cultural challenges. This study reports on the effect of direct and snowball sampling strategies and financial incentive levels on the response rates of a built environment and PA survey in a predominately urban, low-SES new-immigrant community. Women residing in the Jane-Finch neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario were selected to participate by quasi-random sampling, yielding a response rate of 41.5%. The survey completion rate per contact attempt increased 2-fold when incentives were increased from $10 to $20 and a further threefold following the increase from $20 to $30. Snowball sampled respondents were older, less likely to have full-time employment, and had lower educational attainment than directly sampled participants. With appropriate incentives, face-to-face contact, and snowball sampling, survey-based research is feasible within a low-SES, high minority population.

  7. Factors associated with self-reported HBV vaccination among HIV-negative MSM participating in an online sexual health survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Matthews

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States remain unvaccinated against hepatitis B. We sought to understand which factors are associated with vaccination among HIV-negative MSM.Data were from a 2010 web-based survey of adult MSM. We calculated the prevalence of self-reported hepatitis B vaccination among 1,052 HIV-negative or HIV-untested men who knew their hepatitis B vaccination status, and used multivariate logistic regression to determine associated factors. 679 (64.5% MSM reported being vaccinated. Younger men were more likely to report being vaccinated than older men, and there was a significant interaction between age and history of hepatitis B testing. Men with at least some college education were at least 2.1 times as likely to be vaccinated as men with a high school education or less (95% CI = 1.4-3.1. Provider recommendation for vaccination (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.4-7.4 was also significantly associated with receipt of vaccination.Providers should assess sexual histories of male patients and offer those patients with male sex partners testing for hepatitis infection and vaccinate susceptible patients. There may be particular opportunities for screening and vaccination among older and more socioeconomically disadvantaged MSM.

  8. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the 'new ParticipACTION': A quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauman Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity (PA communications and social marketing organization that was relaunched in 2007 after a six-year hiatus. This study assesses the baseline awareness and capacity of Canadian organizations that promote physical activity, to adopt, implement and promote ParticipACTION's physical activity campaign. The three objectives were: (1 to determine organizational awareness of both the 'original' and 'new' ParticipACTION; (2 to report baseline levels of three organizational capacity domains (i.e., to adopt, implement and externally promote physical activity initiatives; and, (3 to explore potential differences in those domains based on organizational size, sector and primary mandate. Methods Organizations at local, provincial/territorial, and national levels were sent an invitation via email prior to the official launch of ParticipACTION to complete an on-line survey. The survey assessed their organization's capacity to adopt, implement and externally promote a new physical activity campaign within their organizational mandates. Descriptive statistics were employed to address the first two study objectives. A series of one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine the third objective. Results The response rate was 29.7% (268/902. The majority of responding organizations had over 40 employees and had operated for over 10 years. Education was the most common primary mandate, followed by sport and recreation. Organizations were evenly distributed between government and not-for-profits. Approximately 96% of respondents had heard of the 'original' ParticipACTION while 54.6% had heard of the 'new' ParticipACTION (Objective 1. Findings indicate good organizational capacity in Canada to promote physical activity (Objective 2 based on reported means of approximately 4.0 (on 5-point scales for capacity to adopt, implement, and externally promote new physical activity campaigns. Capacity to

  9. A follow-up study on removable partial dentures in undergraduate program: part I. participants and denture use by telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Eiko; Fueki, Kenji; Igarashi, Yoshimasa

    2011-07-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of removable partial dentures (RPDs) designed to minimize denture mobility during function. Using archived files of the undergraduate program between 2003 and 2005 at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, a list of 169 patients treated with 184 RPDs was created. The RPDs had either an acrylic resin-base or a cobalt-chrome framework-base. Two examiners telephoned all the listed patients and interviewed 118 patients (70%) regarding the use of their RPDs. Of 118 patients, 42 (36%) had stopped using, mainly due to problems with abutment teeth in resin-based dentures, and replacement in cobalt-chrome-based dentures. There was no significant difference in mean age, gender distribution, mean number of remaining/abutment teeth, distribution of denture arch, and Kennedy classification between denture use and nonuse groups (p>0.05). The nonuse group showed a significantly higher percentage of resin-base compared to the use group (p = 0.006). Logistic regression analysis indicated that resin-base was a significant risk factor for nonuse (p = 0.008). The present findings suggest that abutment teeth should be selected carefully, especially in this type of resin-based RPDs, and that the denture base material may be a critical factor which determines denture use.

  10. Understanding Why Students Participate in Multiple Surveys: Who are the Hard-Core Responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at survey response across multiple surveys to understand who the hard-core survey responders and non-responders are. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use the number of surveys…

  11. Enhancing Survey Participation: Facebook Advertisements for Recruitment in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen; Tan, Hazel; Leder, Gilah; McLeod, Amber

    2018-01-01

    Surveys are commonly used to determine how people feel about a specific issue. The increasing availability of the internet and popularity of social networking sites have opened up new possibilities for conducting surveys and, with limited additional costs, enlarge the pool of volunteer respondents with the desired background, experience, or…

  12. Gender Influences on Students' Study Abroad Participation and Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Amanda; Cook, Trevor; Miller, Emily; LePeau, Lucy A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of gender in study abroad participation rates and intercultural competence. The researchers aimed to identify the differences in intercultural competence between men and women and those who have and have not studied abroad. A mixed methods survey indicated there are significant…

  13. [Motivation of patients to participate in clinical trials. An explorative survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Charly; Malcherczyk, Annett; Schmidt, Thomas; Helm, Jürgen; Haerting, Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Difficulties in recruiting patients for clinical trials lead to increasing costs, and prolonged implementation of evidences into medical practice. Knowledge about motivation and barriers in potential participants would be helpful to develop successful recruitment strategies. Currently, no systematic research of determining factors affecting the decision to participate in clinical studies is available from German samples. After been given details about a potential participation in a clinical or diagnostic study in nine study centers, patients were recruited for an additional structured questionnaire survey concerning motivation and barriers to participation. 62 patients were included into the survey. 95.1% did not have any experience with clinical studies before. 66.1% met the physician explaining the study and asking for informed consent for the first time. Despite this, 96.6% judged the physician to be competent. Family and friends were important for decision-making about the participation in a study. Gender was only of marginal influence. The majority of patients (91.4%) expected advantages of the study for their own. 88% of the patients denominated potential advantages for other patients as an additional motivator. The possibility of adverse events was inferior for patients in decision-making about participation in a clinical trial. Physicians recruiting patients for clinical studies should be well prepared about details of the study and should have adequate time for an introductory conversation in a quiet environment. Including relatives into the introductory conversation may enhance the motivation and therefore the success of recruitment. Potential advantages of a participation for the own treatment and additionally for other patients should be highlighted. Possible side effects should be explained in a realistic manner.

  14. [Factors affecting the participation rates in epidemiologic surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, R Z; Jiao, W; Mu, L G; Chen, K; Li, G; Huang, W; Wang, R X; Tan, S R

    2017-10-10

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the response in health-related epidemiological investigation among Chinese population aged 15 and over. We analyzed the specific causes of non-response, and explored the effective ways to improve the response rate, so as to provide reference for future epidemiological studies of this kind. Methods: Two modes of studies regarding the prevalence of important cardiovascular diseases were used in Chongqing, during the 12(th) Five-Year Plan period in oder to find out the cause related to non-response. Intervention programs were carried out to evaluate the effects. Results: When using the concentrated mode (CM), the completion rate to the questionnaires was only 20.00 % in the pre-investigation, with the response rate as 13.48 % . In the deconcentrated mode (DM), the completion rate was 31.16 % , with the response rate as 25.19 % . After a series of incentives provided to both the respondents and the project-related core staff in the two modes, response rates of the two modes increased to the expected 60 % . Conclusions: CM appeared having advantages on quality control, but was more time consuming, with higher cost, and without effective follow-up measures to improve the response rate. However, DM had the advantages on controlling the cost and could increase the response rate through making advanced appointment with the households but quality control remained difficult. Two key points should be strengthened to improve the response rates, which including: Precisely finding out the research objects and providing incentives to the respondents to attract their interests of participating in the investigation.

  15. A Survey of Teen Museum Education Participants and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Jenny; Bobick, Bryna

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss a museum program for teens located in an urban environment. The participants were high school students from public, private, religious and home schools. The program allowed learning to occur in an informal setting and united teens from one city through a common interest in visual art. Also, it was an opportunity for the…

  16. Forest Landowner Education Interests and Delivery Preferences: A Retrospective Look at Survey Results and Actual Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Kevin W.; Rozance, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article presents survey data on education interests and delivery preferences of small forest landowners in Washington and compares it to actual program participation over 6 years. The survey was conducted in late 2007 to guide development and implementation of a Extension forestry program. The survey found broad interest across many topics…

  17. Industry and Patient Perspectives on Child Participation in Clinical Trials: The Pediatric Assent Initiative Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Donald; Squires, Liza; Sjostedt, Philip; Eichler, Irmgard; Turner, Mark A; Thompson, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Obtaining assent from children participating in clinical trials acknowledges autonomy and developmental ability to contribute to the consent process. This critical step in pediatric drug development remains poorly understood, with significant room for improving the clarity, efficiency, and implementation of the assent process. Beyond ethical necessity of informing children about their treatment, the assent process provides the advantages of including children in discussions about their diagnosis and treatment-allowing greater understanding of interventions included in the study. A formalized assent process acknowledges the child as a volunteer and provides a forum for questions and feedback. Legal, cultural, and social differences have historically prevented the development of clear, concise, and accessible materials to ensure children understand the clinical trial design. Published guidelines on obtaining pediatric assent are vague, with many decisions left to local institutional review boards and ethics committees, underscoring the need for collaboratively designed standards. To address this need, 2 surveys were conducted to quantify perspectives on assent in pediatric clinical trials. Two digital surveys were circulated in the United States and internationally (October 2014 to January 2015). The first survey targeted children, parents, and/or caregivers. The second polled clinical trial professionals on their organizations' experience and policies regarding pediatric assent. Forty-five respondents completed the child and parent/caregiver survey; 57 respondents completed the industry survey. Respondents from both surveys detailed experiences with clinical trials and the impediments to securing assent, offering potential solutions to attaining assent in pediatric patients. An important opportunity exists for standardized practices and tools to ensure pediatric patients make well-informed decisions regarding their participation in clinical trials, using materials

  18. Functional Knowledge of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Among Participants in a Web-Based Survey of Sexually Active Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is increasing, but little is known about the functional knowledge of PrEP and its impact on willingness to use PrEP. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the functional knowledge of PrEP among a sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in a Web-based survey of sexually active MSM. Methods Men at least 18 years old, residing in the United States, and reporting sex with a man in the previous 6 months were recruited through social networking websites. PrEP functional knowledge included the following 4 questions (1) efficacy of consistent PrEP use, (2) inconsistent PrEP use and effectiveness, (3) PrEP and condom use, and (4) effectiveness at reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify respondent characteristics associated with PrEP functional knowledge. In a subsample of participants responding to HIV prevention questions, we compared willingness to use PrEP by response to PrEP functional knowledge using logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, race and ethnicity, and education level. Results Among 573 respondents, PrEP knowledge was high regarding adherence (488/573, 85.2%), condom use (532/573, 92.8%), and STIs (480/573, 83.8%), but only 252/573 (44.0%) identified the correct efficacy. Lower functional PrEP knowledge was associated with minority race/ethnicity (P=.005), lower education (P=.01), and not having an HIV test in the past year (P=.02). Higher PrEP knowledge was associated with willingness to use PrEP (P=.009). Younger age was not associated with higher PrEP functional knowledge or willingness to use PrEP. Conclusions PrEP knowledge was generally high in our study, including condom use and consistent use but may be lacking in higher risk MSM. The majority of respondents did not correctly identify PrEP efficacy with consistent use, which could impact motivation to seek

  19. Production studies and documentary participants: a method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Willemien

    2016-01-01

    It was only after I finished my PhD thesis that I learned that my research related to production studies. Departing from the question of ethics in documentary filmmaking, I investigated both the perspective of filmmakers and participants on ethical issues in the documentary filmmaking practice,

  20. Does Dog Walking Predict Physical Activity Participation: Results From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) identify characteristics associated with dog owners who walk their dog, (2) describe the frequency and duration of walking the dog, and (3) determine whether dog owners who walk their dog participate in more physical activity than dog owners who do not walk their dog and non-dog owners. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study setting was nationwide. Adults (n = 4010) participating in the 2005 ConsumerStyles mail-panel survey were the study subjects. Measures used were demographic, physical activity, dog ownership, and dog walking questions from the 2005 ConsumerStyles mail-panel survey. Chi-square tests and analyses of variance were conducted to examine participant characteristics associated with dog walking and to describe the frequency and duration of dog walking. Analysis of covariance was used to determine whether dog owners who walk their dog participate in more physical activity than dog owners who do not walk their dog and non-dog owners. Among dog owners, 42% reported some dog walking in a typical week. Dog owners walked their dog an average 4.3 ± 0.1 times and 128.8 ± 5.6 minutes per week. There were no significant differences in weekly minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity across the dog-ownership and dog walking groups. Most dog owners did not walk their dog. Dog owners were not more active than non-dog owners, except when considering the activity obtained via dog walking. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Survey datasets on women participation in green jobs in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedeji O. Afolabi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The unique qualities of women can make them bearers of solutions towards achieving sustainability and dealing with the dangers attributed to climate change. The attitudinal study utilized a questionnaire instrument to obtain perception of female construction professionals. By using a well-structured questionnaire, data was obtained on women participating in green jobs in the construction Industry. Descriptive statistics is performed on the collected data and presented in tables and mean scores (MS. In addition, inferential statistics of categorical regression was performed on the data to determine the level of influence (beta factor the identified barriers had on the level of participation in green jobs. Barriers and the socio-economic benefits which can guide policies and actions on attracting, retaining and exploring the capabilities of women in green jobs can be obtained from the survey data when analyzed.

  2. Prevalence of molar-incisor-hypomineralisation among children participating in the Dutch National Epidemiological Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasulaityte, L.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This was to determine the prevalence of Molar-Incisor- Hypomineralisation (MIH) among children participating in the Dutch National Epidemiological Survey of 2003 and to compare the prevalence data with that found in the previous survey of 1999 when MIH was found in 9.7% of 11-year-old Dutch

  3. Motivation for participating in leisure activities: a survey amongst individuals within a corporate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH van Heerden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since individuals within the working population represents a great purchasing power, it is important for the marketer to know what motivate these individuals to participate in leisure activities. The main aim of the study is to determine whether the level of activity present in leisure, the age or the gender of individuals play a role in their motivation to participate in leisure activities. This is especially useful from a South African perspective. A self-administered survey was conducted amongst individuals working in a corporate company in Johannesburg and Sandton in the Gauteng Province.. Contrary to previous academic research, neither the level of activity in leisure, neither the age nor the gender of an individual plays a significant role in their motivation (either intrinsic or extrinsic to participate in leisure activities. It may therefore indicate that whether an individual participates in leisure is dependant on other factors. This might implicate that marketers need not adjust their marketing communication with prospective clients to incorporate these difference (gender and age.

  4. Summary of microsatellite instability test results from laboratories participating in proficiency surveys: proficiency survey results from 2005 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Theresa A; Bridge, Julia A; Sabatini, Linda M; Nowak, Jan A; Vasalos, Patricia; Jennings, Lawrence J; Halling, Kevin C

    2014-03-01

    The College of American Pathologists surveys are the largest laboratory peer comparison programs in the world. These programs allow laboratories to regularly evaluate their performance and improve the accuracy of the patient test results they provide. Proficiency testing is offered twice a year to laboratories performing microsatellite instability testing. These surveys are designed to emulate clinical practice, and some surveys have more challenging cases to encourage the refinement of laboratory practices. This report summarizes the results and trends in microsatellite instability proficiency testing from participating laboratories from the inception of the program in 2005 through 2012. We compiled and analyzed data for 16 surveys of microsatellite instability proficiency testing during 2005 to 2012. The number of laboratories participating in the microsatellite instability survey has more than doubled from 42 to 104 during the 8 years analyzed. An average of 95.4% of the laboratories correctly classified each of the survey test samples from the 2005A through 2012B proficiency challenges. In the 2011B survey, a lower percentage of laboratories (78.4%) correctly classified the specimen, possibly because of overlooking subtle changes of microsatellite instability and/or failing to enrich the tumor content of the specimen to meet the limit of detection of their assay. In general, laboratories performed well in microsatellite instability testing. This testing will continue to be important in screening patients with colorectal and other cancers for Lynch syndrome and guiding the management of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

  5. WHOLEheart study participant acceptance of wholegrain foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznesof, Sharron; Brownlee, Iain A; Moore, Carmel; Richardson, David P; Jebb, Susan A; Seal, Chris J

    2012-08-01

    This qualitative study explored the concept of acceptance of wholegrain foods in an adult population in the UK. Data was generated via focus groups with volunteers from a randomised controlled wholegrain based dietary intervention study (the WHOLEheart study). WHOLEheart volunteers, who did not habitually eat wholegrain foods, were randomised to one of three experimental regimes: (1) incorporating 60 g/day whole grains into the diet for 16 weeks; (2) incorporating 60 g/day whole grains into the diet for 8 weeks, doubling to 120 g/day for the following 8 weeks; (3) a control group. Focus groups to examine factors relating to whole grain acceptability were held one month post-intervention. For participants incorporating whole grains into their diet, acceptance was dependent upon: (a) 'trial acceptance', relating to the taste, preparation and perceived impact of the wholegrain foods on wellbeing, and (b) 'dietary acceptance' which involved the compatibility and substitutability of whole grains with existing ingredients and meal patterns. Barriers to sustained intake included family taste preferences, cooking skills, price and availability of wholegrain foods. Although LDL lowering benefits of eating whole grains provided the impetus for the WHOLEheart study, participants' self-reported benefits of eating wholegrain foods included perceived naturalness, high fibre content, superior taste, improved satiety and increased energy levels provided a stronger rationale for eating whole grains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can smartphones measure momentary quality of life and participation? A proof of concept using experience sampling surveys with university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jacki; Wishink, Anna; Springfield, Liz; Gustafsson, Louise; Ireland, David; Silburn, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Understanding quality of life and participation is a key aspect of occupational therapy research. The use of smartphones to deliver experience-sampling surveys may provide an accessible way to monitor these outcomes. This study used smartphone-based experience sampling methods (ESM) to investigate factors influencing momentary quality of life (mQOL) of university students. A convenience sample of students at an Australian university participated. Using a custom smartphone application, ESM surveys were sent six to eight times, every second day, over a week. Participants indicated their mQOL, occupational participation, occupational enjoyment, social context and location via surveys and provided demographic and health information in a single self-report questionnaire. The relationship between mQOL and variables was analysed at the survey level using logistic regression. Forty students completed 391 surveys. Higher mQOL was significantly related to participation in productive occupations (z = 3.48; P = 0.001), moderate (z = 4.00; P sample, analysing at the individual level, and using ESM in conjunction with other methodologies is recommended. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  8. Early Childhood Program Participation, Results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016. First Look. NCES 2017-101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Lisa; Steinley, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016 (NHES:2016). The Early Childhood Program Participation Survey collected data on children's participation in relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based care arrangements. It also collected…

  9. Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: development and validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Public Participation in Classical Ballet: A Special Analysis of the Ballet Data Collected in the 1982 and 1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Carol

    The 1982 and 1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) produced a national audience profile for classical ballet and explored factors that predispose participation in this art form. This monograph analyzed data from these surveys in terms of: (1) audience size and composition for live ballet performances; (2) television's role in…

  11. [Survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control measures in hospitals participating in the VINCat program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopena-Galindo, Nieves; Hornero-Lopez, Anna; Freixas-Sala, Núria; Bella-Cueto, Feliu; Pérez-Jové, Josefa; Limon-Cáceres, Enric; Gudiol-Munté, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    VINCat is a nosocomial infection surveillance program in hospitals in Catalonia. The aim of the study was to determine the surveillance and control measures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in these centres. An e-mail survey was carried out from January to March 2013 with questions related to the characteristics of the hospitals and their control measures for MRSA. A response was received from 53 hospitals (>500 beds: 7; 200-500 beds: 14;prevent MRSA in hospitals participating in the VINCat program. Most of the centres have an MRSA protocol, however compliance with it should be improved, especially in areas such as active detection on admission in patients at risk, hand hygiene adherence, cleaning frequency and optimising the use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Female labour force participation in Peru: an analysis using the world fertility survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers G; Viry D

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper analysing woman worker labour force participation trends in Peru based on a world fertility survey - examines female wages employment, unpaid work, occupational structure, labour supply determinants such as population variables (incl. Family structure, marital status, age, internal migration and educational level), husband's characteristics, etc., in rural areas and urban areas, with a view to estimating participation economic models. References.

  13. Participants' preference for type of leaflet used to feed back the results of a randomised trial: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Stephen; Andronis, Lazaros; Dennis, Laura; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona; Gillan, Maureen; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian; Wilkinson, Clare

    2010-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of volunteers take part in medical research, but many will never hear from researchers about what the study revealed. There is a growing demand for the results of randomised trials to be fed back to research participants both for ethical research practice and for ensuring their co-operation in a trial. This study aims to determine participants' preferences for type of leaflet (short versus long) used to summarise the findings of a randomised trial; and to test whether certain characteristics explained participants' preferences. 553 participants in a randomised trial about General Practitioners' access to Magnetic Resonance Imaging for patients presenting with suspected internal derangement of the knee were asked in the final follow-up questionnaire whether they would like to be fed back the results of the trial. Participants who agreed to this were included in a postal questionnaire survey asking about their preference, if any, between a short and a long leaflet and what it was about the leaflet that they preferred. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test whether certain demographics of responding participants along with treatment group explained whether a participant had a preference for type of leaflet or no preference. Of the participants who returned the final follow-up questionnaire, 416 (88%) agreed to receive the results of the trial. Subsequently 132 (32%) participants responded to the survey. Most participants preferred the longer leaflet (55%) and the main reasons for this were the use of technical information (94%) and diagrams (89%). There was weak evidence to suggest that gender might explain whether participants have a preference for type of leaflet or not (P = 0.084). Trial participants want to receive feed back about the results and appear to prefer a longer leaflet. Males and females might require information to be communicated to them differently and should be the focus of further research. The trial is registered

  14. A survey of paediatricians on the use of electrocardiogram for pre-participation sports screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Angira; Webster, Gregory; Ward, Kendra; Lantos, John

    2017-07-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to determine general paediatrician knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards electrocardiogram (ECG) screening in school athletes during pre-participation screening exam (PPSE). Paediatricians affiliated with a tertiary children's hospital completed a survey about ECGs for PPSE. In total, 205/498 (41%) responded; 92% of the paediatricians did not include an ECG as part of PPSE; 56% were aware of a case in which a student athlete in their own community had died of sudden unexplained death; 4% had an athlete in their practice die. Only 16% of paediatricians perform all 12 American Heart Association recommended elements of the PPSE. If any of these screening elements are abnormal, 69% obtain an ECG, 36% an echocardiogram, and 30% restrict patients from sports activity; 73% of them refer the patient to a cardiologist. Most of the general paediatricians surveyed did not currently perform ECGs for PPSE. In addition, there was a low rate of adherence to performing the 12 screening elements recommended by the American Heart Association. They have trouble obtaining timely, accurate ECG interpretations, worry about potential unnecessary exercise restrictions, and cost-effectiveness. The practical hurdles to ECG implementation emphasise the need for a fresh look at PPSE, and not just ECG screening. Improvements in ECG performance/interpretation would be necessary for ECGs to be a useful part of PPSE.

  15. A survey of healthcare industry representatives' participation in surgery: some new ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Jeffrey; Moore, Crystal Dea; Shelton, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    To provide preliminary evidence of the types and amount of involvement by healthcare industry representatives (HCIRs) in surgery, as well as the ethical concerns of those representatives. A link to an anonymous, web-based survey was posted on several medical device boards of the website http://www. cafepharma.com. Additionally, members of two different medical device groups on LinkedIn were asked to participate. Respondents were self-identified HCIRs in the fields of orthopedics, cardiology, endoscopic devices, lasers, general surgery, ophthalmic surgery, oral surgery, anesthesia products, and urologic surgery. A total of 43 HCIRs replied to the survey over a period of one year: 35 men and eight women. Respondents reported attending an average of 184 surgeries in the prior year and had an average of 17 years as an HCIR and six years with their current employer. Of the respondents, 21 percent (nine of 43) had direct physical contact with a surgical team or patient during a surgery, and 88 percent (38 of 43) provided verbal instruction to a surgical team during a surgery. Additionally, 37 percent (16 of 43) had participated in a surgery in which they felt that their involvement was excessive, and 40 percent (17 of 43) had attended a surgery in which they questioned the competence of the surgeon. HCIRs play a significant role in surgery. Involvement that exceeds their defined role, however, can raise serious ethical and legal questions for surgeons and surgical teams. Surgical teams may at times be substituting the knowledge of the HCIR for their own competence with a medical device or instrument. In some cases, contact with the surgical team or patient may violate the guidelines not only of hospitals and medical device companies, but the law as well. Further study is required to determine if the patients involved have any knowledge or understanding of the role that an HCIR played in their surgery. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  16. Perspectives on marijuana use and effectiveness: A survey of NARCOMS participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofield, Stacey S; Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Crowe, Christina; Cutter, Gary R; Fox, Robert J; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2017-08-01

    Interest in and use of marijuana by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) has increased. While potential benefits have been reported, so have concerns about potential risks. Few large studies have been conducted about the perceptions and current usage of marijuana and medical cannabinoids in persons with MS. Participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry were surveyed in 2014 regarding legality and history of marijuana usage, both before and after diagnosis with MS. A total of 5,481 participants responded, with 78.2% female, 90% relapsing disease at onset, and a current mean age of 55.5 (10.2) years. Sixty-four percent had tried marijuana prior to their MS diagnosis, 47% have considered using for their MS, 26% have used for their MS, 20% have spoken with their physician about use, and 16% are currently using marijuana. Ninety-one percent think marijuana should be legal in some form. Men, those with higher disability, current and past nicotine smokers, and younger age were associated with a higher likelihood of current use. The majority of responders favor legalization and report high interest in the use of marijuana for treatment of MS symptoms, but may be reluctant to discuss this with health care providers. Health care providers should systematically inquire about use of marijuana.

  17. [The impact of a verbal consent form on the participation rate in a telephone survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christian; Ladouceur, Robert; Fournier, Patricia-Maude; Baillargeon, Lucie

    2009-03-01

    To assess the impact of a consent form on the participation rate in a telephone survey about gambling and money. Four different consent forms were tested. The first consent form globally met the academic ethics committee requirements, while the second and third forms excluded some elements. Finally, the fourth form was similar to the introduction generally used by private survey firms. Even when the consent form required by academic ethics committees was shortened, the private firm introduction led to the best participation rate. However, participants who received the private firm introduction indicated that they wished they had been better informed before the interview started. The discussion highlights the delicate situation of academic research wishing to meet ethics requirements as well as conduct valid and representative research.

  18. Second study of UK nuclear test participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.; Doll, R.; Kendall, G.

    1994-01-01

    A second epidemiological analysis of mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear tests and associated experimental programmes has provided broadly reassuring results. Overall death rates in test participants are lower than those in the general population and similar to those in a closely matched control group. Observations in the extended period of follow-up suggest that the excess of multiple myeloma seen in the first analysis was a chance finding. The extended follow-up does not provide any new evidence to support the finding of apparent excess of leukaemia found in the first analysis. However, the possibility that test participation may have caused a small risk of leukaemia in the early years after the tests cannot be ruled out. (author)

  19. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  20. Leadership and Community Participation: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alison A.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature on systemic change and community participation. Explores leadership styles of principals in four community-minded middle schools. Administrators should be aware of their individual leadership styles and their effects on others' behavior. Principals wishing to foster empowerment in schools should move toward a…

  1. Using online social media for recruitment of human immunodeficiency virus-positive participants: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Patrick; Bare, Michael G; Johnson, Mallory O; Saberi, Parya

    2014-05-01

    There are many challenges in recruiting and engaging participants when conducting research, especially with HIV-positive individuals. Some of these challenges include geographical barriers, insufficient time and financial resources, and perceived HIV-related stigma. This paper describes the methodology of a recruitment approach that capitalized on existing online social media venues and other Internet resources in an attempt to overcome some of these barriers to research recruitment and retention. From May through August 2013, a campaign approach using a combination of online social media, non-financial incentives, and Web-based survey software was implemented to advertise, recruit, and retain participants, and collect data for a survey study with a limited budget. Approximately US $5,000 was spent with a research staff designated at 20% of full-time effort, yielding 2034 survey clicks, 1404 of which met the inclusion criteria and initiated the survey, for an average cost of US $3.56 per survey initiation. A total of 1221 individuals completed the survey, yielding 86.97% retention. These data indicate that online recruitment is a feasible and efficient tool that can be further enhanced by sophisticated online data collection software and the addition of non-financial incentives.

  2. Using Online Social Media for Recruitment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Participants: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Patrick; Bare, Michael G; Johnson, Mallory O

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many challenges in recruiting and engaging participants when conducting research, especially with HIV-positive individuals. Some of these challenges include geographical barriers, insufficient time and financial resources, and perceived HIV-related stigma. Objective This paper describes the methodology of a recruitment approach that capitalized on existing online social media venues and other Internet resources in an attempt to overcome some of these barriers to research recruitment and retention. Methods From May through August 2013, a campaign approach using a combination of online social media, non-financial incentives, and Web-based survey software was implemented to advertise, recruit, and retain participants, and collect data for a survey study with a limited budget. Results Approximately US $5,000 was spent with a research staff designated at 20% of full-time effort, yielding 2034 survey clicks, 1404 of which met the inclusion criteria and initiated the survey, for an average cost of US $3.56 per survey initiation. A total of 1221 individuals completed the survey, yielding 86.97% retention. Conclusions These data indicate that online recruitment is a feasible and efficient tool that can be further enhanced by sophisticated online data collection software and the addition of non-financial incentives. PMID:24784982

  3. Student experiences of participating in five collaborative blended learning courses in Africa and Asia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Yan, Weirong; Meragia, Elnta; Mahomed, Hassan; Rosales-Klintz, Senia; Skinner, Donald; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2016-01-01

    As blended learning (BL; a combination of face-to-face and e-learning methods) becomes more commonplace, it is important to assess whether students find it useful for their studies. ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH (African Regional Capacity Development for Health Systems and Services Research; Asian Regional Capacity Development for Research on Social Determinants of Health) were unique capacity-building projects, focusing on developing BL in Africa and Asia on issues related to global health. We aimed to evaluate the student experience of participating in any of five ARCADE BL courses implemented collaboratively at institutions from Africa, Asia, and Europe. A post-course student survey with 118 students was conducted. The data were collected using email or through an e-learning platform. Data were analysed with SAS, using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. We focused on the associations between various demographic and experience variables and student-reported overall perceptions of the courses. In total, 82 students responded to the survey. In bivariate logistic regression, the course a student took [ p =0.0067, odds ratio (OR)=0.192; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.058-0.633], male gender of student ( p =0.0474, OR=0.255; 95% CI: 0.066-0.985), not experiencing technical problems ( p learning component to their studies. In contrast, perceiving the assessment as adequate was associated with a worse perception of overall usefulness. In a multiple regression, the course, experiencing no technical problems, and perceiving the discussion as adequate remained significantly associated with a more positively rated perception of the usefulness of the online component of the blended courses. The results suggest that lack of technical problems and functioning discussion forums are of importance during BL courses focusing on global health-related topics. Through paying attention to these aspects, global health education could be provided using BL approaches to student

  4. Political Ideology, Confidence in Science, and Participation in Alzheimer Disease Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Matthew; Gooblar, Jonathan; Roe, Catherine M; Selsor, Natalie J; Morris, John C

    2018-01-18

    Americans' confidence in science varies based on their political ideology. This ideological divide has potentially important effects on citizens' engagement with and participation in clinical studies of Alzheimer disease (AD). A probability sample of 1583 Americans was surveyed about their willingness to participate in longitudinal AD research and about their political attitudes. These survey results were compared with a survey of 382 participants in a longitudinal AD study at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center. Among Americans, more conservative ideology decreases willingness to participate in a hypothetical longitudinal cohort study of AD both directly and through its negative effect on confidence in science. The Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center study participants expressed more liberal ideology and greater confidence in science than Americans in general. Of the survey respondents opposed to participation, over a quarter changed to neutral or positive if the study returned their research results to them. Clinical studies of AD are likely biased toward participants who are more liberal and have higher confidence in science than the general population. This recruitment bias may be reduced by lowering the trust demanded of participants through measures such as returning research results to participants.

  5. Nurses' participation in audit: a regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheater, F M; Keane, M

    1998-03-01

    To find out to what extent nurses were perceived to be participating in audit, to identify factors thought to impede their involvement, and to assess progress towards multidisciplinary audit. Qualitative. Focus groups and interviews. Chairs of audit groups and audit support staff in hospital, community and primary health care and audit leads in health authorities in the North West Region. In total 99 audit leads/support staff in the region participated representing 89% of the primary health care audit groups, 80% of acute hospitals, 73% of community health services, and 59% of purchasers. Many audit groups remain medically dominated despite recent changes to their structure and organisation. The quality of interprofessional relations, the leadership style of the audit chair, and nurses' level of seniority, audit knowledge, and experience influenced whether groups reflected a multidisciplinary, rather than a doctor centred approach. Nurses were perceived to be enthusiastic supporters of audit, although their active participation in the process was considered substantially less than for doctors in acute and community health services. Practice nurses were increasingly being seen as the local audit enthusiasts in primary health care. Reported obstacles to nurses' participation in audit included hierarchical nurse and doctor relationships, lack of commitment from senior doctors and managers, poor organisational links between departments of quality and audit, work load pressures and lack of protected time, availability of practical support, and lack of knowledge and skills. Progress towards multidisciplinary audit was highly variable. The undisciplinary approach to audit was still common, particularly in acute services. Multidisciplinary audit was more successfully established in areas already predisposed towards teamworking or where nurses had high involvement in decision making. Audit support staff were viewed as having a key role in helping teams to adopt a

  6. Repeat participation in annual cross-sectional surveys of drug users and its implications for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, P A; Aitken, C K; Breen, C; Dietze, P M

    2018-06-04

    We sought to establish the extent of repeat participation in a large annual cross-sectional survey of people who inject drugs and assess its implications for analysis. We used "porn star names" (the name of each participant's first pet followed by the name of the first street in which they lived) to identify repeat participation in three Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System surveys. Over 2013-2015, 2468 porn star names (96.2%) appeared only once, 88 (3.4%) twice, and nine (0.4%) in all 3 years. We measured design effects, based on the between-cluster variability for selected estimates, of 1.01-1.07 for seven key variables. These values indicate that the complex sample is (e.g.) 7% less efficient in estimating prevalence of heroin use (ever) than a simple random sample, and 1% less efficient in estimating number of heroin overdoses (ever). Porn star names are a useful means of tracking research participants longitudinally while maintaining their anonymity. Repeat participation in the Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System is low (less than 5% per annum), meaning point-prevalence and effect estimation without correction for the lack of independence in observations is unlikely to seriously affect population inference.

  7. CoCoRaHS (The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network): Analysis of Participant Survey Data to Uncover Learning through Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M. A.; Zimmerman, T.; Doesken, N. J.; Reges, H. W.; Newman, N.; Turner, J.; Schwalbe, Z.

    2010-12-01

    years. Because the focus of the survey was to solicit participant opinions and not question their content knowledge, we were limited in our ability to unpack the issue of how people learn while engaging in the project. The next phase of this study will use a theoretical framework shaped from research in the learning sciences and based on social cognition and conceptual change to question a small subset of the volunteers about the data they collect. Citizen science projects such as CoCoRaHS provide a win-win situation for project scientists and participants. Project scientists gather necessary data for their studies, and motivated participants gain skills and knowledge related to the science content and science practices employed in the project. We discuss how these survey results can be applied to similar projects where learning is a key goal for their volunteers. We also discuss pathways for future research to identify aspects of scientific learning in the context of citizen science projects.

  8. Participation in Social Media: Studying Explicit and Implicit Forms of Participation in Communicative Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Villi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The diverse forms of participation in social media raise many methodological and ethical issues that should be acknowledged in research. In this paper, participation in social media is studied by utilising the framework of explicit and implicit participation. The focus is on the communicative and communal aspects of social media. The aim of the paper is to promote the reconsideration of what constitutes participation when online users create connections rather than content. The underlying argument is that research on social media and the development of methods should concentrate more on implicit forms of participation.

  9. Student Active Participation in the Study of the Light Bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Ogrutan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an initiative approach to the study of light bulbs, involving active participation of the students engaged in interactive problem-/project-based learning of electromagnetic compatibility and energetic efficiency belonging to the environmental issues. The paper includes preliminary and complementary simulations of the hardware firmware-software-net ware development of a laboratory test bench for the study of conducted perturbations generated during the bulb firing sequence. This laboratory sub-system is useful both in association with traditional methods of learning as well as with e-Learning platforms. Finally, the paper presents the results of a concise survey of opinions on the outcomes of this research.

  10. A National Survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Participants on Environmental Effects, Wildlife Issues, and Vegetation Management on Program Lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    A national survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contractees was completed to obtain information about environmental and social effects of the program on participants, farms, and communities...

  11. A Descriptive Survey of Weight Control Participants at a U.S. Army Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    participation in the survey was strictly voluntary; 3. only active duty Army personnel who were on the Army’s weight control program could volunteer ...A.R. 600-9 limit 2 I was singled out because I looked overweight 3 I volunteered for the program 4 Other, specify 18. Where was your initial weight...33. Wing, Rena R., and Epstein, Leonard H. "Prescribed Level of Caloric Restriction in Bahavioral Weight Loss Programs. Addictive Behaviors 6

  12. Microfinance Participation and Domestic Violence in Bangladesh: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Akincigil, Ayse; Zippay, Allison

    2016-05-01

    This article examines domestic violence among women who participate in microfinance in Bangladesh. Secondary analysis of survey data from nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey was used to investigate the association between microfinance participation and domestic violence of 4,163 ever-married women between the ages of 18 and 49 years. Outcome measure is experience of domestic violence as measured by a modified Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) and predictor variables include microfinance, binary indicator of relatively better economic status, autonomy, decision-making power, and demographic variables. The likelihood of experiencing domestic violence was not found to vary with microfinance participation. However, the interaction effect of microfinance and better economic status was found to be significantly associated with domestic violence (9% increased probability). Experience of domestic violence was negatively associated with older age, higher education of the husband, and autonomy. In Bangladesh, microfinance participation may be associated with a higher probability of experiencing domestic violence for women with relatively better economic status, but not for the poorest of the poor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Online registration of monthly sports participation after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a reliability and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2014-05-01

    The current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sports, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record the monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. To assess the reliability, content validity and concurrent validity of the survey and to evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. 145 consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed 2 days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients was included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the 12th postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was a substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ=0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire.

  14. Online registration of monthly sports participation after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a reliability and validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2013-01-01

    Background Current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sport, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. Objective To assess the reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity of the survey, and evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. Methods One hundred and forty-five consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed two days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients were included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the twelfth postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ = 0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. Conclusion The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. PMID:23645830

  15. Craigslist versus print newspaper advertising for recruiting research participants for alcohol studies: Cost and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2016-03-01

    Technology has transformed our lifestyles in dramatic and significant ways, including new and less expensive options for recruiting study participants. This study examines cost and participant differences between two recruitment sources, Craigslist (CL), and print newspapers (PNs). This paper also reviewed and compared studies involving clinical trials published since 2010 that recruited participants using CL alone or in combination with other methods. Secondary data analyses from a parent study involving a randomized controlled trial of a mail-based intervention to promote self-change with problem drinkers. Significant differences were found between CL and PN participants on most demographic and pretreatment drinking variables. While all participants had AUDIT scores suggestive of an alcohol problem and reported drinking at high-risk levels, CL participants had less severe drinking problem histories, were considerably younger, and had a higher socioeconomic status than PN participants. The total advertising costs for the 65 CL ads ($275) were significantly less than the 69 PN ads ($33, 311). The recruiting cost per eligible participant was vastly less expensive using CL ($1.46) compared to print newspaper ads ($116.88). Using CL is a viable recruitment method for soliciting participants, particularly those that are younger, for alcohol intervention studies. It is also less expensive than newspaper ads. When CL participants were recruited, they reported being slightly more confident to change their drinking than PN participants. Limitations of using CL are discussed, including that some initial ad responders gave inconsistent answers to similar questions and a few tried to enter the study more than once. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study Abroad Survey Instruments: A Comparison of Survey Types and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Marie Bradshaw; Dorius, Cassandra Rasmussen

    2007-01-01

    This study examines different survey instruments used to assess the experiences of U.S. study abroad participants. The intended audience is international and area study practitioners interested in assessing study abroad programs through postprogram interviews. An interview with the top 20 universities for number of students sent on study abroad…

  17. Radiographer commenting of trauma radiographs: a survey of the benefits, barriers and enablers to participation in an Australian healthcare setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, Michael J.; Steffens, Tom; Owen, Rebecca; McPhail, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographer abnormality detection systems that highlight abnormalities on trauma radiographs ('red dot' system) have been operating for more than 30 years. Recently, a number of pitfalls have been identified. These limitations initiated the evolution of a radiographer commenting system, whereby a radiographer provides a brief description of abnormalities identified in emergency healthcare settings. This study investigated radiographers' participation in abnormality detection systems, their perceptions of benefits, barriers and enablers to radiographer commenting, and perceptions of potential radiographer image interpretation services for emergency settings. A cross-sectional survey was implemented. Participants included radiographers from four metropolitan hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Conventional descriptive statistics, histograms and thematic analysis were undertaken. Seventy-three surveys were completed and included in the analysis (68% response rate); 30 (41%) of respondents reported participating in abnormality detection in 20% or less of examinations, and 26(36%) reported participating in 80% or more of examinations. Five overarching perceived benefits of radiographer commenting were identified: assisting multidisciplinary teams, patient care, radiographer ability, professional benefits and quality of imaging. Frequently reported perceived barriers included 'difficulty accessing image interpretation education', 'lack of time' and 'low confidence in interpreting radiographs'. Perceived enablers included 'access to image interpretation education' and 'support from radiologist colleagues'. A range of factors are likely to contribute to the successful implementation of radiographer commenting in addition to abnormality detection in emergency settings. Effective image interpretation education amenable to completion by radiographers would likely prove valuable in preparing radiographers for participation in abnormality detection and commenting systems in

  18. Lung cancer multidisciplinary team meetings: a survey of participants at a national conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bydder, S [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia (Australia). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Hasani, A [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia (Australia). Dept. of Medical Oncology; Broderick, C [Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University of technology, Perth, Australia (Australia). WA Cancer and Palliative Care Network; Semmens, J [Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University of technology, Perth, Australia (Australia). Centr for Population Health Research

    2008-04-15

    Full text: Multidisciplinary meetings (MDMs) are a useful aid for the development of comprehensive treatment plans for cancer patients. However, little is known about the requirements for effective MDM function. Attendees at a national lung cancer conference who participated at least weekly in lung cancer MDMs were surveyed. The survey addressed the attendees' perceptions regarding the aims of MDMs, and for their own institutional MDMs, the importance and need for improvement for each of: (i) the attendance of nine discipline groups; and (ii) 15 aspects related to MDM function derived from the literature. The survey also asked participants if MDMs met their needs. There was a general agreement on the aims of the meetings. There was also an agreement on the importance of various groups' attendance and each of the examined aspects of MDMs. However, many respondents reported their meetings required moderate or substantial improvements in one or more areas. More than 20% of the respondents indicated improvement was required for the attendance of three discipline groups (palliative care physicians, pathologists and cardiothoracic surgeons) and 10 of the 15 examined aspects (more than half in the case of computerised databases). Only 9% of the respondents reported that none of the features surveyed needed either moderate or substantial improvement. MDMs met the needs of 79% of the respondents. We found general agreement on the aims of the meetings, the importance of various groups' attendance at MDMs and each of the examined aspects of MDMs. However, moderate or substantial improvements were thought to be required by many respondents. The performance of individual institutions' MDMs and the resources they have available to achieve their aims should be assessed and periodically reviewed. The survey applied here may provide a framework for MDM members to do this.

  19. Participants' preference for type of leaflet used to feed back the results of a randomised trial: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston Helen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of thousands of volunteers take part in medical research, but many will never hear from researchers about what the study revealed. There is a growing demand for the results of randomised trials to be fed back to research participants both for ethical research practice and for ensuring their co-operation in a trial. This study aims to determine participants' preferences for type of leaflet (short versus long used to summarise the findings of a randomised trial; and to test whether certain characteristics explained participants' preferences. Methods 553 participants in a randomised trial about General Practitioners' access to Magnetic Resonance Imaging for patients presenting with suspected internal derangement of the knee were asked in the final follow-up questionnaire whether they would like to be fed back the results of the trial. Participants who agreed to this were included in a postal questionnaire survey asking about their preference, if any, between a short and a long leaflet and what it was about the leaflet that they preferred. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test whether certain demographics of responding participants along with treatment group explained whether a participant had a preference for type of leaflet or no preference. Results Of the participants who returned the final follow-up questionnaire, 416 (88% agreed to receive the results of the trial. Subsequently 132 (32% participants responded to the survey. Most participants preferred the longer leaflet (55% and the main reasons for this were the use of technical information (94% and diagrams (89%. There was weak evidence to suggest that gender might explain whether participants have a preference for type of leaflet or not (P = 0.084. Conclusions Trial participants want to receive feed back about the results and appear to prefer a longer leaflet. Males and females might require information to be communicated to them differently and should

  20. Race, Ethnicity and Participation in the Arts: Patterns of Participation by Black, Hispanic and White Americans in Selected Activities from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, Paul; Ostrower, Francie

    This report utilizes data from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts to describe differences in patterns of participation in selected arts related activities by Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Arts participation by Whites is greatest for all selected activities, except for Black attendance at jazz music activities.…

  1. Participation in questionnaire studies among couples affected by breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terp, Helene; Rottmann, Nina; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Flyger, Henrik; Kroman, Niels; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne; Hansen, Dorte Gilsa

    Participation bias may be a problem in couple-based psychosocial studies. Therefore, it is important to investigate the characteristics associated with participation. The aim of this study was to analyze whether participation in a longitudinal psychosocial questionnaire study among couples affected

  2. Participant recruitment to FiCTION, a primary dental care trial - survey of facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keightley, A; Clarkson, J; Maguire, A; Speed, C; Innes, N

    2014-11-01

    To identify reasons behind a lower than expected participant recruitment rate within the FiCTION trial, a multi-centre paediatric primary dental care randomised controlled trial (RCT). An online survey, based on a previously published tool, consisting of both quantitative and qualitative responses, completed by staff in dental practices recruiting to FiCTION. Ratings from quantitative responses were aggregated to give overall scores for factors related to participant recruitment. Qualitative responses were independently grouped into themes. Thirty-nine anonymous responses were received. Main facilitators related to the support received from the central research team and importance of the research question. The main barriers related to low child eligibility rates and the integration of trial processes within routine workloads. These findings have directed strategies for enhancing participant recruitment at existing practices and informed recruitment of further practices. The results help provide a profile of the features required of practices to successfully screen and recruit participants. Future trials in this setting should consider the level of interest in the research question within practices, and ensure trial processes are as streamlined as possible. Research teams should actively support practices with participant recruitment and maintain enthusiasm among the entire practice team.

  3. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silagy Chris

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent. Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112. The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent, lack of financial support (36 percent, methodological problems (23 percent and problems with group dynamics (10 percent. Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review.

  4. Participation in leisure activities after stroke: A survey of community-residing stroke survivors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Onabajo, Grace; Blasu, Cephas

    2016-01-01

    Leisure provides pleasure and relaxation, and has health benefits even after a stressful and life-changing event such as a stroke. This study examined leisure participation among a sample of community-residing stroke survivors in Nigeria. Fifty-five stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation were consecutively recruited from two government hospitals in Northern Nigeria. Data on pre- and post-stroke participation, and socio-demographic (age, sex, marital, employment, and educational status) and clinical (level of disability, post-stroke duration, stroke type and side of hemiplegia/hemiparesis) attributes of the stroke survivors were obtained. Leisure participation was assessed in four domains of recreational, social, cognitive, and productive/creative activities. Associations between leisure participation and the socio-demographic and clinical variables were examined using bivariate analysis. Mean (SD) age of the stroke survivors was 53.55 (14.39) years. Prevalence of leisure participation was 89.1%. Participation in specific leisure domains however varied thus: social (83.6%), cognitive (60%), recreational (41.8%), productive/creative activities (30.9%). Significant associations were observed between participation in cognitive, productive/creative, and recreational leisure activities, and specific socio-demographic and clinical attributes. Leisure participation was high in a general sense but marginal in recreational and productive/creative activities. The observed socio-demographic and clinical associations with post-stroke leisure participation may assist in providing effective leisure rehabilitation strategies.

  5. Labor force participation in later life: Evidence from a cross-sectional study in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Soonthorndhada Kusol; Adhikari Ramesh; Haseen Fariha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The labor force participation rate is an important indicator of the state of the labor market and a major input into the economy's potential for creating goods and services. The objectives of this paper are to examine the prevalence of labor force participation among older people in Thailand and to investigate the factors affecting this participation. Methods The data for this study were drawn from the '2007 Survey of Older Persons' in Thailand. Bivariate analysis was used...

  6. Forms of Political Participation and Subjective Well-being: A World Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Temkin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Subjective well-being has been described as perhaps “the ultimate dependent variable” of the social sciences. Thus, it is understandable that much of the empirical research on the subject has focused on the identification of its correlates. In this paper we utilize the sixth wave of the World Value Survey carried out in sixty countries between 2010 and 2014, to evaluate the relationship between different types of political participation and the subjective well-being of citizens, Our research partially confirms the hypothesis that, when controlling for the democratic or undemocratic character of political institutions, conventional political participation is positively and significantly associated with life satisfaction, while unconventional conflictive political activities show the opposite relationship to well-being. On the other hand, the democratic nature of state institutions is universally and consistently related to higher levels of personal well-being among individuals.

  7. Research priorities in health communication and participation: international survey of consumers and other stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragge, Peter; Lowe, Dianne; Nunn, Jack S; O’Sullivan, Molly; Horvat, Lidia; Tong, Allison; Kay, Debra; Ghersi, Davina; McDonald, Steve; Poole, Naomi; Bourke, Noni; Lannin, Natasha; Vadasz, Danny; Oliver, Sandy; Carey, Karen; Hill, Sophie J

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify research priorities of consumers and other stakeholders to inform Cochrane Reviews in ‘health communication and participation’ (including such concepts as patient experience, shared decision-making and health literacy). Setting International. Participants We included anyone with an interest in health communication and participation. Up to 151 participants (18–80 years; 117 female) across 12 countries took part, including 48 consumers (patients, carers, consumer representatives) and 75 professionals (health professionals, policymakers, researchers) (plus 25 people who identified as both). Design Survey. Methods We invited people to submit their research ideas via an online survey open for 4 weeks. Using inductive thematic analysis, we generated priority research topics, then classified these into broader themes. Results Participants submitted 200 research ideas, which we grouped into 21 priority topics. Key research priorities included: insufficient consumer involvement in research (19 responses), ‘official’ health information is contradictory and hard to understand (18 responses), communication/coordination breakdowns in health services (15 responses), health information provision a low priority for health professionals (15 responses), insufficient eliciting of patient preferences (14 responses), health services poorly understand/implement patient-centred care (14 responses), lack of holistic care impacting healthcare quality and safety (13 responses) and inadequate consumer involvement in service design (11 responses). These priorities encompassed acute and community health settings, with implications for policy and research. Priority populations of interest included people from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, carers, and people with low educational attainment, or mental illness. Most frequently suggested interventions focused on training and cultural change activities for health services and health professionals

  8. Willingness to Participate in Longitudinal Research Among People with Chronic Pain Who Take Medical Cannabis: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhuber, Marcus A; Arnsten, Julia H; Starrels, Joanna L; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2018-01-01

    Background: Regulatory barriers limit clinical trials of medical cannabis in the United States. Longitudinal cohort studies may be one feasible alternative that could yield clinically relevant information. Willingness to participate in such studies is not known. Materials and Methods: In October 2016, we surveyed a convenience sample of patients with chronic pain from two New York registered organizations (responsible for growing, processing, distributing, and retailing medical cannabis products). After a vignette describing a longitudinal cohort study involving weekly patient-reported outcomes and quarterly assessments of physical functioning and urine and blood tests, we asked about respondents' willingness to participate. We examined willingness to participate, duration of participation, and frequency of data collections overall and by subgroups, using multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Of 405 respondents (estimated response rate: 30%), 54% were women and 81% were white non-Hispanic. Neuropathy was the most common pain condition (67%) followed by inflammatory bowel disease (19%). Of respondents, 94% (95% CI 92-97%) thought that the study should be done, 85% (95% CI 81-88%) would definitely or probably enroll if asked, 76% (95% CI 72-81%) would participate for ≥1 year, and 59% (95% CI 54-64%) would respond to questions at least daily. Older age was the only factor associated with lower willingness to participate, lower willingness to participate for ≥1 year, and lower willingness to respond to questions at least daily. Conclusions: Nearly all respondents were supportive of the proposed study and most reported that they would enroll if asked. Enhanced engagement with older individuals may be needed to promote equal enrollment. Recruitment for longitudinal cohort studies with frequent data collection appears feasible in this patient population.

  9. Safety of sports participation in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a survey of heart rhythm society members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Cannom, David; Olshansky, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Safety of Sports for ICD Patients. The safety of sports participation for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is unknown, and recommendations among physicians may vary widely. The purposes of this study were to determine current practice among patients with ICDs and their physicians regarding sports participation, and to determine how many physicians have cared for patients who have sustained adverse events during sports participation. A survey was mailed to all 1,687 U.S. physician members of the Heart Rhythm Society. Among 614 respondent physicians, recommendations varied widely. Only 10% recommended avoidance of all sports more vigorous than golf. Seventy-six percent recommended avoidance of contact, and 45% recommend avoidance of competitive sports. Most (71%) based restrictions on patients' underlying heart disease. Regardless of recommendations, most physicians (71%) reported caring for patients who participated in sports, including many citing vigorous, competitive sports, most commonly cited were basketball, running, and skiing. ICD shocks during sports were common, cited by 40% of physicians. However, few adverse consequences were reported. One percent of physicians reported known injury to patient (all but 3 minor); 5%, injury to the ICD system, and weightlifting and golf. Physician recommendations for sports participation for patients with ICDs varies widely. Many patients with ICDs do participate in vigorous and even competitive sports. While shocks were common, significant adverse events were rare.

  10. Japanese study on stratification, health, income, and neighborhood: study protocol and profiles of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25-50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants' spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization's Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan's Healthy Japan 21.

  11. A study on improving the regulatory effectiveness and public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. S.; Choi, Y. G.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, H. W.

    2006-02-01

    The scope of this study is : review the theories about public participation in nuclear safety regulation, we develop an understanding of the concept and compare the effectiveness of different approaches to public participation. Reviews the cases of public participation in foreign countries and searches for important implications. To examine the current measures of public participation in nuclear safety regulatory process and to evaluate the present demand of the public including residents nearby nuclear facilities. Based upon the discussions on the above topics, examines prerequisites for success of public participation and presents alternatives of public participation in the concrete

  12. The Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study 3: Study Design, Characteristics of Participants and Participating Institutions, and Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Maho; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the whole picture of Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study 3 (J-HOPE3 Study) including study design and demographic data. The aims of the J-HOPE3 study were to (1) evaluate the process, structure, and outcome of palliative care in the following care settings: acute hospitals, inpatient hospice/palliative care units (PCUs), and home hospice services; (2) examine bereaved family members' self-reported psychosocial conditions, such as grief and depression, as bereavement outcomes; (3) provide data to ensure and improve the quality of care provided by participating institutions through feedback concerning results for each institution; and (4) perform additional studies to explore specific clinical research questions. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous, self-report questionnaire survey involving patients' bereaved family members in 20 acute hospitals, 133 PCUs, and 22 home hospice services between May and July 2014. Two types of questionnaires were used: main and specific studies questionnaires. The questionnaire was sent to totally 13 584, and 10 157 returned the questionnaire. The analysis included 9126 family members' questionnaires from acute hospitals, PCUs, and home hospice services. Respondents' average age was 61.6 years, 55% were women, and 40% had been married to the deceased. With respect to the characteristics of participating institutions, most institutions did not have religious affiliations, and most PCUs and home hospice services provided bereavement care. These results of the analysis of common and additional questionnaires could play an important role in clinical settings, quality improvement, research, and public accountability.

  13. Report of the Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Adam D.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleks; Gallagher, John S.; Gillespie, Bruce Andrew; Ho, Shirley; Kinemuchi, Karen; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Tremonti, Christina A.; Zasowski, Gail; SDSS-III Collaboration, SDSS-IV Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Committee on the Participation of Women in the SDSS (CPWS) was formed by the SDSS to evaluate the gender climate within the collaboration. The CPWS seeks to foster gender balance in our collaboration by fielding concerns from our members and by recommending best practices for establishing the SDSS leadership team. An important aspect of the mission of the CPWS is to regularly assess gender diversity and inclusiveness within the SDSS. Against the backdrop of the transition from SDSS-III to SDSS-IV, the CPWS has been collecting data relevant to gender issues through interviews and surveys. In April, 2014, the CPWS surveyed 251 SDSS-IV members (~50% of active membership) regarding gender and leadership. Broad findings from this survey include that the male-to-female ratio in SDSS-IV is about 3:1 and that the male-to-female ratio among those that identify themselves as being in an SDSS-IV leadership role is also close to 3:1. About 35% of those surveyed self-identify as an SDSS-IV "leader," though we recognize the possibility that active stakeholders might be more likely to respond to a demographics survey. About 80% of those that self-identify as leaders consider their leadership role within SDSS-IV to be officially acknowledged, regardless of gender. The fraction of women in SDSS leadership roles appears to be a weak function of current job position in that 6 of 32 (19%) senior faculty that are SDSS leaders are women, compared to 4 of 13 (31%) postdocs. Similarly, the fraction of SDSS leaders who are women is highest (32%) amongst those leaders who received their PhDs 6-10 years ago, while the fraction of female leaders amongst other age demographics is somewhat lower (20%). Although these are small sample sizes, this hints at a trend where women are most likely to fill SDSS leadership roles at certain stages of their lives and careers. The CPWS intends to use this initial survey data to establish a baseline for tracking SDSS-IV demographics, and thus hopes to

  14. North Sea mackerel egg survey: dutch participation may and June 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Every three years an international North Sea survey is carried out by two European institutes, Institute for Marine Research (IMR) from Norway and Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES) from the Netherlands, to monitor the spatial and seasonal distribution of North Sea

  15. Mobile Phone Ownership Is Not a Serious Barrier to Participation in Studies: Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Emily J; Rubin, Leslie F; Smiley, Sabrina L; Zhou, Yitong; Elmasry, Hoda; Pearson, Jennifer L

    2018-02-19

    Rather than providing participants with study-specific data collection devices, their personal mobile phones are increasingly being used as a means for collecting geolocation and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data in public health research. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents to an online survey screener assessing eligibility to participate in a mixed methods study collecting geolocation and EMA data via the participants' personal mobile phones, and (2) examine how eligibility criteria requiring mobile phone ownership and an unlimited text messaging plan affected participant inclusion. Adult (≥18 years) daily smokers were recruited via public advertisements, free weekly newspapers, printed flyers, and word of mouth. An online survey screener was used as the initial method of determining eligibility for study participation. The survey screened for twenty-eight inclusion criteria grouped into three categories, which included (1) cell phone use, (2) tobacco use, and (3) additional criteria. A total of 1003 individuals completed the online screener. Respondents were predominantly African American (605/1003, 60.3%) (60.4%), male (514/1003, 51.3%), and had a median age of 35 years (IQR 26-50). Nearly 50% (496/1003, 49.5%) were unemployed. Most smoked menthol cigarettes (699/1003, 69.7%), and had a median smoking history of 11 years (IQR 5-21). The majority owned a mobile phone (739/1003, 73.7%), could install apps (86.8%), used their mobile phone daily (89.5%), and had an unlimited text messaging plan (871/1003, 86.8%). Of those who completed the online screener, 302 were eligible to participate in the study; 163 were eligible after rescreening, and 117 were enrolled in the study. Compared to employed individuals, a significantly greater proportion of those who were unemployed were ineligible for the study based on mobile phone inclusion criteria (Pmobile phone inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria

  16. Arts Education in America: What the Declines Mean for Arts Participation. Based on the 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. Research Report #52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Nick; Hedberg, E. C.

    2011-01-01

    The Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPAs), conducted for the National Endowment for the Arts, have shown a steady decline in the rates of adult attendance at most "benchmark" arts events--specifically, classical music and jazz concerts, musical and non-musical plays, opera, and ballet performances--as well as declines in other forms…

  17. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  18. A survey of referee participation, training and injury in elite Gaelic games referees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Blake, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Referees in Gaelic games are exposed to injury risk in match-play and training. Little is currently know about the degree of exposure or the prevalence of injury in this group. The aim of this study was to determine the time commitment to refereeing and training in elite-level Gaelic referees and to establish, for the first time, point and period (past 12 months) prevalence of Gaelic games injury in these officials. METHODS: A retrospective survey was posted to the complete list of 111 male referees who officiated in elite-level competition in Gaelic football and hurling at the end of the 2005 competition season. Data were summarised using percentages with 95% Confidence Intervals. RESULTS: The response rate was 80% (n = 89). Mean age was 42 +\\/- 6 years, ranging from 28-55 years. Forty eight percent were football referees, 25% were hurling referees and 27% refereed both football and hurling. Most referees (69%) officiated at 3-4 games weekly (range 1-6) and most (62%) trained 2-3 times per week (range 1-7). Fourteen percent (n = 12) were currently injured (95% CI 9-21%). Annual injury prevalence was 58% (95% CI 46 to 70%) for football, 50% (95% CI 33 to 67%) for hurling and 42% (95% CI 27 to 58%) for dual referee groups. Sixty percent of injuries were sustained while refereeing match play. The majority (83%, n = 40) were to the lower limb and the predominant (56%, n = 27) injury mechanism was running or sprinting. The most prevalent injuries were hamstring strain (n = 12, 25% of injuries) and calf strain (n = 9, 19% of injuries). Injury causing time off from refereeing was reported by 31% of all referees (95% CI 24 to 40%, n = 28), for a median duration of 3 weeks. CONCLUSION: Participation in official duties and training is high in elite Gaelic games referees, despite the amateur status of the sports. Gaelic games injury is common in the referee cohort, with lower limb injury predominating. These injuries have implications for both the referee and

  19. A survey of referee participation, training and injury in elite gaelic games referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissane Conor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Referees in Gaelic games are exposed to injury risk in match-play and training. Little is currently know about the degree of exposure or the prevalence of injury in this group. The aim of this study was to determine the time commitment to refereeing and training in elite-level Gaelic referees and to establish, for the first time, point and period (past 12 months prevalence of Gaelic games injury in these officials. Methods A retrospective survey was posted to the complete list of 111 male referees who officiated in elite-level competition in Gaelic football and hurling at the end of the 2005 competition season. Data were summarised using percentages with 95% Confidence Intervals. Results The response rate was 80% (n = 89. Mean age was 42 ± 6 years, ranging from 28–55 years. Forty eight percent were football referees, 25% were hurling referees and 27% refereed both football and hurling. Most referees (69% officiated at 3–4 games weekly (range 1–6 and most (62% trained 2–3 times per week (range 1–7. Fourteen percent (n = 12 were currently injured (95% CI 9–21%. Annual injury prevalence was 58% (95% CI 46 to 70% for football, 50% (95% CI 33 to 67% for hurling and 42% (95% CI 27 to 58% for dual referee groups. Sixty percent of injuries were sustained while refereeing match play. The majority (83%, n = 40 were to the lower limb and the predominant (56%, n = 27 injury mechanism was running or sprinting. The most prevalent injuries were hamstring strain (n = 12, 25% of injuries and calf strain (n = 9, 19% of injuries. Injury causing time off from refereeing was reported by 31% of all referees (95% CI 24 to 40%, n = 28, for a median duration of 3 weeks. Conclusion Participation in official duties and training is high in elite Gaelic games referees, despite the amateur status of the sports. Gaelic games injury is common in the referee cohort, with lower limb injury predominating. These injuries have implications for both

  20. Research priorities in health communication and participation: international survey of consumers and other stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnot, Anneliese; Bragge, Peter; Lowe, Dianne; Nunn, Jack S; O'Sullivan, Molly; Horvat, Lidia; Tong, Allison; Kay, Debra; Ghersi, Davina; McDonald, Steve; Poole, Naomi; Bourke, Noni; Lannin, Natasha; Vadasz, Danny; Oliver, Sandy; Carey, Karen; Hill, Sophie J

    2018-05-08

    To identify research priorities of consumers and other stakeholders to inform Cochrane Reviews in 'health communication and participation' (including such concepts as patient experience, shared decision-making and health literacy). International. We included anyone with an interest in health communication and participation. Up to 151 participants (18-80 years; 117 female) across 12 countries took part, including 48 consumers (patients, carers, consumer representatives) and 75 professionals (health professionals, policymakers, researchers) (plus 25 people who identified as both). Survey. We invited people to submit their research ideas via an online survey open for 4 weeks. Using inductive thematic analysis, we generated priority research topics, then classified these into broader themes. Participants submitted 200 research ideas, which we grouped into 21 priority topics. Key research priorities included: insufficient consumer involvement in research (19 responses), 'official' health information is contradictory and hard to understand (18 responses), communication/coordination breakdowns in health services (15 responses), health information provision a low priority for health professionals (15 responses), insufficient eliciting of patient preferences (14 responses), health services poorly understand/implement patient-centred care (14 responses), lack of holistic care impacting healthcare quality and safety (13 responses) and inadequate consumer involvement in service design (11 responses). These priorities encompassed acute and community health settings, with implications for policy and research. Priority populations of interest included people from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, carers, and people with low educational attainment, or mental illness. Most frequently suggested interventions focused on training and cultural change activities for health services and health professionals. Consumers and other stakeholders want research addressing

  1. Split views among parents regarding children's right to decide about participation in research: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartling, U; Helgesson, G; Hansson, M G; Ludvigsson, J

    2009-07-01

    Based on extensive questionnaire data, this paper focuses on parents' views about children's right to decide about participation in research. The data originates from 4000 families participating in a longitudinal prospective screening as 1997. Although current regulations and recommendations underline that children should have influence over their participation, many parents in this study disagree. Most (66%) were positive providing information to the child about relevant aspects of the study. However, responding parents were split about whether or not children should at some point be allowed decisional authority when participating in research: 41.6% of the parents reported being against or unsure. Those who responded positively believed that children should be allowed to decide about blood-sampling procedures (70%), but to a less extent about participation (48.5%), analyses of samples (19.7%) and biological bank storage (15.4%). That as many as possible should remain in the study, and that children do not have the competence to understand the consequences for research was strongly stressed by respondents who do not think children should have a right to decide. When asked what interests they consider most important in paediatric research, child autonomy and decision-making was ranked lowest. We discuss the implications of these findings.

  2. A Method for Recruiting Participants from Isolated Islands of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) for Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…

  3. Understanding the Impact of Lottery Incentives on Web Survey Participation and Response Quality: A Leverage-Salience Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Lonn, Steven; Teasley, Stephanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative evidence is mixed regarding the effect of lottery incentives on survey participation; little is known about why this strategy sometimes works and other times fails. We examined two factors that can influence the effectiveness of lottery incentives as suggested by leverage-salience theory: emphasis of survey attributes in invitations and…

  4. Does Digital Competence and Occupational Setting Influence MOOC Participation? Evidence from a Cross-Course Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Muñoz, Jonatan; Kreijns, Karel; Kalz, Marco; Punie, Yves

    2017-01-01

    While MOOCs are recognized nowadays as a potential format for professional development and lifelong learning, little research has been conducted on the factors that influence MOOC participation of professionals and unemployed in MOOCs. Based on a framework developed earlier, we conducted a study, which focused on the influence of background…

  5. Retaining Participants in Outpatient and Community-Based Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Odierna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss to follow-up can introduce bias into research, making it difficult to develop inclusive evidence-based health policies and practice guidelines. We aimed to deepen understanding of reasons why participants leave or remain in longitudinal health studies. We interviewed 59 researchers and current and former research participants in six focus groups (n = 55 or interviews (n = 4 at three study centers in a large academic research institution. We used minimally structured interview guides and inductive thematic analysis to explore participant-level, study-level, and contextual participation barriers and facilitators. Four main themes emerged: transportation, incentives and motivation, caregiver concerns, and the social and physical environment. Themes shared crosscutting issues involving funding, flexibility, and relationships between researchers and research participants. Study-level and contextual factors appear to interact with participant characteristics, particularly socioeconomic status and disease severity to affect participant retention. Participants’ characteristics do not seem to be the main cause of study dropout. Researchers and funders might be able to address contextual and study factors in ways that reduce barriers to participation.

  6. National Household Education Surveys Program of 2012: Data File User's Manual. Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey. Early Childhood Program Participation Survey. NCES 2015-030

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, C.; Bielick, S.; Masterton, M.; Flores, L.; Parmer, R.; Amchin, S.; Stern, S.; McGowan, H.

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES:2012) Data File User's Manual provides documentation and guidance for users of the NHES:2012 data files. The manual provides information about the purpose of the study, the sample design, data collection procedures, data processing procedures, response rates, imputation, weighting and…

  7. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin JenkinsonNuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKBackground: With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ. The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs.Methods: Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to

  8. Ultraviolet radiation protection and skin cancer awareness in recreational athletes: a survey among participants in a running event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Sebastian; Cazzaniga, Simone; Hunger, Robert Emil; Naldi, Luigi; Borradori, Luca; Oberholzer, Patrick Antony

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection and skin cancer awareness are essential in the avoidance of cutaneous malignancies. Skin cancer prevention programmes involve public educational campaigns, for example, for outdoor workers or school children. Since nonprofessional sun exposure (e.g. during outdoor sport) is increasing with today's lifestyle, we assessed UVR protection and skin cancer awareness among recreational athletes. This survey-based, paper/pencil study was designed to assess UVR protection and skin cancer awareness among recreational athletes attending the largest running event in Switzerland. All adults (age 18 and older) attending this run were invited to complete our survey at our study booth. Our form consisted of questions about participants' personal characteristics such as age, gender, educational attainment, skin type, history of sunburns, and personal/family history of skin cancer, as well as participants' subjective attitudes and behaviours relating to UVR protection and skin cancer avoidance. We calculated separate scores for individual UVR protection and skin cancer awareness. We tested these two scores in relation to educational level as a primary endpoint. In addition, the impacts of further distinct characteristics were assessed in multivariable analysis. A total of 970 runners (457 males, 513 females, mean age 41.0 years) completed our survey. Our results indicate that UVR protection is dependent on age, gender, skin type and personal history of skin cancer. Educational attainment (at univariate level), age, gender and skin type (in multivariable analysis) significantly affected the skin cancer awareness score. Our findings suggest that protection measures among recreational sportsmen can be improved. Achievements are notable in older, fair skinned, female runners. Our findings indicate that further work is needed in the education of the general public, and athletes in particular.

  9. Public Participation: Lessons from the Case Study Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beierle, Thomas C.; Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Public participation has received increasing attention in environmental policy making world wide. Yet research has been inadequate to answer fundamental questions about how successful past programs have been, what factors lead to success, and where efforts to improve public involvement should focus. To address these questions, we examine the case study record of public participation efforts in the United States over the last 30 years. We evaluate the success of numerous examples of public participation in environmental decision making and identify the factors that lead to success. The paper deals with a number of themes, including: The extent to which participation can incorporate public values into decision making, improve the substantive quality of decisions, reduce conflict, increase trust in institutions, and educate and inform the public; What can be expected from different approaches to public participation, such as public meetings, advisory committees, and mediation; The relative importance of the participatory process vs. the context in which participation takes place; Procedural features of particular importance; and The relationship between participation and implementation. The paper provides general results that can be used to guide the improvement of public participation programs, support assessment of innovative methods, and advance the theoretical understanding of public participation.

  10. Public Participation: Lessons from the Case Study Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierle, Thomas C.; Cayford, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    Public participation has received increasing attention in environmental policy making world wide. Yet research has been inadequate to answer fundamental questions about how successful past programs have been, what factors lead to success, and where efforts to improve public involvement should focus. To address these questions, we examine the case study record of public participation efforts in the United States over the last 30 years. We evaluate the success of numerous examples of public participation in environmental decision making and identify the factors that lead to success. The paper deals with a number of themes, including: The extent to which participation can incorporate public values into decision making, improve the substantive quality of decisions, reduce conflict, increase trust in institutions, and educate and inform the public; What can be expected from different approaches to public participation, such as public meetings, advisory committees, and mediation; The relative importance of the participatory process vs. the context in which participation takes place; Procedural features of particular importance; and The relationship between participation and implementation. The paper provides general results that can be used to guide the improvement of public participation programs, support assessment of innovative methods, and advance the theoretical understanding of public participation

  11. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2013-01-01

    With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ). The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs. Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to identify appropriate dimensions and redundant items. Reliability will be assessed by Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations. A second, large-scale postal survey will follow, with the Ox-PAQ being

  12. 'Radiation Fair' for 15 years in Osaka, Japan, and survey of the participants attitude toward radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Asano, Takeyoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1999-01-01

    We have been successfully operating 'Radiation Fair--The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August every year for 15 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan. The purpose of this event is radiation education of public including school kids through efficient information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. Currently we set up the space of it on a floor of Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major department stores in downtown Osaka and display various irradiated products available in our daily life together with explanatory panels. We have been devising various attractions as efficient information transfer media so that even elementary-school kids understand the basic knowledge of radiation and irradiation technologies. The number of participants has increased year by year until more than 20,000 in recent years. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products as well as impression toward the displays. The survey results suggest that school education may contribute to establish the public image toward 'radiation' as well as mass media. (author)

  13. Retention of minority participants in clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen S; Gonzales, Adelita; Fleuriet, K Jill

    2005-04-01

    Recruitment of minority participants for clinical research studies has been the topic of several analytical works. Yet retention of participants, most notably minority and underserved populations, is less reported and understood, even though these populations have elevated health risks. This article describes two related, intervention-based formative research projects in which researchers used treatment theory to address issues of recruitment and retention of minority women participants in an exercise program to reduce obesity. Treatment theory incorporates a model of health promotion that allows investigators to identify and control sources of extraneous variables. The authors' research demonstrates that treatment theory can improve retention of minority women participants by considering critical inputs, mediating processes, and substantive participant characteristics in intervention design.

  14. Study and Redefining Beneficiary Participation in Process Of House Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monshizadeh Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since housing has a special place in human life and his physical, psychological and interactions, so in addition the unity of humans, multiplicity and diversity of them must be considered. This possible only by beneficiary participation in the design process, but because society has different economic and social texture and classes; and settling suit because of the time and place of special indexes are entitled, so prepare a comprehensive model includes the testimony and circumstances; identify factors influencing participation optimum need to selection population and certain species of private construction. Standard tool to study topic does not exist, so in order to produce tools using qualitative research methods; interpretation - historical correlation to extract components and variables and their effects on each other and enjoyed target table Content consisting of four domains of general knowledge - specialized knowledge of participation - participation mechanisms and factors influencing participation achieved. Extracted factors are: the initial formation of partnership - partnership executive process - the role of participant - optimal participation; by study and analyze the theoretical model. Due to history and social aspects; cultural participation in Shiraz; promote scientific and participatory approach designed to make operating housing; bed and new horizons of development of facilities and areas in the design of residential environment created and due consultation and decision making in addition to beneficiary participation to promote optimum utility of space; mutual flexibility and utilization of space; increase fixation and motivation will lead beneficiary reside” and the main question: “how is the model of scientific position optimal participation planning instrument in private housing in the city of Shiraz, in the process of design, implementation and use”.

  15. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation for women with chronic conditions in France: results from a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Panayotis; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2016-03-31

    Comorbidity at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival among women suffering from cervical or breast cancer. Although cancer screening practices have proven their efficacy for mortality reduction, little is known about adherence to screening recommendations for women suffering from chronic conditions. We investigated the association between eleven chronic conditions and adherence to cervical and breast cancer screening recommendations in France. Using data from a cross-sectional national health survey conducted in 2008, we analyzed screening participation taking into account self-reported: inflammatory systemic disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, osteoarthritis and thyroid disorders. We first computed age-standardized screening rates among women who reported each condition. We then estimated the effect of having reported each condition on adherence to screening recommendations in logistic regression models, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours, healthcare access and healthcare use. Finally, we investigated the association between chronic conditions and opportunistic versus organized breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were conducted among 4226 women for cervical cancer screening and 2056 women for breast cancer screening. Most conditions studied were not associated with screening participation. Adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations was higher for cancer survivors (OR = 1.73 [0.98-3.05]) and lower for obese women (OR = 0.73 [0.57-0.93]), when accounting for our complete range of screening determinants. Women reporting chronic respiratory disease or diabetes participated less in cervical cancer screening, except when adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations was lower for

  16. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation for women with chronic conditions in France: results from a national health survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Panayotis; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival among women suffering from cervical or breast cancer. Although cancer screening practices have proven their efficacy for mortality reduction, little is known about adherence to screening recommendations for women suffering from chronic conditions. We investigated the association between eleven chronic conditions and adherence to cervical and breast cancer screening recommendations in France. Using data from a cross-sectional national health survey conducted in 2008, we analyzed screening participation taking into account self-reported: inflammatory systemic disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, osteoarthritis and thyroid disorders. We first computed age-standardized screening rates among women who reported each condition. We then estimated the effect of having reported each condition on adherence to screening recommendations in logistic regression models, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours, healthcare access and healthcare use. Finally, we investigated the association between chronic conditions and opportunistic versus organized breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were conducted among 4226 women for cervical cancer screening and 2056 women for breast cancer screening. Most conditions studied were not associated with screening participation. Adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations was higher for cancer survivors (OR = 1.73 [0.98–3.05]) and lower for obese women (OR = 0.73 [0.57–0.93]), when accounting for our complete range of screening determinants. Women reporting chronic respiratory disease or diabetes participated less in cervical cancer screening, except when adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations was lower for

  17. Studying dark energy with galaxy cluster surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; O'Shea, Brian; Evrard, August E.; Bialek, John; Haiman, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys provide a powerful means of studying the density and nature of the dark energy. The redshift distribution of detected clusters in a deep, large solid angle SZE or X-ray survey is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state. Accurate constraints at the 5% level on the dark energy equation of state require that systematic biases in the mass estimators must be controlled at better than the ∼10% level. Observed regularity in the cluster population and the availability of multiple, independent mass estimators suggests these precise measurements are possible. Using hydrodynamical simulations that include preheating, we show that the level of preheating required to explain local galaxy cluster structure has a dramatic effect on X-ray cluster surveys, but only a mild effect on SZE surveys. This suggests that SZE surveys may be optimal for cosmology while X-ray surveys are well suited for studies of the thermal history of the intracluster medium

  18. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this

  19. Sport Participation of Preschool Children and Parents Influence (2) : A Comparative Study on Sport-school Participants and Non-participants

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 富雄; Tomio, MARUYAMA; 仙台大学; SENDAI COLLEGE

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify a mechanism of sport participation of preschool children. Three items composed of parents' social achieved status, parents' interest in sport and parents' educational eagerness were investigated. Data were collected from 271 parents whose children attended kindergarten at Tokyo (sport-school participants 129, non-participants 142). As the results, participants' group was higher than non-participants' at all three items. Thus, it seems that sport partic...

  20. Representativeness of Participants in a Lifestyle Intervention Study in Obese Pregnant Women - the Difference between Study Participants and Non-Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gesche

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the representativeness of participants attending a lifestyle intervention study addressing obese pregnant women. Methods: Retrospective comparison of baseline data, attendance to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy, and pregnancy outcome in eligible women stratified according to study participation. Of 750 eligible women with a self-reported BMI > 30 kg/m2, and a live singleton pregnancy, 510 were eligible for inclusion and 425 were randomized to either active intervention (n= 284 or to standard obstetric care (n= 141 including two standard OGTT. The 85 women who declined participation or were excluded due to competing diseases and 240 women who did not respond to the initial invitation received the same standard care. Results: The randomized women had similar BMI but a lower parity and age, and were more frequently non-smokers, born in Denmark and married or cohabitating with their partner than the non-participants. Women participating in the trial had a higher compliance to the second OGTT compared to non-participants, also after correcting for age and nationality. There was no difference in pregnancy outcome, i.e., fetal weight and length, gestational age as well as mode of delivery. Conclusion: Women declining participation in a randomized lifestyle intervention study in pregnancy have characteristics indicating they are those who might benefit the most from lifestyle intervention.

  1. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, van, C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this survey. Numbers of mackerel eggs in the samples were low, lower compared to previous surveys. Most mackerel eggs were found along the 200m depth contour of the continental slope. Most of the adult mack...

  2. Grandparenting and mothers' labour force participation: A comparative analysis using the Generations and Gender Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnstein Aassve

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is well known that the provision of public childcare plays an important role for women labour force participation and its availability varies tremendously across countries. In many countries, informal childcare is also important and typically provided by the grandparents, but its role on mothers' employment is not yet well understood. Understanding the relationship between labour supply decisions and grandparental childcare is complex. While the provision of grandparental childcare is clearly a function of the social and institutional context of a country, it also depends on family preferences, which are typically unobserved in surveys. OBJECTIVE We analyze the role of informal childcare provided by grandparents on mothers' labour force participation keeping unobserved preferences into account. METHODS Bivariate probit models with instrumental variables are estimated on data from seven countries (Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Russia and The Netherlands drawn from the Generations and Gender Survey. RESULTS We find that only in some countries mothers' employment is positively and significantly associated with grandparents providing childcare. In other countries, once we control for unobserved preferences, we do not find this effect. CONCLUSIONS The role of grandparents is an important element to reconcile work and family for women in some countries. Our results show the importance of considering family preferences and country differences when studying the relationship between grandparental childcare and mothers' labour supply. COMMENTS Our results are consistent with previous research on this topic. However, differently from previous studies, we conduct separate analyses by country and show that the effect of grandparental childcare varies considerably. The fact that we also include in the analyses Bulgaria, Hungary, Russia and Georgia is an important novelty as there are no studies on this issue

  3. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of American Indian Tribal College Students Participating in a Tribal College Tobacco and Behavioral Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won S; Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M; Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2016-06-01

    American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and

  4. Individual decision making in relation to participation in cardiovascular screening: a study of revealed and stated preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2013-02-01

    The (cost-)effectiveness of a screening programme may be strongly influenced by the participation rate. The objective of this study was to compare participants' and non-participants' motives for the attendance decision as well as their overall preferences for participation in cardiovascular disease screening. This study sampled 1053 participants and 1006 non-participants from a screening trial and randomly allocated the participants to receive different levels of additional information about the screening programme. An ad hoc survey questionnaire about doubt and arguments in relation to the participation decision was given to participants and non-participants along with a contingent valuation task. Among participants, 5% had doubt about participation and the most frequent argument was that they did not want the test result. Among non-participants, 40% would reconsider their non-participation decision after having received additional information while the remainder 60% stood by their decision and provided explicit arguments for it. After having received additional information the participants still valued the programme significantly higher than non-participants, but the difference was relatively small. Participants and non-participants in cardiovascular screening programmes seem to have different strengths of preferences, which signals that their behavioural choice is founded in rational thinking. Furthermore, it appears that additional information and a second reflection about the participation decision may affect a substantial proportion of non-participants to reverse their decision, a finding that should receive policy interest.

  5. Participants' safety versus confidentiality: A case study of HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel; Feijoo-Cid, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Background When conducting qualitative research, participants usually share lots of personal and private information with the researcher. As researchers, we must preserve participants' identity and confidentiality of the data. Objective To critically analyze an ethical conflict encountered regarding confidentiality when doing qualitative research. Research design Case study. Findings and discussion one of the participants in a study aiming to explain the meaning of living with HIV verbalized his imminent intention to commit suicide because of stigma of other social problems arising from living with HIV. Given the life-threatening situation, the commitment related to not disclosing the participant's identity and/or the content of the interview had to be broken. To avoid or prevent suicide, the therapist in charge of the case was properly informed about the participant's intentions. One important question arises from this case: was it ethically appropriate to break the confidentiality commitment? Conclusion confidentiality could be broken if a life-threatening event is identified during data collection and participants must know that. This has to be clearly stated in the informed consent form.

  6. Allowing Physicians to Choose the Value of Compensation for Participation in a Web-Based Survey: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Alison E; O'Connor, Cristi L; Lau, Bryan; Halpern, Scott D; Needham, Dale M

    2015-07-29

    Survey response rates among physicians are declining, and determining an appropriate level of compensation to motivate participation poses a major challenge. To estimate the effect of permitting intensive care physicians to select their preferred level of compensation for completing a short Web-based survey on physician (1) response rate, (2) survey completion rate, (3) time to response, and (4) time spent completing the survey. A total of 1850 US intensivists from an existing database were randomized to receive a survey invitation email with or without an Amazon.com incentive available to the first 100 respondents. The incentive could be instantly redeemed for an amount chosen by the respondent, up to a maximum of US $50. The overall response rate was 35.90% (630/1755). Among the 35.4% (111/314) of eligible participants choosing the incentive, 80.2% (89/111) selected the maximum value. Among intensivists offered an incentive, the response was 6.0% higher (95% CI 1.5-10.5, P=.01), survey completion was marginally greater (807/859, 94.0% vs 892/991, 90.0%; P=.06), and the median number of days to survey response was shorter (0.8, interquartile range [IQR] 0.2-14.4 vs 6.6, IQR 0.3-22.3; P=.001), with no difference in time spent completing the survey. Permitting intensive care physicians to determine compensation level for completing a short Web-based survey modestly increased response rate and substantially decreased response time without decreasing the time spent on survey completion.

  7. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. RESULTS: The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1 Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2 Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3 Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4 Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. CONCLUSIONS: First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if

  8. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingmar; Pawels, Marc; Küver, Claudia; Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no

  9. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Volunteer feedback and perceptions after participation in a phase I, first-in-human Ebola vaccine trial: An anonymous survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne Dayer

    Full Text Available The continued participation of volunteers in clinical trials is crucial to advances in healthcare. Few data are available regarding the satisfaction and impressions of healthy volunteers after participation in phase I trials, many of which lead to unexpected adverse events. We report feedback from over 100 adult volunteers who took part in a first-in-human trial conducted in a high-income country testing an experimental Ebola vaccine causing significant reactogenicity, as well as unexpected arthritis in one fifth of participants. The anonymous, internet-based satisfaction survey was sent by email to all participants upon their completion of this one-year trial; it asked 24 questions concerning volunteers' motivations, impressions of the trial experience, and overall satisfaction. Answers were summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 115 trial participants, 103 (90% filled out the survey. Fifty-five respondents (53% were male. Thirty-five respondents (34% were healthcare workers, many of whom would deploy to Ebola-affected countries. All respondents cited scientific advancement as their chief motivation for participation, while 100/103 (97% and 61/103 (59% reported additional "humanitarian reasons" and potential protection from Ebolavirus, respectively. Although investigators had documented adverse events in 97% of trial participants, only 74 of 103 respondents (72% recalled experiencing an adverse event. All reported an overall positive experience, and 93/103 (90% a willingness to participate in future trials. Given the high level of satisfaction, no significant associations could be detected between trial experiences and satisfaction, even among respondents reporting adverse events lasting weeks or months. Despite considerable reactogenicity and unexpected vaccine-related arthritis, all survey respondents reported overall satisfaction. While this trial's context was unique, the positive feedback is likely due at least in part to the

  11. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had community belonging, and resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Pcommunity belonging and social participation varied as a function of resilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Pcommunity belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Graduate Education in Chemistry. The ACS Committee on Professional Training: Surveys of Programs and Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This document reports on graduate education in chemistry concerning the nature of graduate programs. Contents include: (1) "Graduate Education in Chemistry in the United States: A Snapshot from the Late Twentieth Century"; (2) "A Survey of Ph.D. Programs in Chemistry"; (4) "The Master's Degree in Chemistry"; (5) "A Survey of Ph.D. Recipients in…

  13. Participation and factors associated with late or non-response to an online survey in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny-Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; García-Riolobos, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    Online surveys have several advantages, but a low response rate is common and it is uncertain how results are affected. Response inducement techniques can be used to overcome this problem. The objectives of this study were to describe the percentage of change in the response rate after reminders and to analyse the characteristics associated with non-response and late response based on the survey results, as well as by applying archival and extrapolation techniques. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, an online questionnaire about cancer prevention was sent to a random sample of primary care health professionals (3586 physicians and nurses). Two reminders were sent later. The percentage of change in response rates after reminders, global and by demographic and health care characteristics of participants; and factors associated with non-response and late response were analysed using response rates and odds ratios (ORs). After the reminders, the response rate increased from 22.6% to 32.9% and to 39.4%. Non-response was associated with age [OR: 3.14; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 2.23-4.42 for aged >60 years], gender and functional area. Further, a higher response rate after reminders was observed in professionals with heavier workloads (OR: 1.46; CI 95%: 1.08-1.97) and in those who stated a lower relevance of cancer prevention in primary care. After electronic reminders, the response rate increased, especially among professionals with the highest workloads and a minor interest in the survey topic. However, possible bias associated with non-response remains and the factors behind this should be examined in future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Motives for participating in a clinical research trial: a pilot study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nappo Solange A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, clinical study participants have suffered from the experiments that they were subjected to. Study subjects may not understand the study process or may participate in clinical studies because they do not have access to medical care. The objectives of the present study were 1. to analyze the motives that might cause a volunteer to participate as a study subject; 2. to identify the social-demographic profile of this study subjects; and 3. to determine whether the motives to volunteer as a study subject are in accordance with the established legal and ethical principles for research in Brazil. Methods Mixed-methods research was used (a qualitative-quantitative approach. A sample of 80 volunteers underwent a semi-structured interview, which was based on a survey script that was elaborated from discussions with key informants. The sample was randomly selected from a database of clinical study volunteers that was provided by Brazilian clinical study centers. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. Descriptive statistics were used for content analysis, including contingency tables with hypothesis testing. Results The motivations for clinical study participation were linked to types of benefit. The most frequently encountered motivations were financial gain and therapeutic alternative. Altruism was not a common motivator, and when altruism was present, it was observed as a secondary motivator. All participants reported that they understood the Informed Consent Statement (ICS. However, only two parts of the form were remembered by all of the volunteers: the section on being able to leave the study at any point and the section that stated that there would be some responsible professional at their disposal for the entirety of the study. Conclusions The present study shows that study participants are primarily motivated by personal benefit when volunteering to participate in clinical studies. Whether these study

  15. Motives for participating in a clinical research trial: a pilot study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappo, Solange A; Iafrate, Giovanna B; Sanchez, Zila M

    2013-01-10

    In the past, clinical study participants have suffered from the experiments that they were subjected to. Study subjects may not understand the study process or may participate in clinical studies because they do not have access to medical care. The objectives of the present study were 1. to analyze the motives that might cause a volunteer to participate as a study subject; 2. to identify the social-demographic profile of this study subjects; and 3. to determine whether the motives to volunteer as a study subject are in accordance with the established legal and ethical principles for research in Brazil. Mixed-methods research was used (a qualitative-quantitative approach). A sample of 80 volunteers underwent a semi-structured interview, which was based on a survey script that was elaborated from discussions with key informants. The sample was randomly selected from a database of clinical study volunteers that was provided by Brazilian clinical study centers. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. Descriptive statistics were used for content analysis, including contingency tables with hypothesis testing. The motivations for clinical study participation were linked to types of benefit. The most frequently encountered motivations were financial gain and therapeutic alternative. Altruism was not a common motivator, and when altruism was present, it was observed as a secondary motivator. All participants reported that they understood the Informed Consent Statement (ICS). However, only two parts of the form were remembered by all of the volunteers: the section on being able to leave the study at any point and the section that stated that there would be some responsible professional at their disposal for the entirety of the study. The present study shows that study participants are primarily motivated by personal benefit when volunteering to participate in clinical studies. Whether these study participants had an integral understanding of the ICS is not clear.

  16. Ethnic differences in social participation and social capital in Malmo, Sweden: a population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in different aspects of social participation in Malmö, Sweden. The public health survey in Malmö 1994 is a cross-sectional study. A total of 5600 randomly chosen individuals aged 20–80 years were asked to complete a postal questionnaire. The participation rate was 71%. The population was divided into categories born in Sweden, Denmark/Norway, other Western countries, former Yugoslavia, Poland, Arabic speaking countries and all other ...

  17. Participants' views of telephone interviews within a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kim; Gott, Merryn; Hoare, Karen

    2015-12-01

    To offer a unique contribution to the evolving debate around the use of the telephone during semistructured interview by drawing on interviewees' reflections on telephone interview during a grounded theory study. The accepted norm for qualitative interviews is to conduct them face-to-face. It is typical to consider collecting qualitative data via telephone only when face-to-face interview is not possible. During a grounded theory study, exploring users' experiences with overnight mask ventilation for sleep apnoea, the authors selected the telephone to conduct interviews. This article reports participants' views on semistructured interview by telephone. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on data pertaining to the use of the telephone interview in a grounded theory study. The data were collected during 4 months of 2011 and 6 months in 2014. The article presents an inductive thematic analysis of sixteen participants' opinions about telephone interviewing and discusses these in relation to existing literature reporting the use of telephone interviews in grounded theory studies. Overall, participants reported a positive experience of telephone interviewing. From each participants reports we identified four themes from the data: being 'phone savvy; concentrating on voice instead of your face; easy rapport; and not being judged or feeling inhibited. By drawing on these data, we argue that the telephone as a data collection tool in grounded theory research and other qualitative methodologies need not be relegated to second best status. Rather, researchers can consider telephone interview a valuable first choice option. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Methods to study mindful awareness and participation in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Svinth, Lone; Petersen, Freja Filine

    For more than a decade, a variety of techniques have been introduced in Danish educational settings to bring mindful awareness into teachers’ and students’ lives in order to increase the mental, emotional and social health of the participants. In this workshop we present five studies that address...

  19. Patient participation, a prerequisite for care: A grounded theory study of healthcare professionals' perceptions of what participation means in a paediatric care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Nygren, Jens M; Svedberg, Petra

    2018-01-01

    To explore healthcare professionals' perceptions of what patient participation means in a paediatric care context . A qualitative explorative design with grounded theory. Fifteen healthcare professionals who worked in paediatric care settings were either interviewed or asked open-ended questions in a survey, during December 2015-May 2016. Grounded theory was used as a method. The study results provide a theoretical conceptualization of what patient participation meant for healthcare professionals in paediatric care and how participation was enabled. The core category "participation a prerequisite for care" emerged as the main finding explaining the concept as ethical, practical and integrated in the care givers way of working. However, the concept was implicit in the organization. Four additional categories illustrated the healthcare professionals' different strategies used to enhance patient participation; "meeting each child where the child is," "building a relationship with the child," "showing respect for each individual child" and "making the most of the moment."

  20. Characterizing researchers by strategies used for retaining minority participants: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Quinn, Sandra C; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Thomas, Stephen B

    2013-09-01

    Limited attention has been given to the optimal strategies for retaining racial and ethnic minorities within studies and during the follow-up period. High attrition limits the interpretation of results and reduces the ability to translate findings into successful interventions. This study examined the retention strategies used by researchers when retaining minorities in research studies. From May to August 2010, we conducted an online survey with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) and examined their use of seven commonly used retention strategies. The number and type of retention strategies used, how these strategies differ by researcher type, and other characteristics (e.g., funding) were explored. We identified three clusters of researchers: comprehensive retention strategy researchers - utilized the greatest number of retention strategies; moderate retention strategy researchers - utilized an average number of retention strategies; and limited retention strategy researchers - utilized the least number of retention strategies. The comprehensive and moderate retention strategy researchers were more likely than the limited retention strategy researchers to conduct health outcomes research, work with a community advisory board, hire minority staff, use steps at a higher rate to overcome retention barriers, develop new partnerships with the minority community, modify study materials for the minority population, and allow staff to work flexible schedules. This study is a novel effort to characterize researchers, without implying a value judgment, according to their use of specific retention strategies. It provides critical information for conducting future research to determine the effectiveness of using a combination of retention strategies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Public attitudes in Japan toward participation in whole genome sequencing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Taketoshi; Ohashi, Noriko; Kabata, Daijiro; Shintani, Ayumi; Kato, Kazuto

    2018-04-13

    Recent innovations in gene analysis technology have allowed for rapid and inexpensive sequencing of entire genomes. Thus, both conducting a study using whole genome sequencing (WGS) in a large population and the clinical application of research findings from such studies are currently feasible. However, to promote WGS studies, understanding and voluntary participation by the general public is needed. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the general public's attitude toward and understanding of WGS studies. The primary goal of our research is to investigate these issues and to discover how they relate to research participation in WGS studies. A survey of awareness regarding WGS and studies using WGS was conducted with a sample of 2000 or more participants using a self-administered questionnaire posted on the Internet between February 20 and 21, 2015. Prior to the survey, we briefly explained WGS and WGS study-related issues to the respondents in order to provide them with the minimum knowledge required to answer the questionnaire. We then conducted an analysis, including cross-classification. For the question regarding interest in WGS, 46.6% of participants responded "Yes." 70.7% of all respondents said that they were interested in some kinds of findings that could be obtained from WGS studies. Regarding participation in WGS studies, 29.0% were interested in participating. The demographic factors significantly related to attitudes toward research participation were age, level of education, and employment status. The results also suggest that concerns about WGS have a positive effect on people's willingness to participate. Furthermore, it was shown that for people who were not interested in their gene-related information, concerns about WGS negatively impacted their willingness to participate. However, for people who were interested in their gene-related information, their concerns might not have impacted their willingness to participate. This research has shown

  2. ParticipACTION after 5 years of relaunch: a quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity regarding physical activity initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Faulkner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization relaunched in 2007. This study assesses the capacity of Canadian organizations to adopt, implement, and promote physical activity initiatives. The four objectives were to compare findings from baseline (2008 and follow-up (2013 with respect to: (1 awareness of ParticipACTION; (2 organizational capacity to adopt, implement and promote physical activity initiatives; (3 potential differences in capacity based on organizational size, sector, and mandate; and (4 assess perceptions of ParticipACTION five years after relaunch. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, representatives from local, provincial/territorial, and national organizations completed an online survey assessing capacity to adopt, implement, and promote physical activity. Descriptive statistics and one-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the objectives. Results: Response rate for opening an email survey invitation and consenting to participate was 40.6% (685/1688 and 540 surveys were completed. Awareness of ParticipACTION increased from 54.6% at baseline to 93.9% at follow-up (Objective 1. Findings at both baseline and follow-up reflected good organizational capacity to adopt, implement and promote physical activity (Objective 2 although some varied by organizational sector and mandate (Objective 3. Most respondents reported that ParticipACTION provided positive leadership (65.3%, but there was less agreement regarding ParticipACTION’s facilitation of infrastructure (44.0% or organizational will/motivation (47.1%(Objective 4. Conclusion: Canadian organizations continue to report having good capacity to adopt, implement, and promote physical activity. There was no discernible change in capacity indicators five years after ParticipACTION’s relaunch although its broader contribution to the physical activity sector was endorsed.

  3. ParticipACTION after 5 years of relaunch: a quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity regarding physical activity initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Guy; Ramanathan, Subha; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Spence, John C

    2018-04-01

    ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization relaunched in 2007. This study assesses the capacity of Canadian organizations to adopt, implement, and promote physical activity initiatives. The four objectives were to compare findings from baseline (2008) and follow-up (2013) with respect to: (1) awareness of ParticipACTION; (2) organizational capacity to adopt, implement and promote physical activity initiatives; (3) potential differences in capacity based on organizational size, sector, and mandate; and (4) assess perceptions of ParticipACTION five years after relaunch. In this cross-sectional study, representatives from local, provincial/territorial, and national organizations completed an online survey assessing capacity to adopt, implement, and promote physical activity. Descriptive statistics and one-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the objectives. Response rate for opening an email survey invitation and consenting to participate was 40.6% (685/1688) and 540 surveys were completed. Awareness of ParticipACTION increased from 54.6% at baseline to 93.9% at follow-up (Objective 1). Findings at both baseline and follow-up reflected good organizational capacity to adopt, implement and promote physical activity (Objective 2) although some varied by organizational sector and mandate (Objective 3). Most respondents reported that ParticipACTION provided positive leadership (65.3%), but there was less agreement regarding ParticipACTION's facilitation of infrastructure (44.0%) or organizational will/motivation (47.1%)(Objective 4). Canadian organizations continue to report having good capacity to adopt, implement, and promote physical activity. There was no discernible change in capacity indicators five years after ParticipACTION's relaunch although its broader contribution to the physical activity sector was endorsed.

  4. Consumer participation in quality improvements for chronic disease care: development and evaluation of an interactive patient-centered survey to identify preferred service initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Roos, Ian A; Henskens, Frans A; Paul, David J

    2014-12-19

    With increasing attention given to the quality of chronic disease care, a measurement approach that empowers consumers to participate in improving quality of care and enables health services to systematically introduce patient-centered initiatives is needed. A Web-based survey with complex adaptive questioning and interactive survey items would allow consumers to easily identify and prioritize detailed service initiatives. The aim was to develop and test a Web-based survey capable of identifying and prioritizing patient-centered initiatives in chronic disease outpatient services. Testing included (1) test-retest reliability, (2) patient-perceived acceptability of the survey content and delivery mode, and (3) average completion time, completion rates, and Flesch-Kincaid reading score. In Phase I, the Web-based Consumer Preferences Survey was developed based on a structured literature review and iterative feedback from expert groups of service providers and consumers. The touchscreen survey contained 23 general initiatives, 110 specific initiatives available through adaptive questioning, and a relative prioritization exercise. In Phase II, a pilot study was conducted within 4 outpatient clinics to evaluate the reliability properties, patient-perceived acceptability, and feasibility of the survey. Eligible participants were approached to complete the survey while waiting for an appointment or receiving intravenous therapy. The age and gender of nonconsenters was estimated to ascertain consent bias. Participants with a subsequent appointment within 14 days were asked to complete the survey for a second time. A total of 741 of 1042 individuals consented to participate (71.11% consent), 529 of 741 completed all survey content (78.9% completion), and 39 of 68 completed the test-retest component. Substantial or moderate reliability (Cohen's kappa>0.4) was reported for 16 of 20 general initiatives with observed percentage agreement ranging from 82.1%-100.0%. The majority of

  5. Consumer Participation in Quality Improvements for Chronic Disease Care: Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Patient-Centered Survey to Identify Preferred Service Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Roos, Ian A; Henskens, Frans A; Paul, David J

    2014-01-01

    Background With increasing attention given to the quality of chronic disease care, a measurement approach that empowers consumers to participate in improving quality of care and enables health services to systematically introduce patient-centered initiatives is needed. A Web-based survey with complex adaptive questioning and interactive survey items would allow consumers to easily identify and prioritize detailed service initiatives. Objective The aim was to develop and test a Web-based survey capable of identifying and prioritizing patient-centered initiatives in chronic disease outpatient services. Testing included (1) test-retest reliability, (2) patient-perceived acceptability of the survey content and delivery mode, and (3) average completion time, completion rates, and Flesch-Kincaid reading score. Methods In Phase I, the Web-based Consumer Preferences Survey was developed based on a structured literature review and iterative feedback from expert groups of service providers and consumers. The touchscreen survey contained 23 general initiatives, 110 specific initiatives available through adaptive questioning, and a relative prioritization exercise. In Phase II, a pilot study was conducted within 4 outpatient clinics to evaluate the reliability properties, patient-perceived acceptability, and feasibility of the survey. Eligible participants were approached to complete the survey while waiting for an appointment or receiving intravenous therapy. The age and gender of nonconsenters was estimated to ascertain consent bias. Participants with a subsequent appointment within 14 days were asked to complete the survey for a second time. Results A total of 741 of 1042 individuals consented to participate (71.11% consent), 529 of 741 completed all survey content (78.9% completion), and 39 of 68 completed the test-retest component. Substantial or moderate reliability (Cohen’s kappa>0.4) was reported for 16 of 20 general initiatives with observed percentage agreement

  6. Civic Participation and Self-rated Health: A Cross-national Multi-level Analysis Using the World Value Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859. Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country.

  7. 76 FR 79650 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Income and Program Participation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...' participation in government programs as well as prior labor force patterns of household members. These... were interviewed. We estimate that each household contains 2.1 people, age 15 years or older, yielding... of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Wave 13 of the 2008 Panel AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau...

  8. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W G; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D; Post, Marcel W M; Gemperli, Armin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. DESIGN: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  9. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W. G.; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Gemperli, Armin

    Objective: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. Design: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  10. Understandings of Participation in Behavioural Research: A Qualitative Study of Gay and Bisexual Men in Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Boydell

    Full Text Available An array of empirical research has emerged related to public participation in health research. To date, few studies have explored the particular perspectives of gay and bisexual men taking part in behavioural surveillance research, which includes the donation of saliva swabs to investigate HIV prevalence and rates of undiagnosed HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-nine gay and bisexual men in Scotland who had participated in a bar-based survey. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their motives for participation and their perceptions of not receiving individual feedback on HIV status suggested a shared understanding of participation in research as a means of contributing to 'community' efforts to prevent the spread of HIV. Most men expressed sophisticated understandings of the purpose of behavioural research and distinguished between this and individual diagnostic testing. Despite calls for feedback on HIV results broadly, for these men feedback on HIV status was not deemed crucial.

  11. Understandings of Participation in Behavioural Research: A Qualitative Study of Gay and Bisexual Men in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Nicola; Fergie, Gillian May; McDaid, Lisa Margaret; Hilton, Shona

    2015-01-01

    An array of empirical research has emerged related to public participation in health research. To date, few studies have explored the particular perspectives of gay and bisexual men taking part in behavioural surveillance research, which includes the donation of saliva swabs to investigate HIV prevalence and rates of undiagnosed HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-nine gay and bisexual men in Scotland who had participated in a bar-based survey. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their motives for participation and their perceptions of not receiving individual feedback on HIV status suggested a shared understanding of participation in research as a means of contributing to 'community' efforts to prevent the spread of HIV. Most men expressed sophisticated understandings of the purpose of behavioural research and distinguished between this and individual diagnostic testing. Despite calls for feedback on HIV results broadly, for these men feedback on HIV status was not deemed crucial.

  12. Assessing the Effects of Participant Preference and Demographics in the Usage of Web-based Survey Questionnaires by Women Attending Screening Mammography in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlikotic, Rebecca; Parker, Brent; Rajapakshe, Rasika

    2016-03-22

    Increased usage of Internet applications has allowed for the collection of patient reported outcomes (PROs) and other health data through Web-based communication and questionnaires. While these Web platforms allow for increased speed and scope of communication delivery, there are certain limitations associated with this technology, as survey mode preferences vary across demographic groups. To investigate the impact of demographic factors and participant preferences on the use of a Web-based questionnaire in comparison with more traditional methods (mail and phone) for women participating in screening mammography in British Columbia, Canada. A sample of women attending the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia (SMPBC) participated in a breast cancer risk assessment project. The study questionnaire was administered through one of three modes (ie, telephone, mail, or website platform). Survey mode preferences and actual methods of response were analyzed for participants recruited from Victoria General Hospital. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the association of demographic factors (ie, age, education level, and ethnicity) with certain survey response types. A total of 1192 women successfully completed the study questionnaire at Victoria General Hospital. Mail was stated as the most preferred survey mode (509/1192, 42.70%), followed by website platform (422/1192, 35.40%), and telephone (147/1192, 12.33%). Over 80% (955/1192) of participants completed the questionnaire in the mode previously specified as their most preferred; mail was the most common method of response (688/1192, 57.72%). Mail was also the most preferred type of questionnaire response method when participants responded in a mode other than their original preference. The average age of participants who responded via the Web-based platform (age 52.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 52.1-53.7) was significantly lower than those who used mail and telephone methods

  13. ?Decision-making capacity for research participation among addicted people: a cross-sectional study?

    OpenAIRE

    Mor?n-S?nchez, In?s; Luna, Aurelio; S?nchez-Mu?oz, Maria; Aguilera-Alcaraz, Beatriz; P?rez-C?rceles, Maria D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Informed consent is a key element of ethical clinical research. Addicted population may be at risk for impaired consent capacity. However, very little research has focused on their comprehension of consent forms. The aim of this study is to assess the capacity of addicted individuals to provide consent to research. Methods 53 subjects with DSM-5 diagnoses of a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and 50 non psychiatric comparison subjects (NPCs) participated in the survey from December 201...

  14. Survey of Participants in the Gulf of Mexico Grouper-Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data includes qualitative responses regarding participant satisfaction with the IFQ, changes in fishing operations due to IFQ, hiring crew, and availability of...

  15. Assessment of a multimedia-based prospective method to support public deliberations on health technology design: participant survey findings and qualitative insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, P; Jimenez-Pernett, J; Miller, F A; Williams-Jones, B

    2016-10-26

    Using a combination of videos and online short stories, we conducted four face-to-face deliberative workshops in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) with members of the public who later joined additional participants in an online forum to discuss the social and ethical implications of prospective technologies. This paper presents the participants' appraisal of our intervention and provides novel qualitative insights into the use of videos and online tools in public deliberations. We applied a mixed-method study design. A self-administered survey contained open- and close-ended items using a 5-level Likert-like scale. Absolute frequencies and proportions for the close-ended items were compiled. Qualitative data included field notes, the transcripts of the workshops and the participants' contributions to the online forum. The qualitative data were used to flesh out the survey data describing the participants' appraisal of: 1) the multimedia components of our intervention; 2) its deliberative face-to-face and online processes; and 3) its perceived effects. Thirty-eight participants contributed to the workshops and 57 to the online forum. A total of 46 participants filled-in the survey, for a response rate of 73 % (46/63). The videos helped 96 % of the participants to understand the fictional technologies and the online scenarios helped 98 % to reflect about the issues raised. Up to 81 % considered the arguments of the other participants to be well thought-out. Nearly all participants felt comfortable sharing their ideas in both the face-to-face (89 %) and online environments (93 %), but 88 % preferred the face-to-face workshop. As a result of the intervention, 85 % reflected more about the pros and cons of technology and 94 % learned more about the way technologies may transform society. This study confirms the methodological feasibility of a deliberative intervention whose originality lies in its use of videos and online scenarios. To increase deliberative depth and foster a

  16. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-02-01

    Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  17. Demographic Predictors of Students' Science Participation over the Age of 16: an Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grant; Berry, Amanda; Baglin, James

    2018-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data, this paper aimed to examine if, and to what extent, demographic factors predict students' participation in science over the age of 16 (post-16). While all the students participating in this study are attending Australian schools, the comprehensiveness of these datasets, together with inclusion of studies from around the world provides a useful reference point for an international audience. Over 7000 students are included in the analysis of this paper. Characteristics of focus in this paper include groups who have been identified as being underrepresented in past studies including Indigenous students, those from lower-socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, sex differences and immigrants. Among the factors tested, Indigenous status was the strongest negative predictor of post-16 science participation. SES was also a relatively strong predictor of post-16 science participation. Compared to students categorised with an Australian-ancestry, first-generation and foreign-background students were more likely to participate in post-16 science. The findings of this study contribute to existing research on debates about equity and trends in science participation.

  18. Glossary developed for the participants in the BIOMOVS 2 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Terminology used in documents published within the BIOMOVS II study is defined in individual Technical and Progress reports and is the responsibility of the corresponding authors. However, as in other areas of scientific endeavour, there can be a tendency for terms to be used differently. This follows from the range of scientific disciplines involved. Therefore, this glossary of terms is offered to BIOMOVS II participants with a view to obtaining consistent usage and avoiding possible confusion. The definitions given have been provided and reviewed by BIOMOVS II participants. A list of other potentially relevant glossaries is also provided. It is acknowledged that some modifications to the definitions may be desirable when used for a specific task or document. Also additional terms may need to be added as time goes by. This document is itself an update of the glossary which was produced for use in BIOMOVS I . Thus, it is considered as a working document

  19. Glossary developed for the participants in the BIOMOVS 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    Terminology used in documents published within the BIOMOVS II study is defined in individual Technical and Progress reports and is the responsibility of the corresponding authors. However, as in other areas of scientific endeavour, there can be a tendency for terms to be used differently. This follows from the range of scientific disciplines involved. Therefore, this glossary of terms is offered to BIOMOVS II participants with a view to obtaining consistent usage and avoiding possible confusion. The definitions given have been provided and reviewed by BIOMOVS II participants. A list of other potentially relevant glossaries is also provided. It is acknowledged that some modifications to the definitions may be desirable when used for a specific task or document. Also additional terms may need to be added as time goes by. This document is itself an update of the glossary which was produced for use in BIOMOVS I . Thus, it is considered as a working document.

  20. Adolescent and Parent Willingness to Participate in Microbicide Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallozzi, Marina; de Roche, Ariel M; Hu, Mei-Chen; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Chang, Jane; Ipp, Lisa S; Francis, Jenny K R; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2017-02-01

    To understand adolescents' and parents' willingness to participate (WTP) in a hypothetical phase I prevention study of sexually transmitted infections, discordance within adolescent-parent dyads, and expectations of each other during decision-making. Adolescent-parent dyads were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study about research participation attitudes. Adolescents (14-17 years old) and their parents (n = 301 dyads) participated. None. Individual interviews at baseline assessed WTP on a 6-level Likert scale. WTP was dichotomized (willing/unwilling) to assess discordance. WTP was reported by 60% (182 of 301) of adolescents and 52% (156 of 300) of parents. In bivariate analyses, older adolescent age, sexual experience, and less involvement of parents in research processes were associated with higher level of WTP for adolescents; only sexual experience remained in the multivariable analysis. For parents, older adolescent age, perceived adolescent sexual experience, and conversations about sexual health were significant; only conversations remained. Dyadic discordance (44%, 132 of 300) was more likely in dyads in which the parent reported previous research experience, and less likely when parents reported higher family expressiveness. Adolescents (83%, 248 of 299) and parents (88%, 263 of 300) thought that the other would have similar views, influence their decision (adolescents 66%, 199 of 300; parents 75%, 224 of 300), and listen (adolescents 90%, 270 of 300; parents 96%, 287 of 300). There were no relationships between these perceptions and discordance. Inclusion of adolescents in phase I clinical trials is necessary to ensure that new methods are safe, effective, and acceptable for them. Because these trials currently require parental consent, strategies that manage adolescent-parent discordance and support adolescent independence and parental guidance are critically needed. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent

  1. Predictors of Participation of Sophomore Medical Students in a Health-Promoting Intervention: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kötter

    Full Text Available Medical students and doctors have to be particularly stress-resilient, as both medical education and practice are considered very stressful. Specific stressors can lead to increased risks of developing, for example, depression, anxiety and burnout. Relaxation techniques have proven to be effective for the prevention of these outcomes in student populations. However, only a very few medical students practice relaxation techniques regularly early on in their studies. Furthermore, it is unclear which students make use of stress-management offers and hence whether vulnerable students are generally reachable. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore predictors of participating in a voluntary stress management course for sophomore medical students. One cohort of freshmen at a German medical school was surveyed at the end of the freshman year [t1] and at the end of the sophomore year [t2]. In addition to sociodemographic information, we captured perceived study stress, self-rated general health and mental health and dimensions of study-related behaviour and experience as potential predictors of participation at t1. During the sophomore year, we offered the participants a progressive muscle relaxation (PMR beginners' course. At t2, we registered participation status. We used binary logistic regression analyses in order to assess correlations between potential predictors and participation. About one third of the whole class took part in the course. The main reason for non-participation was "no time". Being female and higher levels of anxiety were the strongest predictors of course participation. Career ambition (the higher, the less likely to participate and emotional distancing (the higher, the more likely to participate were further significant predictors. Future interventions should be attractive to both male and female medical students. Ideally, for every hour of stress management teaching, the curriculum should be cut by at least the same

  2. Deterministic modeling of the exposure of individual participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A; Armitage, James M; Binnington, Matthew J; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-14

    A population's exposure to persistent organic pollutants, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is typically assessed through national biomonitoring programs, such as the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). To complement statistical methods, we use a deterministic modeling approach to establish mechanistic links between human contaminant concentrations and factors (e.g. age, diet, lipid mass) deemed responsible for the often considerable variability in these concentrations. Lifetime exposures to four PCB congeners in 6128 participants from NHANES 1999-2004 are simulated using the ACC-Human model supplied with individualized input parameters obtained from NHANES questionnaires (e.g., birth year, sex, body mass index, dietary composition, reproductive behavior). Modeled and measured geometric mean PCB-153 concentrations in NHANES participants of 13.3 and 22.0 ng g -1 lipid, respectively, agree remarkably well, although lower model-measurement agreement for air, water, and food suggests that this is partially due to fortuitous error cancellation. The model also reproduces trends in the measured data with key factors such as age, parity and sex. On an individual level, 62% of all modeled concentrations are within a factor of three of their corresponding measured values (Spearman r s = 0.44). However, the model attributes more of the inter-individual variability to differences in dietary lipid intake than is indicated by the measured data. While the model succeeds in predicting levels and trends on the population level, the accuracy of individual-specific predictions would need to be improved for refined exposure characterization in epidemiological studies.

  3. A cross-sectional study of learning styles among continuing medical education participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C Scott; Nanda, Sanjeev; Palmer, Brian A; Mohabbat, Arya B; Schleck, Cathy D; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Mahapatra, Saswati; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M

    2018-04-27

    Experiential learning has been suggested as a framework for planning continuing medical education (CME). We aimed to (1) determine participants' learning styles at traditional CME courses and (2) explore associations between learning styles and participant characteristics. Cross-sectional study of all participants (n = 393) at two Mayo Clinic CME courses who completed the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and provided demographic data. A total of 393 participants returned 241 surveys (response rate, 61.3%). Among the 143 participants (36.4%) who supplied complete demographic and Kolb data, Kolb learning styles included diverging (45; 31.5%), assimilating (56; 39.2%), converging (8; 5.6%), and accommodating (34; 23.8%). Associations existed between learning style and gender (p = 0.02). For most men, learning styles were diverging (23 of 63; 36.5%) and assimilating (30 of 63; 47.6%); for most women, diverging (22 of 80; 27.5%), assimilating (26 of 80; 32.5%), and accommodating (26 of 80; 32.5%). Internal medicine and psychiatry CME participants had diverse learning styles. Female participants had more variation in their learning styles than men. Teaching techniques must vary to appeal to all learners. The experiential learning theory sequentially moves a learner from Why? to What? to How? to If? to accommodate learning styles.

  4. Participant Action Research in Political, Psychological, and Gender Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucia Obando-Salazar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methodology is used in social and intervention research because it facilitates a deeper analysis of causal factors and development of alternative solutions to social problems. Based on the findings of three studies in the field of political and gender psychology, this article focuses on Participant Action Research (PAR as a useful qualitative approach to deal with social phenomena, such as racism, violence against women, and the problem of children and youth who have been dislocated as the result of armed conflict and sheltered by the Colombian government's program for persons relocated to civil society. This article is composed of three parts. The first part offers historical and theoretical background to the Action Research (AR paradigm, its validation criteria and their meaning for the development of the Latin American rendering of Participant Action Research (PAR. The second part synthesizes trends in the AR approach in the United States and Germany, discusses feminist research and compares these to trends in PAR in Latin America. The third part is a description of Participant Action Research as an intervention method, including features, models, goals, and concepts. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060438

  5. 76 FR 24457 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Income and Program Participation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... around a central ``core'' of labor force and income questions that remain fixed throughout the life of... obtaining information on household members' participation in government programs as well as prior labor... contains 2.1 people, age 15 years or older, yielding approximately 94,500 person-level interviews in Wave 1...

  6. Effects of Staff Participation, Morale, and Shortage on Organisational Performance: An International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Asrar-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that staff-centred organisational factors such as participation, morale and shortage can have a significant effect on organisational outcomes. However, relatively little attention has been paid to cross-country examination of these relationships specifically for educational organisations such as schools, colleges, and…

  7. A Survey of Students Participating in a Computer-Assisted Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yel, Elif Binboga; Korhan, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly examines anthropometric data, data regarding the habits, experiences, and attitudes of the students about their tablet/laptop/desktop computer use, in addition to self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort levels and frequencies of students participating in a tablet-assisted interactive education programme. A two-part questionnaire…

  8. Dengue risk factors and community participation in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam, a household survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J.; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2008-01-01

    To look for risk factors for dengue and community participation in dengue control in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam, three communes with a low incidence of dengue and three with a high incidence, in Binh Thuan Province, were compared. Knowledge, perception and preventive practice of dengue were

  9. Questionnaire survey of current status and reserve for breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture. Achievement of a 50% participation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Tanaka, Yukio; Matsuo, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Mie Medical Network of Breast Cancer Screening, a NPO, was assigned the task of breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture in April, 2010. For breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture in 2009, a questionnaire survey was performed toward both consigner and consignee. Consigners were local public offices managing breast cancer screening for local inhabitants, and consignees were facilities offering breast cancer screening. The number of breast cancer screening was investigated toward all 29 of consigners in Mie prefecture. The questionnaire survey was conducted toward all 52 of the facilities possessing mammography systems (breast cancer screening being performed at 48 of them) in Mie prefecture in 2009. We investigated the predictive additional number of breast cancer screening and also investigated the requisite number of staff to achieve the predictive maximum number of breast cancer screening. As a result, the total number of breast cancer screenings was 93,525, and the participation rate was 27.5% which was calculated by reduction of continuator in Mie prefecture in 2009. The continuator accounted for over 30% of all breast cancer screenings. The predictive additional number was 126,950, this indicates that a possible participation rate of 75.2% after 2011. To achieve this high participation rate, active support is essential for short-handed facilities, and about 20% increase of medical staff is necessary. To achieve a participation rate of over 50% as a goal, new screenees should be recruited and breast cancer screening of every other year should be enlightened. (author)

  10. Participation in Types of Physical Activities Among US Adults--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shifan; Carroll, Dianna D; Watson, Kathleen B; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    Information on specific types of physical activities in which US adults participate is important for community and program development to promote physical activity. Prevalence of participation and average time spent for 33 leisure-time aerobic activities and 10 activity categories were calculated using self-reported data from 22,545 participants aged ≥ 18 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, 38% of US adults reported no leisure-time physical activities, and 43% reported 1 or 2 activities in the past 30 days. Walking was the most frequently reported activity for both men (29%) and women (38%). Among walkers, the average time spent walking was 198 minutes/week for men and 152 minutes/week for women. The most reported activities for men after walking were bicycling and yard work, and for women were aerobics and dance. For most activity categories, participation was lower among adults aged ≥ 65 years than among younger adults, and among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites. Participation in most categories increased with increasing educational attainment. Participation in physical activity differs by types of activities and demographic characteristics. Physical activity promotion programs should take these differences into account when developing intervention strategies.

  11. Motivational factors for participation in biomedical research: evidence from a qualitative study of biomedical research participation in Blantyre District, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Masiye, Francis

    2015-02-01

    Obtaining effective informed consent from research participants is a prerequisite to the conduct of an ethically sound research. Yet it is believed that obtaining quality informed consent is generally difficult in settings with low socioeconomic status. This is so because of the alleged undue inducements and therapeutic misconception among participants. However, there is a dearth of data on factors that motivate research participants to take part in research. Hence, this study was aimed at filling this gap in the Malawian context. We conducted 18 focus group discussions with community members in urban and rural communities of Blantyre in Malawi. Most participants reported that they accepted the invitation to participate in research because of better quality treatment during study also known as ancillary care, monetary and material incentives given to participants, and thorough medical diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Does the sequence of data collection influence participants' responses to closed and open-ended questions? A methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya; Ritchie, Judith A

    2012-06-01

    The sequence used for collecting quantitative and qualitative data in concurrent mixed-methods research may influence participants' responses. Empirical evidence is needed to determine if the order of data collection in concurrent mixed methods research biases participants' responses to closed and open-ended questions. To examine the influence of the quantitative-qualitative sequence on responses to closed and open-ended questions when assessing the same variables or aspects of a phenomenon simultaneously within the same study phase. A descriptive cross-sectional, concurrent mixed-methods design was used to collect quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interview) data. The setting was a large multi-site health care centre in Canada. A convenience sample of 50 registered nurses was selected and participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two sequences for data collection, quantitative-qualitative or qualitative-quantitative. Independent t-tests were performed to compare the two groups' responses to the survey items. Directed content analysis was used to compare the participants' responses to the interview questions. The sequence of data collection did not greatly affect the participants' responses to the closed-ended questions (survey items) or the open-ended questions (interview questions). The sequencing of data collection, when using both survey and semi-structured interviews, may not bias participants' responses to closed or open-ended questions. Additional research is required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does health differ between participants and non-participants in the MRI-HUNT study, a population based neuroimaging study? The Nord-Trøndelag health studies 1984–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honningsvåg, Lasse-Marius; Linde, Mattias; Håberg, Asta; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Hagen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Bias with regard to participation in epidemiological studies can have a large impact on the generalizability of results. Our aim was to investigate the direction and magnitude of potential bias by comparing health-related factors among participants and non-participants in a MRI-study based on HUNT, a large Norwegian health survey. Of 14,033 individuals aged 50–65, who had participated in all three large public health surveys within the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT 1, 2 and 3), 1,560 who lived within 45 minutes of travel from the city of Levanger were invited to a MRI study (MRI-HUNT). The sample of participants in MRI-HUNT (n = 1,006) were compared with those who were invited but did not participate (n = 554) and with those who were eligible but not invited (n = 12,473), using univariate analyses and logistic regression analyses adjusting for age and education level. Self-reported health did not differ between the three groups, but participants had a higher education level and were somewhat younger than the two other groups. In the adjusted multivariate analyses, obesity was consistently less prevalent among participants. Significant differences in blood pressure and cholesterol were also found. This is the first large population-based study comparing participants and non-participants in an MRI study with regard to general health. The groups were not widely different, but participants had a higher level of education, and were less likely to be obese and have hypertension, and were slightly younger than non-participants. The observed differences between participants and non-invited individuals are probably partly explained by the inclusion criterion that participants had to live within 45 minutes of transport to where the MRI examination took place. One will expect that the participants have somewhat less brain morphological changes related to cardiovascular risk factors than the general population. Such consequences underline the crucial importance

  14. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND HAPPINESS OF FEMALE STUDENTS PARTICIPATING IN THE SPORT OLYMPIAD OF IRANIAN UNIVERSITIES: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hassan Bahrololoum

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at studying the relationship between happiness and emotional intelligence among female students participating in the 10th Sport Olympiad of Iranian universities held in Semnan province. To do this survey, 302 female students were randomly selected from the total population of female students participating in the 10th sport Olympiad of Iranian Universities. To collect data, the study used three standardized questionnaires: Oxford's Happiness Questionnaire; Brodberry's Emotional...

  15. An ethnographic study of participant roles in school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, Thomas P; Zioni-Koren, Vered; Bekerman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    An ethnographic study in a 10th grade remedial class was undertaken in order to discern patterns of school bullying. Twenty 10th graders were observed over the course of one academic year as they interacted with their peers and teachers. The observations helped us identify dispositional and situational factors which influenced participant roles. In-depth interviews of students involved in school bullying showed how participants interpreted and explained their classroom behaviors. The analysis of the data gathered allowed the identification of four main actor roles recognized in the existing literature on bullying-the pure victim, the pure bully, the provocative-victim, and the bystander-as well as the differentiation between aggressive bullies and the bully managers. Most roles fluctuated according to specific circumstances and often appeared to be moderated by the teacher's management style and contextual variables. Some pupils assumed different roles in different contexts, sometimes changing roles within or between episodes. Teacher personality and style also had an impact on the frequencies and types of aggression and victimization. The use of an ethnographic research paradigm is discussed as an important supplement to positivistic studies of school bullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sequential recruitment of study participants may inflate genetic heritability estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, Damia; Gögele, Martin; Schwienbacher, Christine; Caprioli, Giulia; De Grandi, Alessandro; Foco, Luisa; Platzgummer, Stefan; Pramstaller, Peter P; Pattaro, Cristian

    2017-06-01

    After the success of genome-wide association studies to uncover complex trait loci, attempts to explain the remaining genetic heritability (h 2 ) are mainly focused on unraveling rare variant associations and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Little attention is paid to the possibility that h 2 estimates are inflated as a consequence of the epidemiological study design. We studied the time series of 54 biochemical traits in 4373 individuals from the Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study, a pedigree-based study enrolling ten participants/day over several years, with close relatives preferentially invited within the same day. We observed distributional changes of measured traits over time. We hypothesized that the combination of such changes with the pedigree structure might generate a shared-environment component with consequent h 2 inflation. We performed variance components (VC) h 2 estimation for all traits after accounting for the enrollment period in a linear mixed model (two-stage approach). Accounting for the enrollment period caused a median h 2 reduction of 4%. For 9 traits, the reduction was of >20%. Results were confirmed by a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis with all VCs included at the same time (one-stage approach). The electrolytes were the traits most affected by the enrollment period. The h 2 inflation was independent of the h 2 magnitude, laboratory protocol changes, and length of the enrollment period. The enrollment process may induce shared-environment effects even under very stringent and standardized operating procedures, causing h 2 inflation. Including the day of participation as a random effect is a sensitive way to avoid overestimation.

  17. Active recruitment and limited participant-load related to high participation in large population-based biobank studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Scholtens, Salome; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Smidt, Nynke; Bultmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Insight into baseline participation rates and their determinants is crucial for designing future population-based biobank studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of baseline participation rates and their determinants in large longitudinal population-based

  18. A Different Result of Community Participation in Education: An Indonesian Case Study of Parental Participation in Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin

    2013-01-01

    Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…

  19. Knowledge on Bone Banking among Participants in an Orthopaedic Conference: A Preliminary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, S; Yusof, N; Ramalingam, S; Ng, W M; Mansor, A

    2017-07-01

    Despite increasing use of bone graft in Malaysia, there was still lack of data to quantify knowledge level on bone banking among orthopaedic community who are involved in transplantation related work. Therefore, a survey on awareness in tissue banking specifically bone banking, usage and choice of bone grafts was conducted. From 80 respondents, 82.5% were aware about tissue banking however only 12.5% knew of the existence of tissue banks in Malaysia. Femoral head was the bone allograft most often used as a substitute to autograft. Only 34.8% respondents preferred irradiated bone grafts whilst 46.9% preferred nonirradiated, indicating the need to educate the importance of radiation for sterilising tissues. Exhibition was the most preferred medium for awareness programme to disseminate information about bone banking in the orthopaedic community. The professional awareness is necessary to increase the knowledge on the use of bone graft, hence to increase bone transplantation for musculoskeletal surgeries in the country.

  20. Association of church-sponsored activity participation and prevalence of overweight and obesity in African American Protestants, National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jerome; Belay, Brook; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Dietz, William

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between participation in the African American church and overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m2). This cross-sectional analysis was based on the National Survey of American Life 2001-2003 and included 2,689 African American Protestant (AAP) adults. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overweight/obesity. Two practices were examined--frequency of participation in church activities (excluding services) and frequency of church service attendance. Each practice was analyzed in separate models. Each model included the following covariates: age, marital status, education, poverty, smoking, and region of country. We also adjusted models for sex. After adjustment, African American Protestant men (AAPM) who participated in church activities at least weekly were more likely to be overweight/obese (aOR=2.17; 95% CI = 1.25, 3.77) compared to AAPM who did not participate in church activities. There was no statistically significant association between overweight/obesity and participation in church activities for AAPW. There was no association between overweight/obesity and attendance of church services for AAP men and women combined. For AAPM, participation in church activities was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Further studies are required to determine why this association occurs in AAPM but not AAPW. Studies looking at the wider application of the several successful health initiatives targeting the AAP community should also be considered.

  1. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaya Góngora, Maria Del Mar; Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-03-30

    To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  2. High school athletic participation, sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy: a regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D F; Miller, K E; Farrell, M P; Melnick, M J; Barnes, G M

    1999-09-01

    To determine whether high school athletic participation among adolescents in Western New York was associated with reduced rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement. A secondary analysis of data from the Family and Adolescent Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of adolescents (ages 13-16 years) from 699 families living in households in Western New York. A general population sample was obtained with characteristics closely matching the census distributions in the area. Interview and survey methods provided data on athletic participation, frequency of sexual relations during the past year, and risk for pregnancy. Bivariate correlations were used to examine relationships among athletic participation, demographic and control variables, and measures of sexual behavior and pregnancy rates. Next, path analyses were done in order to test for hypothesized relationships between athletic participation, sexual behavior, and pregnancy involvement while controlling for age, race, income, family cohesion, and non-athletic forms of extracurricular activity. Variables that were significantly associated with sexual behavior and/or pregnancy involvement were presented for both sexes within the resulting multivariate models. Lower income and higher rates of sexual activity were associated with higher rates of pregnancy involvement for both sexes. Family cohesion was associated with lower sexual activity rates for both sexes. For girls, athletic participation was directly related to reduced frequency of sexual behavior and, indirectly, to pregnancy risk. Male athletes did not exhibit lower rates of sexual behavior and involvement with pregnancy than male non-athletes. Boys who participated in the arts, however, did report lower rates of sexual behavior and, indirectly, less involvement with pregnancy. Female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their non-athletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Among male

  3. The Aalborg Survey / Part 4 - Literature Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 4 - Literature Study The 4th part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the spring 2012 and consists primarily of a literature search and bibliographical listings of literature by the three....... Jensen are conducting research within the field related to this research project. Furthermore, both are intended end users of the outcome of this literature study. Finally, all references have been collected in a digital database in RefWorks....

  4. A participatory study of teenagers and young adults views on access and participation in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Solanki, Anita; Aslam, Natasha; Whelan, Jeremy S; Fern, Lorna A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit young people's views on access and participation in cancer research. Eight young people aged 18-25 years with a previous cancer diagnosis aged 15-24 participated in a one day workshop utilising participatory methodology. The workshop consisted of four exercises: role play/scene setting; focus group examining thoughts and opinions of research access and participation; individual reflection on access to different types of research; and creative interpretation of the workshop. Further consultation with 222 young people with cancer was conducted using an electronic survey. Three themes emerged: • Patient choice: Young people thought it was their right to know all options about available research. Without knowledge of all available studies they would be unable to make an informed choice about participation. • Role of healthcare professionals as facilitators/barriers: Young people suggested non-clinical healthcare professionals such as social workers and youth support coordinators may be more suited to approaching young people about participation in psychosocial and health services research. • Value of the research: The what, when and how information was delivered was key in relaying the value of the study and assisting young people in their decision to participate. Further consultation showed approximately 70% wanted to find out about all available research. However, one third trusted healthcare professionals to decide which research studies to inform them of. Effective ways to support healthcare professionals approaching vulnerable populations about research are needed to ensure young people are empowered to make informed choices about research participation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge on Bone Banking among Participants in an Orthopaedic Conference: A Preliminary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing use of bone graft in Malaysia, there was still lack of data to quantify knowledge level on bone banking among orthopaedic community who are involved in transplantation related work. Therefore, a survey on awareness in tissue banking specifically bone banking, usage and choice of bone grafts was conducted. From 80 respondents, 82.5% were aware about tissue banking however only 12.5% knew of the existence of tissue banks in Malaysia. Femoral head was the bone allograft most often used as a substitute to autograft. Only 34.8% respondents preferred irradiated bone grafts whilst 46.9% preferred nonirradiated, indicating the need to educate the importance of radiation for sterilising tissues. Exhibition was the most preferred medium for awareness programme to disseminate information about bone banking in the orthopaedic community. The professional awareness is necessary to increase the knowledge on the use of bone graft, hence to increase bone transplantation for musculoskeletal surgeries in the country.

  6. Labor force participation in later life: evidence from a cross-sectional study in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Haseen, Fariha

    2011-04-08

    The labor force participation rate is an important indicator of the state of the labor market and a major input into the economy's potential for creating goods and services. The objectives of this paper are to examine the prevalence of labor force participation among older people in Thailand and to investigate the factors affecting this participation. The data for this study were drawn from the '2007 Survey of Older Persons' in Thailand. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with labor force participation. The variables were further examined using multivariate analysis in order to identify the significant predictors of the likelihood of older people participating in the labor force, after controlling for other variables. Overall, 30,427 elderly people aged 60 or above were interviewed. More than a third (35%) of all respondents had participated in the labor force during the seven days preceding the survey. Respondents who were female (OR=0.56), those who were older (OR=0.47 for 70-79 and 0.21 for 80+ years), those who were widowed/divorced (OR=0.85), those who were living with their children (OR=0.69), those whose family income was relatively low, and those who worked in government sectors (OR=0.33) were less likely to participate in the labor force than were their counterparts. On the other hand, those who lived in urban areas (OR=1.2), those who had a low level of education (OR, secondary level 1.8, primary 2.4, and no schooling 2.5), those who were the head of the household (OR=1.9), and those who were in debt (OR=2.3) were more likely be involved in the labor force than their comparison groups. Furthermore, respondents who experienced greater difficulty in daily living, those who suffered from more chronic diseases, and those who assessed their health as poor were less likely to participate in the labor force than their counterparts. Labor force participation in their advanced years is not uncommon among the Thai elderly. The results

  7. Labor force participation in later life: Evidence from a cross-sectional study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonthorndhada Kusol

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The labor force participation rate is an important indicator of the state of the labor market and a major input into the economy's potential for creating goods and services. The objectives of this paper are to examine the prevalence of labor force participation among older people in Thailand and to investigate the factors affecting this participation. Methods The data for this study were drawn from the '2007 Survey of Older Persons' in Thailand. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with labor force participation. The variables were further examined using multivariate analysis in order to identify the significant predictors of the likelihood of older people participating in the labor force, after controlling for other variables. Results Overall, 30,427 elderly people aged 60 or above were interviewed. More than a third (35% of all respondents had participated in the labor force during the seven days preceding the survey. Respondents who were female (OR = 0.56, those who were older (OR = 0.47 for 70-79 and 0.21 for 80+ years, those who were widowed/divorced (OR = 0.85, those who were living with their children (OR = 0.69, those whose family income was relatively low, and those who worked in government sectors (OR = 0.33 were less likely to participate in the labor force than were their counterparts. On the other hand, those who lived in urban areas (OR = 1.2, those who had a low level of education (OR, secondary level 1.8, primary 2.4, and no schooling 2.5, those who were the head of the household (OR = 1.9, and those who were in debt (OR = 2.3 were more likely be involved in the labor force than their comparison groups. Furthermore, respondents who experienced greater difficulty in daily living, those who suffered from more chronic diseases, and those who assessed their health as poor were less likely to participate in the labor force than their counterparts. Conclusion Labor force participation in

  8. [Limitations of Social Participation in General Population - Normative Data of the IMET based on a Population-Based Survey in Northern Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, R; Walther, A L; Staupendahl, A; Katalinic, A

    2015-12-01

    Medical rehabilitation in Germany is characterized by the biopsychosocial model of the ICF. Its complexity makes it less suitable for studies in rehabilitation sciences. For an implementation of the ICF, specific assessment instruments that are able to measure activity and participation efficiently in rehabilitation are needed. Instruments measuring social participation are rarely available in German language and have been employed only in a handful of empirical works. The "Index zur Messung von Einschränkungen der Teilhabe" (IMET) was developed in 2005 and measures participation of people with different chronic diseases as described in the ICF. The IMET has been applied in many studies in rehabilitation science, but as reference values were not available so far, the results could not be classified. In a population survey, 5 004 residents in Luebeck were randomly selected by the registration office and sent a short questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions on the overall state of health, quality of life, prevalence of chronic diseases and limitations of participation (IMET). The completed questionnaire was returned by 2 755 of 4 692 eligible people (58.7%). 731 residents declined participation. Therefore, the participation quota is 43.1%. The mean age of participants was 53 years (SD: 17.1), 53% were women.Limitations of participation varied according to sex and age. Men tended to be more limited in their participation. As expected, limitations in participation increased with age. Participants with a low level of education showed a significantly higher rate of participation restrictions than people with a higher level of education. The IMET correlated significantly with the health status and quality of life as well as with the prevalence of various chronic diseases. The random sample of Luebeck inhabitants comprised people between 19 and 79 years of age. The age distribution of our sample deviated from the German population with younger people being

  9. "You Have to Be a Bit Brave": Barriers to Scottish Student-Teachers' Participation in Study-Abroad Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ninetta; Sosu, Edward; Fassetta, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined Scottish student teachers' attitudes to study-abroad and the reasons underpinning their reluctance to participate in these programmes. Data collection comprised a mixed-methods approach consisting of a survey of 318 student-teachers in one Scottish university followed by semi-structured interviews with…

  10. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Virginia; Foley, Marian; Quirk, Alan; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-01-29

    The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants' experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption) and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants' relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. These participants described no dramatic impacts attributable to taking part in

  11. Factors Associated with Participation, Active Refusals and Reasons for Not Taking Part in a Mortality Followback Survey Evaluating End-of-Life Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Calanzani

    Full Text Available Examination of factors independently associated with participation in mortality followback surveys is rare, even though these surveys are frequently used to evaluate end-of-life care. We aimed to identify factors associated with 1 participation versus non-participation and 2 provision of an active refusal versus a silent refusal; and systematically examine reasons for refusal in a population-based mortality followback survey.Postal survey about the end-of-life care received by 1516 people who died from cancer (aged ≥18, identified through death registrations in London, England (response rate 39.3%. The informant of death (a relative in 95.3% of cases was contacted 4-10 months after the patient died. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with participation/active refusals and content analysis to examine refusal reasons provided by 205 nonparticipants.The odds of partaking were higher for patients aged 90+ (AOR 3.48, 95%CI: 1.52-8.00, ref: 20-49yrs and female informants (AOR 1.70, 95%CI: 1.33-2.16. Odds were lower for hospital deaths (AOR 0.62, 95%CI: 0.46-0.84, ref: home and proxies other than spouses/partners (AORs 0.28 to 0.57. Proxies of patients born overseas were less likely to provide an active refusal (AOR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32-0.77. Refusal reasons were often multidimensional, most commonly study-related (36.0%, proxy-related and grief-related (25.1% each. One limitation of this analysis is the large number of nonparticipants who did not provide reasons for refusal (715/920.Our survey better reached proxies of older patients while those dying in hospitals were underrepresented. Proxy characteristics played a role, with higher participation from women and spouses/partners. More information is needed about the care received by underrepresented groups. Study design improvements may guide future questionnaire development and help develop strategies to increase response rates.

  12. Factors Associated with Participation, Active Refusals and Reasons for Not Taking Part in a Mortality Followback Survey Evaluating End-of-Life Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanzani, Natalia; Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan; Gomes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of factors independently associated with participation in mortality followback surveys is rare, even though these surveys are frequently used to evaluate end-of-life care. We aimed to identify factors associated with 1) participation versus non-participation and 2) provision of an active refusal versus a silent refusal; and systematically examine reasons for refusal in a population-based mortality followback survey. Methods Postal survey about the end-of-life care received by 1516 people who died from cancer (aged ≥18), identified through death registrations in London, England (response rate 39.3%). The informant of death (a relative in 95.3% of cases) was contacted 4–10 months after the patient died. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with participation/active refusals and content analysis to examine refusal reasons provided by 205 nonparticipants. Findings The odds of partaking were higher for patients aged 90+ (AOR 3.48, 95%CI: 1.52–8.00, ref: 20–49yrs) and female informants (AOR 1.70, 95%CI: 1.33–2.16). Odds were lower for hospital deaths (AOR 0.62, 95%CI: 0.46–0.84, ref: home) and proxies other than spouses/partners (AORs 0.28 to 0.57). Proxies of patients born overseas were less likely to provide an active refusal (AOR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32–0.77). Refusal reasons were often multidimensional, most commonly study-related (36.0%), proxy-related and grief-related (25.1% each). One limitation of this analysis is the large number of nonparticipants who did not provide reasons for refusal (715/920). Conclusions Our survey better reached proxies of older patients while those dying in hospitals were underrepresented. Proxy characteristics played a role, with higher participation from women and spouses/partners. More information is needed about the care received by underrepresented groups. Study design improvements may guide future questionnaire development and help develop strategies to increase

  13. Comparative survey of public participation in the nuclear licensing procedure in other European states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.; Bischof, W.

    1977-01-01

    The majority of states know either no participitation of the public at all (Italy, Austria), or only a very minor one (Great Britain, Spain, Belgium). This applies even to states like Sweden and Switzerland which are often held up as an example with regard to handling democracy. On the other hand, there is a comprehensive participation of the public in France and in the Netherlands. In France, a planned project is open for inspection within a radius of 5 km. After that, there are 4 weeks in which to lodge objections in written form. Everybody, who has an interest in the decision, has the right to file a suit against decisions by the authorities, in the context of which also a moral interest suffices according to law. In the Netherlands, the files are open for inspection within a radius of 10 km. Objections can be made orally or in a written form. They are discussed in a special hearing. Those immediately concerned have the right to file a suit. (HP) [de

  14. Social participation and risk of influenza infection in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobugawa, Yugo; Fujiwara, Takeo; Tashiro, Atsushi; Saito, Reiko; Kondo, Katsunori

    2018-01-24

    Influenza infection can cause severe pneumonia, which is sometimes fatal, particularly in older adults. Influenza results in 3-5 million cases of severe illness and about 250 000 to 500 000 deaths annually worldwide. Social participation in the context of influenza infection is controversial because, although social participation is beneficial in maintaining physical function and mental health, it also increases the risk of contact with infected people. This study examined the association between social participation and influenza infection in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older. Cross-sectional study. Japanese functionally independent adults aged 65 years or older. Among the respondents to the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2013 survey, which took place during the period from October to December 2013, 12 231 men and 14 091 women responded to questions on influenza vaccination and influenza infection. Using JAGES data for 12 231 men and 14 091 women aged ≥65 years, we examined the association between social participation and influenza infection. The association between influenza infection and number of groups in which respondents participated was investigated among adults aged≥65 years, stratified by vaccination status and sex. Unvaccinated women who participated in two or more social activities were 2.20 times (95% CI 1.47 to 3.29) as likely to report an influenza infection as those who reported no social participation. In contrast, vaccinated women who participated in two or more social groups had no additional risk of influenza infection as compared with female elders with no social participation. Among men, participation in social activities was not significantly associated with influenza infection, regardless of vaccination status. Social participation was associated with a higher risk of influenza infection among unvaccinated older women, which suggests a need for further efforts to promote influenza vaccination

  15. Gender, representation and online participation : a quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasilescu, B.N.; Capiluppi, A.; Serebrenik, A.

    2014-01-01

    Online communities are flourishing as social meeting web spaces for users and peer community members. Different online communities require different levels of competence for participants to join, and scattered evidence suggests that females and minorities as participants can be under-represented.

  16. Manipulation of pain catastrophizing: An experimental study of healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E Bialosky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel E Bialosky1*, Adam T Hirsh2,3, Michael E Robinson2,3, Steven Z George1,3*1Department of Physical Therapy; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology; 3Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAAbstract: Pain catastrophizing is associated with the pain experience; however, causation has not been established. Studies which specifically manipulate catastrophizing are necessary to establish causation. The present study enrolled 100 healthy individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to repeat a positive, neutral, or one of three catastrophizing statements during a cold pressor task (CPT. Outcome measures of pain tolerance and pain intensity were recorded. No change was noted in catastrophizing immediately following the CPT (F(1,84 = 0.10, p = 0.75, partial η2 < 0.01 independent of group assignment (F(4,84 = 0.78, p = 0.54, partial η2 = 0.04. Pain tolerance (F(4 = 0.67, p = 0.62, partial η2 = 0.03 and pain intensity (F(4 = 0.73, p = 0.58, partial η2 = 0.03 did not differ by group. This study suggests catastrophizing may be difficult to manipulate through experimental pain procedures and repetition of specific catastrophizing statements was not sufficient to change levels of catastrophizing. Additionally, pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ by group assignment. This study has implications for future studies attempting to experimentally manipulate pain catastrophizing.Keywords: pain, catastrophizing, experimental, cold pressor task, pain catastrophizing scale

  17. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Yates

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL at an institutional level. The origins of EL are found in the work of Dewey (1938, later modified by Kolb and Fry (1975. Experiential methods include: experiential education, service learning problem-based learning and others such as action learning, enquiry-based learning, and case studies. Faculty currently involved in EL at the participating university were invited to complete an online survey about their teaching and assessment methods. This paper will share the results and analysis of the EL inventory survey.

  18. Survey report on awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo's bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kotomi

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzes awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo's bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics. [Subjects and Methods] The study conducted a cross survey on 220 registrants of an Internet research firm. It analyzed: the awareness of citizens and their behavioral changes, in the aftermath of the allocation of Olympic and Paralympic Games; subject attributes and education level; recognition of disabled sports; and the awareness and behavior of participants, with regard to disabled sports. The analysis was conducted using SPSS Ver. 21 (IBM). [Results] The subjects were not interested in watching (72.2%), participating (76.8%), or volunteering (71.8%) in disabled sports. In addition, 76.8% of the subjects exhibited no behavioral changes-such as by watching, participating, or volunteering in disabled sports-after the Olympics and Paralympics bid decision. [Conclusion] This study's subjects had no confidence in their disability knowledge and no opportunities to interact with disabled persons. Furthermore, the bids for mega-events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games did not lead to behavioral changes concerning disabled sports. Therefore, disability understanding should promote and deepen participation behavior in disabled sports.

  19. Men with disabilities - A cross sectional survey of health promotion, social inclusion and participation at community Men's Sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Parsons, Richard; Vaz, Sharmila; Buchanan, Angus

    2016-01-01

    The intersections between chronicity, disability and social inequality are well understood. Novel ways to counter the social determinants of health and disability are needed. Men's Sheds are a community space where men can participate in a range of shared activities and potentially experience a health and social benefits. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to inform future research by determining who attended Men's Sheds and the range of health, social, community, and educational activities undertaken there. This paper explores the membership of people with disabilities (PWD) at Men's Sheds and the factors that predict their membership. An online survey link was sent to all known Men's Sheds internationally in 2012. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (univariate and multivariate) statistics. 32.2% of international sheds and 29% of Australian sheds specifically targeted the inclusion of PWD. 80% of these sheds have significantly more members with disabilities than sheds who do no target PWD. Factors associated with greater membership of PWD included the provision of transport, social outings and promoting occupational skills. PWD are being encouraged to join and are joining Men's Sheds. This is significant as the value of participation and inclusion toward better health and wellbeing is well known. Men's Sheds offer a community space where the social determinants of chronicity and disability can potentially be countered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Major depression, fibromyalgia and labour force participation: A population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented an elevated frequency of depressive symptoms and disorders in fibromyalgia, but have not examined the association between this comorbidity and occupational status. The purpose of this study was to describe these epidemiological associations using a national probability sample. Methods Data from iteration 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS were used. The CCHS 1.1 was a large-scale national general health survey. The prevalence of major depression in subjects reporting that they had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia by a health professional was estimated, and then stratified by demographic variables. Logistic regression models predicting labour force participation were also examined. Results The annual prevalence of major depression was three times higher in subjects with fibromyalgia: 22.2% (95% CI 19.4 – 24.9, than in those without this condition: 7.2% (95% CI 7.0 – 7.4. The association persisted despite stratification for demographic variables. Logistic regression models predicting labour force participation indicated that both conditions had an independent (negative effect on labour force participation. Conclusion Fibromyalgia and major depression commonly co-occur and may be related to each other at a pathophysiological level. However, each syndrome is independently and negatively associated with labour force participation. A strength of this study is that it was conducted in a large probability sample from the general population. The main limitations are its cross-sectional nature, and its reliance on self-reported diagnoses of fibromyalgia.

  1. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  2. Fingertip Amputation Treatment: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J; Rivlin, Michael; Kirkpatrick, William; Abboudi, Jack; Jones, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Distal fingertip amputations are common injuries in work- and non-work-related accidents. There is a paucity of evidence to support use of any one treatment. We conducted a study to better understand how surgeon and patient factors influence the treatment preferences for distal fingertip amputations among a cross section of US and international hand surgeons. We sent a 16-question survey to the American Association for Hand Surgery and reciprocal international hand societies and analyzed the response data using a logistic regression model. We hypothesized that hand surgeons' treatment preferences would be varied and influenced by surgeon and patient demographics. One hundred ninety-eight hand surgeons (62% US, 38% international) responded to the survey. For each clinical scenario (Allen levels 2, 3, and 4 and volar oblique amputations), there were wide variations in treatment preferences. Wound care was less likely performed by surgeons with more than 30 years of experience or plastic surgery backgrounds. Replantation was less likely performed by US surgeons and private practice surgeons. Pedicle and homodigital flaps were more commonly performed internationally. Surgeons in practice for less than 5 years were more likely to perform skeletal shortening. For all levels and orientations of fingertip amputation queried, there is a wide range of treatment preferences. Our survey results highlight the need for a prospective randomized trial to elucidate the most effective treatments for fingertip amputations.

  3. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia MacNeill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants’ experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Methods Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants’ relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. Conclusion These

  4. Los Angeles OneSource System Youth Participant Customer Satisfaction Survey, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisley, Deborah D.; Moore, Richard W.; Patch, Robin N.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Los Angeles OneSource Centers offer low-income youth ages 14-21 services aimed at improving educational achievement, enhancing job skills, and preparing for college. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the youths' satisfaction with services received at 14 OneSource Centers throughout…

  5. Participation of Asian-American women in cancer treatment research: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung T; Somkin, Carol P; Ma, Yifei; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa

    2005-01-01

    Few Asian-American women participate in cancer treatment trials. In a pilot study to assess barriers to participation, we mailed surveys to 132 oncologists and interviewed 19 Asian-American women with cancer from Northern California. Forty-four oncologists responded. They reported as barriers language problems, lack of culturally relevant cancer information, and complex protocols. Most stated that they informed Asian-American women about treatment trials. Only four women interviewed knew about trials. Other patient-identified barriers were fear of side effects, language problems, competing needs, and fear of experimentation. Family decision making was a barrier for both oncologists and patients. Compared to non-Asian oncologists, more Asian oncologists have referred Asian-American women to industry trials and identified barriers similar to patients' reports. Our findings indicate that Asian-American women need to be informed about cancer treatment trials, linguistic barriers should be addressed, and future research should evaluate cultural barriers such as family decision making.

  6. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  7. Immunohistochemistry practices of cytopathology laboratories: a survey of participants in the College of American Pathologists Nongynecologic Cytopathology Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew H; Schwartz, Mary R; Moriarty, Ann T; Wilbur, David C; Souers, Rhona; Fatheree, Lisa; Booth, Christine N; Clayton, Amy C; Kurtyz, Daniel F I; Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi; Crothers, Barbara A

    2014-09-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is important for cytology but poses special challenges because preanalytic conditions may differ from the conditions of IHC-positive controls. To broadly survey cytology laboratories to quantify preanalytic platforms for cytology IHC and identify problems with particular platforms or antigens. To discover how validation guidelines for HER2 testing have affected cytology. A voluntary survey of cytology IHC practices was sent to 1899 cytology laboratories participating in the College of American Pathologists Nongynecologic Cytopathology Education Program in the fall of 2009. A total of 818 laboratories (43%) responded to the survey by April 2010. Three hundred fourty-five of 791 respondents (44%) performed IHC on cytology specimens. Seventeen different fixation and processing platforms prior to antibody reaction were reported. A total of 59.2% of laboratories reported differences between the platforms for cytology specimens and positive controls, but most (155 of 184; 84%) did not alter antibody dilutions or antigen retrieval for cytology IHC. When asked to name 2 antibodies for which staining conditions differed between cytology and surgical samples, there were 18 responses listing 14 antibodies. A total of 30.6% of laboratories performing IHC offered HER2 testing before publication of the 2007 College of American Pathologists/American Society of Clinical Oncologists guidelines, compared with 33.6% afterward, with increased performance of testing by reference laboratories. Three laboratories validated a nonformalin HER2 platform. The platforms for cytology IHC and positive controls differ for most laboratories, yet conditions are uncommonly adjusted for cytology specimens. Except for the unsuitability of air-dried smears for HER2 testing, the survey did not reveal evidence of systematic problems with any antibody or platform.

  8. Self-selection in participation in the first health survey, three weeks after a man-made disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Roorda, J.; Stellato, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Three weeks after a firework disaster in Enschede, The Netherlands, a health survey was performed among survivors. The primary aims of the study were collecting data for health care policy making and decreasing uncertainty concerning exposure to toxic substances. Therefore, each

  9. Survey of CFD studies on automotive buffeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.-F.

    2005-01-01

    In the current automobile market buffeting is one of the customer frequent complaints on luxury cars and SUVs. Buffeting is a low frequency but high level wind noise and makes people inside the vehicle uncomfortable if it lasts for a long period of time. The physical mechanism of buffeting is a complicated phenomenon of aeroacoustic resonance. The aeroacoustic characteristics of buffeting depend on vehicle features and operating conditions. In this paper, a survey of CFD studies on the automotive buffeting is presented. Firstly, several buffeting related concepts, such as Helmholtz resonator, flow over a cavity, shear layer instability and vortex shedding, are reviewed and relevant references are listed. Then, a historic survey of the buffeting investigation is made with emphasis on computational studies. As an example, the buffeting studies at DaimlerChrysler are selected to demonstrate the procedure of CFD simulation for automotive buffeting. The procedure is then validated by the correlation with wind tunnel testing. After that the validated procedure is applied to find solutions for buffeting reduction. Finally, some comments on buffeting studies are addressed. (author)

  10. Abdominal ultrasonographic screening of adult health study participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.; Higashi, Yoshitaka; Fukuya, Tatsuro

    1989-11-01

    To assess ultrasonography's capabilities in the detection of cancer and other diseases, abdominal ultrasonographic screening was performed for 3,707 Hiroshima and 2,294 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors and comparison subjects who participated in the Adult Health Study from 1 November 1981 to 31 October 1985 in Hiroshima and from 1 August 1984 to 31 July 1986 in Nagasaki. A total of 20 cancers was detected, consisting of 7 hepatomas, 3 gastric cancers, 3 renal cancers, 2 cancers of the urinary bladder, and 1 cancer each of the ovary, pancreas, colon, ureter and liver (metastatic). The cancer detection rate was 0.33 %. The diagnoses of seven cancer subjects in each city were subsequently confirmed at autopsy or surgery; diagnoses of four cancer subjects in Hiroshima and two in Nagasaki were obtained from death certificates. Among the 20 cancer patients, 13 were asymptomatic. After the ultrasonographic detection and diagnosis of these 20 cancers, the medical records of each of the 20 cancer patients were reviewed for any evidence of cancer detection by other examining techniques, and the records of only 3 patients revealed such recent detection. The tumor and tissue registries were similarly checked, but no evidence of earlier diagnosis of their disease was found. Ten of the cancer patients had received ionizing radiation doses from the A-bombs ranging up to 3,421 mGy (DS86), but no correlation was established between cancer prevalence and the A-bomb doses. A variety of tumors, 259 in number and most probably benign, were also detected with ultrasonography. In addition, numerous other abnormalities were diagnosed, with prevalences of 7.7 % for cholelithiasis, 5.7 % for renal cysts, and 3.8 % for liver cysts. No statistical analysis was performed concerning the prevalence of the diseases detected. (author)

  11. The Outward Bound Solo: A Study of Participants' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Kenneth R.; Bobilya, Andrew J.; Daniel, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Research on wilderness experience programs indicates there is much to learn about specific components of the overall experience. The solo, where students are intentionally separated from their expedition group for an extended time for reflection, has long had an anecdotal reputation for enhancing the quality of participants' experiences. The…

  12. Participation in physical activity: An empirical study of working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As more women enter the work place and advance through the hierarchy in organisations, taking on new responsibilities and facing increased work demands, the need to balance their career, family and participation in physical activity arises. This has a direct bearing on their physical and mental well being, as well as their ...

  13. Annual change in the rate of participation in breast cancer screening through active encouragement of sports participation. A survey of women participants at the annual meetings of the Pink Ribbon Ladies' Tennis Tournament organized by the Japan Women's Tennis Players' League

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Naoko; Nozue; Etsuko; Fukuda, Mamoru; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Kasumi, Fujio

    2007-01-01

    In March 2002, an initial attempt was made to decrease breast cancer mortality by the Japan Society of Breast Health, by means of encouraging participation in sports. This was followed by other similar events. The present study was designed to examine whether these kinds of sport-associated events are actually effective for increasing the screening participation rate. We hoped that the results would reveal practical ways of organizing such programs. One of these activities, the All Japan Women's Tennis Players' League, has called for amateur players to participate in an annual meeting of the Pink Ribbon Ladies' Tennis Tournament since 2003. A survey of their knowledge about breast cancer and their will to participate in breast cancer screening has been carried out annually in 2003, 2004 and 2005, by asking the participants to respond to our questionnaires. As a result, the number of participants has increased: from 7,201 women in 2003, to 7,846 in 2004 and to 8,572 in 2005. The questionnaires included items about participation in breast cancer screening, performance of self-examination, and participation in mammography screening. The participation rate increased year by year. The participation rate at mammography screening was 21% in 2003, and this increased to 26% in 2005. Thus this kind of sports event appears to promote knowledge about breast cancer screening and to increase the participation rate. On the other hand, it was found that the rate of self-examination decreased from 53% to 22%. Therefore problems that need to be addressed in the future include not only increasing women's motivation to undergo screening, but also the selection of appropriate screening methods, their combination, and distribution of accurate information. (author)

  14. Employees' perspectives on ethically important aspects of genetic research participation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Geppert, Cynthia M A; Rogers, Melinda; Green Hammond, Katherine A

    2005-01-01

    Insights from genetic research may greatly improve our understanding of physical and mental illnesses and assist in the prevention of disease. Early experience with genetic information suggests that it may lead to stigma, discrimination, and other psychosocial harms, however, and this may be particularly salient in some settings, such as the workplace. Despite the importance of these issues, little is known about how healthy adults, including workers, perceive and understand ethically important issues in genetic research pertaining to physical and mental illness. We developed, pilot tested, and administered a written survey and structured interview to 63 healthy working adults in 2 settings. For this paper, we analyzed a subset of items that assessed attitudes toward ethically relevant issues related to participation in genetic research on physical and mental illness, such as its perceived importance, its acceptability for various populations, and appropriate motivations for participation. Our respondents strongly endorsed the importance of physical and mental illness genetic research. They viewed participation as somewhat to very acceptable for all 12 special population groups we asked about, including persons with mental illness. They perceived more positives than negatives in genetic research participation, giving neutral responses regarding potential risks. They affirmed many motivations for participation to varying degrees. Men tended to affirm genetic research participation importance, acceptability, and motivations more strongly than women. Healthy working persons may be willing partners in genetic research related to physical and mental illnesses in coming years. This project suggests the feasibility and value of evidence-based ethics inquiry, although further study is necessary. Evidence regarding stakeholders' perspectives on ethically important issues in science may help in the development of research practices and policy.

  15. Performance in Measurement of Serum Cystatin C by Laboratories Participating in the College of American Pathologists 2014 CYS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckfeldt, John H; Karger, Amy B; Miller, W Greg; Rynders, Gregory P; Inker, Lesley A

    2015-07-01

    Cystatin C is becoming an increasingly popular biomarker for estimating glomerular filtration rate, and accurate measurements of cystatin C concentrations are necessary for accurate estimates of glomerular filtration rate. To assess the accuracy of cystatin C concentration measurements in laboratories participating in the College of American Pathologists CYS Survey. Two fresh frozen serum pools, the first from apparently healthy donors and the second from patients with chronic kidney disease, were prepared and distributed to laboratories participating in the CYS Survey along with the 2 usual processed human plasma samples. Target values were established for each pool by using 2 immunoassays and ERM DA471/IFCC international reference material. For the normal fresh frozen pool (ERM-DA471/IFCC-traceable target of 0.960 mg/L), the all-method mean (SD, % coefficient of variation [CV]) reported by all of the 123 reporting laboratories was 0.894 mg/L (0.128 mg/L, 14.3%). For the chronic kidney disease pool (ERM-DA471/IFCC-traceable target of 2.37 mg/L), the all-method mean (SD, %CV) was 2.258 mg/L (0.288 mg/L, 12.8%). There were substantial method-specific biases (mean milligram per liter reported for the normal pool was 0.780 for Siemens, 0.870 for Gentian, 0.967 for Roche, 1.061 for Diazyme, and 0.970 for other/not specified reagents; and mean milligram per liter reported for the chronic kidney disease pool was 2.052 for Siemens, 2.312 for Gentian, 2.247 for Roche, 2.909 for Diazyme, and 2.413 for other/not specified reagents). Manufacturers need to improve the accuracy of cystatin C measurement procedures if cystatin C is to achieve its full potential as a biomarker for estimating glomerular filtration rate.

  16. Sharing individual participant data from clinical trials: an opinion survey regarding the establishment of a central repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudur Smith, Catrin; Dwan, Kerry; Altman, Douglas G; Clarke, Mike; Riley, Richard; Williamson, Paula R

    2014-01-01

    Calls have been made for increased access to individual participant data (IPD) from clinical trials, to ensure that complete evidence is available. However, despite the obvious benefits, progress towards this is frustratingly slow. In the meantime, many systematic reviews have already collected IPD from clinical trials. We propose that a central repository for these IPD should be established to ensure that these datasets are safeguarded and made available for use by others, building on the strengths and advantages of the collaborative groups that have been brought together in developing the datasets. Evaluate the level of support, and identify major issues, for establishing a central repository of IPD. On-line survey with email reminders. 71 reviewers affiliated with the Cochrane Collaboration's IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group were invited to participate. 30 (42%) invitees responded: 28 (93%) had been involved in an IPD review and 24 (80%) had been involved in a randomised trial. 25 (83%) agreed that a central repository was a good idea and 25 (83%) agreed that they would provide their IPD for central storage. Several benefits of a central repository were noted: safeguarding and standardisation of data, increased efficiency of IPD meta-analyses, knowledge advancement, and facilitating future clinical, and methodological research. The main concerns were gaining permission from trial data owners, uncertainty about the purpose of the repository, potential resource implications, and increased workload for IPD reviewers. Restricted access requiring approval, data security, anonymisation of data, and oversight committees were highlighted as issues under governance of the repository. There is support in this community of IPD reviewers, many of whom are also involved in clinical trials, for storing IPD in a central repository. Results from this survey are informing further work on developing a repository of IPD which is currently underway by our group.

  17. Sharing individual participant data from clinical trials: an opinion survey regarding the establishment of a central repository.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin Tudur Smith

    Full Text Available Calls have been made for increased access to individual participant data (IPD from clinical trials, to ensure that complete evidence is available. However, despite the obvious benefits, progress towards this is frustratingly slow. In the meantime, many systematic reviews have already collected IPD from clinical trials. We propose that a central repository for these IPD should be established to ensure that these datasets are safeguarded and made available for use by others, building on the strengths and advantages of the collaborative groups that have been brought together in developing the datasets.Evaluate the level of support, and identify major issues, for establishing a central repository of IPD.On-line survey with email reminders.71 reviewers affiliated with the Cochrane Collaboration's IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group were invited to participate.30 (42% invitees responded: 28 (93% had been involved in an IPD review and 24 (80% had been involved in a randomised trial. 25 (83% agreed that a central repository was a good idea and 25 (83% agreed that they would provide their IPD for central storage. Several benefits of a central repository were noted: safeguarding and standardisation of data, increased efficiency of IPD meta-analyses, knowledge advancement, and facilitating future clinical, and methodological research. The main concerns were gaining permission from trial data owners, uncertainty about the purpose of the repository, potential resource implications, and increased workload for IPD reviewers. Restricted access requiring approval, data security, anonymisation of data, and oversight committees were highlighted as issues under governance of the repository.There is support in this community of IPD reviewers, many of whom are also involved in clinical trials, for storing IPD in a central repository. Results from this survey are informing further work on developing a repository of IPD which is currently underway by our group.

  18. Survey-based analysis of risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility training and competition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kimberley L; Dickey, James P; Bent, Leah R; Thomason, Jeffrey J; Moëns, Noel M M

    2013-10-01

    To identify potential risk factors for agility-related injuries among dogs. Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey. 3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials. A retrospective electronic survey was used to investigate potential risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility-related activities. Respondents were handlers recruited through member lists of large canine agility associations in Canada and the United Kingdom and through promotion on an agility blog site. Variables evaluated included demographic information for handlers and dogs, exposure variables (eg, frequency of agility practice and competition in the past year), and use of preventive measures intended to keep dogs fit for agility (warmup, cooldown, or conditioning exercises; alternative therapeutic treatments [eg, acupuncture, massage, or chiropractic care]; or dietary supplement products). Data were collected from 1,669 handlers of 3,801 agility dogs internationally; 1,209 (32%) dogs incurred ≥ 1 injury. Previous injury (OR, 100.5), ≤ 4 years of agility experience for dogs (OR, 1.5), use of alternative therapeutic treatments (OR, 1.5), and Border Collie breed (OR, 1.7) were associated with increased odds of injury. Handlers having 5 to 10 or > 10 years of experience (OR, 0.8 and 0.6, respectively) and dogs having > 4 years of experience in the sport (OR, 0.6) were associated with decreased odds of injury. Specific factors were associated with agility-related injuries in dogs. Educational prevention strategies should target at-risk populations in an effort to reduce potential injuries. Future research should focus on the biomechanical factors associated with agility-related injuries.

  19. Pilot study for natural radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    NRPB's national survey of natural radiation exposure in homes commenced in 1982 and will run until 1984. A pilot survey was undertaken in over 100 homes for one year, using passive thermoluminescent dosemeters to measure external radiation from terrestrial and cosmic sources and passive radon dosemeters to measure the radon-222 gas concentration. A preliminary analysis of the results obtained from the pilot survey is given. The main value of the pilot survey was in providing experience and various administrative and scientific procedures have been simplified or automated for the national survey. (U.K.)

  20. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Nasim A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Jina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  1. Hearing loss and work participation: a cross-sectional study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinndal, Elisabeth Vigrestad; Solheim, Jorunn; Rise, Marit By; Jensen, Chris

    2018-04-27

    To study work participation of persons with hearing loss, and associations with hearing disabilities, self-reported workability, fatigue and work accommodation. Cross-sectional internet-based survey. A total of 10,679 persons with hearing loss within working-age were invited to answer the survey, where 3330 answered (35.6%). Degree of hearing loss was associated with low workability, fatigue and work place accommodation, while sick leave was associated with fatigue. Degree of hearing loss was positively associated with being unemployed (p part-time work (p < .01) (often combined with disability benefits) for women. Work place accommodation was more frequently provided among respondents working with sedentary postures, high seniority, long-term sick leave or low workability. Additional unfavourable sensory conditions were associated with decreased employment (p < .001) and workability, and an increase in sick leave (p < .01) and fatigue (p < .001). Hearing loss seemed to influence work participation factors negatively; particularly, for moderate hearing loss and for women, even though the degree of employment was high. A lack of work place accommodation when there was a need for such was found. This implies increased attentiveness towards individual needs concerning the experienced disability a hearing loss may produce. A more frequent use of hearing disability assessment is suggested.

  2. Representativeness of participants in a lifestyle intervention study in obese pregnant women - the difference between study participants and non-participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesche, Joanna; Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    women who declined participation or were excluded due to competing diseases and 240 women who did not respond to the initial invitation received the same standard care. RESULTS: The randomized women had similar BMI but a lower parity and age, and were more frequently non-smokers, born in Denmark...

  3. Mentoring in Clinical-Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master's Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Aileen P; Lee, Linda S; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E; Seely, Ellen W; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-12-01

    Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of master's-level trainees in clinical-translational research training programs. A cross-sectional online survey of recent graduates of clinical research master's program was conducted. Of 73 surveys distributed, 56.2% (n = 41) complete responses were analyzed. Trainees were overwhelmingly positive about participation in their master's programs and the impact it had on their professional development. Overall the majority (≥75%) of trainees perceived they had effective mentoring in terms of developing skills needed for conducting clinical-translational research. Fewer trainees perceived effective mentoring in career development and work-life balance. In all 15 areas of mentoring effectiveness assessed, higher rates of perceived mentor effectiveness was seen among trainees with ≥2 mentors compared to those with solo mentoring (SM). In addition, trainees with ≥2 mentors perceived having effective mentoring in more mentoring aspects (median: 14.0; IQR: 12.0-15.0) than trainees with SM (median: 10.5; IQR: 8.0-14.5). Results from this survey suggest having ≥2 mentors may be beneficial in fulfilling trainee expectations for mentoring in clinical-translational training. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mentoring in Clinical‐Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master's Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda S.; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E.; Seely, Ellen W.; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of master's‐level trainees in clinical‐translational research training programs. A cross‐sectional online survey of recent graduates of clinical research master's program was conducted. Of 73 surveys distributed, 56.2% (n = 41) complete responses were analyzed. Trainees were overwhelmingly positive about participation in their master's programs and the impact it had on their professional development. Overall the majority (≥75%) of trainees perceived they had effective mentoring in terms of developing skills needed for conducting clinical‐translational research. Fewer trainees perceived effective mentoring in career development and work‐life balance. In all 15 areas of mentoring effectiveness assessed, higher rates of perceived mentor effectiveness was seen among trainees with ≥2 mentors compared to those with solo mentoring (SM). In addition, trainees with ≥2 mentors perceived having effective mentoring in more mentoring aspects (median: 14.0; IQR: 12.0–15.0) than trainees with SM (median: 10.5; IQR: 8.0–14.5). Results from this survey suggest having ≥2 mentors may be beneficial in fulfilling trainee expectations for mentoring in clinical‐translational training. PMID:26534872

  5. Regional South Australia Health (RESONATE) survey: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Gillam, Marianne; May, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Access to quality healthcare services is considered a moral right. However, for people living in regional locations, timely access to the services that they need may not always be possible because of structural and attitudinal barriers. This suggests that people living in regional areas may have unmet healthcare needs. The aim of this research will be to examine the healthcare needs, expectations and experiences of regional South Australians. Methods and analysis The Regional South Australia Health (RESONATE) survey is a cross-sectional study of adult health consumers living in any private or non-private dwelling, in any regional, rural, remote or very remote area of South Australia and with an understanding of written English. Data will be collected using a 45-item, multidimensional, self-administered instrument, designed to measure healthcare need, barriers to healthcare access and health service utilisation, attitudes, experiences and satisfaction. The instrument has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, including good content validity and internal reliability, good test–retest reliability and a high level of acceptability. The survey will be administered online and in hard-copy, with at least 1832 survey participants to be recruited over a 12-month period, using a comprehensive, multimodal recruitment campaign. Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. The results will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social media, broadcast media, print media, the internet and various community/stakeholder engagement activities. PMID:29654014

  6. Factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in water allocation trading. A case study in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Giannoccaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to uncover the factors that influence farmers’ attitudes towards water allocation trading. In the study, we simulate two water availability scenarios, an average year and a drought year, in a contingent valuation experiment with 241 farmers. A survey was held in the spring of 2012 in the Guadalquivir and Almanzora River Basins. First, we estimated a multinomial logit model to determine the factors that influence farmers to decide to participate in our hypothetical market. We then analysed the structural and socio-economic factors determining the monetary value of traded water using Heckman’s two-step model. Our results indicate that those farmers who are more innovative and have had agricultural training show a higher willingness to participate in water trading. Additionally, low water-supply guarantee and appropriate information about seasonal water availability increase the probability of participation. Higher willingness to pay (WTP for water is found in horticulture and among farmers who grow citrus and other permanent crops; lower water selling value (WTA is found in farms with extensive annual crops and traditional olive groves. However, monetary values (WTP/WTA are strongly dependent on the current cost of irrigation water services. While findings of this research seem to support the idea of diffusion innovation theory, the existence of ethical concerns that might influence farmers’ acceptance of irrigation water markets needs further analysis.

  7. Factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in water allocation trading. A case study in southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoccaro, G.; Castillo, M.; Berbel, J.

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to uncover the factors that influence farmers’ attitudes towards water allocation trading. In the study, we simulate two water availability scenarios, an average year and a drought year, in a contingent valuation experiment with 241 farmers. A survey was held in the spring of 2012 in the Guadalquivir and Almanzora River Basins. First, we estimated a multinomial logit model to determine the factors that influence farmers to decide to participate in our hypothetical market. We then analysed the structural and socio-economic factors determining the monetary value of traded water using Heckman’s two-step model. Our results indicate that those farmers who are more innovative and have had agricultural training show a higher willingness to participate in water trading. Additionally, low water-supply guarantee and appropriate information about seasonal water availability increase the probability of participation. Higher willingness to pay (WTP) for water is found in horticulture and among farmers who grow citrus and other permanent crops; lower water selling value (WTA) is found in farms with extensive annual crops and traditional olive groves. However, monetary values (WTP/WTA) are strongly dependent on the current cost of irrigation water services. While findings of this research seem to support the idea of diffusion innovation theory, the existence of ethical concerns that might influence farmers’ acceptance of irrigation water markets needs further analysis. (Author)

  8. Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable. PMID:15661080

  9. Study of turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity filled with either non-participating, participating grey and participating semigrey media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, R; Perez-Segarra, C D; Lehmkuhl, O; Colomer, G

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5:1, filled with air under a Rayleigh number based on the height of 4.5·10 10 is studied numerically. Three different situations have been analysed. In the first one, the cavity is filled with a transparent medium. In the second one, the cavity is filled with a semigrey participating mixture of air and water vapour. In the last one the cavity contains a grey participating gas. The turbulent flow is described by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using symmetry-preserving discretizations. Simulations are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Surface and gas radiation have been simulated using the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM). The influence of radiation on fluid flow behaviour has been analysed.

  10. Participation in questionnaire studies among couples affected by breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Helene; Rottmann, Nina; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic variables and couple participation. The patient characteristics older age (OR = 0.15 [95% CI = 0.07-0.55]), low education (OR = 1.95 [95% CI = 1.46-2.68]), disability pension (OR = 0.59 [95% CI = 0.39-0.55]), or non-western ethnicity (OR = 0.36 [95% CI = 0.15-0.82]) reduced couple participation....... The partner characteristics older age (OR = 0.23 [95% CI = 0.15-0.43]), low education (OR = 1.67 [95% CI = 1.25-2.22]), receiving disability pension (OR = 0.46 [95% CI = 0.25-0.82]), non-western ethnicity (OR = 0.17 [95% CI = 0.06-0.49]), or high morbidity (OR = 0.76 [95% CI = 0.60-0.96]) also reduced couple...

  11. Participants' perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Saldivar G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo González-Saldivar,1 René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez,2 José Luis Viramontes-Madrid,3 Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro,2 Kevin Erick Gabriel Carlos-Reyna,2 Andrés Marcelo Treviño-Alvarez,2 Neri Alejandro Álvarez-Villalobos,4 José Gerardo González-González2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Endocrinology Division, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, 3Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 4Medical Statistics Department, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico Background: There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials.Methods: To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases and 604 nonparticipants (controls of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico.Results: Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4% than controls (50.7% perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%. We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk

  12. Study on community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits and well-being: Using Taoyuan City as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Jong; Tseng, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the Research of Community Tai Chi Chuan Participants' Leisure Benefits and Well-being. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan city. A total of 500 valid questionnaires were retrieved, and the data were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 7.0 structural equation model analysis (SEM). The findings were as followed: 1) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: Gender had no difference in the factor of ``psychological benefit'' of leisure benefits. Occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan and participation in seniority reached significant difference in leisure benefits. 2) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: gender, occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan, participation in seniority reached significant difference in well-being. 3) The study showed community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits had a significant positive correlation in well-being. Based on the findings, suggestions were proposed to related Taiwan Tai Chi Chuan promotion for reference.

  13. Exploring the characteristics, global distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants: a literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Kamel, Mariam; Jin, Yanling; Xu, Michael Kuan; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Samaan, Zainab; Levine, Mitchell Ah; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-01-01

    Article retraction is a measure taken by journals or authors where there is evidence of research misconduct or error, redundancy, plagiarism or unethical research. Recently, the retraction of scientific publications has been on the rise. In this survey, we aimed to describe the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. We searched retracted articles on the PubMed database and Retraction Watch website from 1980 to February 2016. The primary outcomes were the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. The secondary outcomes included how article retractions were handled by journals and how to improve the journal practices toward article retractions. We included 1,339 retracted articles. Most retracted articles had six authors or fewer. Article retraction was most common in the USA (26%), Japan (11%) and Germany (10%). The main reasons for article retraction were misconduct (51%, n = 685) and error (14%, n = 193). There were 66% (n = 889) of retracted articles having male senior or corresponding authors. Of the articles retracted after August 2010, 63% (n = 567) retractions were reported on Retraction Watch. Large discrepancies were observed in the ways that different journals handled article retractions. For instance, articles were completely withdrawn from some journals, while in others, articles were still available with no indication of retraction. Likewise, some retraction notices included a detailed account of the events that led to article retraction, while others only consisted of a statement indicating the article retraction. The characteristics, geographic distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants were examined in this survey. More efforts are needed to improve the consistency and transparency of journal practices toward article retractions.

  14. A Reasoned Action Approach to Participation in Lesson Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Siebrichje; Roorda, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates teachers’ attitude toward Lesson Study (LS), a professional development approach which is relatively unknown in the Netherlands. The paper reports a qualitative study based on the Reasoned Action Approach, which explains how teachers’ beliefs influence their

  15. Assessment of Social Capital in terms of Participation, Knowledge, Trust, and Social Cohesion: Zahedan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karimian Bostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that the urban population in developing countries increases more than double from 2000 to 2030. This rapid population transformation to cities will be difficult. Therefore, the municipal administration will be involved in numerous challenges in cities. For this purpose, social capital as a bottom-up planning is one of the appropriate ways of management and dealing with these challenges. The aim of this study was to measure the social capital in four aspects of knowledge, participation, social cohesion, and trust in Zahedan. The research method of this research is descriptive-analytic in an applied type. Library studies and surveying (questionnaire were used to collect the required data. The questions in this survey were designed based on four indicators of social capital. The statistical population of the present study is 575,116 people residing in Zahedan in 2011. One sample T- test was used for calculations. The results of the analysis show that the social capital criteria in the city of Zahedan are undesirable in all four criteria.

  16. Parental exercise is associated with Australian children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between parental physical activity and children's physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been well studied in the Australian context. Given the increasing focus on physical activity and childhood obesity, it is important to understand correlates of children's physical activity. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exercise was associated with children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods The data were drawn from a nationally representative sample (n = 8,484 of 7–15 year old Australian schoolchildren, surveyed as part of the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey in 1985. A subset of 5,929 children aged 9–15 years reported their participation in extracurricular sports and their parents' exercise. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 1.6 km (1-mile run/walk and in addition for children aged 9, 12 or 15 years, using a physical work capacity test (PWC170. Results While the magnitude of the differences were small, parental exercise was positively associated with children's extracurricular sports participation (p p 170 (p = 0.013. In most instances, when only one parent was active, the sex of that parent was not an independent predictor of the child's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion Parental exercise may influence their children's participation in extracurricular sports and their cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Understanding the correlates of children's extracurricular sport participation is important for the targeting of health promotion and public health interventions, and may influence children's future health status.

  17. Use of radar survey data for engineering-geological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valyakh, V M; Grafskii, B V

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of the basic methodical principles underlying the use of aerial survey radar data in regional studies. The basic characteristics of deciphering indicators on the surveys are identified.

  18. The Effect of Student Participation in International Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDee, Lynda S.; Stewart, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Responses were received from 38 of 100 nursing graduates who completed a 2-week international study tour. International study had a significant impact on personal development, the nurse's role, international perspective, and intellectual development. (SK)

  19. Characteristics of participants in an HIV prevention intervention for youth in Rwanda: results from a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Celis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper studies determinants of participation in a peer-led school-based HIV prevention intervention in Rwanda. Methods. A baseline survey among 1071 students (mean age 17 years assessed potential determinants of participation, while a follow-up six months in the intervention measured actual participation in the intervention. Statistical models were built using multivariate linear and multinomial regression analysis predicting overall participation, par- ticipation in group discussions and individual counseling. Results. Those who recently had sex, had been tested for HIV, feel more susceptible to HIV, have a higher sexual self-concept, a more positive future perspective (only for non-sexually active, and boys, were more likely to participate in group activities. Also students from the same class as the peer educator and boarding school students were more likely to participate in group activities. Older students and those with low external health locus of control participated more in individual counseling. Discussion. Participation could be increased by investing in general well-being of young people, organizing girls-only activities, and diversifying activities. Key words: selection bias, HIV prevention, participation rate, young people, Rwanda

  20. Participants' Reactions to and Suggestions for Conducting Intimate Partner Violence Research: A Study of Rural Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Greaney, Kayleigh; Palmer, Kelly M

    2016-01-01

    To document rural young adults' reasons for emotional reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) research as well as to hear young adults' perspectives on how to most effectively conduct comprehensive IPV research in their rural communities. The data presented in this paper draw from 2 studies (ie, an online survey study and an in-person or telephone interview study) that included the same 16 US rural counties in New England and Appalachia. Participants, 47% of whom were in both studies, were young (age range 18-24), white (92%-94%), heterosexual (89%-90%), female (62%-68%), and mostly low to middle income. Nine percent of participants reported they were upset by the questions due to personal experiences with IPV or for other reasons not related to personal IPV experiences. Forty percent of participants reported they personally benefited from participating in the study, and they provided various reasons for this benefit. Regarding suggestions for conducting IPV research with rural young adults, participants believed that both online recruitment and online data collection methods were the best ways to engage young adults, although many participants suggested that more than 1 modality was ideal, which underscores the need for multimethod approaches when conducting research with rural young adults. These findings are reassuring to those committed to conducting research on sensitive topics with rural populations and also shed light on best practices for conducting this type of research from the voices of rural young adults themselves. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  1. 'Radiation Fair' for 15 years in Osaka, Japan, and survey of the participants attitude toward radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Asano, Takeyoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1999-09-01

    We have been successfully operating 'Radiation Fair--The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August every year for 15 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan. The purpose of this event is radiation education of public including school kids through efficient information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. Currently we set up the space of it on a floor of Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major department stores in downtown Osaka and display various irradiated products available in our daily life together with explanatory panels. We have been devising various attractions as efficient information transfer media so that even elementary-school kids understand the basic knowledge of radiation and irradiation technologies. The number of participants has increased year by year until more than 20,000 in recent years. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products as well as impression toward the displays. The survey results suggest that school education may contribute to establish the public image toward 'radiation' as well as mass media. (author)

  2. Ecosystems Surveys Branch Gear Efficiency Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experiment aimed at quantifying the herding efficiency of flatfish for the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) survey trawl bridles was conducted during...

  3. Participation in Tertiary Study Abroad Programs: The Role of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalis, Steve; Joiner, Therese A.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing trend for the globalisation of business has highlighted the need for a better understanding of the factors that influence levels of intercultural awareness within organisations. Within the higher education sector, one initiative that aims to address this issue is student study abroad programs. This paper reports on a study that…

  4. Effect of personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) on older adults' health and social participation: study protocol for a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Filliatrault, Johanne; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Tourigny, André; Levert, Marie-Josée; Gabaude, Catherine; Lefebvre, Hélène; Berger, Valérie; Eymard, Chantal

    2018-03-31

    The challenges of global ageing and the growing burden of chronic diseases require innovative interventions acting on health determinants like social participation. Many older adults do not have equitable opportunities to achieve full social participation, and interventions might underempower their personal and environmental resources and only reach a minority. To optimise current practices, the Accompagnement-citoyen Personnalisé d'Intégration Communautaire (APIC), an intervention demonstrated as being feasible and having positive impacts, needs further evaluation. A pragmatic multicentre, prospective, two-armed, randomised controlled trial will evaluate: (1) the short-term and long-term effects of the APIC on older adults' health, social participation, life satisfaction and healthcare services utilisation and (2) its cost-effectiveness. A total of 376 participants restricted in at least one instrumental activity of daily living and living in three large cities in the province of Quebec, Canada, will be randomly assigned to the experimental or control group using a centralised computer-generated random number sequence procedure. The experimental group will receive weekly 3-hour personalised stimulation sessions given by a trained volunteer over the first 12 months. Sessions will encourage empowerment, gradual mobilisation of personal and environmental resources and community integration. The control group will receive the publicly funded universal healthcare services available to all Quebecers. Over 2 years (baseline and 12, 18 and 24 months later), self-administered questionnaires will assess physical and mental health (primary outcome; version 2 of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, converted to SF-6D utility scores for quality-adjusted life years), social participation (Social Participation Scale) and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Index-Z). Healthcare services utilisation will be recorded and costs of each intervention calculated. The Research

  5. Public Participation Guide: Skorpion Zinc Project Case Study - Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study describes the efforts of an independent professional team working with South African and Namibian specialists to identify and address environmental and public health and safety concerns related to a zinc mine and refinery.

  6. Learning from older peoples’ reasons for participating in demanding, intensive epidemiological studies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja M. Baczynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment rates of older people in epidemiological studies, although relatively higher than in clinical trials, have declined in recent years. This study aimed to explore motivating factors and concerns among older participants in an intensive epidemiological study (Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study - HSS and identify those that could aid future recruitment to epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Methods Participants of the HSS fasted overnight and travelled several hours each way to the research facility at an English hospital for extensive diet/lifestyle questionnaires and investigations to assess muscle including blood tests and a muscle biopsy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 participants (ten women at the research facility in May–October 2015. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically by three researchers. Results We identified personal motives for participation (potential health benefit for self and family; curiosity; comparing own fitness to others; socialising. Altruistic motives (benefit for other people; belief in importance of research were also important. Participants voiced a number of external motives related to the study uniqueness, organisation and safety record; family support; and just ‘being asked’. Anxiety about the biopsy and travel distance were the only concerns and were alleviated by smooth and efficient running of the study. Conclusions Personal and altruistic reasons were important motivators for these older people to participate in demanding, intensive research. They valued belonging to a birth cohort with previous research experience, but personal contact with the research team before and after consent provided reassurance, aided recruitment to HSS and could be readily replicated by other researchers. Any fears or concerns related to certain aspects of a demanding, intensive study should ideally be explored at an early visit

  7. Widening Participation in Sport-Related Studies in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study of Symbolic Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundvall, Suzanne; Meckbach, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on widening participation in higher education and the low recruitment of students from diverse backgrounds within sport-related programs. The purpose of the study has been to describe and increase the understanding of how the preconditions and premises for choosing to study "sport" appear to students from diverse…

  8. Salespersons’ missing perspective on customer participation behavior in value co-creation : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weretecki, Patrick; Greve, Goetz; Henseler, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how the personal interaction between customers and salespersons influences value creation is important for any business. From research it is known that customers’ participation is essential for successful value co-creation. Whereas research has already surveyed the perspective of the

  9. Markets and Morals: An Experimental Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J.; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another “repugnant” transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the “commercialization” of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent—in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate

  10. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  11. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  12. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate these

  13. Public Interest in Medical Research Participation: Does It Matter if Patients or Community Members Have Helped Design the Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M

    2015-10-01

    We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cessation assistance reported by smokers in 15 countries participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) policy evaluation surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Li, Lin; Driezen, Pete; Wilson, Nick; Hammond, David; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Mons, Ute; Willemsen, Marc C; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James F; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    To describe some of the variability across the world in levels of quit smoking attempts and use of various forms of cessation support. Use of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys of smokers, using the 2007 survey wave (or later, where necessary). Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ireland, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom, Uruguay and United States. Samples of smokers from 15 countries. Self-report on use of cessation aids and on visits to health professionals and provision of cessation advice during the visits. Prevalence of quit attempts in the last year varied from less than 20% to more than 50% across countries. Similarly, smokers varied greatly in reporting visiting health professionals in the last year (<20% to over 70%), and among those who did, provision of advice to quit also varied greatly. There was also marked variability in the levels and types of help reported. Use of medication was generally more common than use of behavioural support, except where medications are not readily available. There is wide variation across countries in rates of attempts to stop smoking and use of assistance with higher overall use of medication than behavioural support. There is also wide variation in the provision of brief advice to stop by health professionals. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. When "no" might not quite mean "no"; the importance of informed and meaningful non-consent: results from a survey of individuals refusing participation in a health-related research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurdo Marion ET

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low participation rates can lead to sampling bias, delays in completion and increased costs. Strategies to improve participation rates should address reasons for non-participation. However, most empirical research has focused on participants' motives rather than the reasons why non-participants refuse to take part. In this study we investigated the reasons why older people choose not to participate in a research project. Methods Follow-up study of people living in Tayside, Scotland who had opted-out of a cross-sectional survey on activities in retirement. Eight hundred and eighty seven people aged 65–84 years were invited to take part in a home-based cross-sectional survey. Of these, 471 refused to take part. Permission was obtained to follow-up 417 of the refusers. Demographic characteristics of people who refused to take part and the reasons they gave for not taking part were collected. Results 54% of those invited to take part in the original cross-sectional survey refused to do so. However, 61% of these individuals went on to participate in the follow-up study and provided reasons for their original refusal. For the vast majority of people initial non-participation did not reflect an objection to participating in research in principle but frequently stemmed from barriers or misunderstandings about the nature or process of the project itself. Only 28% indicated that they were "not interested in research". The meaningfulness of expressions of non-consent may therefore be called into question. Hierarchical log-linear modelling showed that refusal was independently influenced by age, gender and social class. However, this response pattern was different for the follow-up study in which reasons for non-participation in the first survey were sought. This difference in pattern and response rates supports the likely importance of recruitment issues that are research and context specific. Conclusion An expression of non

  16. When "no" might not quite mean "no"; the importance of informed and meaningful non-consent: results from a survey of individuals refusing participation in a health-related research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian; Irvine, Linda; McGinnis, Alison R; McMurdo, Marion E T; Crombie, Iain K

    2007-04-26

    Low participation rates can lead to sampling bias, delays in completion and increased costs. Strategies to improve participation rates should address reasons for non-participation. However, most empirical research has focused on participants' motives rather than the reasons why non-participants refuse to take part. In this study we investigated the reasons why older people choose not to participate in a research project. Follow-up study of people living in Tayside, Scotland who had opted-out of a cross-sectional survey on activities in retirement. Eight hundred and eighty seven people aged 65-84 years were invited to take part in a home-based cross-sectional survey. Of these, 471 refused to take part. Permission was obtained to follow-up 417 of the refusers. Demographic characteristics of people who refused to take part and the reasons they gave for not taking part were collected. 54% of those invited to take part in the original cross-sectional survey refused to do so. However, 61% of these individuals went on to participate in the follow-up study and provided reasons for their original refusal. For the vast majority of people initial non-participation did not reflect an objection to participating in research in principle but frequently stemmed from barriers or misunderstandings about the nature or process of the project itself. Only 28% indicated that they were "not interested in research". The meaningfulness of expressions of non-consent may therefore be called into question. Hierarchical log-linear modelling showed that refusal was independently influenced by age, gender and social class. However, this response pattern was different for the follow-up study in which reasons for non-participation in the first survey were sought. This difference in pattern and response rates supports the likely importance of recruitment issues that are research and context specific. An expression of non-consent does not necessarily mean that a fully informed evaluation of the pros

  17. [Participation refusal by probands in an epidemiologic long-term study--sociodemographic, clinical and psychometric findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Schepank, H; Wirth, T; Schellberg, D

    1992-11-01

    Usually little is known about probands who participated in an epidemiological longitudinal field survey but refused participation in follow-up investigations. For reasons of data protection and on account of the fact that investigative instruments used in longterm field surveys or panel studies are more focused on well defined issues (opinions, attitudes, assessment of behaviors) and less on personality variables, differentiated statements on probands who explicitly refused cooperation can hardly be made. In our epidemiological longitudinal field study on prevalence and course of psychogenic disorders we have a different situation. Within the limits of our study we had the unique opportunity to gain far-reaching information on probands who refused to participate in preceding investigations in regard to sociodemographic, psychometric and clinical variables. The clientele of refusers we present in our paper mainly comprises elderly, married, rather obsessive-compulsive structured, lower-class females. According to our data interactive aspects are equally responsible for reduced cooperativeness. The significance of our findings for the planning and carrying out of epidemiological longitudinal field surveys is discussed.

  18. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and nutritional factors: a study with participants of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juliana Rodrigues de; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between fat and fiber intakes and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). Cross-sectional survey conducted from the baseline of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health Adult (ELSA-Brasil). Anthropometric measurements were conducted and the body mass index was calculated (BMI). Participants were classified according to the presence of HWP when waist circumference ≥ 102 and ≥ 88 cm, respectively, in men and women, and triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL. Fat and fiber intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral variables were collected through a questionnaire. The χ² test, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression were performed with significance level of 5%. There was no association between fiber and fat intakes with HWP. A lower prevalence of HWP among men was observed (IRR = 0.959; 95%CI 0.948 - 0.969). A higher prevalence of HWP was observed in participants with low physical activity (OR = 1.039, 95%CI 1.021 - 1.057), smoking history (OR = 1.044, 95%CI 1.031 - 1.057), lower per capita income (IRR = 1.035; 95%CI 1.022 - 1.049) and obesity (OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.305 - 1.341). Fat and fiber intakes were not associated with HWP. A higher prevalence of HWP was found in obese, but no association was found between intake of fat and fiber and phenotype.

  19. Cortical Structures Associated With Sports Participation in Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Mónica; Tiemeier, Henning; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Sunyer, Jordi; White, Tonya

    2017-01-01

    We studied cortical morphology in relation to sports participation and type of sport using a large sample of healthy children (n = 911). Sports participation data was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired, and different morphological brain features were quantified. Global volumetric measures were not associated with sports participation. We observed thicker cortex in motor and premotor areas associated with sports participation. In boys, team sports participation, relative to individual sports, was related to thinner cortex in prefrontal brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviors. This study showed a relationship between sports participation and brain maturation.

  20. Trends in Addressing Social Needs: A Longitudinal Study of Congregation-Based Service Provision and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Fulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When congregations seek to address social needs, they often pursue this goal through acts of service and political engagement. Over the past three decades, a tremendous amount of research has been dedicated to analyzing congregation-based service provision and political participation. However, little is known about how congregations’ involvement in these arenas has changed during this period. To help fill this gap, this study analyzes three waves of data from a national survey of congregations to assess how congregations’ participation patterns in service-related and political activities have been changing since the 1990s. It also examines trends among subpopulations of congregations grouped by their religious tradition, ethnoracial composition, and ideological orientation. Overall, this study finds that among most types of congregations, the percentage participating in service-related activities is substantial and increasing, while the percentage participating in political activities is less substantial and decreasing. This decline in political participation has implications for the role congregations play in addressing social needs. Relieving immediate needs through service provision without also pursuing long-term solutions through political participation can limit congregations’ ability to comprehensively address social needs. Among the few types of congregations that have high and/or increasing participation rates in both service-related and political activities are Catholic, predominantly Hispanic, and politically liberal congregations.

  1. Relationships Between Sport Participation, Problem Alcohol Use, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study of Young Adults in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kremer, Peter J; Toumbourou, John W

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting a link between sport participation and violent behavior outside of the sporting context. However, there have been few studies that have investigated the basis of this relationship. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between sport participation, problem alcohol use, and various violent behaviors, and whether sport participation moderates relationships between problem alcohol use and violence. The sample comprised 2,262 young adults (55% female, age range at Time 1 = 17-24 years) from Victoria, Australia, surveyed in 2010 and 2012. When controlling for common risk factors, substance use, and past violence, sport participation was not associated with any violent behaviors 2 years later. However, sport participation moderated the relationship between problem alcohol use and fighting, whereby problem alcohol use was associated with engaging in fights 2 years later for sport participants, but not for nonparticipants. These findings suggest that it is not sport participation per se that influences later violence but the drinking norms or culture embedded within certain sporting contexts. Prevention approaches that address the drinking culture and social approval of excessive alcohol consumption within sporting contexts may reduce the incidence of violent behavior in the community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Elisabeth; Sund, Erik Reidar; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. Methods: This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006–08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity particip...

  3. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  4. Factors determining social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Siirike F.; van Son, Willem J.; van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; de Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background. This study describes changes in social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation and examines the influence of clinical factors, health status, transplantation-related symptoms, and psychological characteristics on change in social participation. Methods. A prospective

  5. National Survey of the Education of Teachers. Bulletin, 1933, No. 10. Volume V: Special Survey Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Benjamin W.; Betts, Gilbert L.; Greenleaf, Walter J.; Waples, Douglas; Dearborn, Ned H.; Carney, Mabel; Alexander, Thomas

    1935-01-01

    The Seventy-first Congress authorized a survey of the education of teachers on a Nation-wide scope, conducted during the last 3 years. After the work of the survey was organized it was apparent that only a limited number of studies could be undertaken with the time and funds available. It was decided, therefore, to cooperate whenever possible with…

  6. Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the

  7. Servicemembers and veterans with major traumatic limb loss from Vietnam war and OIF/OEF conflicts: survey methods, participants, and summary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Gayle E; McFarland, Lynne V; Hubbard, Sharon; Maynard, Charles; Blough, David K; Gambel, Jeffrey M; Smith, Douglas G

    2010-01-01

    Care of veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss from combat theaters is one of the highest priorities of the Department of Veteran Affairs. We achieved a 62% response rate in our Survey for Prosthetic Use from 298 Vietnam war veterans and 283 servicemembers/veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) who sustained major traumatic limb loss. Participants reported their combat injuries; health status; quality of life; and prosthetic device use, function, rejection, and satisfaction. Despite the serious injuries experienced, health status was rated excellent, very good, or good by 70.7% of Vietnam war and 85.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants. However, many health issues persist for Vietnam war and OIF/OEF survey participants (respectively): phantom limb pain (72.2%/76.0%), chronic back pain (36.2%/42.1%), residual-limb pain (48.3%/62.9%), prosthesis-related skin problems (51.0%/58.0%), hearing loss (47.0%/47.0%), traumatic brain injury (3.4%/33.9%), depression (24.5%/24.0%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (37.6%/58.7%). Prosthetic devices are currently used by 78.2% of Vietnam war and 90.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants to improve function and mobility. On average, the annual rate for prosthetic device receipt is 10.7-fold higher for OIF/OEF than for Vietnam war survey participants. Findings from this cross-conflict survey identify many strengths in prosthetic rehabilitation for those with limb loss and several areas for future attention.

  8. An Empirical Study Based on the SPSS Variance Analysis of College Teachers' Sports Participation and Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqiu Liang

    2013-01-01

    The study on University Teachers ' sports participation and their job satisfaction relationship for empirical research, mainly from the group to participate in sports activities situation on the object of study, investigation and mathematical statistics analysis SPSS. Results show that sports groups participate in job satisfaction higher than those in groups of job satisfaction; sports participation, different job satisfaction is also different. Recommendations for college teachers to address...

  9. Assessment of participation bias in cohort studies: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.

  10. Parents' labour market participation as a predictor of children's health and wellbeing: a comparative study in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. DESIGN: Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross...... significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. CONCLUSIONS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment...... sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. RESULTS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence...

  11. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PERSON, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The literature survey for the fractional crystallization study of material from tank 241-S-112 is completed, fulfilling the requirements of the Test Plan for Tank 241-S-112 Fractional Crystallization Study (Herting 2003). Crystallization involves the formation of one or more solid phases from a fluid phase or an amorphous solid phase. It is applied extensively in the chemical industry, both as a purification process and a separation process. The main advantage of crystallization over distillation is the production of substances with a very high purity, at a low level of energy consumption, and at relatively mild process conditions. Crystallization is one of the older operations in the chemical industry; therefore, practical experience can usually be used for the design and operation of industrial crystallizers. In addition, advances in the understanding of crystallization kinetics can be useful in the control, design, and scale-up of industrial crystallizers. Research work is currently underway; e.g., the CrysCODE (Crystallizer Control and Design) project, littu://www.aui.tudelft.nl/uroiect/Cn/scode/crvscode.htm, at the Delft University of Technology, with the goal of improving the performance and controllability of industrial crystallizers by means of better control and improved design methodologies. Recent developments in fluid dynamics and reactor technology (e.g., compartment approaches) have led to a better understanding of processes and scale-up phenomena. The ultimate aim of such research is to develop a knowledge-based design frame for optimization of industrial crystallization units. Development work is in progress on a rigorous design analysis model for the description of the crystallization process as a function of the reactor geometry, crystallization kinetics, and operating conditions. One modeling effort is aimed at improving the predictive crystallizer model by implementing a population balance equation that depends on two variables: the size and

  12. The Study of Aeromagnetic Surveys in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. T.; Tong, L. T.; Lin, W.; Chang, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    The airborne magnetic survey is a cost-effective method for regional geological investigation. Most of developed countries use aeromagnetic data as important fundamental information for resources development. The first aeromagnetic survey was conducted in the offshore areas of west and southern Taiwan in 1968 by U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office to help Taiwan finding oil. Later, in 2007, a helicopter-borne magnetic survey was proceed in east Taiwan for underground granite bodies. In order to improve better understanding of deep geological structures associated with the Holocene volcanism in Taiwan, we applied helicopter-borne magnetic technique in northern Taiwan include Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) and Kueishan island in 2013 and 2014 to obtain the distribution information of potential magma chamber as well as hydrothermal pathways along regional geological structures. The most important findings of the high-resolution aeromagnetic dataset since 1960's to 2014 acquired include: (1) the distribution of subsurface igneous rocks and the Curie point depth in Tatun Volcano Group, Keelung Volcano Group, and Kueishantao Volcano; (2) the widely distributed NE high-magnetic belts in northern Taiwan may be associated with NE fractures created by long-term subsidence in this area; (3) the high-magnetic belts in south of Lanyang River which is very different from the magnetic characteristics of the Central Range may imply paleo oceanic plate; (4) the NE high-magnetic belts in Penghu area formed by magma intrusion along NE fractures and the dense and high-magnetic anomalies may be associated with the Miocene basaltic lava overlying on the pre-Tertiary igneous dykes and are widely spread in northern Penghu area. The new aeromagnetic survey techniques help us to investigate the areas with steep terrain or covered by dense vegetation which was difficult to obtain reasonable geological understanding, and also provide an opportunity for us to apply the geothermal energy prospecting.

  13. A study in persons later after stroke of the relationships between social participation, environmental factors and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifang; Sui, Minghong; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Li, Kun; Gao, Yan

    2017-03-01

    To explore the impacts of social participation and the environment on depression among people with stroke. Cross-sectional survey. Structured interviews in the participants' homes. Community-dwelling persons with stroke in the rural areas of China ( N = 639). Not applicable. Depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-6), activity and social participation (Chinese version of the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0), environmental barriers (Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors), neurological function (Canadian Neurological Scale). A total of 42% of the variance in depression was explained by the environmental barriers, neurological function, activity, and social participation factors studied. Social participation, services/assistance, and attitudes/support were directly related to depression; their standardized regression coefficients were 0.530, 0.162, and 0.092, respectively ( p ⩽ 0.01). The physical environment, policies, and neurological function indirectly impacted depression. Depression influences social participation in turn, with a standardized regression coefficient of 0.29 ( p ⩽ 0.01). Depression and social participation are inversely related. The physical environment, services/assistance, attitudes/support, and policies all impact post-stroke depression.

  14. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  15. Do employees participate in workplace HIV testing just to win a lottery prize? A quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weihs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: To encourage workers to participate in workplace HIV testing, some SouthAfrican automotive companies use lotteries. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how lottery incentives may influence employees’ workplace HIV counselling and testing behaviour. Research purpose: Determine whether workers intend to test for HIV only to win a lottery prize. Motivation for the study: The positive and also negative influences of lotteries on workers’ HIV testing behaviour need to be understood to avoid undue coercion in workplace HIV testing participation. Research design, approach and method: Post-test only quasi-experimental studies were conducted the day HIV testing and lotteries were announced to staff in four companies using a cross-sectional, self-administered survey that measured workers’ workplace HIV testing behaviour intentions. Intention to participate in workplace HIV counselling and testing was used as the main outcome of respondents’ behaviour and investigated via the statement: ‘If the company would organise its on-site Wellness Day tomorrow, I would go testing for HIV tomorrow’. In a first setting, two companies’ workers had to test for HIV to be entered in the lottery (n = 198. In the second setting, two other companies’ workers did not have to test to be entered in the lottery (n = 316. Chi-square tests were conducted to measure significant differences between the two conditions distinguishing between permanent and non-permanent staff. Main findings: No significant association was found between behaviour intention in the two settings for permanent workers’ workplace HIV testing intention ( χ2 = 1.145, p = 0.285, phi = -0.097. However, a significant association with a small effect size was found for non-permanent workers ( χ2 = 8.04, p = 0.005, phi = -0.279. Practical/managerial implications: Results show that lotteries to encourage workplace HIV testing are very likely to help workers ‘do the

  16. A Comparative Case Study of Non-Music Major Participation in Two Contrasting Collegiate Choral Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative case study was to examine the motivation for participation in traditional and non-traditional vocal ensembles by students who are not pursuing a career in music and the perceived benefits of this participation. Participants were selected from a traditional mixed choral ensemble and a student-run a cappella ensemble.…

  17. AngularJS Performance: A Survey Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Miguel; Valente, Marco Tulio; Terra, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    AngularJS is a popular JavaScript MVC-based framework to construct single-page web applications. In this paper, we report the results of a survey with 95 professional developers about performance issues of AngularJS applications. We report common practices followed by developers to avoid performance problems (e.g., use of third-party or custom components), the general causes of performance problems in AngularJS applications (e.g., inadequate architecture decisions taken by AngularJS users), a...

  18. Targeting breast and cervical cancer screening to elderly poor black women: who will participate? The Harlem Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, J; Traxler, M; Lakin, P; Kanetsky, P; Kao, R

    1993-01-01

    Factors associated with participation in breast and cervix cancer screening among elderly black women of low socioeconomic status were determined. Data from a baseline cross-sectional random survey were used together with data on whether screening was subsequently completed or refused. The subjects were a random sample of women attending an urban public hospital primary care clinic for routine medical care with a birth year of 1924 or earlier. Among the 271 women in the study group, 70% completed screening. Stated intent was the strongest predictor of participation; women who intended to have both mammography and Pap testing were 2.7 times more likely to participate than those who intended to have neither test (95% confidence interval 1.4, 4.9; P groups.

  19. Social participation, willingness and quality of life: A population-based study among older adults in rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qian; Cui, Yanjie; Liang, Ling; Zhong, Qi; Li, Jie; Li, Yuancheng; Lv, Xiaofeng; Huang, Fen

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to reflect the current situation of social participation in rural areas of China, willingness to participate in social activities, association between health-related quality of life and social participation, and factors related to social participation. A total of 2644 rural adults aged 60 years and older were randomly selected and surveyed with a self-rating questionnaire. We used the unified definition of social participation in our study. The Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey was used to measure health-related quality of life. The overall engagement of social activities was 26%. Those who participated in social activities were more likely to have high scores of health-related quality of life. Older men with a high educational level (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) living alone or with a spouse (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12), high objective social support (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17) and high support utilization (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21) were inclined to engage in social participation. Older women with high individual income (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25-2.43), single marital status (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.10), normal weight (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.10-3.34), overweight (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.24-4.19), living alone or with a spouse (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.00), objective social support (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18) and subjective social support (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) were more willing to engage in social participation. Engagement in social activities is relatively low in rural areas, and associations of willingness and health-related quality of life with social participation were found. Policy-makers and government workers should make appropriate types of encouragement policies around social participation for older adults in rural areas. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1593-1602. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. The Status of Nuclear Education in Social Studies: Report of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Carole L.

    1985-01-01

    The vast majority of social studies teachers participating in this survey said that they taught about nuclear warfare. Most of the teachers taught about nuclear arms to students in grades 9-12. U.S. history and government courses were most frequently named as the courses in which the topic fit. (RM)

  1. Research study on public relations and public participation in the nuclear energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Otoshi, Sachio; Kuwagaki, Reiko; Ishibashi, Yoichiro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the effect of public relations activities in the nuclear energy field and public participation toward the improvement of the risk literacy of nuclear energy. According to the survey results of the actual public relations activities taken by nuclear energy industry, the opportunity for interactive communications between the public and the industry is insufficient. Consequently, we propose building up more opportunities for participation and collaboration of citizens and industries in order to improve interactive communications reflecting public opinions and points of view. (author)

  2. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sera from children 3 to 11 years of age participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Kato, Kayoko; Wong, Lee-Yang; Jia, Tao; Kalathil, Akil; Latremouille, John; Calafat, Antonia M

    2018-01-01

    Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014. We used on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; limits of detection were 0.1ng/mL for all analytes. We calculated geometric mean concentrations, determined weighted Pearson correlations, and used linear regression to evaluate associations of sex, age (3-5 vs 6-11 years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), household income, and body mass index with concentrations of PFAS detected in more than 60% of participants. We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in all children at concentrations similar to those of NHANES 2013-2014 adolescents and adults, suggesting prevalent exposure to these PFAS or their precursors among U.S. 3-11year old children, most of whom were born after the phase out of PFOS in the United States in 2002. PFAS concentration differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and age suggest lifestyle differences that may impact exposure, and highlight the importance of identifying exposure sources and of studying the environmental fate and transport of PFAS. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. A quantitative study of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability: Do stakeholders agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S

    2017-12-13

    Attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability inform research policy and practice, impact interest in and support for research participation, and promote or discourage the generation of new knowledge to promote health among adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about these beliefs among the public and the scientific community. We quantitatively studied attitudes among adults with intellectual disability, family and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members. We predicted that adults with intellectual disability, and researchers would espouse views most consistent with disability rights, whereas IRB members, and to a lesser degree family, friends, and service providers, would espouse more protective views. We surveyed five hundred and twelve members of the five participant stakeholder groups on their attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found broad support for research about people with intellectual disability, though slightly more tempered support for their direct participation therein. In general, IRB members and to some extent adults with intellectual disability endorsed direct participation less than others. We also found that adults with intellectual disability strongly believed in their consent capacity. Resources should be directed toward health-related research with adults with intellectual disability, and interventions should be pursued to address ethical challenges and promote beliefs consistent with human rights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perils and potentials of self-selected entry to epidemiological studies and surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Low front-end cost and rapid accrual make Web-based surveys and enrolment in studies attractive, but participants are often self-selected with little reference to a well-defined study base. Of course, high quality studies must be internally valid (validity of inferences for the sample at hand......), but Web-based enrolment reactivates discussion of external validity (generalization of within-study inferences to a target population or context) in epidemiology and clinical trials. Survey research relies on a representative sample produced by a sampling frame, prespecified sampling process and weighting...

  5. Recruitment and Participation of Recreational Runners in a Large Epidemiological and Genetic Research Study: Retrospective Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanero, Silvia; Kozlovskaia, Maria; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David C

    2018-05-23

    With the increasing capacity for remote collection of both data and samples for medical research, a thorough assessment is needed to determine the association of population characteristics and recruitment methodologies with response rates. The aim of this research was to assess population representativeness in a two-stage study of health and injury in recreational runners, which consisted of an epidemiological arm and genetic analysis. The cost and success of various classical and internet-based methods were analyzed, and demographic representativeness was assessed for recruitment to the epidemiological survey, reported willingness to participate in the genetic arm of the study, actual participation, sample return, and approval for biobank storage. A total of 4965 valid responses were received, of which 1664 were deemed eligible for genetic analysis. Younger age showed a negative association with initial recruitment rate, expressed willingness to participate in genetic analysis, and actual participation. Additionally, female sex was associated with higher initial recruitment rates, and ethnic origin impacted willingness to participate in the genetic analysis (all P<.001). The sharp decline in retention through the different stages of the study in young respondents suggests the necessity to develop specific recruitment and retention strategies when investigating a young, physically active population. ©Silvia Manzanero, Maria Kozlovskaia, Nicole Vlahovich, David C Hughes. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 23.05.2018.

  6. Measuring the accomplishments of public participation programs: Overview of a methodological study performed for DOE's Office of Environmental Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, M.; Carnes, S.A.; Peelle, E.B.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a study for the Office of Intergovernmental and Public Accountability within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), examining how to measure the success of public participation programs. While the study began with a thorough literature review, the primary emphasis of this research effort was on getting key stakeholders to help identify attributes of successful public participation in EM activities and to suggest how those attributes might be measured. Interviews were conducted at nine DOE sites that provided substantial variety in terms of geographic location, types of environmental management activities undertaken, the current life-cycle stage of those EM efforts, and the public participation mechanisms utilized. Approximately 12 to 15 oral interviews were conducted at each site, and each respondent also was asked to complete a written survey. Those interviewed included: non-regulatory state and local government officials; project managers and public participation staff for DOE and its management and operations contractors; non-government groups concerned with environmental protection, public safety, and health issues; federal and state environmental regulators; business organizations; civic groups; and other interested parties. While this study examined only those public participation programs sponsored by DOE, the resulting findings also have applicability to the public involvement efforts sponsored by many other public and private sector organizations

  7. Measuring participation according to the International Classification of Functioning to

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R.J.M.; Chorus, A.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to report which existing survey instruments assess participation according to the International Classification of Functioning. Disability and Health (ICF). A literature search for relevant survey instruments was conducted. Subsequently, survey instruments were evaluated of

  8. Relevance of community structures and neighbourhood characteristics for participation of older adults: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Ralf; Maier, Werner; Ludyga, Alicja; Mielck, Andreas; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Community and neighbourhood structures contribute not only to the health and well-being, but also to the participation of older adults. The degree of participation depends on both the living environment and the individual's personal characteristics, preferences and perception. However, there is still limited empirical evidence on how community and neighbourhood structures are linked to participation and health in the aged population. A qualitative exploratory approach was chosen with a series of problem-centred, semi-structured focus group discussions. Study participants were selected from within the city of Augsburg, Southern Germany, and from two municipalities in surrounding rural districts. The interviews took place in 2013. Structuring content analysis was used to identify key concepts. We conducted 11 focus group discussions with a total of 78 different study participants. The study participants (33 men and 45 women) had a mean age of 74 years (range 65-92 years). Only two study participants lived in an assisted living facility. Of all study participants, 77% lived in urban and 23% in rural areas. We extracted four metacodes ('Usual activities', 'Requirements for participation', 'Barriers to participation' and 'Facilitators for participation') and 15 subcodes. Health and poorly designed infrastructure were mentioned as important barriers to participation, and friendship and neighbourhood cohesion as important facilitators. This qualitative study revealed that poor design and accessibility of municipal infrastructure are major barriers to participation in old age in Germany. Community and neighbourhood structures can be part of the problem but also part of the solution when accessibility and social networks are taken into account.

  9. How Do Sociodemographics and Activity Participations Affect Activity-Travel? Comparative Study between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-travel behaviors of women and men are different because they have different social and household responsibilities. However, studies concerning gender differences are mainly limited in developed countries. This paper concentrates on gender role-based differences in activity-travel behavior in a typical developing country, namely, China. Using data from 3656 cases collected through surveys conducted in Shangyu, data processing, method choice, and descriptive analysis were conducted. Binary and ordered logistic regression models segmented by gender were developed to evaluate the mechanism through which individual sociodemographics, household characteristics, and activity participations affect the number of trip chain types and activities for women and men. The results show that women aged 30 to 50 perform less subsistence activities. However, the difference between the different age groups of men is not as significant. In addition, men with bicycles and electric bicycles have more subsistence and maintenance activities, whereas women do not have these attributes. Moreover, women with children under schooling age make more maintenance trip chains but less leisure trip chains and activities, whereas men are free from this influence. Furthermore, both women and men perform more subsistence activities if the duration increases, and men have less influences than women do.

  10. Community sensitization and decision-making for trial participation: a mixed-methods study from The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Susan; O'Neill, Sarah; Gryseels, Charlotte; Immaculate Anyango, Edna; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Okebe, Joseph; Mwesigwa, Julia; Jaiteh, Fatou; Gerrets, René; Ravinetto, Raffaella; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2017-08-16

    Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia. Although 38.7% of the respondents were present during sensitization sessions, 91.1% of the respondents were inclined to participate in the trial when surveyed after the sensitization and prior to the informed consent process. This difference can be explained by the informal transmission of information within the community after the community sensitization, expectations such as the benefits of participation based on previous research experiences, and the positive reputation of the research institute. Commonly mentioned barriers to participation were blood sampling and the potential disapproval of the household head. Community sensitization is effective in providing first-hand, reliable information to communities as the information is cascaded to those who could not attend the sessions. However, further research is needed to assess how the informal spread of information further shapes people's expectations, how the process engages with existing social relations and hierarchies (e.g. local political power structures; permissions of heads of households) and how this influences or changes individual consent. © 2017 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The science of being a study participant: FEM-PrEP participants' explanations for overreporting adherence to the study pills and for the whereabouts of unused pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Amy L; McKenna, Kevin; Perry, Brian; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Malamatsho, Fulufhelo; Skhosana, Joseph; Odhiambo, Jacob; Van Damme, Lut

    2015-04-15

    FEM-PrEP was unable to determine whether once-daily, oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate reduces the risk of HIV acquisition among women because of low adherence. Self-reported adherence was high, and pill-count data suggested good adherence. Yet, drug concentrations revealed limited pill use. We conducted a follow-up study with former participants in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa, to understand factors that had influenced overreporting of adherence and to learn the whereabouts of unused pills. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 88 participants, and quantitative, audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with 224 participants. We used thematic analysis and descriptive statistics to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. In audio computer-assisted self-interviews, 31% (n = 70) said they had overreported adherence; the main reason was the belief that nonadherence would result in trial termination (69%, n = 48). A considerable percentage (35%, n = 78) acknowledged discarding unused pills. Few acknowledged giving their pills to someone else (4%, n = 10), and even fewer acknowledged giving them to someone with HIV (2%, n = 5). Many participants in the semistructured interviews said other participants had counted and removed pills from their bottles to appear adherent. Despite repeated messages that nonadherence would not upset staff, participants acknowledged several perceived negative consequences of reporting nonadherence, which made it difficult to report accurately. Uneasiness continued in the follow-up study, as many said they had not overreported during the trial. Efforts to improve self-reported measures should include identifying alternative methods for creating supportive environments that allow participants to feel comfortable reporting actual adherence.

  12. Nursing students motivation toward their studies – a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Kerstin EL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focuses on Swedish nursing students' motivation toward their studies during their three year academic studies. Earlier studies show the importance of motivation for study commitment and result. The aim was to analyze nursing students' estimation of their degree of motivation during different semester during their education and to identify reasons for the degree of motivation. Methods A questionnaire asking for scoring motivation and what influenced the degree of motivation was distributed to students enrolled in a nursing programme. 315 students who studied at different semesters participated. Analyzes were made by statistical calculation and content analysis. Results The mean motivation score over all semesters was 6.3 (ranked between 0–10 and differed significantly during the semesters with a tendency to lower score during the 5th semester. Students (73/315 with motivation score 6 reported positive opinions to becoming a nurse (125/234, organization of the programme and attitude to the studies. The mean score value for the motivation ranking differed significantly between male (5.8 and female (6.8 students. Conclusion Conclusions to be drawn are that nursing students mainly grade their motivation positive distributed different throughout their entire education. The main motivation factor was becoming a nurse. This study result highlights the need of understanding the students' situation and their need of tutorial support.

  13. A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.

  14. "I will miss the study, God bless you all": participation in a nutritional chemoprevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Shor-Posner, Gail; Miguez, Maria-Jose; Burbano, Ximena; O'Mellan, Sandra; Yovanoff, P

    2004-01-01

    Randomized controlled clinical trials are often considered to be the "gold standard" for health research. Consequently, understanding the reasons people participate in these trials, especially minority groups who are often under-represented in clinical trials, or populations who have chronic illnesses or abuse drugs, is salient for successful recruitment, retention, and project design. This paper describes the results of a study that was designed to examine some of the ways in which participants in a randomized double blind clinical trial perceived their participation in the clinical trial, and the reasons they gave for continuing in the study. All of the participants were individuals who were using drugs and were infected with the HIV-1 virus, and had participated in a chemoprevention trial. The data from an exit interview were analyzed thematically in order to reveal units of meaning concerning participation and continuation in the clinical trial. The analysis revealed 3 higher-level concepts, or themes, that guided participation: increased health awareness, personal enhancement, and sociability. The data clearly indicated that involvement and retention in the trial were directly related to the ways in which the participants interpreted the study, perceived the benefits they derived from participating, and imbued their participation with value so that it was important and relevant to their own perceptions of health, as well as personal and social well being.

  15. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-11-22

    Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some background information but no follow up. Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. The interviewed participants are generally in favour of medical research. They participated in the placenta perfusion study due to a belief that societal progress follows medical research. They also felt that participating was a way of giving something back to the Danish health care system. The participants have trust in medical science and scientists, but trust is something which needs to be created through "trust-work". Face-to-face interaction, written information material and informed consent forms play important parts in creating trusting relationships in medical research. Medical research ethics do not only amount to specific types of written information material but should also be seen as a number of trust making performances involving researchers as well as research participants.

  16. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  17. Theorizing E-Learning Participation: A Study of the HRD Online Communities in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study sets out to investigate the e-learning participation and completion phenomenon in the US corporate HRD online communities and to explore determinants of e-learning completion. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the HRD Learning Participation Theory (LPT), this study takes a two-stage approach. Stage one adopts an interview…

  18. Scientists' motivation to communicate science and technology to the public: surveying participants at the Madrid Science Fair

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Sempere , María José; Garzón-García , Belén; Rey-Rocha , Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates what motivates scientists to communicate science and technology in a science event involving a direct relationship and interaction with the public. A structured questionnaire survey was administered through face-to-face interviews to 167 research practitioners (researchers, technicians, support staff and fellows) at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) who part...

  19. Cost shared wildfire risk mitigation in Log Hill Mesa, Colorado: Survey evidence on participation and willingness to pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Travis Warziniack; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia C. Falk

    2014-01-01

    Wildland-urban interface (WUI) homeowners who do not mitigate the wildfire risk on their properties impose a negative externality on society. To reduce the social costs of wildfire and incentivise homeowners to take action, cost sharing programs seek to reduce the barriers that impede wildfire risk mitigation. Using survey data from a WUI community in western Colorado...

  20. Factors influencing household participation in solid waste management (Case study: Waste Bank Malang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, S.; Arifiani, N. F.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Putri, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Solid waste management is very important measure in order to reduce the amount of waste. One of solid waste management form in Indonesia is waste banks. This kind of solid waste management required high level of participation of the community. The objective of this study is to explore factors influencing household participation in waste banks. Waste bank in Malang City (WBM) was selected as case study. Questionnaires distribution and investigation in WBM were conducted to identify problems of participation. Quantitative analysis was used to analyze the data. The research reveals that education, income, and knowledge about WBM have relationship with participation in WBM.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of health research study participant recruitment strategies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Lynn; Johns, Benjamin; Liu, Su-Hsun; Vedula, S Swaroop; Li, Tianjing; Puhan, Milo A

    2014-10-01

    A large fraction of the cost of conducting clinical trials is allocated to recruitment of participants. A synthesis of findings from studies that evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different recruitment strategies will inform investigators in designing cost-efficient clinical trials. To systematically identify, assess, and synthesize evidence from published comparisons of the cost and yield of strategies for recruitment of participants to health research studies. We included randomized studies in which two or more strategies for recruitment of participants had been compared. We focused our economic evaluation on studies that randomized participants to different recruitment strategies. We identified 10 randomized studies that compared recruitment strategies, including monetary incentives (cash or prize), direct contact (letters or telephone call), and medical referral strategies. Only two of the 10 studies compared strategies for recruiting participants to clinical trials. We found that allocating additional resources to recruit participants using monetary incentives or direct contact yielded between 4% and 23% additional participants compared to using neither strategy. For medical referral, recruitment of prostate cancer patients by nurses was cost-saving compared to recruitment by consultant urologists. For all underlying study designs, monetary incentives cost more than direct contact with potential participants, with a median incremental cost per recruitment ratio of Int$72 (Int$-International dollar, a theoretical unit of currency) for monetary incentive strategy compared to Int$28 for direct contact strategy. Only monetary incentives and source of referral were evaluated for recruiting participants into clinical trials. We did not review studies that presented non-monetary cost or lost opportunity cost. We did not adjust for the number of study recruitment sites or the study duration in our economic evaluation analysis. Systematic and explicit reporting of

  2. Self-assessed health, perceived stress and non-participation in breast cancer screening: A Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Population-based cancer screening is offered in many countries to detect early stages of cancer and reduce mortality. Screening efficiency and equality is susceptible due to a group of non-participants. We investigated associations between self-assessed health, perceived stress and subsequent non-participation in breast cancer screening. This population-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who were also the target group (aged 50-69 years) for the first organised breast cancer screening programme -3 years later in the Central Denmark Region in 2008-2009. A U-shaped association was observed for physical health assessment as women with the highest (PR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), and the lowest (PR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.18-1.68) physical health scores were less likely to participate in the programme than women with physical health scores in the middle range. Women with low mental health assessment were more likely not to participate than women with mental health scores in the middle range (PR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.22-1.69). Higher non-participation propensity was also observed for women with the highest perceived stress scores (PR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.07-1.51) compared with women scoring in the middle range. Women with highest and lowest self-assessed physical health, with lowest mental health or highest perceived stress were significantly more likely not to participate in breast cancer screening 2-3 years later than women who reported average health. Interventions targeting these groups may promote equal participation in future breast cancer screening programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between sports participation, motor competence and weight status: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Rafael S; Ré, Alessandro H N; Stodden, David F; Fransen, Job; Campos, Carolina M C; Queiroz, Daniel R; Cattuzzo, Maria T

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if baseline motor competence, weight status and sports participation in early childhood predict sports participation two years later. longitudinal study. In 2010, motor competence (object control and locomotor skills), weight status and sports participation were assessed in 292 children between three and five years-of-age. In 2012, sports participation was re-evaluated in 206 of the original 292 children. Logistic regression was implemented to examine if initial sports participation, motor competence and weight status would predict sports participation two years later. In the final model, sports participation in 2010 (OR=9.68, CI: 3.46 to 27.13) and locomotor skills (OR=1.21, CI: 1.01 to 1.46) significantly predicted sports participation after two years. These results suggest that initial sports participation and more advanced locomotor skills in preschool years may be important to promote continued participation in sports across childhood. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Barriers to participation in mental health research: findings from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Anna; Howard, Louise; Morgan, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate why people with a first episode of psychosis choose or decline to participate in mental health research, using a qualitative study design. Participants were recruited via referrals from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. A total of 26 individuals with a first-episode of psychosis (nine of whom declined participation in the GAP study and 17 who participated) were individually interviewed and asked about their attitudes towards mental health research participation. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was used to determine dominant themes and sub-themes on what constituted barriers and facilitators to participation. Reasons for research participation identified included a desire to help others, curiosity, and positive experiences with clinicians. Decisions to participate or not were also influenced by practical issues, including the timing of the approach, researchers' communication skills and whether individuals had concerns that it may be potentially harmful to their health. Other barriers to participation included patients' conceptualizations of mental health problems and the influence of other inpatients. Information on barriers and facilitators to recruitment in mental health research could inform recruitment strategies, thereby maximizing recruitment rates and minimizing the risk of selection biases.

  5. Satisfaction of Middle School Lunch Program Participants and Non-Participants with the School Lunch Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students' satisfaction with the school lunch experience, using two validated surveys; the Middle/Junior High School Student Participation Survey and the Middle/Junior High School Student Non-Participation Survey, both developed by the National Food Service Management…

  6. Reasons for non-participation in a parental program concerning underage drinking: a mixed-method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Charli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption among adolescents is a serious public health concern. Research has shown that prevention programs targeting parents can help prevent underage drinking. The problem is that parental participation in these kinds of interventions is generally low. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine non-participation in a parental support program aiming to prevent underage alcohol drinking. The Health Belief Model has been used as a tool for the analysis. Methods To understand non-participation in a parental program a quasi-experimental mixed-method design was used. The participants in the study were invited to participate in a parental program targeting parents with children in school years 7-9. A questionnaire was sent home to the parents before the program started. Two follow-up surveys were also carried out. The inclusion criteria for the study were that the parents had answered the questionnaire in school year 7 and either of the questionnaires in the two subsequent school years (n = 455. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine reasons for non-participation. The final follow-up questionnaire included an opened-ended question about reasons for non-participation. A qualitative content analysis was carried out and the two largest categories were included in the third model of the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results Educational level was the most important socio-demographic factor for predicting non-participation. Parents with a lower level of education were less likely to participate than those who were more educated. Factors associated with adolescents and alcohol did not seem to be of significant importance. Instead, program-related factors predicted non-participation, e.g. parents who did not perceive any need for the intervention and who did not attend the information meeting were more likely to be non-participants. Practical issues, like time demands, also seemed to

  7. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross–Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future

  8. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuya Yamakita

    Full Text Available Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults' participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults.Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population-based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups.Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors.Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults' participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate

  9. Decision-making capacity for research participation among addicted people: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Sánchez, Inés; Luna, Aurelio; Sánchez-Muñoz, Maria; Aguilera-Alcaraz, Beatriz; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria D

    2016-01-13

    Informed consent is a key element of ethical clinical research. Addicted population may be at risk for impaired consent capacity. However, very little research has focused on their comprehension of consent forms. The aim of this study is to assess the capacity of addicted individuals to provide consent to research. 53 subjects with DSM-5 diagnoses of a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and 50 non psychiatric comparison subjects (NPCs) participated in the survey from December 2014 to March 2015. This cross-sectional study was carried out at a community-based Outpatient Treatment Center and at an urban-located Health Centre in Spain. A binary judgment of capacity/incapacity was made guided by the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) and a clinical interview. Demographics and clinical characteristics were assessed by cases notes and the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Global Assessment Functional Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. NPCs performed the best on the MacCAT-CR, and patients with SUD had the worst performance, particularly on the Understanding and Appreciation subscales. 32.7% SUD people lacked research-related decisional capacity. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of capacity to consent to research. The findings of our study provide evidence that a large proportion of individuals with SUD had decisional capacity for consent to research. It is therefore inappropriate to draw conclusions about capacity to make research decisions on the basis of a SUD diagnosis. In the absence of advanced cognitive impairment, acute withdrawal or intoxication, we should assume that addicted persons possess decision-making capacity. Thus, the view that people with SUD would ipso facto lose decision-making power for research consent is flawed and stigmatizing.

  10. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    background information but no follow up. METHODS: Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. RESULTS: The interviewed participants are generally in favour......, but trust is something which needs to be created through "trust-work". Face-to-face interaction, written information material and informed consent forms play important parts in creating trusting relationships in medical research. CONCLUSION: Medical research ethics do not only amount to specific types......BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some...

  11. A Study of Individual and Family Barriers to Women's Political and Social Participation: Evidence from Shirez District in Harsin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossaein Agahi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, in many countries of the world, in some cases women are barred from interfering in politics and social roles. Thus, still it is necessary to place women in political, social, economic and cultural activities. The purpose of this study is to examine individual and family barriers to women's political and social participation of the Shirez District in the city of Harsin. The research methodology used is descriptive-correlation and it is carried out by using a survey. The statistical population included the women older than 6 years in the Shirez District. A sample size of 333 person was determined by using the Kerejcie and Morgan table. They have been selected using the convenience sampling method with proportional assignment. Data analysis was done by using the Spearman coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the political participation of women is in the medium level and their social participation is in the high level. Also, the results indicated that women believe that they are not able to participate in political affairs. The inability to communicate with others, the physical weakness and other problems, high volume of activities of women at home, high volume of activities in the agricultural sector and livestock, accepting dominance, lack of experience in political and administrative affairs and unwillingness of women compared to men in management are the main barriers of the political and social participation of rural women.

  12. Self-assessed health, perceived stress and non-participation in breast cancer screening: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    and subsequent non-participation in breast cancer screening. Methods This population-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who were also the target group (aged 50–69 years) for the first organised breast cancer screening programme -3 years later in the Central...... Denmark Region in 2008–2009. Results A U-shaped association was observed for physical health assessment as women with the highest (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06–1.55), and the lowest (PR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.18–1.68) physical health scores were less likely to participate in the programme than women with physical...... health scores in the middle range. Women with low mental health assessment were more likely not to participate than women with mental health scores in the middle range (PR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.22–1.69). Higher non-participation propensity was also observed for women with the highest perceived stress scores...

  13. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  14. Motivations and concerns about adolescent tuberculosis vaccine trial participation in rural Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buregyeya, Esther; Kulane, Asli; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, Phillipa; Mayanja, Harriet; Mitchell, Ellen Maeve Hanlon

    2015-01-01

    Research is being carried out to develop and test new potentially more effective tuberculosis vaccines. Among the vaccines being developed are those that target adolescents. This study explored the stakeholders' perceptions about adolescent participation in a hypothetical tuberculosis vaccine trial in Ugandan adolescents. Focus group discussions with adolescents, parents of infants and adolescents, and key informant interviews with community leaders and traditional healers were conducted. The majority of the respondents expressed potential willingness to allow their children participate in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. Main motivations for potential participation would be being able to learn about health-related issues. Hesitations included the notion that trial participation would distract the youths from their studies, fear of possible side effects of an investigational product, and potential for being sexually exploited by researchers. In addition, bad experiences from participation in previous research and doubts about the importance of research were mentioned. Suggested ways to motivate participation included: improved clarity on study purpose, risks, benefits and better scheduling of study procedures to minimize disruption to participants' academic schedules. Findings from this study suggest that the community is open to potential participation of adolescents in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. However, there is a need to communicate more effectively with the community about the purpose of the trial and its effects, including safety data, in a low-literacy, readily understood format. This raises a challenge to researchers, who cannot know all the potential effects of a trial product before it is tested.

  15. Informing potential participants about research: observational study with an embedded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Kirkby

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess: 1 the feasibility of electronic information provision; 2 gather evidence on the topics and level of detail of information potential research participant's accessed; 3 to assess satisfaction and understanding. DESIGN: Observational study with an embedded randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Low risk intervention study based in primary care. PARTICIPANTS: White British & Irish, South Asian and African-Caribbean subjects aged between 40-74 years eligible for a blood pressure monitoring study. INTERVENTIONS: PDF copy of the standard paper participant information sheet (PDF-PIS and an electronic Interactive Information Sheet (IIS where participants could choose both the type and level of detail accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 1 Proportion of participants providing an email address and accessing electronic information 2 Willingness to participate in a recruitment clinic. 3 Type and depth of information accessed on the IIS. 4 Participant satisfaction and understanding. RESULTS: 1160 participants were eligible for the study. Of these, 276 (24% provided an active email address, of whom 84 did not respond to the email. 106 responded to the email but chose not to access any electronic information and were therefore ineligible for randomisation. 42 were randomised to receive the PDF-PIS and 44 to receive the IIS (with consent rates of 48% and 36%, respectively; odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 1.4. Electronic observation of information accessed by potential participants showed 41% chose to access no information and only 9% accessed the detail presented on the Research Ethics Committee approved participant information sheet before booking to attend a recruitment clinic for the intervention study. 63 of the 106 participants (59% who chose not to access any electronic information also booked an appointment. CONCLUSIONS: Current written information about research may not be read, emphasising the importance of the consent

  16. Temporal Trends in Sports Participation among Adolescents between 2001 and 2015: A French School- and Territory-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Luiggi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving adolescents’ levels of sport and physical activity (PA is an official public health issue. French national government plans were launched in 2001, 2006, and 2011 to improve the participation levels of citizens. These plans should be monitored. To date, information on temporal trends in sports has come from the national population. However, no data are available to measure temporal trends in different territories across the country. Our study aimed to measure these trends among a representative sample of adolescent students of the third biggest French region (Bouches-du-Rhône, but also one of the poorest, between 2001 and 2015. Three surveys were conducted in 2001, 2008, and 2015 in high schools (n = 3218. Logistic regressions adjusted for age were used to determine the impact of socioeconomic status (SES on sports participation and to measure the changes in sport participation rates. Participation declined among all subgroups of adolescents: from 79.0% to 65.8%. The greatest decrease was observed for boys with a high SES, whilst the lowest was for the high-SES girls. We observed that SES inequalities in access to sport increased among the girls, whilst they reduced among the boys. National government plans seem to have had limited success in this territory. Next to national studies, there is a need to develop territory specific studies which could show important disparities across the national territory.

  17. The knowledge, attitude and practices of male sports participants to sports-related dental trauma in Khobar and Dammam, Saudi Arabia – A pilot survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Arfaj, Ibrahim; Al-Shammari, Ahmad; Al-Subai, Turki; Al-Absi, Ghanim; AlJaffari, Mohammad; Al-Kadi, Ahmad; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dental trauma may increase during sports participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of sports participants concerning sports-related dental trauma and associated emergency/preventive practices. The study included 124 male subjects over 18 years of age participating in contact and non-contact sports in three clubs in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to assess past experience of dental trauma related to...

  18. Barriers to participation in surgical randomized controlled trials in pediatric urology: A qualitative study of key stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulakonda, Vijaya M; Jones, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for assessing treatment efficacy. However, pediatric surgical RCTs have been limited in their ability to recruit patients. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and motivators to pediatric participation in surgical RCTs. We conducted a series of two focus groups with parents and one focus group with urology providers for children aged analysis of focus group findings. Theme analysis was used for all qualitative transcribed text data obtained from focus groups and open-ended survey questions using team-based inductive approaches. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the remainder of the provider survey. Using qualitative text from stakeholders (n = 38) we identified four key themes across the data: responsibility to my child; responsibility to my patient; responsibility to the field; and irreversibility of surgery. Participants felt there was an obligation to be informed of relevant scientific research within a clinic research culture. However, there remains a disconnect for parents between randomized research studies that may ultimately benefit their child, depending on their age and concern their child is being treated as a 'guinea pig'. Some parents were willing to participate in RCTs but all were more open to participate in an observational study where the treatment decisions were felt to be under their control even when there was no "right answer" or multiple equivalent options for treatment. There was mixed opinion across the parents and providers whether research trial education and enrollment should be provided by the pediatrician or urologist. Active physician decisions were seen as critical within the context of a long term clinical relationship and provision of information of risks and benefits without pressure were considered essential for ethical research by both parents and providers. While some parents are open to participation in surgical RCTs, providers and

  19. Approaches for building community participation: A qualitative case study of Canadian food security programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing opportunity and support for occupational therapists to expand their scope of practice in community settings. However, evidence is needed to increase occupational therapists' knowledge, confidence, and capacity with building community participation and adopting community-centered practice roles. The purpose of this study is to improve occupational therapists' understanding of an approach to building community participation, through case study of a network of Canadian food security programs. Qualitative case study was utilized. Data were semistructured interviews, field observations, documents, and online social media. Thematic analysis was used to identify and describe four themes that relate to processes used to build community participation. The four themes were use of multiple methods, good leaders are fundamental, growing participation via social media, and leveraging outcomes. Occupational therapists can utilize an approach for building community participation that incorporates resource mobilization. Challenges of sustainability and social exclusion must be addressed.

  20. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  1. The Effects of Sensory Processing and Behavior of Toddlers on Parent Participation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaLomba, Elaina; Baxter, Mary Frances; Fingerhut, Patricia; O'Donnell, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Occupational therapists treat children with sensory processing and behavioral concerns, however, little information exists on how these issues affect parent participation. This pilot study examined the sensory processing and behaviors of toddlers with developmental delays and correlated these with parents' perceived ability to participate in…

  2. Learning through Political Participation: A Case Study of Spanish Elders Involved in Political Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Petriwskyj, Andrea; Villar, Feliciano; Warburton, Jeni

    2016-01-01

    Older people's civic participation contributes to community development while at the same time providing opportunities for personal growth in later life. One important dimension of civic participation that has been largely underexplored is informal learning. The aim of this study is to explore the learnings experienced by Spanish older people…

  3. 22 CFR 63.5 - Grants to foreign participants to study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants to foreign participants to study. 63.5 Section 63.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.5 Grants to...

  4. 22 CFR 63.8 - Grants to United States participants to study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants to United States participants to study. 63.8 Section 63.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.8...

  5. Sports Participation and Academic Performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…

  6. Labor force participation and fertility: a study of married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M M; Mizan, A N

    1992-01-01

    Most researchers support the notion that a direct negative relationship exists between married women's labor force participation and fertility behavior, yet female employment shows no consistent, general relationship with declining fertility at individual and societal levels. Specific conditions under which employment lowers fertility are therefore explored for the case of Bangladesh. The economic, sociological, and world-system theoretical approaches to the relationship and empirical studies in developing countries including Bangladesh are reviewed. 1975-76 Bangladesh Fertility Survey data on births, deaths, nuptiality, and family planning knowledge and practice for 5772 currently married women of 6513 ever married women under 50 sampled are subjected to multivariate analysis for the study. Analysis revealed that women's modern and traditional occupation as well as higher and secondary education significantly lower their fertility, and that higher age, Islamic religion, use of modern contraceptives, and husband's occupation in transitional and modern sectors have significant positive effects on fertility. The correlation between higher fertility and contraceptive use may be due to women's delay in practicing family planning until reaching desired parity and/or high infant mortality driving women to cease practice in order to replace lost offspring. Future research should be conducted with larger samples and also consider occupations of both husbands and wives. Societal attitudes about women's education should be reformed in support of opening rural schools for women. With 90% of women residing in rural areas and women with traditional occupations having lower fertility, more traditional sector opportunities for women in cottage industry and agriculture production are also recommended, and would help balance skewed urban growth and hypertrophication of the tertiary sector. Finally, motivational efforts should be focused upon encouraging younger instead of older

  7. Older patients’ participation in team meetings—A phenomenological study from the nurses’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISABETH Lindberg,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of patient participation is acknowledged in today's healthcare, many challenges remain before patient participation can become an integral part of care provision. The ward round has traditionally been the forum for crucial decisions about patient care, but often with limited possibilities for patient participation. As part of the process of improving patient participation, the round in the present study has been replaced by a team meeting (TM to which the patient has been invited. The aim of this study is to highlight nurses’ experiences of older patients’ participation in TMs. The research process was guided by the principles of phenomenological reflective life world research. Data were collected in a Swedish hospital, in a ward specializing in older patients. Nine nurses, who had invited and planned for a patient to participate in TMs and/or had experienced TMs in which patients participated, were interviewed. The essential meaning of patient participation in the TM, as experienced by the nurses, is that patient participation can be supported by a safe relationship in which the patient can make his or her voice heard. Participation is challenged by the patients’ vulnerability and by the subordinated role assigned to the patient. The essential meaning is further described by its constituents: “the need for a guide,” “patient participation challenged by structures,” and “creating space for the whole human being.” In conclusion, the nurse plays a core role in guiding the patient in an unfamiliar situation. The meaning of patient participation in the TM needs to be discussed by professionals so that the patient perspective is present.

  8. Consolation through music : A survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanser, W.E.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; van den Tol, A.J.M.; Mark, R.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Even though music is widely used as a source of solace, the question as to how and why music offers consolation remains largely unexplored. The aims of the present study are as follows: (a) to compare listening to music versus other self-soothing behaviors, (b) to explore when music is used as a

  9. Feasibility of Using a Multilingual Web Survey in Studying the Health of Ethnic Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Maili; Raisamo, Susanna Ulrika; Lindfors, Pirjo Liisa; Pere, Lasse Antero; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Background Monolingual Web survey is a common tool for studying adolescent health. However, national languages may cause difficulties for some immigrant-origin youths, which lower their participation rate. In national surveys, the number of ethnic minority groups is often too small to assess their well-being. Objective We studied the feasibility of a multilingual Web survey targeted at immigrant-origin youths by selection of response language, and compared participation in different language groups with a monolingual survey. Methods The Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey (AHLS), Finland, with national languages (Finnish/Swedish) was modified into a multilingual Web survey targeted at a representative sample of 14- and 16-year olds (N=639) whose registry-based mother tongue was other than the national languages. The survey was conducted in 2010 (16-year olds) and 2011 (14-year olds). The response rate of the multilingual survey in 2011 is compared with the AHLS of 2011. We also describe the translation process and the e-form modification. Results Of the respondents, 57.6% answered in Finnish, whereas the remaining 42.4% used their mother tongue (P=.002). A majority of youth speaking Somali, Middle Eastern, Albanian, and Southeast Asian languages chose Finnish. The overall response rate was 48.7% with some nonsignificant variation between the language groups. The response rate in the multilingual Web survey was higher (51.6%, 163/316) than the survey with national languages (46.5%, 40/86) in the same age group; however, the difference was not significant (P=.47). The adolescents who had lived in Finland for 5 years or less (58.0%, 102/176) had a higher response rate than those having lived in Finland for more than 5 years (45.1%, 209/463; P=.005). Respondents and nonrespondents did not differ according to place of birth (Finland/other) or residential area (capital city area/other). The difference in the response rates of girls and boys was nearly significant (P

  10. Study participation rate of patients with acute spinal cord injury early during rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J; Katrin Brust, A; Tesini, S; Guler, M; Mueller, G; Velstra, I M; Frotzler, A

    2015-10-01

    Retrospective observational study. To investigate the study participation rate of patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI) early during rehabilitation after conveying preliminary study information. Single SCI rehabilitation center in Switzerland. Newly admitted acute SCI patients receive a flyer to inform them concerning the purpose of clinical research, patient rights and active studies. Upon patient request, detailed study information is given. The rate of patients asking for detailed information (study interest) and the rate of study participation was evaluated from May 2013 to October 2014. Furthermore, the number of patients not withdrawing consent to the utilization of coded health-related data was determined. The flyer was given to 144 of the 183 patients admitted during the observation period. A total of 96 patients (67%) were interested in receiving detailed information, and 71 patients (49%) finally participated in at least one study. The vast majority of patients (that is, 91%) did not withdraw consent for retrospective data analysis. An age over 60 years had a significantly (P⩽0.023) negative effect on study interest and participation, and the consent rate to retrospective data analysis was significantly (Pinterest and participation were reduced more than 5 and 14-fold, respectively, in patients older than 60 years. The relatively low (approximately 50%) study participation rates of acute SCI patients should be considered when planning clinical trials. The recruitment of patients older than 60 years may be reduced substantially.

  11. A cost-effective method of achieving meaningful citizen participation in public roadway pipeline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Many proponents of gas pipeline studies using the public roadway for their facilities have trouble encouraging public participation. Problems resulting from a lack of public involvement are documented. A public participation process designed to gather meaningful public input is presented through a case study of a public roadway pipeline study in southern Ontario. Techniques are outlined to effectively stimulate public interest and document the public involvement process. Recommendations are made as to the transferability of this process to other jurisdictions.

  12. Optical study of the DAFT/FADA galaxy cluster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; Adami, C.

    2013-11-01

    DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a large survey of ˜90 high redshift (0.42×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with HST weak lensing oriented data, plus BVRIZJ 4m ground based follow up to compute photometric redshifts. The main goals of this survey are to constrain dark energy parameters using weak lensing tomography and to study a large homogeneous sample of high redshift massive clusters. We will briefly review the latest results of this optical survey, focusing on two ongoing works: the calculation of galaxy luminosity functions from photometric redshift catalogs and the weak lensing analysis of ground based data.

  13. Patients' Perceptions of Nurses' Behaviour That Influence Patient Participation in Nursing Care: A Critical Incident Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga E. Larsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient participation is an important basis for nursing care and medical treatment and is a legal right in many Western countries. Studies have established that patients consider participation to be both obvious and important, but there are also findings showing the opposite and patients often prefer a passive recipient role. Knowledge of what may influence patients' participation is thus of great importance. The aim was to identify incidents and nurses' behaviours that influence patients' participation in nursing care based on patients' experiences from inpatient somatic care. The Critical Incident Technique (CIT was employed. Interviews were performed with patients (=17, recruited from somatic inpatient care at an internal medical clinic in West Sweden. This study provided a picture of incidents, nurses' behaviours that stimulate or inhibit patients' participation, and patient reactions on nurses' behaviours. Incidents took place during medical ward round, nursing ward round, information session, nursing documentation, drug administration, and meal.

  14. The Influence of Nurses' Demographics on Patient Participation in Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, Simon; Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Hecke, Ann

    2017-12-01

    Patient participation is an important issue in contemporary healthcare as it improves quality of care and enhances positive health outcomes. The participation of patients is mainly initiated by the nurses' willingness to share their power and responsibility, but knowledge on nurses' demographic characteristics influencing this behavior is nonexistent. This knowledge is essential to understand and improve patient participation. To determine if nurses' demographic characteristics influence their willingness to engage in patient participation. A cross-sectional multicenter study in 22 general and three university hospitals with 997 nurses was performed. The Patient Participation Culture Tool for healthcare workers, which measures patient participation behavior, was used. Multilevel analysis, taking into account the difference in wards and hospitals, was used to identify the influence of demographic characteristics. A position as supervisor (range: p nurses seem to be more reluctant in accepting a collaborative patient role (p = .002) and coping with more active patient behavior (p nurses on geriatric wards (p = .013), who also showed less sharing of information with their patients (p nurses' willingness to share power and responsibility with their patients, perhaps indicating that patient participation behavior is an advanced nursing skill and multifaceted interventions, are needed for optimal implementation. Moreover, supervising nurses have different perceptions on patient participation and possibly regard patient participation as an easier task than their team members. This could lead to misunderstandings about the expectations toward patient participation in daily practice, leading to struggles with their nursing staff. Both findings implicate that implementing patient participation on a wide scale is more difficult than expected, which is conflicting with the widespread societal demand for more participation. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Family presence and participation during medical visits of heart failure patients: An analysis of survey and audiotaped communication data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cené, Crystal W; Haymore, Beth; Laux, Jeffrey P; Lin, Feng-Chang; Carthron, Dana; Roter, Debra; Cooper, Lisa A; Chang, Patricia P; Jensen, Brian C; Miller, Paula F; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-02-01

    To describe the frequency, roles, and utility of family companion involvement in the care of patients with Heart Failure (HF) care and to examine the association between audiotaped patient, companion, and provider communication behaviors. We collected survey data and audiotaped a single medical visit for 93 HF patients (36 brought a companion into the examination room) and their cardiology provider. Communication data was analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. There were 32% more positive rapport-building statements (p<0.01) and almost three times as many social rapport-building statements (p<0.01) from patients and companions in accompanied visits versus unaccompanied patient visits. There were less psychosocial information giving statements in accompanied visits compared to unaccompanied patient visits (p<0.01.) Providers made 25% more biomedical information giving statements (p=0.04) and almost three times more social rapport-building statements (p<0.01) in accompanied visits. Providers asked fewer biomedical and psychosocial questions in accompanied versus unaccompanied visits. Providers made 16% fewer partnership-building statements in accompanied versus unaccompanied visits (p=0.01). Our findings are mixed regarding the benefits of accompaniment for facilitating patient-provider communication based on survey and audiotaped data. Strategies to enhance engagement during visits, such as pre-visit question prompt lists, may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Study of Factors that Influence First-Year Nonmusic Majors' Decisions to Participate in Music Ensembles at Small Liberal Arts Colleges in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Ardis R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence first-year nonmusic majors' decisions regarding participation in music ensembles at small liberal arts colleges in Indiana. A survey questionnaire was used to gather data. The data collected was analyzed to determine significant differences between the nonmusic majors who have…

  17. The association between social participation and cognitive function in community-dwelling older populations: Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study at Taisetsu community Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ai; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Okada, Emiko; Sasaki, Sachiko; Zhao, Wenjing; Kishi, Tomoko; Kondo, Katsunori; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-10-01

    To study the association between the number of area-level and individual-level social participation items and cognitive function in the community-dwelling older populations of three towns in Hokkaido, Japan. A survey on the frequency of social participation was mailed to those in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2013 who were aged ≥65 years, were not certified as needing long-term care, and lived in Higashikawa, Higashikagura, or Biei. A subset of participants aged 70-74 years completed the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in a home visit survey. Both the area-level and individual-level social participation and demographic information were obtained on the self-administered questionnaire. A multilevel analysis using a generalized linear mixed-effects model was used to examine the association between variables in the area-level and individual-level social participation items and cognitive function. Out of 4042 respondents, data from 2576 were used in the area-level analysis. Of those, 180 were aged 70-74 years and completed the home visit survey for the individual-level analysis. A greater number of higher social participation items at the individual level was associated with higher cognitive function scores after adjusting for area-level social participation variables and confounders (regression coefficient: 0.19; 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.35). There were no significant associations between area-level social participation item averages and individual-level cognitive function scores. Older populations participating in many kinds of social activities exhibited preserved cognitive function even after adjusting for area-level social participation variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. High hospital research participation and improved colorectal cancer survival outcomes: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Amy; Morris, Eva Ja; Corrigan, Neil; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Finan, Paul J; Thomas, James D; Chapman, Michael; Hamilton, Russell; Campbell, Helen; Cameron, David; Kaplan, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh; Stephens, Richard; Seymour, Matt; Gregory, Walter; Selby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2001, the National Institute for Health Research Cancer Research Network (NCRN) was established, leading to a rapid increase in clinical research activity across the English NHS. Using colorectal cancer (CRC) as an example, we test the hypothesis that high, sustained hospital-level participation in interventional clinical trials improves outcomes for all patients with CRC managed in those research-intensive hospitals. Data for patients diagnosed with CRC in England in 2001-2008 (n=209 968) were linked with data on accrual to NCRN CRC studies (n=30 998). Hospital Trusts were categorised by the proportion of patients accrued to interventional studies annually. Multivariable models investigated the relationship between 30-day postoperative mortality and 5-year survival and the level and duration of study participation. Most of the Trusts achieving high participation were district general hospitals and the effects were not limited to cancer 'centres of excellence', although such centres do make substantial contributions. Patients treated in Trusts with high research participation (≥16%) in their year of diagnosis had lower postoperative mortality (presearch participation, with a reduction in postoperative mortality of 1.5% (6.5%-5%, pstudies for all patients with CRC treated in the hospital study participants. Improvement precedes and increases with the level and years of sustained participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Two studies on participation in decision-making and equity among FAA personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Study 1 Moderated multiple regression analyses on data collected from 2,177 FAA air traffic controller specialists indicated that equity perceptions moderated the relationship between participation in decision-making and level of job satisfaction. Sp...

  20. Factors impacting participation in sports for children with limb absence: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmed, Batoul; Lamy, Marena; Cameron, Debra; Artero, Lisa; Ramdial, Sandra; Leineweber, Matthew; Andrysek, Jan

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with limb absence benefit from participating in sports. While barriers and facilitators affecting sport participation are well documented for adults, they have not been explored for children with limb absence. To identify the perceived factors impacting participation in sports according to children with limb absence and their parents. This study uses a descriptive qualitative study design. Nineteen participants, consisting of children and their parents, were recruited from an outpatient hospital clinic for semi-structured interviews. The 11 interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were then coded and analyzed using the DEPICT model. The thematic analysis was guided by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Analysis of our participant interviews identified six themes as having an influence on sport participation: "functionality of prosthesis", "plan in advance", "know what I can do" (understanding capabilities), "it's like every stroke, 2 million questions" (stigma and the social environment), "love for the game" (love for sport), and "these things are an investment" (the investment involved). The findings have the potential to inform the development and implementation of strategies to increase levels of participation in sports among children with limb absence. Information from this study may help to deepen the rehabilitation team's understanding of factors that impact engagement in sports among children with limb absence. Implications for Rehabilitation Children with limb absence present with unique barriers and facilitators to participating in sports, thus, what may be a facilitator or barrier for one child may not for another. Strategies to increase a child's participation in sports should consider both person and environmental factors. Rehabilitation professionals can play a crucial role in educating both families and the community on living and coping with a limb difference, services and

  1. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury among adolescents participating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2011-09-27

    Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females) reported having sustained serious injury (SSI). Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs) were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42]) more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.

  2. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury among adolescents participating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. Findings The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females reported having sustained serious injury (SSI. Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Conclusions Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.

  3. Management of postoperative pseudomeningoceles: an international survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Albert; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Steinbok, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Pseudomeningoceles are common complications after posterior fossa and intradural spinal surgery and are often asymptomatic. Management guidelines are lacking, and anecdotally, we have encountered radically different suggested treatments varying from observation to immediate surgical intervention. The goal of this study was to determine the prevailing opinions among neurosurgeons on the management of this condition. Neurosurgeons from around the world were invited via an International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN) and Neurosurgery ListServ e-blast to participate in a 33-question survey on the management of pseudomeningoceles, presented as simulated scenarios after posterior fossa and spinal intradural surgery. Two hundred forty-one responses were obtained. Pseudomeningoceles after posterior fossa tumor resection, in the absence of hydrocephalus, were typically managed nonoperatively for 7 to 14 days before re-exploration. Only 0.5 % of the surgeons would offer upfront repair of the pseudomeningocele. In the presence of hydrocephalus, 48 % of the neurosurgeons intervene initially with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion and would change therapy if the lesion did not resolve in 2 to 4 days. Ninety percent of the surgeons manage spinal pseudomeningoceles nonoperatively for 7-14 days before re-exploration is considered. The most common steps taken to prevent pseudomeningoceles are watertight closure, tissue glues, and duroplasty. The present zeitgeist suggests that, in the absence of hydrocephalus, initial observation is appropriate for cranial and spinal pseudomeningoceles. Operative revision should be reserved for failure of conservative treatment. If hydrocephalus is present, consideration should be made for CSF diversion. This study may serve as a guideline regarding acceptable management.

  4. Chronically homeless persons' participation in an advance directive intervention: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K; Nayyar, Dhruv; Sachdeva, Manisha; Song, John; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Chronically homeless individuals have high rates of hospitalization and death, and they may benefit from the completion of advance directives. To determine the rate of advance directive completion using a counselor-guided intervention, identify characteristics associated with advance directive completion, and describe end-of-life care preferences in a group of chronically homeless individuals. Participants completed a survey and were offered an opportunity to complete an advance directive with a trained counselor. A total of 205 residents of a shelter in Canada for homeless men (89.1% of those approached) participated from April to June 2013. Duration of homelessness was ⩾12 months in 72.8% of participants, and 103 participants (50.2%) chose to complete an advance directive. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status, and health care use were not associated with completion of an advance directive. Participants were more likely to complete an advance directive if they reported thinking about death on a daily basis, believed that thinking about their friends and family was important, or reported knowing their wishes for end-of-life care but not having told anyone about these wishes. Among individuals who completed an advance directive, 61.2% named a substitute decision maker, and 94.1% expressed a preference to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the event of a cardiorespiratory arrest if there was a chance of returning to their current state of health. A counselor-guided intervention can achieve a high rate of advance directive completion among chronically homeless persons. Most participants expressed a preference to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the event of a cardiorespiratory arrest. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The SDSS-IV in 2015: Report of the Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Lucatello, Sara; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Cherinka, Brian; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Gillespie, Bruce Andrew; Hagen, Alex; Jones, Amy; Kinemuchi, Karen; Lundgren, Britt; Myers, Adam D.; Roman, Alexandre; Zasowski, Gail; SDSS-IV Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Given that many astronomers now participate in large international scientific collaborations, it is important to examine whether these structures foster a healthy scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the climate and demographics within the SDSS collaboration and to make recommendations for how best to establish the scientific and technical leadership team for SDSS-IV. Building on the work described in Lundgren et al. (2015), the CPWS conducted a demographic survey in Spring 2015 that included questions about career and leadership status, racial / ethnic identity, gender identity, identification with the LGBT community, disability, partnership status, and level of parental education. For example, 71% of survey respondents identify as male and 81% do not identify as a racial or ethnic minority at their current institution. This reflects the under-representation of women and men from minority groups (e.g., people of color in the United States) and women from majority groups (e.g., white women in the United States) in the field of astronomy. We have focused our analysis on the representation of scientists from these groups among the SDSS-IV leadership and the full collaboration. Our goal is to use these quantitative data to track the demographics of SDSS-IV membership and leadership over time as we work to assess and improve the climate of SDSS-IV.

  6. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  7. Participation in medical decision-making across Europe: An international longitudinal multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär Deucher, A; Hengartner, M P; Kawohl, W; Konrad, J; Puschner, B; Clarke, E; Slade, M; Del Vecchio, V; Sampogna, G; Égerházi, A; Süveges, Á; Krogsgaard Bording, M; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Rössler, W

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine national differences in the desire to participate in decision-making of people with severe mental illness in six European countries. The data was taken from a European longitudinal observational study (CEDAR; ISRCTN75841675). A sample of 514 patients with severe mental illness from the study centers in Ulm, Germany, London, England, Naples, Italy, Debrecen, Hungary, Aalborg, Denmark and Zurich, Switzerland were assessed as to desire to participate in medical decision-making. Associations between desire for participation in decision-making and center location were analyzed with generalized estimating equations. We found large cross-national differences in patients' desire to participate in decision-making, with the center explaining 47.2% of total variance in the desire for participation (Pparticipation, followed by Aalborg (mean=1.97), where scores were in turn significantly higher than in Debrecen (mean=1.56). The lowest scores were reported in Naples (mean=1.14). Over time, the desire for participation in decision-making increased significantly in Zurich (b=0.23) and decreased in Naples (b=-0.14). In all other centers, values remained stable. This study demonstrates that patients' desire for participation in decision-making varies by location. We suggest that more research attention be focused on identifying specific cultural and social factors in each country to further explain observed differences across Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with disability: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Synnot, Anneliese

    2016-01-19

    Children with disability engage in less physical activity compared to their typically developing peers. Our aim was to explore the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for this group. Ten focus groups, involving 63 participants (23 children with disability, 20 parents of children with disability and 20 sport and recreation staff), were held to explore factors perceived as barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity by children with disability. Data were analysed thematically by two researchers. Four themes were identified: (1) similarities and differences, (2) people make the difference, (3) one size does not fit all, and (4) communication and connections. Key facilitators identified were the need for inclusive pathways that encourage ongoing participation as children grow or as their skills develop, and for better partnerships between key stakeholders from the disability, sport, education and government sectors. Children with disabilities' need for the early attainment of motor and social skills and the integral role of their families in supporting them were considered to influence their participation in physical activity. Children with disability were thought to face additional barriers to participation compared to children with typical development including a lack of instructor skills and unwillingness to be inclusive, negative societal attitudes towards disability, and a lack of local opportunities. The perspectives gathered in this study are relevant to the many stakeholders involved in the design and implementation of effective interventions, strategies and policies to promote participation in physical activity for children with disability. We outline ten strategies for facilitating participation.

  9. Usage of CISS and Conlon surveys in eye accommodation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panke, Karola; Svede, Aiga; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-08-01

    To date, there is no assessment of more than one survey used for a clinical research study that address subjects with and without symptoms related to accommodative or binocular vision disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate two different surveys - CISS and Conlon for the same subject group and analyse also critical visual function parameters. Monocular and binocular accommodative response for 20 subjects was measured for dominant eye with openfield infrared autorefractometer (Shin-Nippon SRW-5000) at three distances (24 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). Subjects were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic group using cut off score 21 for CISS and 20 for Conlon survey. We found positive exponential growth relationship between CISS and Conlon scores (R² = 0.7), but separation between symptomatic and asymptomatic group differed significantly depending on which survey was used. We found positive correlation between Conlon score and exophoria at 30 cm (r=0.41, p=0.01) and 24 cm (r=0.27, p=0.03). Relationship between subjective symptoms and following clinical parameters - accommodation lag (r accommodation (r convergence near point (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) were not significant. Our results confirmed that using different subjective symptom surveys can provide different results within the same subject group, therefore we recommend to use surveys as a part of case history and tool to measure patient satisfaction and results of treatment effectiveness instead of using them for clinical trials as a criteria to divide symptomatic and asymptomatic group.

  10. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....

  11. Suitability of customer relationship management systems for the management of study participants in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, J; Rienhoff, O; Schulze, T G; Nussbeck, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal biomedical research projects study patients or participants over a course of time. No IT solution is known that can manage study participants, enhance quality of data, support re-contacting of participants, plan study visits, and keep track of informed consent procedures and recruitments that may be subject to change over time. In business settings management of personal is one of the major aspects of customer relationship management systems (CRMS). To evaluate whether CRMS are suitable IT solutions for study participant management in biomedical research. Three boards of experts in the field of biomedical research were consulted to get an insight into recent IT developments regarding study participant management systems (SPMS). Subsequently, a requirements analysis was performed with stakeholders of a major biomedical research project. The successive suitability evaluation was based on the comparison of the identified requirements with the features of six CRMS. Independently of each other, the interviewed expert boards confirmed that there is no generic IT solution for the management of participants. Sixty-four requirements were identified and prioritized in a requirements analysis. The best CRMS was able to fulfill forty-two of these requirements. The non-fulfilled requirements demand an adaption of the CRMS, consuming time and resources, reducing the update compatibility, the system's suitability, and the security of the CRMS. A specific solution for the SPMS is favored instead of a generic and commercially-oriented CRMS. Therefore, the development of a small and specific SPMS solution was commenced and is currently on the way to completion.

  12. Parents' experiences of participation in the care of hospitalised children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lai Wah; Chang, Anne M; Morrissey, Jean

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of unrestricted visiting hours has led to the encouragement of parents to stay with and participate in the care of their hospitalised child. In order to stay with the hospitalised child, parents have to be away from home or work, which in turn impacts on their personal and family life. However, no published study on parents' experiences of childcare participation during paediatric hospitalisation has been found for a Chinese population. This study explored Chinese parents' experiences of their participation in taking care of their hospitalised child. A qualitative exploratory design was adopted to capture parents' experiences of participation. The study was conducted in four paediatric wards of a regional acute general hospital in the New Territories, a major geographical region of Hong Kong. Nineteen parents (16 mothers and three fathers) who had a child hospitalised for more than 48 h and identified themselves as staying comparatively longer with the child than their counterpart were recruited. Data were collection by tape-recorded semi-structured interview. Four major categories that illustrated parents' experiences of participation in childcare were identified: reasons for staying with the child, rescheduling of family's routine, expectations of nurses, and comments on facility provisions. The findings highlight parents' desire for participation in caring for their hospitalised child, their unexpressed needs for communication and concern about the non-monetary costs of participation. Most parents viewed accompanying their hospitalised child as an unconditional aspect of being a parent and had a strong desire for participation. Parents' need for communication and emotional support during their participation of childcare in paediatric unit are universal. As Chinese parents are passive in seeking help, nurses should take the initiative in assessing their needs and offering them support accordingly.

  13. Study protocol for the Fukushima health management survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  14. Management and Encouragement of Pupil Participation in Primary Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Pérez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our work focuses on the participation of students of primary education in decision-making. We carried out a qualitative case study of two public Primary schools with the aim of illustrating good models of student participation. On the one hand, our results highlight the opportunities resulting from the creation of specific structures of student participation, such as class and student councils, because they allow students to participate in collective rule-making, conflict management and the planning and evaluation of school and class activities. On the other hand, the results emphasize the contributions derived from the use of teaching methods that enhance student participation in decision making on academic issues by selecting contents, the inclusion of self-assessment processes and the self-organization of work time. Overall, the results obtained point out that it is feasible to organize the activity of a Primary Education center encouraging students to participate in decision making and they add evidence supported in the practice of two schools to progress in the study and promotion of school participation.

  15. Mexican-American perspectives on participation in clinical trials: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arevalo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are essential to advancing knowledge to reduce disease morbidity and mortality; however, ethnic and racial minorities remain under-represented in those studies. We explored knowledge and perceptions of clinical trials among Mexican-Americans in Texas. We conducted focus groups (N = 128 stratified by gender, language preference, and geographical location. This paper presents four emergent, primary themes: 1 knowledge and understanding of clinical trials, 2 fears and concerns about participating, 3 perceived benefits of participating, and 4 incentives to participate. Results suggest that lack of knowledge and understanding of clinical trials leads to misunderstanding about research, including fears and lack of trust. Participants indicated that fears related to perceived experimentation, harm, immigration status, and lack of clinical trial opportunities within their communities were barriers to participation. On the other hand, free healthcare access, helping family members in the future, and monetary incentives could facilitate participation. We also found differences across themes by language, gender, and place of residence. Findings from our study could inform the development of interventions to enhance recruitment of Mexican-American participants into clinical trials.

  16. Quality of Life Among Dental Students: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Amanda; Pierre, Gaelle C; McAndrew, Maureen

    2017-10-01

    Quality of life is a complex construct that affects the overall life satisfaction, emotional well-being, and functioning of individuals. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life of dental students at one U.S. dental school, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF, a multi-dimensional, cross-cultural, validated, and reliable survey instrument. Of the 1,437 students invited to participate, 401 students responded, but 17 were excluded because of missing data. The final sample consisted of 384 students for an overall response rate of 27%: response rates by year were first year 32.6%, second year 16.9%, third year 26.6%, and fourth year 24.0%. The results showed that the responding students rated their overall quality of life as good. The Physical Health domain had the highest mean score, while the Psychological domain had the lowest. Females reported higher quality of life than males in the Social Relationships domain. Single students were found to have a lower perceived quality of life than married students. Older students were found to have lower perceived quality of life in the Physical Health and Environment domains. Physical Health domain scores were significantly higher for fourth-year than first-year respondents, while Psychological domain scores were significantly lower for third-year than first-year respondents. Further research is needed to explore the effect of dental school on the quality of life of dental students. Targeted programs to impact students' quality of life at various points in the curriculum may be beneficial.

  17. Individual- and County-Level Religious Participation, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse of Children: An Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy Jo

    2016-10-01

    Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. In addition, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual- and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings.

  18. Individual and county-level religious participation, corporal punishment, and physical abuse of children: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. Additionally, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. Method We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Results Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. Discussion This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings. PMID:29294609

  19. Guidelines for uncertainty analysis developed for the participants in the BIOMOVS II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.; Davis, P.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Henrich, E.; Koch, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report has been produced to provide guidelines for uncertainty analysis for use by participants in the BIOMOVS II study. It is hoped that others with an interest in modelling contamination in the biosphere will also find it useful. The report has been prepared by members of the Uncertainty and Validation Working Group and has been reviewed by other BIOMOVS II participants. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the views of the BIOMOVS II sponsors or other BIOMOVS Il participating organisations

  20. Guidelines for uncertainty analysis developed for the participants in the BIOMOVS II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeverstam, U; Davis, P; Garcia-Olivares, A; Henrich, E; Koch, J

    1993-07-01

    This report has been produced to provide guidelines for uncertainty analysis for use by participants in the BIOMOVS II study. It is hoped that others with an interest in modelling contamination in the biosphere will also find it useful. The report has been prepared by members of the Uncertainty and Validation Working Group and has been reviewed by other BIOMOVS II participants. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the views of the BIOMOVS II sponsors or other BIOMOVS Il participating organisations.

  1. Beliefs and attitudes towards participating in genetic research – a population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerath Samantha M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biobanks have the potential to offer a venue for chronic disease biomarker discovery, which would allow for disease early detection and for identification of carriers of a certain predictor biomarker. To assess the general attitudes towards genetic research and participation in biobanks in the Long Island/Queens area of New York, and what factors would predict a positive view of such research, participants from the NSLIJ hospital system were surveyed. Methods Participants were recruited at six hospital centers in the NSLIJ system during the summers of 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 1,041. Those who opted to participate were given a questionnaire containing 22 questions assessing demographics, lifestyle and attitudes towards genetic research. These questions addressed individual participant’s beliefs about the importance of genetic research, willingness to participate in genetic research themselves, and their views on informed consent issues. Results Respondents took a generally positive view of genetic research in general, as well as their own participation in such research. Those with reservations were most likely to cite concerns over the privacy of their medical and genetic information. Those who were married tended to view genetic research as important, while those in the younger age group viewed it as less important. Prior blood donation of respondents was found to be a predictor of their approval for genetic research. Demographic factors were not found to be predictive of personal willingness to participate in genetic research, or of approval for the opt-out approach to consent. Conclusions While respondents were generally inclined to approve of genetic research, and those who disapproved did not do so based on an underlying moral objection to such research, there is a disconnect between the belief in the importance of genetic research and the willingness of individuals to participate themselves. This indicates a

  2. Clinical trials of medicinal cannabis for appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer: a survey of preferences, attitudes and beliefs among patients willing to consider participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, T; Phillips, J; Lintzeris, N; Allsop, D; Lee, J; Solowij, N; Martin, J; Lam, L; Aggarwal, R; McCaffrey, N; Currow, D; Chye, R; Lovell, M; McGregor, I; Agar, M

    2016-11-01

    Australian clinical trials are planned to evaluate medicinal cannabis in a range of clinical contexts. To explore the preferences, attitudes and beliefs of patients eligible and willing to consider participation in a clinical trial of medicinal cannabis for poor appetite and appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered from July to December 2015 online and in eight adult outpatient palliative care and/or cancer services. Respondents were eligible if they were ≥18 years, had advanced cancer and poor appetite/taste problems/weight loss and might consider participating in a medicinal cannabis trial. Survey items focused on medicinal rather than recreational cannabis use and did not specify botanical or pharmaceutical products. Items asked about previous medicinal cannabis use and preferences for delivery route and invited comments and concerns. There were 204 survey respondents, of whom 26 (13%) reported prior medicinal cannabis use. Tablets/capsules were the preferred delivery mode (n = 144, 71%), followed by mouth spray (n = 84, 42%) and vaporiser (n = 83, 41%). Explanations for preferences (n = 134) most commonly cited convenience (n = 66; 49%). A total of 82% (n = 168) of respondents indicated that they had no trial-related concerns, but a small number volunteered concerns about adverse effects (n = 14) or wanted more information/advice (n = 8). Six respondents volunteered a belief that cannabis might cure cancer, while two wanted assurance of efficacy before participating in a trial. Justification of modes other than tablets/capsules and variable understanding about cannabis and trials will need addressing in trial-related information to optimise recruitment and ensure that consent is properly informed. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Adult health study Hiroshima analysis of participation in examinations, July 1958-December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-07-19

    The participation data for Adult Health Study examinations conducted in Hiroshima during the period July 1958 to December 31, 1960, are presented. The continuing medical examination program includes approximately 13,700 individuals who form the Adult Health Study population of ABCC in Hiroshima. The Adult Health Study population is composed of four exposure groups of equal size, matched by age and sex. Participation scores are analyzed with respect to exposure, age, sex, and socioeconomic variables as well as history of previous contact with the ABCC programs. Significant differences were demonstrated between the participation scores by age, marital status, history of prior contact with ABCC, and occupation; this latter category was significant only for males. Although differences were observed for these variables, the significance was usually attributable to one category in each of the variables, often the least populated, such as separated or divorced for marital status; and previous history unknown for prior ABCC contact. A trend was apparent with respect to exposure, with the lowest participation noted in the nonexposed and the highest participation in the exposed group with symptoms. Sex differences were not significant. Although relatively minor differences were demonstrated for some variables, the outstanding features of this program are the remarkable high participation scores. Only 9 percent of the population were in the so-called refusal category and over 80 percent of the living Adult Health Study population, including non-Hiroshima residents, were examined during the period considered by this report. 6 references, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  4. Gamblers Anonymous in Israel: a participant observation study of a self-help group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, G

    1978-10-01

    This participant observation study of the first Gamblers Anonymous group in Israel is designed to show (1) the ways in which the group helps it members rehabilitate themselves, (2) the three stages through which they must go in order to ensure success, and (3) the reason why some participants fail to do so. The article concludes with a number of observations concerning the extent of gambling in Israel and the different ways that should be developed for dealing with the problem.

  5. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    OpenAIRE

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...

  6. Exploring Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Biology Graduate Teaching Assistants through Their Participation in Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampley, Sandra A.; Gardner, Grant E.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are responsible for teaching the majority of biology undergraduate laboratory sections, although many feel underprepared to do so. This study explored the impact of biology GTA participation in a professional development model known as lesson study. Using a case study methodology with multiple qualitative data…

  7. How needs and preferences of employees influence participation in health promotion programs: A six-month follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rongen (Anne); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); W. van Ginkel (Wouter); D. Lindeboom; M. Pet (Martin); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Low participation in health promotion programs (HPPs) might hamper their effectiveness. A potential reason for low participation is disagreement between needs and preferences of potential participants and the actual HPPs offered. This study aimed to investigate employees'

  8. Social Role Participation and Satisfaction With Life : A Study Among Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis and Population Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Simon; Plasqui, Guy; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Arends, Suzanne; Lacaille, Diane; Gignac, Monique; Landewé, Robert; Boonen, Annelies

    OBJECTIVE: Participation in society of persons with chronic diseases receives increasing attention. However, little is known which components of participation are most relevant to life satisfaction. This study examines the association between several aspects of social role participation and

  9. 'Silent voices' in health services research: ethnicity and socioeconomic variation in participation in studies of quality of life in childhood visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerie; Hamblion, Esther Louise; Keeley, Sarah; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To investigate patterns of participation of visually impaired (VI) children and their families in health services research. Methods. The authors compared clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of children and their families who participated with those who did not participate in two studies of quality of life (QoL) of VI children. In Study 1, the authors interviewed VI children and adolescents, aged 10 to 15 years, about their vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) as the first phase of a program to develop a VRQoL instrument for this population. One hundred seven children with visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye LogMar worse than 0.51) were invited to participate in the interviews. Study 2 investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of VI children using an existing generic instrument, administered in a postal survey. 151 VI children and adolescents, aged 2 to 16 years, with hereditary retinal disorders were invited to participate in the survey. Results. The overall participation level was below 50%. In both studies, participants from white ethnic and more affluent socioeconomic backgrounds were overrepresented. Participation did not vary by age, sex, or clinical characteristics. Conclusions. The authors suggest that there are barriers to participation in child- and family-centered research on childhood visual disability for children from socioeconomically deprived or ethnic minority groups. They urge assessment and reporting of participation patterns in further health services research on childhood visual disability. Failure to recognize that there are "silent voices" is likely to have important implications for equitable and appropriate service planning and provision for VI children.

  10. A Pilot Study of Determinants of Ongoing Participation in EnhanceFitness: A Community-Based Group Exercise Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, David B; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Herting, Jerald R; Belza, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for older adults, but adherence is often low. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify motivators and barriers for participation in EnhanceFitness (EF), a group-based exercise program; and (2) quantitatively examine the association between motivators, barriers and individual characteristics, and ongoing participation in the program. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. We mailed a pilot, investigator-developed survey to assess motivators and barriers to exercising to 340 adults who started a new EF class, regardless of their attendance rate. We precoded surveys on the basis of class attendance, with former participants defined as having no attendance a month or more before a 4-month fitness check. Of the 241 respondents (71% response rate), 61 (25%) were precoded as former participants and 180 (75%) as current participants. The mean age of respondents was 71 years and they were predominately female (89%). More than half of respondents were whites (58%), and almost half were married (46%). Former participants reported lower total motivation scores than current participants (P exercise," "Personal illness," and "Exercise caused pain") and 2 motivators ("I want to exercise" and "I plan exercise as part of my day") were significantly different between current and former participants. Discrete event history models show that dropout was related positively to ethnicity (whites were more likely to drop out) and health-related barriers. In newly formed EF classes, participants who drop out report more program, psychosocial, and health barriers, and fewer program and psychosocial motivators. Total barrier score and health barriers significantly predict a participant's dropping out, and white ethnicity is associated with a higher likelihood of dropping out. Employing strategies that address health barriers to participation could improve attendance rates for group-based exercise programs.

  11. Protocol for a prospective longitudinal study investigating the participation and educational trajectories of Australian students with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline Margaret Anne; Adams, Dawn; Heussler, Helen; Keen, Deborah; Paynter, Jessica; Trembath, David; Westerveld, Marleen; Williams, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Autism is associated with high cost to individuals, families, communities and government. Understanding educational and participation trajectories during the school years, and factors influencing these, is fundamental to reducing financial and personal costs. The primary aim of this study is to document the trajectories of Australian students with autism during their education. The secondary aim is to examine personal (eg, student skills) and environmental (eg, school setting) factors associated with differing trajectories and outcomes. Methods and analysis The cross-sequential longitudinal study will recruit two cohorts of 120 parents/caregivers of children with autism. Cohort 1 aged between 4 and 5 years and cohort 2 between 9 and 10 years to start the study. Information will be gathered from parents, teachers and school principals at six annual time points (T1 to T6). Parents will be emailed a link to an online initial questionnaire (T1) and then contacted annually and asked to complete either an extended questionnaire (T3, T5 and T6) or an abbreviated questionnaire (T2, T4). Where consent is given, the child’s current school will be contacted annually (T1 to T6) and teacher and school principal asked to complete questionnaires about the child and school. Parent and school questionnaires are comprised of questions about demographic and school factors that could influence trajectories and a battery of developmental and behavioural assessment tools designed to assess educational and participation trajectories and outcomes. Surveys will provide longitudinal data on educational and participation trajectories for children and adolescents with autism. In addition cross-sectional comparisons (within or between age groups) at each time point and cohort effects will be explored. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for this study by all recruiting sites and universities in the project. Study findings will inform policy and practice

  12. Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the Herbert Henry Austin expedition of 1900-1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

    2013-10-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation.

  13. Multiple barriers to participation for people with psychosocial disability in Dehradun district, North India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kaaren; Pant, Hira; Marella, Manjula; Singh, Lawrence; Murthy, Gvs; Grills, Nathan

    2018-02-27

    This study used a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet need for access to services in North India. This study was conducted in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in 2014. A population-based sample of 2441 people over the age of 18 years. The Rapid Assessment of Disability survey tool identified people with disability and used an adapted version of the Kessler scale to identify those with psychosocial disability. It additionally collected information on socioeconomic variables, access to community services and barriers to participation. Prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet needs and descriptions of barriers to services were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors and psychosocial disability. Prevalence of psychosocial disability was 4.8% and 75% of participants with psychological distress also reported comorbid functional impairments. Adjusted ORs for depression of more than two were found for people who were unschooled, unemployed and of moderate or poor socioeconomic status. The unmet need for access to services was significantly higher in every domain for people with psychosocial disability and was more than 25% in the areas of employment, health service access and community consultation. People with psychosocial disability encountered greater barriers in each domain compared with controls. People who are poor, uneducated and unemployed are two to four times more likely to have psychosocial disability in Dehradun district. They face unmet needs in accessing community services and perceive negative social attitudes, lack of physical accessibility and lack of information as barriers limiting their participation. Social policy must increase access to education and reduce poverty but additionally ensure action is taken in all community services to increase information, physical accessibility and social inclusion of people with

  14. A digitally facilitated citizen-science driven approach accelerates participant recruitment and increases study population diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Milo A; Steinemann, Nina; Kamm, Christian P; Müller, Stephanie; Kuhle, Jens; Kurmann, Roland; Calabrese, Pasquale; Kesselring, Jürg; von Wyl, Viktor; Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry Smsr

    2018-05-16

    Our aim was to assess whether a novel approach of digitally facilitated, citizen-science research, as followed by the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (Swiss MS Registry), leads to accelerated participant recruitment and more diverse study populations compared with traditional research studies where participants are mostly recruited in study centres without the use of digital technology. The Swiss MS Registry is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study covering all Switzerland. Participants actively contribute to the Swiss MS Registry, from defining research questions to providing data (online or on a paper form) and co-authoring papers. We compared the recruitment dynamics over the first 18 months with the a priori defined recruitment goals and assessed whether a priori defined groups were enrolled who are likely to be missed by traditional research studies. The goal to recruit 400 participants in the first year was reached after only 20 days, and by the end of 18 months 1700 participants had enrolled in the Swiss MS Registry, vastly exceeding expectations. Of the a priori defined groups with potential underrepresentation in other studies, 645 participants (46.5%) received care at a private neurology practice, 167 participants (12%) did not report any use of healthcare services in the past 12 months, 32 (2.3%) participants lived in rural mountainous areas, and 20 (2.0% of the 1041 for whom this information was available) lived in a long-term care facility. Having both online and paper options increased diversity of the study population in terms of geographic origin and type and severity of disease, as well as use of health care services. In particular, paper enrolees tended to be older, more frequently affected by progressive MS types and more likely to have accessed healthcare services in the past 12 months. Academic and industry-driven medical research faces substantial challenges in terms of patient involvement, recruitment, relevance and

  15. Enabling the participation of marginalized populations: case studies from a health service organization in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanti, Stephanie R; Abelson, Julia; Lavis, John N; Dunn, James R

    2017-08-01

    We examined efforts to engage marginalized populations in Ontario Community Health Centers (CHCs), which are primary health care organizations serving 74 high-risk communities. Qualitative case studies of community participation in four Ontario CHCs were carried out through key informant interviews with CHC staff to identify: (i) the approaches, strategies and methods used in participation initiatives aimed specifically at engaging marginalized populations in the planning of and decision making for health services; and (ii) the challenges and enablers for engaging these populations. The marginalized populations involved in the community participation initiatives studied included Low-German Speaking Mennonites in a rural town, newcomer immigrants and refugees in an urban downtown city, immigrant and francophone seniors in an inner city and refugee women in an inner city. Our analysis revealed that enabling the participation of marginalized populations requires CHCs to attend to the barriers experienced by marginalized populations that constrain their participation. Key informants outlined the features of a 'community development approach' that they rely on to address the barriers to marginalized peoples' involvement by strengthening their skills, abilities and leadership in capacity-building activities. The community development approach also shaped the participation methods that were used in the engagement process of CHCs. However, key informants also described the challenges of applying this approach, influenced by the cultural values of some groups, which shaped their willingness and motivation to participate. This study provides further insight into the approach, strategies and methods used in the engagement process to enable the participation of marginalized populations, which may be transferable to other health services settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Adapting an evidence-based model to retain adolescent study participants in longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Musculoskeletal impairment survey in Rwanda: Design of survey tool, survey methodology, and results of the pilot study (a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simms Victoria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal impairment (MSI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. Prevalence studies for MSI in the developing world have used varying methodologies and are seldom directly comparable. This study aimed to develop a new tool to screen for and diagnose MSI and to pilot test the methodology for a national survey in Rwanda. Methods A 7 question screening tool to identify cases of MSI was developed through literature review and discussions with healthcare professionals. To validate the tool, trained rehabilitation technicians screened 93 previously identified gold standard 'cases' and 86 'non cases'. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated. A standardised examination protocol was developed to determine the aetiology and diagnosis of MSI for those who fail the screening test. For the national survey in Rwanda, multistage cluster random sampling, with probability proportional to size procedures will be used for selection of a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of the population. Households to be surveyed will be chosen through compact segment sampling and all individuals within chosen households will be screened. A pilot survey of 680 individuals was conducted using the protocol. Results: The screening tool demonstrated 99% sensitivity and 97% specificity for MSI, and a positive predictive value of 98%. During the pilot study 468 out of 680 eligible subjects (69% were screened. 45 diagnoses were identified in 38 persons who were cases of MSI. The subjects were grouped into categories based on diagnostic subgroups of congenital (1, traumatic (17, infective (2 neurological (6 and other acquired(19. They were also separated into mild (42.1%, moderate (42.1% and severe (15.8% cases, using an operational definition derived from the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

  18. Walking the walk? Community participation in HIA A qualitative interview study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Although community participation is seen as central to the practice of health impact assessment (HIA), effective engagement of local people is notoriously difficult to achieve and risks being tokenistic. This qualitative study, set in a deprived estate in northwest England, examined how community participation in the proposed HIA of a Regeneration Masterplan would be affected by the attitudes and experiences of key stakeholders. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders drawn from officials, representatives and local residents linked to the regeneration programme. The results suggest that there may be a large gap between professional rhetoric and the reality of community participation, and that barriers to community participation in HIA may be substantial and institutionalised. If these barriers are to be overcome, it is essential to acknowledge the existence of this rhetoric-reality gap and to address the training and resource needs of both professionals and community members

  19. Study of the legal and regulatory framework applicable to the participative financing of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poize, Noemie; Milin, Christophe; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Galiano, Mila

    2015-12-01

    In the context created by the French law on energy transition and green growth, this study addresses participative projects which are levers for the financing of renewable energy production, and also contribute to the local dimension of projects. More precisely, the authors focus on participative projects in which a financial participation of citizen and/or local communities is present, with or without access to governance, directly or indirectly. The authors first propose a typology of these projects, based on existing initiatives, and then an overview of the legal and regulatory framework in effect before the law on energy transition. They comment and discuss articles contained by this law which address citizen participation. They discuss their impact on the current project typology

  20. Factors Affecting the Participation of Social Studies Teacher Candidates in Discussions on Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Figen ERSOY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social studies teachers employ discussions about controversial issues in their classrooms as an effective instructional tool in order to improve citizenship education. Therefore, teaching about controversial issues in preservice social studies programs is important for improving pre-service teachers’ understanding of their own abilities to teach about citizenship issues and their skills to teach about controversial issues in their classrooms as well. Preservice teachers ought to be encouraged to participate more in classroom discussions about controversial issues. Therefore, this study aim to understand and explain factors that affect social studies teacher candidates’ participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and suggest how this process might be more efficient and effective in Turkey. 1957 pre-service social studies teachers from 12 different universities in Turkey participated in this study. A questionaire was used to collect data for this research. The questionaire included likert type 16 items regarding students’ personal information and factors that affect the level of participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and one open-ended question regarding implications on how discussions can be improved in a way that help the discussions more effective and efficient. Chi-Square, frequency, and percentange tests were used to analyze the quantitative data. Inductive content analysis method was employed to analyze and code the qualitative data. The findings of the study showed that while 92.2 % pre-service social studies teachers stated that they participate in the dicussions on controversial issues when they only find it interested, 79.4 % participant pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions, if they believe they do not have enough knowledge about the topic of the dicussion. In addition, 47.5% of the participants stated that they do not want to participate in the discussions

  1. Participants' perceptions of research benefits in an African genetic epidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah-Poku, John; Newton, Sam; Kass, Nancy

    2011-12-01

      Both the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences and the Helsinki Declaration emphasize that the potential benefits of research should outweigh potential harms; consequently, some work has been conducted on participants' perception of benefits in therapeutic research. However, there appears to be very little work conducted with participants who have joined non-therapeutic research. This work was done to evaluate participants' perception of benefits in a genetic epidemiological study by examining their perception of the potential benefits of enrollment.   In-depth interviews lasting between 45 and 60 minutes were conducted with a convenient sample of 25 ill patients and 25 healthy accompanying relatives enrolled in a genetic epidemiological study of tuberculosis. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis.   Participants perceived that research was beneficial and some of the benefits included the generation of new knowledge, finding the cause of diseases, as well as the control, eradication and prevention of disease. Some thought that research was risky whilst others thought that the benefits outweighed the risks.   Participants perceived research to be beneficial and most of them thought that, though it was risky, the benefits outweighed the risks. It is our view that researchers need to give serious consideration to participant's perception of benefits in designing their consent forms, to see to the fulfillment of achievable goals. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Microcredit participation and women's health: results from a cross-sectional study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-08-05

    Social and economic conditions are powerful determinants of women's health status. Microcredit, which involves the provision of small loans to low-income women in the hopes of improving their living conditions, is an increasingly popular intervention to improve women's socioeconomic status. Studies examining the health effects of microcredit programs have had mixed results. We conduct a cross-sectional study among female clients of a non-profit microcredit program in Peru (N = 1,593). The predictor variable is length of microcredit participation. We conduct bivariate and multivariate linear regressions to examine the associations between length of microcredit participation and a variety of measures of women's health. We control for participants' sociodemographic characteristics. We find that longer participation is associated with decreased depressive symptoms, increased social support, and increased perceived control, but these differences are attenuated with the inclusion of covariates. We find no association between length of participation and contraception use, cancer screening, or self-reported days sick. These results demonstrate a positive association between length of microcredit participation and measures of women's psychological health, but not physical health. These findings contribute to the discussion on the potential of microcredit programs to address the socioeconomic determinants of health, and suggest that addressing socioeconomic status may be a key way to improve women's health worldwide.

  3. Feasibility online survey to estimate physical activity level among the students studying professional courses: a cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Bhumika; Samuel, Asir John; Narkeesh, Kanimozhi

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the physical activity (PA) level among the professional college students in North India. One hundred three professional college students in the age group of 18-25 years were recruited by simple random sampling for this cross-sectional online survey. The survey was advertised on the social networking sites (Facebook, WhatsApp) through a link www.surveymonkey.com/r/MG-588BY. A Short Form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for this survey study. The questionnaire included total 8 questions on the basis of previous 7 days. The questionnaire consists of 3 main categories which were vigorous, moderate and high PA. Time spent in each activity level was multiplied with the metabolic equivalent of task (MET), which has previously set to 8.0 for vigorous activity, 4.0 for moderate activity, 3.3 for walking, and 1.5 for sitting. By multiplying MET with number of days and minutes performed weekly, amount of each activity level was calculated and measured as MET-min/wk. Further by adding MET minutes for each activity level, total MET-min/wk was calculated. Total number of 100 students participated in this study, and it was shown that all professional course students show different levels in PA. The total PA level among professional college students, which includes, physiotherapy, dental, medical, nursing, lab technician, pharmacy, management, law, engineering, were 434.4 (0-7,866), 170.3 (0-1,129), 87.7 (0-445), 102.8 (0-180), 469 (0-1,164), 0 (0-0), 645 (0-1,836), 337 (0-1,890), 396 (0-968) MET-min/wk respectively. PA levels among professional college students in North India have been established.

  4. Strategies for Enhancing Family Participation in Research in the ICU: Findings From a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotolo, Danae; Nielsen, Elizabeth L; Curtis, J Randall; Engelberg, Ruth A

    2017-08-01

    Family members of critically ill patients who participate in research focused on palliative care issues have been found to be systematically different from those who do not. These differences threaten the validity of research and raise ethical questions about worsening disparities in care by failing to represent diverse perspectives. This study's aims were to explore: 1) barriers and facilitators influencing family members' decisions to participate in palliative care research; and 2) potential methods to enhance research participation. Family members who were asked to participate in a randomized trial testing the efficacy of a facilitator to improve clinician-family communication in the intensive care unit (ICU). Family members who participated (n = 17) and those who declined participation (n = 7) in Family Communication Study were interviewed about their recruitment experiences. We also included family members of currently critically ill patients to assess current experiences (n = 4). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Investigators used thematic analysis to identify factors influencing family members' decisions. Transcripts were co-reviewed to synthesize codes and themes. Three factors influencing participants' decisions were identified: Altruism, Research Experience, and Enhanced Resources. Altruism and Research Experience described intrinsic characteristics that are less amenable to strategies for improving participation rates. Enhanced Resources reflects families' desires for increased access to information and logistical and emotional support. Family members found their recruitment experiences to be positive when staff were knowledgeable about the ICU, sensitive to the stressful circumstances, and conveyed a caring attitude. By training research staff to be supportive of families' emotional needs and need for logistical knowledge about the ICU, recruitment of a potentially more diverse sample of families may be enhanced. Copyright © 2017

  5. Studies of participants in nuclear tests. Final report, 1 September 1978-31 October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinette, C.D.; Jablon, S.; Preston, T.L.

    1985-05-01

    A study of mortality, by cause of death, was done on a cohort of 46,186 participants in one or more of five test series. The series studied were UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE (1953) and PLUMBBOB (1957) at the Nevada Test Site, and GREENHOUSE (1951), CASTLE (1954), and REDWING (1956) which were conducted at the Pacific Proving Ground at Enewetak and Bikini. The participants were traced individually by the use of Veterans Administration records. For the participants in each series, the number of deaths attributed to particular causes was compared with the number expected to occur at US cause- and age-specific mortality rates. A total of 5113 deaths from all causes was ascertained; this was 11.1% of the number of participants. The number was, however, only 83.5% of the number expected at US mortality rates. Mortality from leukemia among the 3554 participants at SMOKY - 10 deaths below age 85 - were 2.5 times the expected number. When the leukemia deaths are compared to other deaths in all six data sets, the differences among the series are not significant. No cancer other than leukemia was ascertained to have occurred in significant excess among SMOKY participants and the number of deaths from other cancers (67) was less than the number expected at population rates (83.8). The total body of evidence cannot convincingly either affirm or deny that the higher than statistically expected incidence of leukemia among SMOKY participants (or of prostate cancer among REDWING participants) is the result of radiation exposure incident to the tests. 19 refs., 27 tabs

  6. Building Knowledge of Consumer Participation in Criminal Justice in Australia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie De'Ath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study investigates the various factors to be considered when developing and implementing consumer participation in community-based criminal justice settings. The study uses the Victorian Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (VACRO, based in Melbourne, Australia, as its case study site as this organisation is in the process of formally introducing consumer participation. The study is informed by previous research in key areas related to criminal justice, focusing on the perspectives of various stakeholders: staff, volunteers, and consumers. A mixed method approach offered a range of opportunities for participants to engage with the research. Thematic analysis identified multi-layered issues need to be considered when implementing consumer participation. Poor individual understanding was noted as a barrier, alongside a limited shared vision of the concept. These were seen to be influenced by practical issues such as high staff turnover and conceptual challenges, notably the existing discourse around offenders. The implications of these findings for further research on consumer participation in the criminal justice setting are explored.

  7. A study on strategies for effective participation in the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Lee, Eui Jin; Jun, Byung Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Lee, Chang Hee; Shim, Jae Sun; Noh, In Young; Lee, Jeong Kong; Han, Bong O

    2001-02-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following scopes were categorized for in-depth study. First of all, a general overview of FNCA, the including background and strategic plans of the forum, structure and activities of the forum, and the FNCA framework was reviewed. Secondly, major activities and implemented achievements in the 7 cooperation projects were also reviewed. Thirdly, the trends and prospects of nuclear power development programs in the participating countries in the FNCA were studied. Finally, proper strategies and recommendations for effective participation in FNCA were presented. This study can be utilized as basic reference material in the efficient implementation of FNCA in the future and for personnel involved in the FNCA affairs as the fundamental elements for implementing FNCA cooperation are presented. Strategies for strengthening Korea's participation in FNCA can be utilized as basic reference for the effective planning and implementation of FNCA activities in the future. Strategies for contributing to promoting nuclear cooperation in the region, for example, cash or in-kind contributions, should be established to effectively participate in the FNCA. It is hoped that this study will be widely utilized for encouraging Korea's participation in the FNCA and for establishing a future direction for FNCA by governments, industries, academic circles and research institutions

  8. Participation in online continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Barbara; Ward, Natalie; Jennings, Brad; Jones, Caitlin; Jorgenson, Derek; Gubbels-Smith, Ashley; Dolovich, Lisa; Kennie, Natalie

    2016-02-01

    The ADAPT (ADapting pharmacists' skills and Approaches to maximize Patients' drug Therapy effectiveness) e-learning programme requires weekly participation in module activities and facilitated discussion to support skill uptake. In this study, we sought to describe the extent and pattern of, satisfaction with and factors affecting participation in the initial programme offering and reasons for withdrawal. Mixed methods - convergent parallel approach. Participation was examined in qualitative data from discussion boards, assignments and action plans. Learner estimations of time commitment and action plan submission rates were calculated. Surveys (Likert scale and open-ended questions) included mid-point and final, exit and participation surveys. Eleven of 86 learners withdrew, most due to time constraints (eight completed an exit survey; seven said they would take ADAPT again). Thirty-five of 75 remaining learners completed a participation survey. Although 50-60% of the remaining 75 learners actively continued participating, only 15/35 respondents felt satisfied with their own participation. Learners spent 3-5 h/week (average) on module activities. Factors challenging participation included difficulty with technology, managing time and group work. Factors facilitating participation included willingness to learn (content of high interest) and supportive work environment. Being informed of programme time scheduling in advance was identified as a way to enhance participation. This study determined extent of learner participation in an online pharmacist continuing education programme and identified factors influencing participation. Interactions between learners and the online interface, content and with other learners are important considerations for designing online education programmes. Recommendations for programme changes were incorporated following this evaluation to facilitate participation. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Children's participation in school: a cross-sectional study of the relationship between school environments, participation and health and well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Akinola, Yetunde O; Nic-Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2014-09-17

    Schools are a key setting for health promotion and improvement activities and the psycho-social environment of the school is an important dimension for promoting the health and well-being of children. The development of Health Promoting Schools (HPS) draws on the settings-based approach to health promotion and includes child participation as one of its basic values. This paper investigates the relationships between child participation, the school environment and child outcomes. Study participants were recruited from nine primary schools, three of which were designated as Health Promoting Schools (HPS). Each HPS was matched with two non-HPS (NHPS) with similar characteristics. Two hundred and thirty-one pupils in the 4th-6th class groups completed self-report questionnaires to document their perspectives on the school socio-ecological environment, how they take part in school life, school processes and their health and well-being. School participation was measured with four scales: participation in school decisions and rules, school activities, school events and positive perception of school participation. The differences in the reported mean score for three of the four scales were marginal and not statistically significant. However, the mean score for reported positive perception of school participation was significantly lower (χ2 = 5.13, df =1, p school decisions and rules (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.33), participating in school activities (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.31), participating in school events (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.29) and reported positive perception of school participation (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.15-1.39) were all positively associated with health and well-being outcomes for all pupils. Logistic regression analyses indicated positive associations between school participation and school socio-ecological environment. These findings suggest that school participation is important for children in schools and is relevant for improved school environment

  10. Achieving online consent to participation in large-scale gene-environment studies: a tangible destination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, F.; Kowalczuk, J.; Elwyn, G.; Mitchell, C.; Gallacher, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based genetics studies are dependent on large numbers of individuals in the pursuit of small effect sizes. Recruiting and consenting a large number of participants is both costly and time consuming. We explored whether an online consent process for large-scale genetics studies

  11. The Nature of Leadership: A Case Study of Distributed Leadership amidst a Participative Change Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of distributed leadership at the University of ABC's SCPS, as the School worked to transform itself through reorganization. The study examined the perceptions of key leaders and members of the implementation team as they sought to understand the implementation of a more participative approach to…

  12. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  13. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  14. Career College Governance: A Study of the Faculty's Propensity to Participate

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated faculty perceptions of and propensity to participate in shared governance activities in proprietary, post-secondary educational institutions. The sample population for this study (n = 22) included adjunct and full-time faculty members and administrators selected through a snowball sampling method and initially inclusive of…

  15. Internationalizing Business Education: Factors Affecting Student Participation in Overseas Study Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlak, Roger J.; Jones, Raymond M.

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated factors encouraging and inhibiting business administration students' participation in study abroad. Subjects were 128 undergraduate and graduate students at a large urban state university. Results indicated personal factors were the strongest encouraging variables, while financial considerations were the most limiting, and a…

  16. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a specifically…

  17. Participation in development activities at the local level : case studies from a Sri Lankan village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study is a sociological analysis of popular participation in local level development activities in Tegashena village in the Matara District, Sri Lanka. Social, economic, political and administrative factors that influence this process are identified.

    The study discusses how the

  18. Participative business modelling to support strategic decision making in operations : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a case study in which a consultancy method based on participative business modelling was used to support strategic decision making in the field of operations. In this case study the Dutch client company faced serious logical and financial problems after an attempt to attain competitive

  19. Comparative Study of Complex Survey Estimation Software in ONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Fallows

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many official statistics across the UK Government Statistical Service (GSS are produced using data collected from sample surveys. These survey data are used to estimate population statistics through weighting and calibration techniques. For surveys with complex or unusual sample designs, the weighting can be fairly complicated. Even in more simple cases, appropriate software is required to implement survey weighting and estimation. As with other stages of the survey process, it is preferable to use a standard, generic calibration tool wherever possible. Standard tools allow for efficient use of resources and assist with the harmonisation of methods. In the case of calibration, the Office for National Statistics (ONS has experience of using the Statistics Canada Generalized Estimation System (GES across a range of business and social surveys. GES is a SAS-based system and so is only available in conjunction with an appropriate SAS licence. Given recent initiatives and encouragement to investigate open source solutions across government, it is appropriate to determine whether there are any open source calibration tools available that can provide the same service as GES. This study compares the use of GES with the calibration tool ‘R evolved Generalized software for sampling estimates and errors in surveys’ (ReGenesees available in R, an open source statistical programming language which is beginning to be used in many statistical offices. ReGenesees is a free R package which has been developed by the Italian statistics office (Istat and includes functionality to calibrate survey estimates using similar techniques to GES. This report describes analysis of the performance of ReGenesees in comparison to GES to calibrate a representative selection of ONS surveys. Section 1.1 provides a brief introduction to the current use of SAS and R in ONS. Section 2 describes GES and ReGenesees in more detail. Sections 3.1 and 3.2 consider methods for

  20. Attitudes of Patients in Developing Countries Toward Participating in Clinical Trials: A Survey of Saudi Patients Attending Primary Health Care Services

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    Lateefa O. Al-Dakhil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical trials are experimental projects that include patients as subjects. A number of benefits are directly associated with clinical trials. Healthcare processes and outcomes can be improved with the help of clinical trials. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and beliefs of patients about their contribution to and enrolment in clinical trials. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used for data collection and analysis. A questionnaire was developed with six categories to derive effective outcomes. Results: Of the 2000 participants approached to take part in the study, 1081 agreed. The majority of the study population was female, well educated, and unaware of clinical trials. Only 324 subjects (30.0% had previously agreed to participate in a clinical trial. The majority (87.1% were motivated to participate in clinical trials due to religious aspects. However, fear of any risk was the principal reason (79.8% that reduced their motivation to participate. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that patients in Saudi Arabia have a low awareness and are less willing to participate in clinical trials. Different motivational factors and awareness programs can be used to increase patient participation in the future.

  1. A Comparative Study on American and Turkish Students? Self Esteem in Terms of Sport Participation: A Study on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted in order to compare self-esteem of American students with Turkish students in terms of the sport participation at the universities. For this purpose, a total of 460 students (M age = 19,61 ± 1,64) voluntarily participated in the study from two universities. As data collection tool, Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem…

  2. Pain and Joy of a Panel Survey on Transport Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comendador Arquero, María Eugenia López-Lambas

    2016-07-01

    Over ten years ago, it was established that the most frequent reason that motivates a panel survey on transport studies is the evaluation of a change in the transportation system, or a specific transportation-planning project, especially when the project involves novel elements. From a statistical viewpoint, a panel survey has the definite advantage to offer more accurate estimatesof changes than cross-sectional surveys for the same sample size. Observing travel patterns of individuals and households overseveral consecutive days, has offered insights into activity scheduling and travel planning. Variability in travel patterns has important policy implications as well, but how much effort is worth to design a panel survey? To evaluate the effects of the transport policies introduced in Madrid during the last five years, a ‘short-long’ panel survey wasbuilt, based on a sample of a Madrid-worker subpopulation most affected by those recent changes in transport policy. The paper describes both the design and construction of the panel based on GPS technology, and presents some results based on an analysis of its two waves; for example, it registered an increment of public transport use and walking trips in 10%. The panel overcomes the known attrition problem thanks to providing incentives, maintaining contact, using the same interviewer for the same respondents, and conducting face-to-face interviews. (Author)

  3. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  4. Successful participation of patients in interprofessional team meetings: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; Habets, Iris Gerarda Josephine; Beurskens, Anna; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia

    2017-08-01

    The number of people with multiple chronic conditions increases as a result of ageing. To deal with the complex health-care needs of these patients, it is important that health-care professionals collaborate in interprofessional teams. To deliver patient-centred care, it is often recommended to include the patient as a member of the team. To gain more insight into how health-care professionals and patients, who are used to participate in interprofessional team meetings, experience and organize patient participation in the team meetings. A qualitative study including observations of meetings (n=8), followed by semi-structured interviews with participating health-care professionals (n=8), patients and/or relatives (n=11). Professionals and patients were asked about their experiences of patient participation immediately after the team meetings. Results from both observations and interviews were analysed using content analysis. The findings show a variety of influencing factors related to patient participation that can be divided into five categories: (i) structure and task distribution, (ii) group composition, (iii) relationship between professionals and patients or relatives, (iv) patients' characteristics and (v) the purpose of the meeting. Patient participation during team meetings was appreciated by professionals and patients. A tailored approach to patient involvement during team meetings is preferable. When considering the presence of patients in team meetings, it is recommended to pay attention to patients' willingness and ability to participate, and the necessary information shared before the meeting. Participating patients seem to appreciate support and preparation for the meeting. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Initial experience with a group presentation of study results to research participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Stephen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating with each participant after publication of the results. Methods Following the closeout and publication of a randomized clinical trial of saw palmetto for treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, patients were invited back to the research center to participate in a group presentation of the study results. Results Approximately 10% of participants attended one of two presentation sessions. Reaction to the experience of the group presentation was very positive among the attendees. Conclusion A group presentation to research participants is an efficient method of communicating study results to those who desire to be informed and was highly valued by those who attended. Prospectively planning for such presentations and greater scheduling flexibility may result in higher attendance rates. Trial Registration Number Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00037154

  6. The patient perspective of clinical training-an empirical study about patient motives to participate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevs, Florian; Gebele, Christoph; Tscheulin, Dieter K

    2014-10-01

    This study introduces a comprehensive model to explain patients' prosocial behavioral intentions to participate in clinical training. Using the helping decision model, the authors analyze the combined impact of factors that affect participation intentions. The model includes intrapersonal and interpersonal appraisals triggered by an awareness of the societal need for clinical training as a practical part of medical education. The results of our empirical study (N=317) show that personal costs and anxiety as negative appraisals and a warm glow as a positive appraisal affect participation intentions and fully mediate the effect of the patient's awareness of the societal need. The study results indicate that communication strategies should address patient beliefs about negative personal consequences of participation rather than highlighting the societal need for practical medical education related to clinical training. Based on the results, medical associations could develop guidelines and provide training for physicians on how to motivate patients to participate in clinical training, resulting in more patient-centered standardized consent discussions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial work conditions, social participation and social capital: a causal pathway investigated in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is often claimed to be promoted by stable social structures such as low migration rates between neighbourhoods and social networks that remain stable over time. However, stable social structures may also inhibit the formation of social capital in the form of social networks and social participation. One example is psychosocial conditions at work, which may be determined by characteristics such as demand and control in the work situation. The study examines the active workforce subpopulation within the Swedish Malmö Shoulder Neck Study. A total of 7836 individuals aged 45-69 years, were interviewed at baseline between 1992 and 1994, and at a 1-year follow-up. Four groups of baseline psychosocial work conditions categories defined by the Karasek-Theorell model (jobstrain, passive, active, relaxed) were analysed according to 13 different social participation items during the past year reported at the 1-year follow-up. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with the jobstrain group as a reference were estimated. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in different aspects of social participation between the four psychosocial work conditions groups. The results show that the respondents within the active category in particular but also the relaxed category, have significantly higher participation in many of the 13 social participation items, even after multivariate adjustments. The results strongly suggest that psychosocial work conditions may be an important determinant of social capital measured as social participation, a finding of immediate public health relevance because of the well known positive association between social participation and health-related behaviours.

  8. Does organized sport participation during youth predict healthy habits in adulthood? A 28-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, S; Hirvensalo, M; Smith, K; Raitakari, O; Männistö, S; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Tammelin, T

    2018-04-26

    Health behaviors in youth can predict the same behaviors later in life, but the role of sport participation in predicting healthy lifestyle habits is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between participation in organized youth sport and adult healthy lifestyle habits. Data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS) with a 28-year follow-up were used. The participation in sport-club training sessions was self-reported by 9-18-year-olds in 1983 and 1986 (n = 1285). During 2011, participants (aged 37-43-year old) reported their smoking status, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Odd ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression, to examine how participation in organized youth sport was associated with having three or four versus fewer (0-2) healthy habits in adulthood. Participants who were active in youth sport in both 1983 and 1986 had almost two times greater odds of having three or four healthy habits in adulthood than those who were not active at both time points (OR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.76). When the analyses were stratified by sex, the findings were statistically significant among women (OR: 2.13, 95%Cl: 1.13-3.99) but not men (OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 0.63-2.58). The results suggest that participation in organized youth sport could promote healthy lifestyle choices. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The lived experience of participation in student nursing associations and leadership behaviors: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus-Graham, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to obtain vivid descriptions of the lived experience of nurses who participated in a student nursing association (SNA) as students. Nursing graduates from five nursing programs in Long Island, New York were identified using a purposive sampling strategy. During individual interviews, the themes of the lived experiences of the participants emerged: (1) leadership: communication, collaboration and resolving conflict, (2) mentoring and mutual support, (3) empowerment and ability to change practice, (4) professionalism, (5) sense of teamwork, and (6) accountability and responsibility. Recommendations from the study included an orientation and mentoring of new students to the SNA by senior students and faculty. Additionally, nursing faculty could integrate SNA activities within the classroom and clinical settings to increase the awareness of the benefits of participation in a student nursing organization. Recommendations for future research include a different sample and use of different research designs.

  10. Women's perceptions of polycystic ovary syndrome following participation in a clinical research study: implications for knowledge, feelings, and daily health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Katie; Lujan, Marla E; Lawson, Karen L; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R

    2010-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive aged women. It is a poorly understood and often undiagnosed condition that has implications for the health of affected women. We assessed changes in knowledge, feelings, and daily health practices related to PCOS in clinical research study participants. Sixty-eight women who had received counselling and education about PCOS while participating in a clinical research study were invited to complete an online survey that assessed levels of concern, knowledge, healthy dieting, active living, and health care satisfaction before and after the study. Differences and associations between scores were analyzed by paired t tests and Pearson correlation. Forty-three women (63%) completed the survey. After taking part in a clinical research study, participants believed they had increased knowledge of (P better lifestyle practices (P women felt empowered to participate in the management of their condition and communicate with their primary care providers. Women with PCOS felt that they had more knowledge and motivation to implement preventive health strategies after participating in a clinical research study. Education about how PCOS affects their immediate and long-term health enabled women with PCOS to feel physical and psychological benefits and to engage more with their health care providers.

  11. Private landowners and environmental conservation: a case study of social-psychological determinants of conservation program participation in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drescher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiversity and continued provision of ecosystem services increasingly relies on environmental conservation on private lands. Despite a multitude of past studies, our knowledge of the motives, opportunities, and challenges of private land conservation, especially on nonworking lands, where financial incentives are less relevant, remains incomplete. A key reason is that a variety of theoretical approaches, resulting in diverging study results, have been used to investigate private land conservation. To help remedy this problem, the current study rigorously examined several established social-psychological determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and developed a comprehensive model, which merged elements from previous studies, to investigate landowner participation in a government-sponsored private land conservation program for nonworking lands. The results are based on analysis of a mailed survey of 800 program-eligible landowners. Contrasting program participants with nonparticipants, we elicited information such as about values, worldviews, socio-demographic characteristics, and property attributes that led landowners to participate in this conservation program. The results of our study illustrate the complex relationships among values, worldviews, norms, attitudes, and behaviors emphasizing the importance of proenvironmental worldviews and of formal education for increasing the likelihood of enrollment in this government-sponsored private land conservation program. Against expectation, neither personal norms, household income, political leaning, nor the size of the eligible property area were found to be important in directly determining the decision to enroll in this conservation program. However, an association of political leaning with stated personal obligation for private land conservation was found. Our results highlight the relationship between formal education and achievement of private land conservation goals

  12. Using a web-based survey tool to undertake a Delphi study: application for nurse education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Fenella J; Leslie, Gavin D; Grech, Carol; Latour, Jos M

    2013-11-01

    The Internet is increasingly being used as a data collection medium to access research participants. This paper reports on the experience and value of using web-survey software to conduct an eDelphi study to develop Australian critical care course graduate practice standards. The eDelphi technique used involved the iterative process of administering three rounds of surveys to a national expert panel. The survey was developed online using SurveyMonkey. Panel members responded to statements using one rating scale for round one and two scales for rounds two and three. Text boxes for panel comments were provided. For each round, the SurveyMonkey's email tool was used to distribute an individualized email invitation containing the survey web link. The distribution of panel responses, individual responses and a summary of comments were emailed to panel members. Stacked bar charts representing the distribution of responses were generated using the SurveyMonkey software. Panel response rates remained greater than 85% over all rounds. An online survey provided numerous advantages over traditional survey approaches including high quality data collection, ease and speed of survey administration, direct communication with the panel and rapid collation of feedback allowing data collection to be undertaken in 12 weeks. Only minor challenges were experienced using the technology. Ethical issues, specific to using the Internet to conduct research and external hosting of web-based software, lacked formal guidance. High response rates and an increased level of data quality were achieved in this study using web-survey software and the process was efficient and user-friendly. However, when considering online survey software, it is important to match the research design with the computer capabilities of participants and recognize that ethical review guidelines and processes have not yet kept pace with online research practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validating self-report of diabetes use by participants in the 45 and up study: a record linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence studies usually depend on self-report of disease status in survey data or administrative data collections and may over- or under-estimate disease prevalence. The establishment of a linked data collection provided an opportunity to explore the accuracy and completeness of capture of information about diabetes in survey and administrative data collections. Methods Baseline questionnaire data at recruitment to the 45 and Up Study was obtained for 266,848 adults aged 45 years and over sampled from New South Wales, Australia in 2006–2009, and linked to administrative data about hospitalisation from the Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) for 2000–2009, claims for medical services (MBS) and pharmaceuticals (PBS) from Medicare Australia data for 2004–2009. Diabetes status was determined from response to a question ‘Has a doctor EVER told you that you have diabetes’ (n = 23,981) and augmented by examination of free text fields about diagnosis (n = 119) or use of insulin (n = 58). These data were used to identify the sub-group with type 1 diabetes. We explored the agreement between self-report of diabetes, identification of diabetes diagnostic codes in APDC data, claims for glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in MBS data, and claims for dispensed medication (oral hyperglycaemic agents and insulin) in PBS data. Results Most participants with diabetes were identified in APDC data if admitted to hospital (79.3%), in MBS data with at least one claim for HbA1c testing (84.7%; 73.4% if 2 tests claimed) or in PBS data through claim for diabetes medication (71.4%). Using these alternate data collections as an imperfect ‘gold standard’ we calculated sensitivities of 83.7% for APDC, 63.9% (80.5% for two tests) for MBS, and 96.6% for PBS data and specificities of 97.7%, 98.4% and 97.1% respectively. The lower sensitivity for HbA1c may reflect the use of this test to screen for diabetes suggesting that it is less useful in identifying

  14. Participation in social forestry re-examined: a case-study from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A; Begum, S A

    1997-08-01

    Bangladesh has enthusiastically launched social forestry projects that make grandiose promises of seeking local community involvement and participation in the management of forest resources. This study examines the functioning of the Chandra Agroforestry Research and Demonstration Project to evaluate the actual extent and nature of popular participation it entails. After discussing the project and its locale, the methodology of the study is described as an analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected in the period February-August 1994. The theoretical framework was based on a modified version of Zaman's framework that uses prevalence and opportunity as the indicators of participation. Analysis of prevalence indicators reveals that professional foresters make all major decisions for the project without consulting the farmers involved. The government also has sole responsibility for monitoring and evaluating the project, and the farmers are skeptical that the government will allow them to profit from the benefits arising from the project. Analysis of opportunity indicators shows that the project is not decentralized, cooperative and collaborative linkages have not been made, project flexibility has been sacrificed to bureaucracy, and the incentives promised to the farmers have not materialized. It is concluded that the participation of local residents in the Chandra project has been insignificant but that the project has succeeded in reducing 1) the historical distrust and conflict between forestry officials and local farmers, 2) encroachment on government lands, and 3) the rate of deforestation. In addition, the project has given participating farmers a sense of security.

  15. Political Regime and Learning Outcomes of Stakeholder Participation: Cross-National Study of 81 Biosphere Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Mohedano Roldán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in natural resource management has spread widely, even to nondemocracies, driven by expectations of beneficial outcomes such as multidirectional learning. However, can we expect participation to be equally effective in achieving multidirectional learning in democracies and nondemocracies? Unsurprisingly, previous studies indicate the relevance of power distribution for learning. Higher levels of repression and accumulation of political capital in nondemocracies should limit the distribution of power across stakeholders. Yet, the relationship between political regime, participation, and learning has rarely been studied empirically. I address this gap by analysing multidirectional learning in stakeholder participation in 81 Man and the Biosphere reserves across 35 countries using ordinary least squares regression, Firth logistic regression, and heat maps. The results suggest that the amount of stakeholders sharing knowledge and learning is similar in both regimes. However, a closer analysis reveals differences in the impact different stakeholders have on the learning process. More concretely, local actors share knowledge more often and have a greater impact on stakeholders’ learning in democracies, while state actors display similar behavior across regimes in terms of learning and sharing knowledge. Thus, although there are notable similarities across regimes, multidirectional learning through stakeholder participation is influenced by the political context.

  16. Changes in cognitive functioning in sick-listed participants in occupational rehabilitation: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Thomas; Skjerve, Arvid; Jensen, Chris; Dittrich, Winand H; Øyeflaten, Irene

    2016-11-01

    Individuals on long-term sick leave attending occupational rehabilitation often complain about impairments in cognitive functions such as memory and attention. Knowledge of cognitive functioning in these individuals is limited. Such knowledge is clinically relevant for improving occupational rehabilitation programmes. The aims of this feasibility study were to assess the methodological design and to investigate changes in memory and attention on participants during occupational rehabilitation. Individuals attending occupational rehabilitation (n = 28) and individuals working full time (n = 25) matched for age, gender, and education participated. The two groups were administered cognitive tests targeting memory and attention and self-reported questionnaires at pre-test and post-test. Outcome measures were speed and accuracy of responses on the cognitive tests and self-reported work ability, subjective health complaints, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. In total, 35% of all invited participants agreed to take part and 93% of these also completed the second test. The mean gain scores in the intervention group were significantly higher than in the control group in response latency on simple and choice reaction time and errors in spatial working memory. The results of this study indicate that the motivation of participants to complete testing was high. Improvements in memory and attention were evident in rehabilitation participants indicating that rehabilitation may have an effect on cognitive functions.

  17. Nurse Managers’ Work Life Quality and Their Participation in Knowledge Management: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Dehnavi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between quality of work life and participation in knowledge management is unknown. Objectives: This study aimed to discover the association between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management. Materials and Methods: This was a correlational study. All nurse managers (71 people) from 11 hospitals affiliated with the Social Security Organization in Tehran, Iran, were included. They were asked to rate their participation in knowledge management and their quality of work life. Data was gathered by a researcher-made questionnaire (May-June 2012). The questionnaire was validated by content and construct validity approaches. Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate reliability. Finally, 50 questionnaires were analyzed. The answers were scored and analyzed using mean of scores, T-test, ANOVA (or nonparametric test, if appropriate), Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression. Results: Nurse managers’ performance to implement knowledge management strategies was moderate. A significant correlation was found between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management strategies (r = 0.82; P The strongest correlations were found between implementation of knowledge management and participation of nurse managers in decision making (r = 0.82; P knowledge management. PMID:25763267

  18. Nurse managers' work life quality and their participation in knowledge management: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Dehnavi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The association between quality of work life and participation in knowledge management is unknown. This study aimed to discover the association between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management. This was a correlational study. All nurse managers (71 people) from 11 hospitals affiliated with the Social Security Organization in Tehran, Iran, were included. They were asked to rate their participation in knowledge management and their quality of work life. Data was gathered by a researcher-made questionnaire (May-June 2012). The questionnaire was validated by content and construct validity approaches. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability. Finally, 50 questionnaires were analyzed. The answers were scored and analyzed using mean of scores, T-test, ANOVA (or nonparametric test, if appropriate), Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression. Nurse managers' performance to implement knowledge management strategies was moderate. A significant correlation was found between quality of work life of nurse managers and their participation in implementing knowledge management strategies (r = 0.82; P The strongest correlations were found between implementation of knowledge management and participation of nurse managers in decision making (r = 0.82; P knowledge management.

  19. Educational Participation of Families in a Valencian Public School. A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Payà Rico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we carry out a field study in a state school located in Carcaixent (from Valencia about the different perceptions, reflections and impressions of the faculty, management team, Parents Association (AMPA and parents from the political and critical reflection about the active participation of families. Thanks to a set of semi-structured interviews, its transcription and further analysis of its contents, we have obtained valuable conclusions and reflections which indicate the importance that families give to participation, to the point that they are immerse in the process of transformation in a learning community (CdA. Among the conclusions obtained in the mentioned qualitative study, we have been able to observe the familiar perceptions about participation, the existing obstacles and determinants for it, the relationship between the different members of the educational community, the channels of participation, etc.; a whole range of considerations which provide useful information of political and pedagogical character. These considerations can orientate the implementation of school participation policies and the construction of a cohesive and active educational community.

  20. Participation in modified sports programs: a longitudinal study of children's transition to club sport competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Young, Janet A; Payne, Warren R

    2015-07-14

    Many children are not physically active enough for a health benefit. One avenue of physical activity is modified sport programs, designed as an introduction to sport for young children. This longitudinal study identified trends in participation among children aged 4-12 years. Outcomes included continuation in the modified sports program, withdrawal from the program or transition to club sport competition. De-identified data on participant membership registrations in three popular sports in the Australian state of Victoria were obtained from each sport's state governing body over a 4-year period (2009-2012 for Sport A and 2010-2013 for Sports B and C). From the membership registrations, those who were enrolled in a modified sports program in the first year were tracked over the subsequent three years and classified as one of: transition (member transitioned from a modified sport program to a club competition); continue (member continued participation in a modified sport program; or withdraw (member discontinued a modified program and did not transition to club competition). Many modified sports participants were very young, especially males aged 4-6 years. More children withdrew from their modified sport program rather than transitioning. There were age differences between when boys and girls started, withdrew and transitioned from the modified sports programs. If we can retain children in sport it is likely to be beneficial for their health. This study highlights considerations for the development and implementation of sport policies and programming to ensure lifelong participation is encouraged for both males and females.

  1. Impacts of Social Network on Therapeutic Community Participation: A Follow-up Survey of Data Gathered after Ya'an Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao; Suo, Liming

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, natural disasters and the accompanying health risks have become more frequent, and rehabilitation work has become an important part of government performance. On one hand, social networks play an important role in participants' therapeutic community participation and physical & mental recovery. On the other hand, therapeutic communities with widespread participation can also contribute to community recovery after disaster. This paper described a field study in an earthquake-stricken area of Ya'an. A set of 3-stage follow-up data was obtained concerning with the villagers' participation in therapeutic community, social network status, demographic background, and other factors. The Hierarchical linear Model (HLM) method was used to investigate the determinants of social network on therapeutic community participation. First, social networks have significantly impacts on the annual changes of therapeutic community participation. Second, there were obvious differences in education between groups mobilized by the self-organization and local government. However, they all exerted the mobilization force through the acquaintance networks. Third, local cadre networks of villagers could negatively influence the activities of self-organized therapeutic community, while with positively influence in government-organized therapeutic activities. This paper suggests that relevant government departments need to focus more on the reconstruction and cultivation of villagers' social network and social capital in the process of post-disaster recovery. These findings contribute to better understandings of how social networks influence therapeutic community participation, and what role local government can play in post-disaster recovery and public health improvement after natural disasters.

  2. Recruiting Black Americans in a Large Cohort Study: The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R. Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B.; Fraser, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. Design We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30–109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Results Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. Conclusion In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities. PMID:21305834

  3. Many participants in inpatient rehabilitation can quantify their exercise dosage accurately: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivener, Katharine; Sherrington, Catherine; Schurr, Karl; Treacy, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Are inpatients undergoing rehabilitation who appear able to count exercises able to quantify accurately the amount of exercise they undertake? Observational study. Inpatients in an aged care rehabilitation unit and a neurological rehabilitation unit, who appeared able to count their exercises during a 1-2 min observation by their treating physiotherapist. Participants were observed for 30 min by an external observer while they exercised in the physiotherapy gymnasium. Both the participants and the observer counted exercise repetitions with a hand-held tally counter and the two tallies were compared. Of the 60 people admitted for aged care rehabilitation during the study period, 49 (82%) were judged by their treating therapist to be able to count their own exercise repetitions accurately. Of the 30 people admitted for neurological rehabilitation during the study period, 20 (67%) were judged by their treating therapist to be able to count their repetitions accurately. Of the 69 people judged to be accurate, 40 underwent observation while exercising. There was excellent agreement between these participants' counts of their exercise repetitions and the observers' counts, ICC (3,1) of 0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 0.99). Eleven participants (28%) were in complete agreement with the observer. A further 19 participants (48%) varied from the observer by less than 10%. Therapists were able to identify a group of rehabilitation participants who were accurate in counting their exercise repetitions. Counting of exercise repetitions by therapist-selected patients is a valid means of quantifying exercise dosage during inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  4. The Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) Study: Rationale, Design, Methods, and Participant Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Lynch, Charles F; Andreotti, Gabriella; Thomas, Kent W; Sandler, Dale P; Savage, Sharon A; Alavanja, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural exposures including pesticides, endotoxin, and allergens have been associated with risk of various cancers and other chronic diseases, although the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are generally unclear. To facilitate future molecular epidemiologic investigations, in 2010 the study of Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) was initiated within the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort in Iowa and North Carolina. Here the design and methodology of BEEA are described and preliminary frequencies for participant characteristics and current agricultural exposures are reported. At least 1,600 male farmers over 50 years of age will be enrolled in the BEEA study. During a home visit, participants are asked to complete a detailed interview about recent agricultural exposures and provide samples of blood, urine, and (since 2013) house dust. As of mid-September 2014, in total, 1,233 participants have enrolled. Most of these participants (83%) were still farming at the time of interview. Among those still farming, the most commonly reported crops were corn (81%) and soybeans (74%), and the most frequently noted animals were beef cattle (35%) and hogs (13%). There were 861 (70%) participants who reported occupational pesticide use in the 12 months prior to interview; among these participants, the most frequently noted herbicides were glyphosate (83%) and 2,4-D (72%), and most commonly reported insecticides were malathion (21%), cyfluthrin (13%), and permethrin (12%). Molecular epidemiologic investigations within BEEA have the potential to yield important new insights into the biological mechanisms through which these or other agricultural exposures influence disease risk.

  5. Strategies to optimize participation in diabetes prevention programs following gestational diabetes: a focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaberi Dasgupta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2 prevention program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. RESULTS: Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. CONCLUSIONS: Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.

  6. Strategies to optimize participation in diabetes prevention programs following gestational diabetes: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Da Costa, Deborah; Pillay, Sabrina; De Civita, Mirella; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Leong, Aaron; Bacon, Simon; Stotland, Stephen; Chetty, V Tony; Garfield, Natasha; Majdan, Agnieszka; Meltzer, Sara

    2013-01-01

    We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM) diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention program. Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.

  7. What are the Facilitators and Obstacles to Participation in Workplace Team Sport? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participation in workplace team sport.Twenty-nine semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with office workers (58% female (36 ± 7.71 from manufacturing, public services, and educational services. Data was analysed through template analysis.Five sub-level (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and societal influences facilitate participation or create obstacles for participants. Participants were challenged by a lack of competence, self-efficacy, negative sporting ideals and amotivation. Unhealthy competition, an unstable work-life balance and unsupportive colleagues created obstacles to participation. An unsupportive organisation and workplace culture placed demands on workplace champions, funding, facilities and communication. Healthy competitions, high perceptions of competence and self-efficacy, and being motivated autonomously enabled participation. Further, relatedness and social support created a physical activity culture where flexible working was encouraged and team sport was promoted in accessible locations within the organisation. Researchers should consider accounting for complexity of these influences. A participatory approach may tailor interventions to individual organisations and the employees that work within them. Interventions whereby autonomy, competence and relatedness are supported are recommended. This may be achieved by adapting sports and training workplace champions.

  8. Participation of CIEMAT in studies of radioecology in european marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Meral, J.; Anton, M.P.; Gonzalez, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the different objectives and results achieved through the participation of the Aquatic Radioecology Laboratory for CIEMAT in some European Projects from 1994 up to now are detailed. A Description of the studied ecosystems, the sampling campaigns performed, and the analytical methods developed are presented as well. Finally the main results and conclusions obtained are summarized. (Author)

  9. A Case Study: Middle School Boys' Perceptions of Singing and Participation in Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to learn about the perceptions of singing and participation in choir of the author's eighth grade choir students. Specific areas of focus included insight on why the eighth grade boys sing and enjoy singing, perceptions of singing in a daily choir class, and perceptions of singing in an auditioned…

  10. Becoming Academics: Experiencing Legitimate Peripheral Participation in Part-Time Doctoral Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuwsen, Phil; Ratkovic, Snežana; Tilley, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    An important element of doctoral studies is identification with the academic community. Such identification is often complicated by part-time student status. In this paper, two part-time doctoral students and their supervisor employ Lave and Wenger's concept of legitimate peripheral participation to explore, through a critical socio-cultural lens,…

  11. Participation in the Virtual Environment of Blended College Courses: An Activity Study of Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Cathy; Mayberry, John; Hargis, Jace

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an observational study of the introduction of Sakai's Learning Management System (LMS) into several liberal arts courses at a women's college in the Middle East. Student participation in the CLE was tracked over the course of the semester and summarized by their number of logins and average session length. These measures were…

  12. Neuropsychology of colour vision: Studies in patients with acquired brain damage, healthy participants, and cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we studied the neuropsychology of low-level sensory and higher-order visual perception in healthy participants, patients with acquired deficits in visual perception, and a man with a selective developmental deficit in colour processing. In neuropsychological literature, sensory

  13. Social Media Participation and Local Politics: A Case Study of the Enschede Council in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Tambouris, Efthimios; Macintosh, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Social media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are often seen as political game changers. Yet little is known of the effects of social media on local politics. In this paper the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM) is introduced for studying the effects of social media on local political

  14. Students with Reading Disabilities Participating in Literature Discussions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Elysha Patino

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study addressed a lack of research concerning literature discussions for students with learning disabilities in reading. Fourth and fifth grade students with reading disabilities participated in twice-weekly literature discussions, 30-to-60 minutes each, for 12 weeks. The students attended a Title I school and most were…

  15. Exploring Transition to Postgraduate Study: Shifting Identities in Interaction with Communities, Practice and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbell, Jane; O'Donnell, Victoria; Zammit, Maria

    2010-01-01

    There has been relatively little research to date that has explored the transition to postgraduate study. This paper reports findings from a project (funded by the UK's Higher Education Academy) that sought to address this gap. The research project was ethnographic and explored university practice and student participation in five UK universities.…

  16. Student Learning through Participation in Inquiry Activities: Two Case Studies in Teacher and Computer Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsa, Crina I.; Nerland, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The two case studies reported in this article contribute to a better understanding of how inquiry tasks and activities are employed as resourceful means for learning in higher professional education. An observation-based approach was used to explore characteristics of and challenges in students' participation in collaborative inquiry activities in…

  17. How Persons with a Neuromuscular Disease Perceive Employment Participation : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baziel van Engelen; Yvonne Heerkens; Josephine Engels; Astrid Kinébanian; Ton Satink; Marie-Antoinette van Minis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A qualitative study was carried out to understand how people with a slow progressive adult type neuromuscular disease (NMD) perceive employment participation. Methods 16 paid employed persons with NMD were interviewed in open, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant

  18. A National Study of Constraints to Participation in Outdoor Recreational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker; X.F. Wang; K. Cordell; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that certain groups in American society (e.g., Blacks, women, urban dwellers) can encounter barriers or perceived constraints to participation in outdoor recreation. Early research on constraints focused on racial or gender differences. More recent research has examined the effects of income, education, age, and place of residence (Arnold...

  19. The Participation of Students, Parents and the Community in Promoting School Autonomy: Case Studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudomi, Yoshiyuki; Hosogane, Tsuneo; Inui, Akio

    1999-01-01

    Identifies three directions in the field of education reform in Japan that are in mutual opposition: (1) State Bureaucratic Control, (2) De-regulation and Marketization, and (3) Participation and (Local or School) Autonomy. Analyzes the process and mechanism of the opposition and compromise among these directions through three case studies. (CMK)

  20. Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Education Participation for Students with Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin; Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical education (PE) for students with disabilities (SWD) from the perspectives of in-service physical educators. A convenience sample of 168 physical educators (72% female, 94% Caucasian) from the United States completed a short questionnaire. After data…

  1. Social Media Participation and Local Politics : A Case Study of the Enschede Council in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Tambouris, Efthimios; Macintosh, Ann

    Social media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are often seen as political game changers. Yet little is known of the effects of social media on local politics. In this paper the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM) is introduced for studying the effects of social media on local political

  2. Participation in sports groups for patients with cardiac problems : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaperclaus, G; deGreef, M; Rispens, P; deCalonne, D; Landsman, M; Lie, KI; Oudhof, J

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the influence of participation in Sports Groups for Patients with Cardiac Problems (SPCP) on physical and mental fitness and on risk factor level after myocardial infarction. SPCP members (n = 74; 67 men and 7 women) were compared with Nonsporting

  3. Researching Learner Self-Efficacy and Online Participation through Speech Functions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castro, Olga; Strambi, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the potential contribution of Eggins and Slade's (2004) Speech Functions as tools for describing learners' participation patterns in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (SCMC). Our analysis focuses on the relationship between learners' self-efficacy (i.e. personal judgments of second language performance capabilities)…

  4. Incorporating a quiz into informed consent processes: Qualitative study of participants' reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Vicki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formal checks of participant understanding are now widely recommended to improve informed consent processes. However, the views of the participants these assessments are designed to protect are rarely considered. In this paper the findings of a qualitative study aimed at documenting community reactions to a semi-structured questionnaire ('quiz' are reported. The quiz was administered to 189 mothers after consenting for their children to participate in a malaria vaccine trial on the Kenyan Coast. Methods Once the malaria vaccine trial was underway, focus group discussions were held with some of these mothers (nine groups; 103 mothers, and with community-based field staff attached to the malaria vaccine trial (two groups of five workers. Individual interviews with other trial staff were also held. Results The quiz prompted community members to voice concerns about blood sampling and vaccine side-effects, thereby encouraging additional discussions and interactions between the research team and potential study participants. However, it also caused significant upset and concern. Some of the quiz questions, or the way in which they were asked, appeared to fuel misconceptions and fears, with potentially negative consequences for both the study and community members. Conclusion Formal approaches to checking study understanding should be employed with sensitivity and caution. They are influenced by and impact upon complex social relationships between and among researchers and community members. Adequate consideration of these contexts in assessments of understanding, and in responding to the issues raised, requires strong social science capacity.

  5. Comparison of participants and non-participants in a randomized study of prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba; Hanash, Jamal A.; Rasmussen, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is higher than in the general population. In a study on prevention of post-ACS depression, more than half of eligible patients declined participation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  6. Adversity and Syndemic Production Among Men Participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: A Life-Course Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sin How; Plankey, Michael W.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Guadamuz, Thomas T.; Kao, Uyen; Shoptaw, Steven; Carrico, Adam; Ostrow, David; Stall, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We tested a theory of syndemic production among men who have sex with men (MSM) using data from a large cohort study. Methods. Participants were 1551 men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study enrolled at 4 study sites: Baltimore, Maryland–Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants who attended semiannual visits from April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, completed an additional survey that captured data about events throughout their life course thought to be related to syndemic production. Results. Using multivariate analysis, we found that the majority of life-course predictor variables (e.g., victimization, internalized homophobia) were significantly associated with both the syndemic condition and the component psychosocial health outcomes (depressive symptoms, stress, stimulant use, sexual compulsivity, intimate partner violence). A nested negative binomial analysis showed that the overall life course significantly explained variability in the syndemic outcomes (χ2 = 247.94; P < .001; df = 22). Conclusions. We identified life-course events and conditions related to syndemic production that may help to inform innovative interventions that will effectively disentangle interconnecting health problems and promote health among MSM. PMID:23153154

  7. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.

  8. Patient Participation in Decision Making During Nursing Care in Greece--A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovos, Petros; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Lemonidou, Chrysoula; Sachlas, Athanasios; Sourtzi, Panayota

    2015-01-01

    To describe patient participation in decision making during nursing care from patients' and nursing staff' perspectives. The sample consisted of medical and surgical patients (n = 300) and the nursing staff (n = 118) working in the respective wards in three general hospitals. A questionnaire was used for the study; data were collected from April 2009 to September 2010. Data were analyzed by an exploratory factor analysis. Patient participation was recorded at a medium level during nursing care, although it was rated as important from both patients and nursing staff. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the factor structure for the planning and implementation of the nursing care. Providers and receivers of nursing care perceived participation in a similar way. Interpersonal interaction was supported from older and less educated patients, as well as from university-educated nurses. Patient participation was greater in practical aspects of care and limited in technical medical issues and supportive services. Patient participation, although moderate, was evident during nursing care in hospital settings. Paternalism in the decision-making process was the dominant trend, whereas interpersonal interaction between the parties was recognized as a prerequisite for planning nursing care. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Networking among women snowboarders: a study of participants at an International Woman Snowboard Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisjord, M K

    2012-02-01

    The article focuses on women snowboarders' networking and relationships with national snowboard associations and commercial organizers. The study was conducted at an International Women Snowboard Camp, which attracted women snowboarders from five different countries. A qualitative interview was undertaken with participants from each country, eight in total, plus an interview with one of the organizers (a woman). The results indicate that participants from the Nordic countries adopt a more proactive stand to promote snowboarding by organizing specific groups in relation to national associations, particularly the Norwegians and the Finnish. Furthermore, some collaboration across national boarders appeared. The only Swedish participant was associated with several snowboarding communities; whereas the Italian (only one) and the Latvian snowboarders had links with commercial organizers, apparently male dominated in structure. The findings are discussed in the light of Castells' network theory and identity construction in social movements, and gender perspectives. The participants' doing/undoing gender reveals different strategies in negotiating hegemonic masculinity and the power structure in the organizations. Narratives from the Nordic participants reflect undoing gender that impacts on identity constructions in terms of project and/or resistance identity. The Italians and Latvians seemingly do gender while undertaking a subordinate position in the male-dominated structure. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Note On Research Design For The Study Of Community Participation In Health Care Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Susan B

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available After describing types of research designs for the study of community participation in health care programmes, this paper examines one methodology, the quantitative methodology, the quantitative methodology, in detail. It presents some of the major attractions and limitations of this approach. The attractions include the need for evaluation of success and failure and of cost effectiveness of programmes. The limitations include the inability of the approach to deal with definitions and interventions that cannot be quantitified and the difficulty of identifying casual relationship between interventions and outcomes. These characteristics are illustrated by a case by a medical school in Asia. Research design, research developments and research outcomes are described and analysed. The paper concludes that an alternative analysis which examines the linkages between participation and health improvements would be more useful as it would allow the political, social and economic dimensions of community participation to be examined.

  11. Internet and telephonic IVR mixed-mode survey for longitudinal studies: choice, retention, and data equivalency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined data equivalency and loss to follow-up rates from Internet and interactive voice response (IVR) system surveys in a prospective-cohort study. 475 limited-service restaurant workers participating in the 12-week study were given a choice to report their weekly slipping experience by either IVR or Internet. Demographic differences, loss to follow-up, self-reported rates of slipping, and selection of first and last choices were compared. Loss to follow-up rates were slightly higher for those choosing the IVR mode. Rates of slipping and selection of first and last choices were not significantly different between survey modes. Propensity to choose an Internet survey decreased with increasing age, and was the lowest among Spanish speakers (5%) and those with less than a high school education (14%). Studies relying solely on Internet-based data collection may lead to selective exclusion of certain populations. Findings suggest that Internet and IVR may be combined as survey modalities within longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient quality of life in the Mayo Clinic Care Transitions program: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faucher J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Joshua Faucher,1 Jordan Rosedahl,2 Dawn Finnie,3 Amy Glasgow,3 Paul Takahashi4 1Mayo Medical School, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Department of Health Science Research, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, 4Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Transitional care programs are common interventions aimed at reducing medical complications and associated readmissions for patients recently discharged from the hospital. While organizations strive to reduce readmissions, another important related metric is patient quality of life (QoL. Aims: To compare the relationship between QoL in patients enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Care Transitions (MCCT program versus usual care, and to determine if QoL changed in MCCT participants between baseline and 1-year follow-up. Methods: A baseline survey was mailed to MCCT enrollees in March 2013. Those who completed a baseline survey were sent a follow-up survey 1 year later. A cross-sectional survey of usual care participants was mailed in November 2013. We included in our analysis 199 participants (83 in the MCCT and 116 in usual care aged over 60 years with multiple comorbidities and receiving primary care. Primary outcomes were self-rated QoL; secondary outcomes included self-reported general, physical, and mental health. Intra- and intergroup comparisons of patients were evaluated using Pearson’s chi-squared analysis. Results: MCCT participants had more comorbidities and higher elder risk assessment scores than those receiving usual care. At baseline, 74% of MCCT participants reported responses of good-to-excellent QoL compared to 64% after 1 year (P=0.16. Between MCCT and usual care, there was no significant difference in self-reported QoL (P=0.21. Between baseline and follow-up in MCCT patients, and compared to usual care, there were no significant

  13. A qualitative study: Barriers and support for participation for children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Witchger Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to understand how mothers of children with physical and cognitive disabilities who engaged their children in community-based rehabilitation (CBR services in Lusaka, Zambia, perceived and described (1 the level of support they received and the barriers they encountered in terms of their child’s meaningful social participation; (2 the use and awareness of these barriers to identify and pursue advocacy strategies; and (3 hopes for their child’s future. Methods: Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with each mother in her home.Results: Findings revealed both support and barriers to the child’s social participation in relationship to their family, friends and community. Support also came from the CBR programme and mothers’ personal resourcefulness. Mothers identified their child’s school,their immediate environment and financial burdens as barriers to participation as well as their own personal insecurities and fears. Strategies to overcome barriers included internal and external actions. The mothers involved in the study hope their child’s abilities will improve with continued CBR services. Some mothers described a bleak future for their child due to alack of acceptance and access to education. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest the significant role the mother of a child with a disability plays in her child’s social participation. Recommendations include enhancing CBR programming for families, especially for mothers, and advocating on behalf of children with disabilities and their families to attract the attention of policy makers.

  14. A Survey Study of Institutional Review Board Thought Processes in the United States and South Korea

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    Si-Kyung Jung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last several decades, South Korea has rapidly adopted Western customs and practices. Yet, cultural differences between South Korea and the United States exist. The purpose ofthis study was to identify and characterize potential cultural differences in the Korean and US institutional review board (IRB approach to certain topics.Methods: A qualitative analysis of a 9-item survey, describing 4 research study case scenarios, sent to IRB members from the United States and South Korea. The case scenarios involved the followingissues: (1 the need for consent for retrospective chart review when research subjects receive their care after the study is conceived; (2 child assent; (3 individual versus population benefit; and (4 exception from informed consent in emergency resuscitation research. The free-text responses were analyzed and abstracted for recurrent themes.Results: Twenty-three of the 45 survey recipients completed the survey, for an overall response rate of 51%. The themes that emerged were as follows: (1 the importance of parental authority among Korean participants versus the importance of child autonomy and child assent among US participants; (2 the recognition of the rights of a proxy or surrogate who can represent an individual’s values by all participants; and (3 the importance of the community, expressed by the Korean respondents, versus individualism, expressed by US respondents.Conclusion: Whereas US participants appear to emphasize the importance of the individual and the autonomy of a child, the Korean respondents stressed the importance of parental authority andbenefiting the community, above and beyond that of the individual person. However, there was substantial overlap in the themes expressed by respondents from both countries.

  15. A Survey of Medical Oncology Training in Australian Medical Schools: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew; Prawira, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Background Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with continuous advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Therefore, it is important that medical students are provided with the knowledge and experience required to care for oncology patients and enable them to diagnose and manage toxicities of novel therapeutic agents. Objective This study was performed to understand the medical students’ perspective of the oncology education provided in universities across Australia and identify areas of education that could potentially be modified or improved to ultimately attract more students to a career in oncology. Methods This pilot cross-sectional study consisted of an 18-question survey that was submitted online to medical students in their final year and interns rotating to the Tamworth Hospital. Results The survey was completed by 94 fifth-year medical students and interns. Oncology was taught both theoretically and clinically for 68% (63/93) of participants, and 48% (44/92) had an exclusive oncology rotation. Both theoretical and clinical oncology assessments were conducted for only 21% (19/92) of participants. Overall, 42% (38/91) of participants were satisfied with their oncology education, and 78% (40/51) were dissatisfied with the number of oncology teaching hours. The importance of a career in oncology was rated as low by 46% (41/90) of participants. Conclusions This pilot study indicates that there are potential areas to improve oncology teaching in Australian universities. The majority of surveyed students were dissatisfied with the number of teaching hours they receive in oncology. More global assessment of students and/or interns from other Australian institutes may yield further useful information. PMID:29233799

  16. Planning and participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is trying to give a vast survey of the political and administrative system. It is to demonstrate the relations between its secular development trends, the necessity and the limits of political planning under the present conditions and, finally, the increasing demands for participation as expressed especially by citizens' initiatives. These stages, however, are certainly not presented in a smooth manner. Yet the author claims to have kept a certain continuity and inner logic of presentation and argumentation. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Participation rate of cancer patients in treatment decisions: a cross sectional study

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    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cancer is one of the most common diseases and the second reason of death in Iran. Giving decision making authority to patients is one of the fundamental principles of the protection of patients. Patients have rights as consumers of health care services that nurses, physician and other health professionals are responsible for maintaining and protecting it. This study aimed to determine cancer patients’ involvement in treatment decisions making. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out as descriptive-analytic with practical purpose in 2017 in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. The study population included 1,000 patients who had cancer that whom 450 patients were selected by simple random sampling. To measure patient participation in treatment decisions, was used of Levente Kristona standard questionnaire. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed (coefficient = 0.82. For data analysis used of software spss21 with descriptive statistics and chi-square tests Results: among the patients, 197 men (53% and 177 women (47% with a mean age of 31 years were examined. The results of this study showed that the score of mean participation in treatment decisions among the cancer patients was 30 ± 12 and it was in low level. The patients’ participation in treatment decisions had a significant relationship with education level (P = 0.027, however, it was not statistical significant with gender, age, income, occupation and type of cancer and other demographic variables (P> 0.05. Conclusion: In general, that patients' participation in clinical decision making is weak and low. Since patients’ participation in clinical decisions could affect the quality of treatment decisions, therefore, health care providers should attention more to this fact. Also, culturalizating and education according to patients’ knowledge and use of treatment techniques are recommended for clinical decision making promotion

  18. Epidemiological and immunological studies of radiation accidents and nucleare tests participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V. M.; Bronstein, I. E.; Koroleva, T.M.; Strelnicova, T.M.; Sukalskay, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Results of long term studies of epidemiological and immunological problems after radiation accidents in Ural. At Chernobyl and nuclear weapons tests in Semi-palatinsk and Novaya Zemlya nuclear tests sites are presented. Changes in Health and immunity status of emergency team workers (liquida-tors) and participants on nuclear weapon tests were recorded in long term studies af-ter 10 and more years after radiation exposure. Some changes (decrease in ly-sozyme activity, disimmunoglobulinemia) could be attributed to the old age of exam-ined persons and concomitant cardiovasculatory, respiratory and other diseases An-other ones were related to the autoimmune syndromes. Humoral and cellular auto-immune changes were more pronounced in liquidators and participants then in controls. concentrations of antitissue antibodies in exposed cohort was three times higher than in control. Level of antibodies to thyroid antigens (microsoms and thy-roglobulines) were five times higher in liquidators of Chernobyl accident. The pos-sible role of humoral and cell autoimmune changes in the development of cardiovascular, liver, kidney and thyroid is considered. Considerable increase in some cytocine concentrations in blood of participants was found. For example increased concentration of TNF was recorded in half of par-ticipants from Novaya Zemlya in comparison to similar changes in only twenty pro-cents of controls. In half of participants from Semipalatinsk site the virus antigens in epithelium of higher respiratory tract (mostly adenoviruses) were found, with 22% in control group. In health and immunity studies of population from the contaminated areas after accidents and nuclear tests (Ural, Bryansk, Russian arktics) the demographics changes, mortality structure changes, oncological mortality and immunological deficiencies were found. The recorded effects might by considered as a results of combined effect of ra-diological and non-radiological factors. The potentiated effect of chronic

  19. Parents' labour market participation as a predictor of children's health and wellbeing: a comparative study in five Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, M

    2002-11-01

    To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of recurrent psychosomatic symptoms (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.16 to 2.40), chronic illness (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence intervals 1.00 to 1.84), and low wellbeing (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence intervals 1.12 to 1.94). Social class, family type, parents' immigrant status, gender and age of the child, respondent, and country were included as confounders. When social class, family type and the parents' immigrant status (one or more born in the Nordic country versus both born elsewhere) were introduced into the model, the odds ratios were reduced but were still statistically significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment rates and social benefits.

  20. Adapting a robotics program to enhance participation and interest in STEM among children with disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Hounsell, Kara Grace

    2017-10-01

    Youth with disabilities are under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in school and in the workforce. One encouraging approach to engage youth's interest in STEM is through robotics; however, such programs are mostly for typically developing youth. The purpose of this study was to understand the development and implementation of an adapted robotics program for children and youth with disabilities and their experiences within it. Our mixed methods pilot study (pre- and post-workshop surveys, observations, and interviews) involved 41 participants including: 18 youth (aged 6-13), 12 parents and 11 key informants. The robotics program involved 6, two-hour workshops held at a paediatric hospital. Our findings showed that several adaptations made to the robotics program helped to enhance the participation of children with disabilities. Adaptations addressed the educational/curriculum, cognitive and learning, physical and social needs of the children. In regards to experiences within the adapted hospital program, our findings highlight that children enjoyed the program and learned about computer programming and building robots. Clinicians and educators should consider engaging youth with disabilities in robotics to enhance learning and interest in STEM. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians and educators should consider adapting curriculum content and mode of delivery of LEGO ® robotics programs to include youth with disabilities. Appropriate staffing including clinicians and educators who are knowledgeable about youth with disabilities and LEGO ® robotics are needed. Clinicians should consider engaging youth with disabilities in LEGO ® to enhance learning and interest in STEM.

  1. Survey Study of Trunk Materials for Direct ATRP Grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Johnson, Joseph C. [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL

    2015-02-01

    In previous study, we demonstrated a new method to prepare polymeric fiber adsorbents via a chemical-grafting method, namely atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and identified parameters affecting their uranium adsorption capacity. However, ATRP chemical grafting in the previous study still utilized conventional radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) to introduce initiation sites on fibers. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to perform survey study of trunk fiber materials for direct ATRP chemical grafting method without RIGP for the preparation of fiber adsorbents for uranium recovery from seawater.

  2. Descriptions of Motor Vehicle Collisions by Participants in Emergency Department–Based Studies: Are They Accurate?

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    Young M. Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examined the accuracy of research participant characterizations of motor vehicle collisions (MVC.Methods: We conducted an emergency department-based prospective study of adults presenting for care after experiencing an MVC. Study participants completed a structured clinical interview that assessed the number of lanes of the road where the collision took place, vehicle type, road condition, speed limit, seat belt use, airbag deployment, vehicle damage, time of collision, and use of ambulance transportation. Study participant data were then compared with information recorded by Michigan State Police at the scene of the MVC. Agreement between research participant reports and police-reported data were assessed by using percentage agreement and j coefficients for categorical variables and correlation coefficients for continuous variables.Results: There were 97 study participants for whom emergency department interviews and Michigan State Police Report information were available. Percentage agreement was 51% for number of lanes,76% for car drivability, 88% for road condition, 91% for vehicle type, 92% for seat belt use, 94% for airbag deployment, 96% for speed limit, 97% for transportation by ambulance, and 99% for vehicle seat position. j values were 0.32 for seat belt use, 0.34 for number of lanes, 0.73 for vehicle type, 0.76 for speed limit, 0.77 for road condition, 0.87 for airbag deployment, 0.90 for vehicle seat position, and 0.94for transport by ambulance. Correlation coefficients were 0.95 for the time of the collision, and 0.58 for extent of damage to the vehicle. Most discrepancies between patients and police about extent of vehicle damage occurred for cases in which the patient reported moderate or severe damage but the police reported only slight damage.Conclusion: For most MVC characteristics, information r